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.., ..

1999

539.3\8 (075.8)
.., .. : . I. - M.: , 1999 - 128.
,
.
.
" " ;
.
, ( ), .
:

.., ..., (-);


.., ..., ()


..
020407 12.02.97.

. 6090/16
. . . 7,75
500

.-. . 8,25
385


. .
. 1999., 1-07

, 109280, , , 16
ISBN 5-276-00003-4

.. , .. , 1999
, 1999
, 1999


...................................................................................................... 5
1. .................................................................................. 6
1.1. ................................................. 6
1.2. . ................................................ 10
1.3. ...................................................................................... 11
1.4. .......................................................... 13
1.5. . .................................................. 14
2. ................................................... 17
2.1. - .................... 17
2.2. .............................................................. 20
2.3. ...................................................................... 26
2.4.
....................................................................................... 28
2.5. . .................................. 31
3. ........................................................................... 34
3.1. ....................................................... 35
3.2. ...................................... 37
3.3. ..................................................... 38
3.4. , .......... 40
3.5. ......................................................... 42
3.6. ................................... 43
3.7. ............................... 47
4. ................................................................................................ 51
4.1. ................................................................................... 51
4.2. ................................................. 54
4.3. ....................... 58
4.4. ........................................ 58
4.5. ........................................................... 61
4.6. ......................... 64
4.7. .................................... 65
4.8. .............. 66
4.9. ............. 67
5. .......................................... 70
5.1. ................................................. 72
5.2. ............................................................ 73
5.3. .............................................................. 77
6. ..................................................................................................... 78
6.1. .. 78

6.2. .................................. 80
6.3. ............................................ 83
6.4. ........................ 84
6.5. ............................................ 85
6.6. .................................................... 88
6.7. ............................................... 90
6.8. ........................................... 99
7. .............................. 102
7.1. ................................................................. 102
7.2. .................................................................. 102
7.3. ................................................................. 109
8. .......................................................... 113
8.1. .................................................................................... 113
8.2. () ....................................... 116
8.3. () .......................................... 117
8.4. ........ 120
1.......................................................................................... 121
2.......................................................................................... 122
.................................................... 125


( - ) - . (-)
, , .
,
, ,
.
, ,

.

, ,
,
.
. -
, . -
() (). -
,
.
,
( ,
, ,
, .).

, ..
.
( ),
. , ,
, ,
.
5

1.
1.1.
() , . (),
, .. ( ).

, : , , .

:
,
. ,
, .

, , , . - . , (
)
(, ),
. - . - . - (
) .
() .
,
. (, ) (, , . . .). , . (), 6

, . ( ) ().
(, , , ,
.).
(, , ),
(, , ) . - , - , , , .


: (), () .
- , . (. 1.1): ) , ) , )
; (. 1.2): ) , ) , ) . , ,
. ,
( ),
.

. 1.1

. 1.2
- , . ,
, (,
7

, . .),
.
, ..
(, , , ) .
( ),

. , ,
. .
.
.
,
, .

() . ,
.
, ( , , ).
( ,
..).
( ), () .
(. 1.3,) ,
( ).
,
,
. 1.3,. q (. 1.3,)
( ).
.

. 1.3
()
(), .. : /, /; /, /; q //, //.

. .
. 1.4 . -
(. 1.4,) (
). , (. 1.4,), () . -
(. 1.4,),
. (. 1.4,) . , - ,
(. 1.4,).

. 1.4
9


, .
( ),
. , - (. .
1.4,) ; (. . 1.4,) - .
(), .
, .

. ,

.
, . : ,
-, .
, ,
.
1.2. .
, . .
. , (. 1.5,),
p p,
(. 1.5,). (
.)
(.0),
R M .
0xyz, z ,
x y .

10

. 1.5
R M x, y, z
( ). : N - ; Qx, Qy - ; M x , M y -
x y; M - (. 1.5,). , .
,
: 1) ; 2)
( ); 3) ; 4)
, . . .

-
.
1.3.

. F .
R
(. 1.6,). p
p ,
:

p = R
F

p = lim

F 0 F

dR

dF

(1.1)

11

p
(. 1.6,): (
n ) ( ).
, - . p

n , :
2
2
= p cos; = p sin; p = + .

(1.2)

. 1.6
. 1.7
. , , , .
, (1.1)
(. 1.7):

N = dF , Q x = xdF , Q y = ydF ,
F

ydF , M
F

F
y

= xdF ,
F

(1.3)

= ( y x x y)dF .
F

: 1 = 1 /2.
, (),
(), ():
1 = 103 ; 1 M = 106 ; 1 = 109 .
:
1 10 /2 = 0,1 /2.
12

1.4.
, .
. .
. , ( )
( ) , (. 1.8,). Oxyz
x, y, z
( u, v, w). ( ) (. . 1.8,). x, y, z.

( ).

. 1.8

- . S (. 1.8,) :

S1 S0
S
= lim
.
S 0 0
S 0 0 S 0
S0

s = lim

(1.4)

. 1.8,.
, x, y, z
() x, y, z.
(. . 1.8,)

CDE =

lim

CD 0, DE 0

(CDE C1D 1E 1 )

(1.5)

( ) .D
CD.
xy, yz, xz.
13

.
( ) , ( ) - , - ( ).
, ,
.
.
1. , , .
.
2. ,
. -, ( ). -, ; - , ,
, .

1.5. .
,
, . , =kP.
. k , .
.
. , .
(), , . , , . ,

( ),
. ,
- .

14


: ,
-.
,
, ()
. (. 1.9). 1
P
,
Fy = 0; 2Ncos - P = 0; N =
2cos
().
, , ,
.

. 1.9

. 1.10

( )
.
(, ..)
. , (vA)
1 2 (. 1.10,)
( 1.10,,):
vA (P1, P2) = vA (P1) + vA (P2).
,
.
- , , . , 15

(. 1.11,), , .
, (. . 1.11,), . ,
, . ,
-,
, . ,
: (. 1.11,). , ,
P,
(. . 1.11,).

. 1.11
- ,

. ,
,
(. 1.12).
. 1.12
, , ( ): , ,
. ,
, .

16

2.

, . - .
2.1. -
. 2.1, , .

l. , l=10d,
l=5d, .
, .
. 2.1,
. -
, . ,
. (l = l1 - l) (d =
d1 - d) . , .
( ).
.
-
.
S (. . 2.1,) = S/S
,
. ,

l
.
l

(2.1)

, - , .. .
17

. 2.1
, :
d
=
.
(2.2)
d
,
:
= -
,
(2.3)
- .

:

=
.
(2.4)


0 < < 0,5. , = 0,25 0,33.
:

v =
18

V1 V
V

F1l1
Fl

1,

V = Fl - ; F
; V1 = F1l1 -
; F1 - .
d1 = d + d, l1 = l + l (2.1) - (2.3), :
2

(d + d)
d

l+ l

1 = (1 ) (1 + ) 1 .

2 3
, :
(2.5)
v = (1 - 2
) .
, v > 0 > 0, 0,5.



.
() ( ). (. . 2.1,) .
p (. 2.1,). (. . 2.1,)
:
P
P
,
(2.6)
p=
= ;
Fa
F
F = F / cos - .
p (. . 2.1,) :
pF = F p = os.
(2.7)
p K (.2.1,,)
:
= p os ;

= p sin.

(2.7) :
1
= os2 ; = sin2.
(2.8)
2
(2.8) ,
= 0) (), (
= 45,
:
max = / 2.
(2.9)

19

( = 90) .
(2.8), ,
(. . 2.1,) :

+ +90 = ,

= +90.

(2.10)

, .

- : , ,
.
2.2.
(. . 2.1,). .
-
P l, . .2.2,
.
.
- (2.1),
(2.6):

P
;
F

l
,
l

F l .
, . 2.2, . , , -
,
. . 2.2, (
D DK).
20

. 2.2
.
- :

= ,

(2.11)
.. . (
(.
, ). = tg
. 2.2,). , = 190-210 .
, ,
:

P
.
F

(2.12)

P = P
, .. .
(2.6)
,
:
= / .
(2.13)

.

. .
() .
, , :
21

P
.
(2.14)
F
,
(. 2.3,), . () . max 45 (.
(2.9)).


. 2.3,. , ,
.

. 2.3
,
.
l . 22

, T .

- (. 2.3,).
,
0.5,
(2.5). ,
,
, . , (. 2.3,),
(. 2.3,):

0,2 =

P0,2
F

(2.15)

, 0,2%
( = 0,002 = 0,2%) .
P0,2 , ,
(. . 2.3,).
D . ,
, .
, , (. . 2.2). , ,
:

Pmax
.
F

(2.16)

D (D) .

- (. 2.4,).

. .
P (. . 2.2,). l = l + l, l -
, l - . ,
= + (. .
2.2,). () l, l .
23

. 2.4
P
D', .
,
" " (.2.4,).
(. 2.4,) ,
, t r . , ,
.
(. . 2.2,)
P
S = ,
(2.17)
F
P - (. . 2.2,);
F - .

(. 2.4,).
F 1, F (1 + ).

F = F (1 + )

F
F

1.

:
= y + = + +
=

24

S
E

F
F

1.

D'K (. . 2.2,) . .D . .' :

P
F

; = + =

, , , .
.
= l / l (.
. 2.2,), , :

% =

100% =

lK l
100% ,
l

(2.18)

lK - .

F F
100% .
(2.19)
F
% =

.
> 10%, = 5-10%, < 5%.

. . 2.5
.
, .
1. ,
, =
(. 2.5,).
2. , .
3.

(. 2.5,).

(. . 2.5,), (2.16).
25

. 2.5
2.3.
(. 2.6,)
h = (2-3)d.
. (. 2.6, ).

. 2.6
. 2.7, , . 2.7, - . , .

26

. 2.7
.
(. . 2.7,) . , Pmax.
,
(. . 2.2 . 2.7).
(2.3), .
() (T)
, ,
. ,
.
TC > TP ( ,
).
(. 2.8,) (. 2.5,),
.
max 45 .
c (. 2.8,). c > , ..
, . ,
= 2 - 5.
c/
27

. 2.8
2.4.

, .. 20
, .
,
.
2.4.1.
P > PT (. , .
. 2.2,), : ML, OA (. 2.9,).
l.
. 2.9,. , .. ly.


. ,
l (. . 2.9,), .

28

. 2.9
, , -.
( , ,
..), - (
.).
2.4.2.
.
,
. .
.

. . 2.10 .
>300 >
<0C)
. (<
, .
2.4.3.
,
,
(, ) . . 2.11
( 1)
( 2) . .
29

. 2.10

. 2.11

2.4.4.

, ..
.
. (t) . 2.12,.
0 t, ,
0,
0 ( ).
. , ( t1-t2, . .2.12,), ( ).

. 2.12
30

, .
, (, .).
(. . 2.12,).
.
(t) . 2.12,. t - t1,
. 0,
( ).
. ,
,
.
2.5. .
, .. , . ( , , .). .
2.5.1.
. ,
(, ), ( , ).

, ,
:

max [],

(2.20)

max - ;
[] .
max . 31

. ,
[]=T / nT,
(2.21)
T - ; nT -
.

:

p,max []p;
c,max []c;

(2.22)
p,max, c,max - ; []p, []c
.
:
[ ] p =

;
n

[ ] c =

(2.23)

n - .
, : .
. 2.13
() (, ) . (2.21), (2.23) ,
.

. 2.13
32

:
n [n],
(2.24)
n ; [n] .
n :

n=


,
max

(2.25)

T - (
).

:
1. ( ).
2. , .
3. , , , ( ).
2.5.2.
.
,
(, ). , , (,
). , . , .
1. . n , . ,
1,8-2,5, 5.
2. . , , n.

33

3. . n , .
,
.
4. . n , .
,
.
5. . , .

.

.
, ,
.

34

3.

.
() N. (. 3.1,)
(. 3.1,) .

. 3.1
,
(N>0) , (N<0) .
N = P (. 3.1,) N = - P
(. . 3.1,).
.
3.1.
N . qi = const (.
3.2,).

. 3.2
B N
(. 3.2,).
,
.
35

, .. .
:
Fz = 0 , -P1 + q1l1 qz + N = 0 N = P1 ql1 + qz.
(3.1)
N ,
: , :
n

N = Pi ,

(3.2)

i=1

Pi -
.
,
, , . , (3.1) 1 qz
z, q1l
(. . 3.2,).
z = 0 : NA = P1- q1l1.
z = l : N = P1- q1l1+ql.
N N ,
(. . 3.2,).
1 = 2, q1 = 2/ l, l1 = 0,5l, q = / l, NA = P, NB = 2P.
(3.1)
. . 3.3, () .

. 3.3
dz (. 3.3,):
-N qdz + (N + dN ) = 0.
:
dN
dz
36

= q.

(3.3)

, q = const
N (.. 3.3,).
(q=0),
, .. N = const (. 3.3,). , N 4P, .
: ,
N .
N.
3.2.
()
.
. , ,
( ).

( ).

( ).
.
dz (. 3.4,).

. 3.4
,
, w, - w + dw.
(dz) =(w + dw) w = dw.
= (dz)/dz :
37

dw
.
dz

(3.4)

, -
(. 3.4,),
= E.
(3.5)
dF
N (. 3.4,). :
N = dF .
(3.6)
F

,
. (3.4) :

=E

dw
.
dz

(3.7)

(3.6):
dw .
N = E
dF
dz
F
dw
= const ,
, =const =
dz
dF = F , :
F

N
dw
=
.
dz
EF

(3.8)

(3.8) .
(3.8) (3.7), :
N
= .
(3.9)
F
(3.6) ( = const, . . 3.4,).
, (2.6)
(3.9) N =
.
3.3.
(3.8):
38

w = w+

N dz
EF

(3.10)

wo - ( z=0).
, = /E = N/EF, (3.10)
:
w = wo + dz.
(3.11)
(3.4).
w () , w () .
, w , =N /EF = const (. 3.5,). (3.11) wo = w, :
w = w + z .
(3.12)

. 3.5
z = l :
w = w + l; l = l ,
(3.13)
l - .
l (2.1),
,
.

39

=N/EF, (3.13) :
Nl
l =
,
(3.14)
EF
EF - (
() ).
(3.14)
(3.5) (3.9) (2.1). (3.14)
.
q (. 3.5,), (N ) :
N = N qz .
(3.15)
z = l N = N - q l.
(3.15) (3.10), wo = w :
N z qz 2
w = w +

.
(3.16)
EF 2EF
, w (. . 3.5,)
(d2w/dz2< 0). N
, w (dw/dz = 0).
. 3.5, . z = l :
N l q l2

w = w +
.
EF 2EF
3.4. ,
: , , .
,
(. 3.6,) (3.14).

40

3.6
T ( ) (. 3.6,)
lT = T T l ,
(3.17)
T -5
. (, T =1,2510 1/.)
:

lT

= T T .

(3.18)

, :
l =

Nl
+ T T l ;
EF

+ .

(3.19)

,
, , T . . , < 300C (c. . 2.10).
,
,
o= l - lo (. 3.6,).
(o> 0), ,
(o< 0), - .


l =

Nl
+ l + 0 .
EF

(3.20)

41

3.5.
,
.
, , .
, .
:
max []; [] = / n [] = 0,2 / n .

(3.21)

max = (N/F)max
(), ().
. [] ,
(3.21) ( 0,2) n.
:
,max []; [] = / n,
,max []; [] = / n.
(3.22)
,
,max,
,max.
(3.21), (3.22) 2.5.

.
1. , .
2. , ( ).
3. , .

.

42

3.6.
(. 3.7) ( )
. , N . , , . (i =1, 2, 3, 4), .
N. N ,
. , DM , D .

. 3.7

(3.9)

( i)

Ni
Fi

i = 1, 2, 3, 4

(3.23)

, F1=F2=F3=F F4=2F.
,
3 4 . ,
4 ( ,
).

(3.5):

(i) =

( i)

E( i)

i = 1, 2, 3, 4.

(3.24)
43

(E(i) = E),
, .
w , ,
.
, w= 0.
(3.13), (3.14) , w =
w= 0, w = wD, D:
4Pl
2Pl
=
w D = l4 =
.
E 2F
EF
i- (i) = const,
li (3.13):
li = (i) li .
(3.25)
:
wC = wD +l3 =
wB = wC + l2 =

Pl

+ ( 2

) 1,5l =

Pl

EF
EF
EF
P l
P
Pl
) 1 ,5 l = 0 ,5

+ (
EF
EF
EF

; wA = wB.

, .
. . 4. (N4 > 0),
wD > 0 D . , , w > 0, , .
( ),
,
:
l

= l ,
i
i=1

(3.26)

m - .
l = wA = l1 +l2 + l3 + l4.
w ,
D (wmax = wD).
, (3.4) w.
z () (.
.3.7),
44

w. , (3.11). , w(z) 4
z (w(z) = 4 z).
.
1. :
F = 2 2, =10 , T = 320 , n = 2.
max (. .
3.7) (3.21):
3

max=
(2) = (3)= 2 , max= 2
F

[]=

320

= 160

10 10

2 10

=108 = 100 ;

, , (3.21) .
2. F :
= 20 ; [] = 160 M.
m = 2P/F, (3.21) :
2

P
[] .
F

F, :
F

2P

; Fmin = 2

[ ]

2 20 10

160 10

4 2
= 2,5 10 =2,5

2.

3.
, :
F = 2 2; =240 ; = 960 ; n = 4 .
, 3 (. . 3.7). p,max= 2P/F (3.22), :
2

P
[];
F

[] = 240/4 = 60 .

, :
[] F/ 2; P = 60 106 2 10 4/2 = 6 .
:
F = 2 2; P = 20 ; l = 1; E = 2 105 .
45

w (. . 3.7,), ,
wA > 0 ( ):

wA

= 0,5

20 10
11

2 10

1
4

2 10

= 2,5 10

= 2,5 .

. , . .
(. 3.8,), . ,
, (. 3.8,), , ( N
. 3.8,). , 1-1
.

. 3.8
(. 3.8,) ,
P, q = P/l. P = Fl,
, q = F. N
(. 3.8,) :
N = q (l - z) = F (l - z); = N/F = (l - z).
N .
l,
:
max = ; l = ; l = /.
46

, . ,
= 7,8104 /3 = 780 l= 104.
,
() /
(), .. , l=/.

(, .).

(3.18) w = 0 ( ):
2

ql z
qz
q z2 N z
+
=
+
w (z) =
.
2EF EF
2EF EF

w(z) .
( z = l c ql = P) :
w = Pl/2EF.
,
. 3.8,. ,
, N , w .
3.7.

(. 3.9). :
Fz = 0; RA + P 5P + RD = 0.
(3.27)
. , , .
X1=RA.
, ( ) .
, -
( ). (3.26) :
l1 + l2 + l3 = 0.
(3.28)
li (3.14) Ni :
N1 = X1; N2 = X1 + P ; N3 = X1 + P 5P = X1 4P .
(3.29)
47

(3.14), Ni (3.29) - (Ei, Fi, li), (3.28)


:
X1 l
EF

( X1 + P ) l
E2F

( X1 4 P ) l
E2F

=0.

(3.30)


(3.27).
(3.30) :
2l
EF

X1

3 Pl
2 EF

=0.

(3.31)


1, . 1
1=1.
(3.31), 1 = RA = 3/4P, (3.29)
- . N, w,
. 3.9. w , D.
.

.3.9

.3.10


.
48


.
. ,
. , .
, .

(, 0 = l l0), .
, (. .3.9). ,
TC 0 (. 3.10).
T=TT.3l . 0 T,
. 0 < T,
RA RD,
:
RD RA = 0; RD= RA.
(3.32)
, .
X1 = RA. ,
( ) 0, :
l1 + l2 = 0.
(3.33)
:
N1 = N2 = - X1.
(3.34)
(3.19) li
Ni , (3.33) :
(

X1 l
EF

+ T Tl) + (

X 1 2l
EF

+ T T2l) = 0 .

(3.35)

, :
X1 =

EF
2l

( 0 ) ; 0 T,

(3.36)

T = 3TTl - .
49

T = 0, X1 = 0. . 3.10 N,
w. w D (wD = 0). :

w B = l 2 =

X 1 2l
E2F

+ T T2l ;

w A = w B + l 1 = w B

X1 l
EF

+ T T l .

(3.36) :
w = ( + TT l)/2 ; wA = 0.
. , .
,
, ,
(. . 3.9) (. . 3.10),
.

50

4.

(,
..). ,
, .
4.1.
, ,
, ,
(. 4.1, - ABCD).
(. 4.1,).

. 4.1

. 4.2

, , .
( )
(. .
4.1,).

. h,
(. 4.2,), (. 4.2,;
). ,
-
. 51

, ( n )
( t ) :
Fn = 0; ABh - BCh cos - AChsin = 0;
Ft = 0; ABh + BCh sin - AChcos = 0 .
(4.1)
BC=ABsin, AC=ABcos,
(4.1) :
= sin2, = cos2 .
(4.2)
= 0 = 90 : = 0, = .
sin2 = 1, .. =
45. = , = 0, .. , 45 ,
, - , - (. 4.3). .

. 4.3

. 4.4


(. 4.4,) .
BD
. ABCD A1B1C1D1, . . . =
B1A1K (. . 4.4,)
(A1K A1D1).

(. 4.4,).

52


:
= G,
(4.3)
G - .
. E :
G =

E
.
2(1 + )

(4.4)



=f().
.
. 4.5,, - n, , .
(. 4.5,);
0,3 - , 0,3%.
.
, 0,6 T.
< < ,
.
= (0,3 0,4)
. 4.5,.

. 4.5
53

4.2.
( ) (. 4.6,).
, , ,
, 4.6,. ,
, .

. 4.6

M (. 4.6,),
. M
: M n (. 4.6,).
4.2.1.
:
1) - ,
, ; , ;
2) - .
dz,
(. 4.7,).
- .
,

d
(. 4.7,).
( ). BB1 :
54

ABB1 BB1 = ABtg dz; BB1 BB1 = OBd


d
.
, :
dz = d
=

, '=
=

d
.
dz

(4.5)

. 4.7


.
M
(. 4.7,). dF . d M =dF,
:

dF .

(4.6)

(4.3) (4.5)
= G = G
,
- (4.6), :

= G 2 dF = G 2dF =
F

G Jp ;

(4.7)

Jp = 2 dF ,
F

Jp - ; GJp -
.
:

M
d
.
=
dz G Jp

(4.8)

(4.8) (4.7), :
55

M .

Jp

(4.9)

. 4.8 (
)
() () : (4.9) max = D/2,
.


Wp - :
W p =

Jp

m ax

(4.10)



(4.11)
m ax = M .

. 4.8

W p

z z (4.8):
M dz
(4.12)
z = 0 + = 0 + ,
G Jp

0 - ,
(z=0); - z.
M = const, GJp = const,

M z
(4.13)
z = o + z = 0 + z; = const .
G Jp

(4.13) ,

:

= + i ;

i =

M ili
,
G Jpi

(4.14)

- ; -
; i - i- li.
56

, (. . 4.7,)
(4.14) =0:

m ax =

M l
.
G Jp

(4.15)

, ( )
,
n
M (z)dz
z = + i ; i = l i
,
(4.16)
i G Jpi(z)
i= 1
n - .
M i Gjpi , (4.12) :
n

M ili
.
G
J
i
p
i= 1

z = o +

(4.17)

.
( ), (4.17)
(4.16), =0.
(z) (4.13), (4.14).
4.2.2.
, ), (
d
d
( . 4.9 dF=
).

2 D /2

J p = 2 dF =
F

. 4.9

3
d d

0 d /2

d4
D4
D 4

=
=

2 16
16
32

d
1
D

(d=0) :
Jp =

D 4
d
D 4
(1 4) 01
, D 4(1 4 ); = ; Jp =
0,1D 4 ,
32
D
32

(4.18)
57

= d/D - .
0)
(
=0) (4.15)
(
:
W

D 3
(1 4 ) 0,2D 3 (1 4 ) W
16

D 3
0,2D 3 . (4.19)
16

4.3.
(4.9) ,
,
. ,
.
, . ,
, (. 4.10).
)
)

(max
= (max
(4.11)

W p() = W p()

D = D 3 1 4 ,

=d/D. :
m c Fc
D 2c /4
=
=
=
m F D 2 (1 2 )/4

(1 + 2 )2
1 2

. 4.10
4.1

=d/D

Fc/F

0,1 0,3 0,5 0,7 0,9 1,01 1,09 1,28 1,63 2,58 (. 4.1).

4.4.

.
.
( 58

, .). , .
(
) N ()
n (/):
= 9550

/ /.

(4.20)

( )
.
, ..
.
. (4.11) (4.8),
(4.13)
(4.14).
max ( ,
max !).
:
M
max []
(4.21)
[ ],
W p
[ ] =

[ ] =
,
n
n

[] - ; nT, n ; M -
( max).

:

M
max [
]p, max = max
,
(4.22)
[ ]p , [ ]p =
n
Wp
- .

, .
0,6)[
]p,
[]=(0,5
59

- [] = (0,81,0)[[]p. n
1,5-2 , n .
, , , .
.
: 20, 30, 40, 45, 50,
20, 40, 30, 40 ., (5, 6, 20),
- (16, 6 .).

.
(4.21) :

M
16 M
D 3
.
(4.23)
[ ]
(1 4 )[ ]
(
) (4.20) :
M Wp[],
(4.24)
M .
/max, :
M
[ / ],
/max [
/]
(4.25)
G Jp
/] - .
[
/] [
2,0) /. , [/]=(0,25
/] /.
(4.25) [
,
, ..
. ,
(4.25)
(4.18):
W p

D
60

32 M
.
/
4
(1 )[ ]

(4.26)


, (4.23) (4.26), ,
, .. -
.
4.5.
.
, ,
.
. , 45 - ,
(. 4.11).
,

, : max =
max.
. 4.11
, ..
.
, 0,6 ,
.
. 4.5,,.
(. 4.12,),
( ). , .
,
( max=),
(4.11): M =Wp (. 4.12,). 61

. (1),
= , (2), < , (. 4.12,).
, (. 4.12,).

. 4.12

(4.6), , =:
D
D 3
2
= dF = 2 d =
= W , (4.27)
12
F
0
3
D /12 -
W=
.
M M , ,
M / M = 4/3. :
33%.
-

(n=1) .
(. 4.13,) - (
) ( ). . 4.13,,.
, ( /).

62

. 4.13
,
;
.
, , < < ,
. ,
45 (. 4.14,a).

. 4.14
. ,

(. 4.14,) (
, . 4.14,), .. .
, , . ,

, 45 .

63

4.6.

, ( )
( ) . ,
. .
(
)
, .
.
4.1.
,
M (. 4.15,).

M M
(. . 4.15,),
:
M z = 0; M - M + M = 0.

, . ,

(. 4.15,).
,
. 4.15
(4.17):
2 M
ili
= 0; = o +
.
i= 1 G Jpi
= = 0).
(
:

1l1 M 2l2
+
= 0.
G Jp1
G Jp 2
64

,
M 1 = M , M 2 = M - M . , l1
= l, l2 = 2l, GJp1=GJp2=GJp, :
2
l ( ) 2l
+
=0 = .
3
G Jp
G Jp
. : M 1 = 2 M /3,
M 2 = - M /3. M . 4.15,.
4.7.
,
. ,
. ( ), , , . ,
, .
: 1)

; 2)
. .
-

- , (4.11) (4.8):
M ,
M ;
(4.28)
m ax =
=
W

G J

J, W -
.
, , , (4.15):
M l .
(4.29)
=
G J

65


. 4.16.
( 1),
(. .1) :
= max; 1.

(4.30)

:
W = b2; J = b3; b . (4.31)
, ,
/b;
. 4.2.
. 4.16
(/b >10) =1/3, =1/3 .
4.2
a/b 1.0 1.5 1.75 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.0 8.0 10.0
0.208 0.231 0.239 0.246 0.258 0.267 0.282 0.299 0.307 0.313 0.333
0.141 0.196 0.214 0.229 0.249 0.263 0.281 0.299 0.307 0.313 0.333
1.0 0.859 0.820 0.795 0.766 0.753 0.745 0.743 0.742 0.742 0.742
4.8.
,
.
. ()
() (. 4.17). : s/t > 10, si/ti > 10, s, t
- ; si, ti - i-
(s=
si). .
.
.
1.
(. 4.17,), (4.28) - (4.31) =1/3, =1/3
(W=st2/3, J = st3/3):
3M ;
3M l.
3M ;
(4.32)
m ax =
=
=
2
3
3
G st
st
G st

66

. 4.17

.4.18

2. ,
(. 4.18), . n ,
M i .
n

1
siti3 ; W
3

1
siti2 ,
3
i= 1
:
J = J i ; Ji =

(4.33)

M l M 1l
M n l.
(4.34)
=
= ...=
G J
G J 1
G Jn
(4.34) , :
J i . i-
i =

im ax =

M
W

i
i

M J i
M .
ti

=
J W i
J

(4.35)

m ax =

M
tm ax .
J

(4.36)

, .. ( )
.

4.9.
.
, , , , .. , . ,
( -). . - -
67

(
= 8001000 ; = 9501600 ; B = 15001750 ; T = 6001000
; B=8501400 ).
,
.
.

M Q, .

(.4.19,):
D - ; d - ; t -
; n - .

(. 4.19,),
tg=t/
D.

5.

. 4.19
(. 4.19,),
Q M :
Q P;

1
= 2 PD.

(4.37)


( ), :

M
m ax =
W

d3
d2
Q
+ , W p =
; F=
.
F
16
4

(4.35) :

m ax

8PD

d 3

(1 +

d
).
2D

(4.38)

(d/D < 0,1) . :

m ax =

8P D

d 3

(4.39)

,
(, ), (4.38),
, .
68

, L . (
=
L).
(
) .

1
2

A= P
( 1/2
) U
. (M)
(
) (
(4.8)):

dU

1
= M
2

M dz
.
d =
2G Jp

(), ..

U = dU
l

= const, GJp = const, :

2l
=
.
2G Jp

l
Dn, Jp=
D4/32,
A=U:

8PD 3n
.
L = =
G d4

(4.40)

max L=

, J W.
(4.40) n
. ,
, 3/4
, .. n n - 1,5 ( ).
-
P(
) ,
.

c=

P
G d4
.
=
8D 3n

(4.41)

69

5.
.
, - F, - Jp (Jk). .
, f(x,y)dF (. 5.1,), . 5.1.
F

5.1

f(x,y) f ( x, y )dF
F

F = dF

Sx = y dF

Sy = x dF

y2

Jx = y 2dF

Jy = x 2dF

Jxy = xy dF

xy

=
Jp = 2dF
2
2
=x +y
F
2



x


y


x


y



-
c2

F> 0

Sx 0
Sx 0

c3

Sy 0
Sy 0

c4

Jx> 0

c4

Jy> 0

c4

Jxy 0
Jxy 0

c4

Jp> 0

() :
,
:

f(x,y)dF = f(x,y)dF ,
i =1 Fi

n - .


5.1.
Sx Sy .

(. 5.1,). F, Sx Sy 0XY Sx1, Sy1
x1, y1.
x1 = x - a, y1 = y - b, :
Sx1 = y1dF = ( y b )dF ; Sy1 = x1dF = ( x a )dF
F

Sx1 = Sx - bF ; Sy1 = Sy - aF.


(5.1)
x1, y1 , : Sx1 = 0, Sy1 = 0.
,
, .
.
Sx1 = 0, Sy1 = 0, (5.1)
x, y ( x = , yc =b):
S
S
(5.2)
xc = y ; y c = x .
F
F
, F
( x, yc) 0 , x, y
(5.2):
Sx = F yc ; Sy = F x.
(5.3)
, , , .

:
1) n , (Fi)
(Ci) ;
2) , (xci, yci) ;
3) :
n

Fi y ci

Fi x ci

xc = i =1


y c = i =1

F = Fi .
i =1

(5.4)

5.2.
. 5.2 , ( Jk).

D 4
64

5.2

Jx

Jy

Jp (J )

h3

h 3

h 3

12

12

0,05D 4

D 4
64

0,05D 4

D 4
32

01
, D4

D 4 (1 4 )

D 4 (1 4 )

D 4 (1 4 )

0,05D 4 (1 4 )

0,05D 4 (1 4 )

01
, D 4 (1 4 )

h3

_____

_____

64

64

32

36

, (. 5.2)

:
h
2

by 3
J x = y dF = y bdy =
3
h
F
2

. 5.2

h
2
h

bh

.
J x =
12
hb

: J y =
.
12
, Jx = Jy = 0,5Jp.
, 2 = x2 + y2 (. .5.1,), , Jp = J + Jy.
- .
, , J1
(x1 = x - a, y1 = y - b, . . 5.1,):
J x1 = ( y b )2 dF = y 2 dF - 2b ydF + b2 dF = J - 2bSx + b2F.
F


, :
J1 = J - 2bSx + b2F; Jy1 = Jy - 2aSy + a2F;
(5.5)
J1y1 = Jy - aSx - bSy + abF.
x y - , Sx = 0, Sy = 0,
(5.5) :
J1 = J + b2F; Jy1 = Jy + a2F; J1y1 = Jy + abF.
(5.6)
(5.6) ,
.
, , x1=xos+ysin, y1=ycosxsin (. 5.1,), :
Jx1 = Jx cos2 + Jy sin2 - Jxy sin2;
Jy1 = Jx sin2 + Jy cos2 + Jxy sin2;
(5.7)
Jx1y1 =

(Jx - Jy) sin2 + Jxy cos2.


90. , :
Jx1 + Jy1 = J + Jy = Jp.
(5.8)

: .
,
Jx1 Jy1 .
dJx1/d = 0.
:
2J x y
.
(5.9)
tg 2 0 =
Jy Jx
(5.7) Jx1y1 = 0.
, ( - max, - min),
, ( x0, y0 . 5.1,).

(Jmax, Jmin). 1
2. J1
J2. , J1 = Jmax, J2 = Jmin. . 5.1, ,
Jx0 = Jmax x0 1.
. . 5.1,
Jxy . ,
.
. (5.9) 0,
(5.7) = 0 :
Jx0 = Jx os20 + Jy sin20 - Jxy sin20 ;
Jy0 = Jx sin20 + Jy cos20 + Jxy sin20 .
(5.10)
, Jx0 > Jy0 , Jx0 = Jmax, Jy0 = Jmin, .
, . (5.10):
Jx0 + Jy0 = Jx + Jy;
Jx0 - Jy0 = (Jx - Jy) cos20 - 2Jxy sin20 = (Jx - Jy) / cos20 .
(5.11)
2Jxy = - (Jx-Jy)/tg20
(5.9).
(5.11) :
Jx0 =

1
2

(( Jx + Jy)+(Jx - Jy)/cos20 ; Jy0 =

1
(( Jx + Jy) - (Jx - Jy)/cos20).
2

(5.12)


, Jx > Jy, Jx0 > Jy0.


1/cos2
1

4Jxy

= 1+

1 + tg 2a0
2

(Jx J y )

cos2a0

(Jx J y ) + 4Jxy
(Jx J y )

(5.9), :
.

1
(( Jx + Jy)
2
1
Jy0 = (( Jx + Jy)
2

Jx0 =

( Jx Jy )

2
+ 4J xy );

# ( Jx Jy )

2
+ 4J xy ).

(5.13)

Jx > Jy, - Jx < Jy.

(5.13) :
J1,2 = Jm ax =
m in

Jx + J y
2

Jx J y 2
2
) + J xy .
2

(5.14)

x0,
y0 1, 2.
,
(. 5.1,)
(5.7) , Jx0y0 =0:
Jx = Jx0 cos2 + Jy0 sin2;
Jy = Jx0 sin2 + Jy0 cos2;

(5.15)

Jxy = 0,5(Jx0 - Jy0) sin2 .


, , ,
= 45 . Jx0 = J1 = Jmax, Jy0 =
J2 = Jmin :
J1 J2
max
J xy
=
.
(5.16)
2
.
:
1) ;
2) Jx, Jy Jxy
x, y, ;
3) ( 0) (Jmax, Jmin) (5.9), (5.14).


5.3.
F
, :
Jx = F ix2, Jy = F iy2,

(5.17)

ix , iy -
.
(5.17) , :
ix =

Jx
F

iy =

Jy
F

(5.18)



6.
(.
6.1,). ,
( ).
,
.
, , .

- M
Q, . , . 6.1,. ;
(
). (
.)

. 6.1
. ,
- .
6.1.


.
(. 6.2,), q(z) 

. dz
q
(. 6.2,).
dz q , M Q

.

. 6.2
(
x
):
Fy = 0; Q + qdz - (Q+dQ) = 0;
dz
mx = 0; - M - Qdz - q dz
+ ( M +d M ) = 0.
2
, :
dQ
dM
d2M
= q;
=Q
=q

(6.1)
dz
dz
dz2
( ).
(6.1)
:
Q(z)= q(z)dz+Q0;
z

M (z) = Q (z)dz+ M 0,

(6.2)

Q0, M 0 -
.
(6.1), (6.2)

Q(z) M (z),
Q M .


1. , q=0, Q
, M - ( Q = 0,
M =const).
2. , q = const 0, Q
, M - .
3. q 0 M q.
4. , Q = 0 q 0, M :
max - q < 0, min - q > 0.
5. , ,
Q , M . , , M
.
6. M Q ( ).
6.2.
.
1. : , ,
.
2. :
, . . .
3.
.
.

(. 6.3,),
, : ) ,
; ) (. 6.3,).
: , - .


. 6.3
(y)
,
, - . , ,
- no-no (. .
6.3,,).
( CD . 6.3,).
(. 3.2) , .
(. 6.4) ab
y ( y
).
,
, d, k
dz = d :
1 d
. 6.4
k= =
,
(6.3)
dz
- .
ab
:
a1b1 ab
(ab)
.
=
=
ab
ab
d, a1b1 = (
+y) d
(. . 6.4), , ab = dz =
:
y
= = ky.
(6.4)

2 3 . ( ) :
y
= = = E ky .
(6.5)

(6.5) : , .
, (. 6.5).
, x , y ,
z - . N= 0, (6.5), (1.3) :
y
N = dF = 0; E dF = 0;

F
F
kE ydF = 0.
F

1
0

( ),
ydF = Sx = 0 , .. x , E 0, k =

. 6.5
.
.0 , , ,
, z - . .
M :
M = ydF = E ky2dF = kE y2dF = kEJx ; Jx = y2dF ,
F

Jx - .
( M .)
:
1
M
k= =
,
(6.6)
E Jx
EJx - .


6.3.
(6.6) (6.5), :
My
=
.
(6.7)
Jx
(6.7) -
(. 6.6,).

. 6.6

, :

m ax =

M ym ax
Jx

M ,
W

(6.8)

Wx - :
Jx
.
(6.9)
W x =
y m ax
(y) (.
6.6,,). M ( . 6.6,
).
,
(. . 6.6,).
Wx Jx (. ). ,
:

b h:
bh3
h
Jx =
; ym ax = ;
12
2
( =

bh2
Wx=
;
6

d
):
D

D 4
D
Jx =
(1 4 ) 0,05D 4 (1 4 ); ym ax = ;
64
2
3
D
Wx=
(1 4 ) 0,1D 3 (1 4 );
32

(d=0, = 0):
Jx =

D 4
D 3
0,05D 4 ; W x =
0,1D 3 .
64
32

6.4.
.
, . ,
.
- Wx F. , F Wx
( F
Wx). Wx/F: , .

, ..
. ,
.
( ) ( ). , .

(. 6.7). Wx/F 

. , , , ; , .

. 6.7

. 6.8

, , , . ,
cmax = p/
pmax/
c. . , (. 6.8)
, . . cmax > pmax,
c > p.
6.5.

, . Q

: Q = dF .
F


, . , , q(z), . , ,
1 2, . ,

,

. (6.6)
(6.7), (6.8) - :



My

m ax =

.
Wx
Jx
3 ( = const )
.
(. 6.9,) ( , q = 0, ..
q ,
)
, y1 = const (. 6.9,).

. 6.9
+d
), , (

( M Q (. 6.9,):

N * = dF ; N 1* = ( + d )dF ; dT* = bdz,


F*

(6.10)

F*

F - .
:
*
*
*
*
*
*
Fz = 0 ; - N1 + N + dT = 0 dT = N1 - N .
(6.10) ,
d =

dM y
(6.7), :
Jx

dM ydF dM
=
J
Jx
x
*

bdz= d dF =
F*

1 dM

*
ydF = bJ dz ydF .
x
F*
F*

, ydF = S*x ;
F*

dM
=Q,
dz

,
.. :
Q S *x
=
,
(6.11)
Jxb
. 6.10
- ; Q -
; Jx - ; b = b(y) - y, ( );
Sx*=Sx*(y) - ( y) (. 6.10).

Q .
b h
(. 6.11,). (6.11)
:
*

Sx = F y

h
b h2
bh3
1 h
2
= b( y ) ( + y ) = ( y1 ); Jx =
; b(y ) = b.
1
c
1
2
2 4
12
1 2 2

Q
bh3
b
12

b h2
6Q h2
3 Q
3Q
m ax
2
2

( y1 ) =
(
)
;
0

y
y
=
=
=
1
2 4
2 bh
2F
1
bh3 4

R, ,
:

(y 1 ) =

4Q
3R

(R y1 );

m ax =

4Q
3R

4Q
.
3F

. 6.11,
.
,
.



. 6.11
. . 6.11,.

. max = QS*x/Jxd,
Jx, S*x, d
. y , . .

, .
,
. , (. 6.12) :
Pl
6Pl
M
m ax = m ax = 2 = 2 ;
Wx
bh /6 bh
3Q
3 P
. 6.12
m ax =
=
.
2F
2 bh
m ax
l
= 4 ,

m ax
h
l/h>10, , ,
.
, (6.11) , (
).
6.6.

,
. 

, .

:

m ax [ ] ;
m ax [] ;

[ ]=
[]=

;
n

.
n

(6.12)
(6.13)

, , (6.12)
:
mp ax [ ]p
Bp

=
; [ ]c = Bc .
[
]
(6.14)
c
p
m ax [ ]c
nB
nB
,
M max. (6.12)
:
m ax
[ ].
W x

(6.15)

(6.15) :
M m ax
W x
.
(6.16)
[ ]

(6.13) Q = Qmax.
(WxWx(z)
(6.15) :

x m

[ ].

(6.15*)

ax


. , :


)
. 6.13

1) ;
2) ,
(,

,
(. 6.13,);
3) (. 6.13,),
.

6.7.
,
.
,
( , ,
.).
,
.
Oyz (. 6.14),
- ,
z .
( ,


, .)
. 6.14

:
1) v(z) - (
) , ;
2) (z) - (
).

, M , Oy - (. .6.14),
tg =

dv
.
dz

, tg .

:

= v ;

v =

dv
.
dz

(6.17)

.
6.7.1.
.
, (6.3), (6.6) (6.17),
:
d
M
=

(6.18)
dz EJx .
d
v

=
dz
(6.18), :
d2v
M
=
.
(6.19)
dz2 EJx
(6.19) ( (6.18) ,
.
(6.18) (6.19) :

M dz

M dz2

(z) =
+ ; v(z) =
+ oz + vo ,
EJ
EJ
x
x
z
zz

(6.20)

o, vo - , (z = 0).
EJx = const :

(z) = 1 M dz+ o; v(z) = 1 M dz2 + o + vo . (6.21)


EJ
EJ
x z

x zz

o, vo , ( ). v v =
. , (.
6.15,) : v(0) = 0, v(l) = 0; (. 6.15,): v(0) = 0, v(0) = 0.

. 6.15
6.1.
, (. 6.16).
(h=const, b=var).
. :
M(z)=-Pz; b(z)=boz/l,
bo, l -
. :
b(z)h 3
bo h 3 z
z
=
= Jo ,
J x (z) =
l
12
12 l

bo h 3
.
12

(6.18)
,
Jo =

. 6.16
:

(z) =

P lz
+
E Jo

o ; v(z) =

P lz2
+
2E J o

o z + vo .

(l) = 0, v(l) = 0. , : o = Pl2/EJo; vo=-Pl3/2EJo.


( z = l) :
z z2
P lz2
P l2 z P l3
P l3
1 - 2 +
;
+
=l l2
2E Jo E Jo 2E Jo
2E Jo

v(z)= -

vm ax = v(0) =

P l3 .
2E Jo

(boh): vmax=Pl3/3EJo.

6.7.2. .

.

( ): ,
.
:

Pj j + U = 0,

(6.22)

Pj - ; j -
Pj; U - .
, , . , .
, .

.

, (. 6.17,). i- ( (i)).
. ,
,
.
(.6.17,). : .
:
; ( P = 1), , ( M = 1),
.

. 6.17

.
: N1, M 1
Q1.
,
, . ,
N, M , Q.
P = 1,
(i);
P (i).

ds (. . 6.17). , : () -

ds; - d=kds; - ds (. . 6.17,). dU


, ..
. :
dU = N 1 ds M 1 kds Q 1 ds.

. (. 6.4),
kc - (
kc = 6/5, kc
= 10/9 ..).
dU l. (6.22) :
l

1 K N 1 ds M 1kds Q 1 kcds= 0 .
(i)

K = N 1ds M 1kds Q 1kcds.


(i)

(6.23)

(6.23)
, k, (=N/EF,
k= M /EJx, =Q/GF),
:
l
N 1 N ds l M 1 M ds l
Q 1Q ds
(i)
K =
+ kc
+
.
(6.24)
F
F
E
E
J
G
x
0
0
0
(6.24) .
, ,
(6.24) :
li
m li N N ds li M
Q 1iQ ids
1i i
(i)
1iM i ds
, (6.25)
K =
+ kci
+
F
F
E
E
J
G
x
i
i
i
i
i
i

i= 1 0
0
0
m - .
(6.24) ,
.
- .


:
l
M M dz
(Ki) = 1
.
(6.26)
E
J
x
0
.
1. .
2. N, Q, M .
3. ,
: P = 1, M = 1.
4. N1, M 1, Q1 .
5. (6.24) ( (6.25),
(6.26).
, , - ,
.
6.7.3.
(6.24) - (6.26)
, - .
, . , .. , .

(EJx=const), (6.26)
1 l
=
(6.27)
M 1M dz.
EJx 0

M 1 :

= a + bz.
(6.28)

M
(. 6.18).
(6.28)
(6.27)
:

1 l
=
(a + bz)M dz =
E Jx 0

l
l
1
=
(a M dz + b zM dz).
E Jx 0
0

. 6.18
( ):
l

M dz = d = - M (. .6.18);
0
l

zM dz = zd = zc = S M -

M.
:
(a + bzc)
1
=
(a + bzc ) =
.
EJx
EJx
(6.28) M 1 z = zc (. . 6.18). =
M 1(zc) = a + bzc,
:

.
(6.29)
E Jx
, ) M (
) M 1
(
.
, M 1 M
(6.29) :
1) M ;


2) M ;
3) M 1 ( ).
, M M 1 , n , ,
:
1 n
=
(6.30)
i i.
E Jx i= 1
. 6.1.
6.1

3 - 5 M , ( q = const),
3, 4 ( ) .
(min max).
(6.24) .

( (6.29) ).
1.
.
2.
; :

= i i .
n

(6.31)
E
J
xi
i= 1
3. EJx(z) = /Jx; (6.30) :


= i i .

(6.32)

i= 1

4. ( M M 1) ,
(6.29) - (6.31) (), . . =
1):
1 (

.
EJx
EJx
5. ii : M i , , - .
6.8.
. ,
Jx(z), Wx(z) . ,
:
M (z)
,
(6.33)
m ax (z) =
W x (z)

max .
( ), ( , ):

m ax (z) =

M (z)
W x(z)

= const =

m ax ; ( m ax = [ ]).


:
Wx =

M (z)

m ax

Wx(z),

(6.34)


(6.35)

Wx(z) . , , (.
6.19), , .. M (z) = ,
(6.35) Wx=const.
, . , (. 6.20).

. 6.19

. 6.20

max=[] , M
(6.35) :

= Pz

(. . 6.20),

b(z)h 2 (z) Pz
W x (z)=
=
6
[]

(6.36)

1) h = const, b = b(z);
2) b = const, h = h(z);
3) h(z)/b(z) = c = const.


(6.35) :
1) b(z) =

6Pz

[ ]h2
6Pz
2) h(z) =
[ ]b

. 6.21

3) b(z)= 3

6Pz
[ ]c2

(. 6.21,);
(. 6.21,);

; h(z)= 3

6Pzc
(. 6.21,).
[ ]

z = l.
, (b, h),
() .
(bo, ho) max = []. ,
.

.
(. . 6.20)
(bmin, hmin)
,
:
3 P
m ax =
[ ].
2 bh
, (. .
. 6.22

6.21,) bm in =

3 P
,
2 [ ]h

, . 6.22.

. , vmax=Pl3/3EJo, ( ) - vmax=Pl3/2EJo, Jo=boh3/12 (. 6.1).


, vmax=1.5vmax. , 1.5 ,
.
- ,
. , (.
6.23). ,
2n t/2
(. 6.23,). (n t=b0/n),

(. 6.23,). (
- - ,
),
,
.

. 6.23
, (~ 10-25%), .
, [] > 400 .

7.
7.1.
( ), (). , ,
(-, , ).
, ,
.
, ,
. , .
, , -.
.
, .
,
..
. () ,
.
, , .
, .. ()
, .
7.2.
, . , , ,

(. 7.1,). , (. 7.1,).
,
, ..
.
,
(.
7.1,,). ,
:
= 0;
Yc a Ph1 = 0;
Yc = Ph1/a;
Fx = 0;
XB + P cos = 0;
XB = - P cos;
Fy = 0;
YB + Yc + P = 0;
YB = -P (h1 + a)/a,
a = l1 sin1+ l2 sin2 ; h1 = l1 cos(1 + ).

(7.1)

. 7.1
() (.
7.1,). N, Q M

( ). (. 7.1,,) :
Fz1 = 0; N1 + XB sin1 + YB cos1 = 0; N1 = -XB sin1 YB cos1;
Fy1=0; - Q1 XB cos1 + YB sin1=0; Q1 = - XB cos1 + YB sin1; (7.2)
MO1= 0; M 1+XB cos1 z1YB sin1 z1=0; M 1 = (-XBcos1+YBsin1)z1..

(. 7.1,,):
Fz2 = 0; N2 + YC cos2 =0; N2 = -YC cos2;
Fy2 = 0; Q2 + Yc sin2 = 0; Q2 =- YC sin2 ;
(7.3)
MO2 = 0; - M 2 + YC sin2 z2 = 0; M 2 = YC z2 sin2 .
, N Q , M .
N P, M Pl. - :

m ax( M ) Pl / Wx F l
=
=
;
(N )
Wx
P/F

m ax( M
( N )

bh l
bh 2 / 6

6l
.
h

, l/h >10,
60 -.
, (. . 7.1,) . , () . , , .
, , . ,
() ,
. , , N, Q .
. 7.2, M .
.
M

. M (7.2), (7.3) M 1 M 2. ,
,
. 7.1,.
, , (. 7.2,):

A1 =

A2 =

=YC l2 sin 2.

(7.4)

- ,
.
, ,
(. 7.2,): . , .

. 7.2

- .
, ()

(u) , , M 1 M 2 (. 7.2,,) M
(. . 7.2,)
M 1 M 2 :

A =

2
1
2
1
M
( M A l1) M A1 ( M A l2) M A 2 = A (M A1l1 M A 2l2),
3EJx
EJx 2
3
2
3
1

2
1
2
1
M AM A
)
(l + l ),
(
)
uc =
l
l
+
(
M
M
M
M

A 1
A
A 2
A =
3EJx 1 2
EJx 2
3
2
3
1

A1

= YB l1 sin1; M

(7.5)

= YC l1 sin 2; YB = YC = 1 /(l1 sin1 + l1 sin 2 );


= l 1 cos 1 = l 2 cos 2 ; M =YC l2 sin2.
A2

, . . 7.2, ,
. , . , . , . , XC
- "" . ,
, .
. (, )
.

.
. , ( ) , (. 7.3,).

. 7.3
, . 7.3,. . ,
() (. 7.3,).
(-)
. -
. ,
, .
- ()
, .
.
.
- .
N1 N2 (. 7.3,). , N1 N2.
.
N1 N2 (. 7.3,).


, .
, , , (. . 7.3,,). N1 N2,
( ) -
:
cos( 2 )
Fx = 0; -N1 sin1+N2 sin2 +P cos = 0; N1 =
P;
sin( 1 + 2 )
cos( 1 + )
Fy = 0; -N1 cos1+N2 cos2 +P sin =0; N2 =
P . (7.6)
sin( 1 + 2 )
N i > 0 , N i < 0 .
N1 N2 , ,
.
- (6.23), ( = i ) :
m

= N ds= N i l i ,
l

(7.7)

i =1

N i i- ;
li - i- ; m
.
(3.22),
, ( ) ,
(7.7) :
m

m
N i N i li m
+ N i T i Ti l i + N i
i =1 E i Fi
i =1
i =1

oi .

(7.8)

,
. ,
uA (. .
7.3,) :
1) N1 N2
(7.6);
2) ,
(. 7.3,),
( N 1 N 2 (7.6) P=1
= 0);


3) , (7.8):
N 1N 1l 1 N 2 N 2 l 2
+
uA =
.
E 1 F1

E 2 F2

(Ti > 0) (Ti < 0),


(7.8).
(oi > 0 oi < 0), (7.8). ,

.
, . 7.3,, , (. 7.4,). . ,
. 7.3,, , . ,
, ,
, (. 7.4,,).
7.3.
, , .
() - (. . 7.3,).

- (. 7.5,). .

. 7.4

,
. , , . 7.5,, , , . 7.5,, ( ). , .

. 7.5
. 7.6 - .
. 7.6,,, , . 7.6,,, -
. , ,
.

. 7.6

,
. 7.7,, , 90. , , . = 90 (. 7.7,).

(. 7.7,) . , . () ,
.

. 7.7
, . 7.8, , . 7.8,. . ,
, . .

. 7.8
, (. 7.8,)
l (l = ). =P/c, l= Pl/EF , :
1

l
EF

c=

EF
,
l

c -.
, ,
(l/EF). , , .

8.
,

:
(N), ( M ), ( M Q). (
- ).
. , . , (. II).
: , (), (), .
8.1.

(P, M, q) ,
. .
,
.
. ,
(. 8.1,) - (yz) (xz) .
. ,
. .


, P
y (. . 8.1,). P Px
Py :
; Py = P cos
.
Px = P sin
(8.1)

. ,
. - ,
Px Py :

= M cos
; M y=Pxl= Pl sin
= M sin
; M =Pl. (8.2)
M x=Pyl = Pl cos

. 8.1

(x,y) (. 8.1,), (. (6.7)):

( x,y) =

Jx

y+

Jy

x.

(8.3)


. , :

( x,y) = 0

Jx

y+

Jy

x = 0.

, (8.2), :

y=

M
M

J
xx
x Jy

y= (

Jx
tg ) x .
Jy

(8.4)


, ,
(. 8.1,). JxJy , .
, , . , Jx=Jy , ..
( ).
,
(. . 8.1,). , (xm, ym - ):

m ax =

Jx

ym +

Jy

xm .

(8.5)

xm, ym , (. 8.1,). ,
(, ..) xm=xmax, ym=ymax, (8.5) (6.8) , x, y
(Wx=Jx/ymax, Wy=Jy/xmax):

m ax =

x+M y
W x
W y

(8.6)

(8.6) ,
,
(, , , Wx >> Wy).

, .

x y:
= 2x + 2y .

x y (6.11) ,
Qx Qy.

. ,
x y - , ( ) (. 8.1,):

= x2 + y2 ;

tg =

x
,
y

(8.7)

- y.
, a (. . 8.1,).
8.2. ()
,
(. 8.2,).
( M x M y),
(8.2),
N= P ( + P, - ). ,
(8.3)
:

( x,y)=

M
N M x
+
y+ y x .
F
Jx
Jy

(8.8)

(x,y)=0
:

y = ax + b,

M
a= M

Jx
, b=
J
y
x

N Jx

xF

. (8.9)

. 8.2
, . ,

)
. (.
. 8.2,. , ( xm, ym .
. 8.2,):

m ax =

M
N M x
ym + y xm .
+
Jx
Jy
F

(8.10)

8.3. ()
() ,
(. 8.3,).
( . 8.3,
N ):
N = P;

M x = Pyp; M y = P xp,

(8.11)

xp, yp - P .
(
.)

. 8.3
, () (). (8.11) (8.8),

:
yp y xp x
P xp
P P yp
P
( x,y) = +
y+
x = 1 + 2 + 2 , (8.12)
F
Jx
Jy
F
ix
iy
ix =

Jx /F ; iy =

Jy /F - -

.
(8.12)
, .. N = P.
(x,y)=0.
(8.12) :
1+

yp y xp x
+ 2 =0
ix2
iy

y x
=1 .
+
ay ax

(8.13)

( ). ,


: ax=-iy2/xp,
ay=-ix2/yp (. 8.3,). xp > 0, yp > 0, ax < 0, ay < 0, ..
, P ( ). (.) . 8.3,. P
, .
P
(. 8.3,):
.
, ,
. (xm, ym), (8.12):

m ax =

P xp
P P yp
ym +
xm .
+
F
Jx
Jy

(8.14)

(8.14)
:

m ax =

P P yp P xp
+
+
.
F
W x
Wy

(8.15)

, - ,
(, . . . 8.3,):
P yp
P xp
P
m ax = = +
;
+
F
W x
W y
(8.16)
P P yp P x p
m ax = =
.
F W x
W y

( ) :
1) ;
2)
;
3) .
,
.. ()
,
.
(, ),

-
.
8.4.
,
(. (6.12) (6.14) 6.5). , .
( , ) :

m ax [ ];

[ ]=

,
n

(8.17)

max (8.5), (8.6), (8.10), (8.14), (8.15).


, - , :
mp ax [ ]p
B

, [ ]p = p ; [ ]c = Bc .
(8.18)
c
m ax [ ]c
nB
nB
, max, . (8.18)
(, .)
.

1

,
()
.
.

= dw
dz

= E

(1) (2)
(4) (3)

(5) (4)

dz

= G

N = dF M

= dF M
F

=E

dw
dz

N
dw
=
dz EF
=
=

N
F

N
F

dz

M K
d
=
dz G JP

= d y
dz

(1)

= E

(2)

= y
dF

(3)

d
y
dy

(4)

d = M
dz EJ x

(5)

=E

M
y
Jx

(6)

M
Wx

(7)

M K

JP

M K
WP

max =

max =

Wx=JP/max

Wx=Jx/ymax

,
.

Fz = 0 N
N = Pi

N - ()
Pi -

10

11

12

N
F

-
F -

= cos 2
= 21 sin 2

- ; -

max [
]

[
]=
T/nT -

,max [
]
,max [
]

/n , [
]=
/n ]=
[

= E , =
=

l -
l -

E -

Nl
EF


= const

-
-

wz=wo+z
l
w=w+

wo - z=0
= const
w -

13
14
15

Fx=0, Fy=0,
mz=0, Ni
i = Ni / Fi
m

=
i= 1

Ni - i-
i - i- e

N iN ili N i
E iFi

- i-
; Ni -
i- ; m-



1


2

G
E

10

11

12

13

14


max

mz=0 M

J - ; -

Jp

max =

Wp

max []

= sin2

= cos2

= G

-
;
-

-
( )
G -

M
d
; = K
dz
G Jp

z=o+/z

[]=T/ nT -

E
2(1 + )

G=

Wp=Jp/max -
;
max

Kl
= l = M

G Jp

K = H +
max
[ ]

max

M
=
W

= max
/

M Kl
GJ K

/=const -
/=const
l -
, ; -
] -
[

WK=ab2 -
;
a, b -

JK=ab3 -

Fy=0 Q
mx=0 M
dQ
=q
dz
2

dM

=q

dz
3

10

11

12

dM
=Q
dz

M
y
Jx

M
W x

m ax =

max [
]
,max [
]
,max [
]

Q S*x
=
Jx b(y)

dv

d
dz

d2v
2

dz

Q - ;
M -

Jx - x; y x

Wx -
max -

]=
T /nT -
[
/ n , [
]=
/ n ]=
[


b(y) -
;
*
Sx -

v -
-

dz
=

M
EJx

M
EJx

M -
EJx -
M(z) -


= 1 dz
EJx
l

-
,
M(z), 1(z) -

i i
(E J x )i

- ;
-

=
i


1. .. . - .: , 1986. 544.
2. .. . - .: ,
1998. - 367 .
3. .. . . - :
. -. 1979. - 696 .
4. .., .. . - .:
, 1986. - 560 .
5. .., . . - .: , 1976.
- 669 .
6. .., .., .. : .
/ . .. . - .: , 1999. - 592 .

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