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BLACKWELL SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS




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Magnetic Resonance in Medicine


The Basic Textbook of the
European Magnetic Resonance Forum

Edited by Peter A. Rinck


with contributions by Richard A. Jones, Jorn Kvaerness,
Peter A. Rinck, Timothy E. Southon
in collaboration with Patricia de Francisco, Robert N. Muller
,
. ..
- . .....
Blackwell Scientific Publications
:
Bruker Medizintechnik GmbH

Oxford

Blackwell Scientific Publications


London Edinburgh Boston
Melbourne Paris Berlin Vienna


1. :

V
VII
1

2.





:
, ,
/

4
4
4
7
7
9
10
11
13
14
14

2.

17
17
18
19
19
20
21
21
22
23
23
23
24
25

I:

26

3.
1, -
1-
1-


-
2,-
-
-

29
29
32
34
34
35
38
40
43

1 2
in vitro
in vivo
2- 1- in vivo
1(2)- 1(2)

43
43
43
43
44
45
46

II:

48

4.







in vivo

in vivo ISIS

51
51
52
56
56
57
59
59
60
61
61
61
64

III :

65

5.



-









-
-
-

68
68
70
73
74
75
77
77
78
79
81
83
83
84
86
87
87
88

6.

RARE
-

-
-

90
90
92
94
96
97
98
99

XI

7. :


/


,


-


RARE
-

101
101
101
102
105
106
107
108
108
110
113
120
121
122
127
127
128
131

8.


133
133
135
137
140

IV: ?

141

9.




-

144
144
147
156
159
160
160
161

10.
-


-

-
-

163
163
163
167
170
170
171
175
175

11.

176
176
177
177
180

XII



. . .


181
181
182
182
183
183
185
187
187
188
189
189
192
192

12.





193
193
194
199
200
202
202
203

13.
I:
,
-

II:
,

III:

206
206
208
208



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14

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26

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1. RA.Rinck, H.WFischer, L.Van der Elst, Y.Van Haverbeke, R.N.Muller. Field-Cycling Relaxometry. Medical AppUcation. Radiology, 168 (1988) 843-849
2. D.I.Hoult, C.N.Chen, VJ.Sank. The Field Dependence of MRI. II. Arguments Concerning
Optimal Field Strength. Magn. Res. Med., 3, (1986) 730-746

29

1, -

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34

1-
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90- ,
0 '-'.
TR 90-
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Mz(TR) = Mz(0)(l-exp[-TR/Tl])

(2-2)

, ,
TR , 51, 0. , -
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Signal

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. 3-7 3-8).

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35

90 Pulse

Signal
90 Pulse

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'-',
.
, TR, .

,
. - FLASH-,
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-"
180-
, 0 . , 1. TI, , 90- ,
Mz(TI) '-'.
,

36

20

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

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1, 500 1500 , .
1 63%.
Mz(TI). , 51, .
180-90 - ( 3-10, 3-11).

( 3-12):
Mz(TI) = Mz(0)(l-2exp[-TI/Tl]).

Signal

Signal

III
TR = 2000 ms

TR = 1000 ms

TR = 500 ms

TR = 100 ms

. 3-9.
: (1)
- , (2) -
, (3) - ,
, , ,
, ,

TR.
, ,

1.

37

1-

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38

100

SI

50

-50

Tl(ms)
-100

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

. 3-12. -: (SI)
TI, 180 90 . , Mz = 0 TI =
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1 = 1500 , = 100%; = 2000 .

2, -
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39

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40

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41

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42

90

Dephasing

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Rephasing

Echo

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180

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( - second echo of a multi-echo sequence)

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1 2

43

-
, ,
,
. .
, ,
, .
,
( ) .
(. 8).

1 2
- - 1 2
:
- 1 2 in vitro,
- 1 2 in vivo: ,
- 1 2 in vivo.

in vitro
- 1 3 .
in vitro 0.1
.
, .
2 - .
- . -.

in vivo
,
, .
in vivo .
4. in vivo
.

2 1- in vivo
1 , .. ,
1,
1. 2 4 . ,
in vivo , ,

. 2- ,
-.

44

. 3-20. () () 1- () () 2-
.
1- 2-, ,
1 2. 1 ,
2 - . () 1- 2-
, 1- 2- ,
.
: -
1- 2-, ,
1 .
,
, -
. ,
- (3D) (. .5).
1;

.
" 1- 2-
, 1 2
.
.
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1(2)- 1(2)
1- 2- . 1- (2)--

45

" , "
( : " ), ,
" , .
VII.

,
, 1
( 2)
[3]. ,
, .
3-2 1 . 2
1 - , , 2, , ,
.
,
, .

, ). - . ,

in vivo, . ,
, - (. 3-21).
.

(. 3-22).

in vivo in vitro, 1 .
3-2.
2

2 ()

2 ()

96
101
110
120
510
158

180
170
200
261
170
190

20% 30%
- (7)

46

. 3-21.

. in vivo

(OH.FOV) ( -
,
, ,
.., ,
).


.

120

72
(msec)

100

approx. time (days)

80

. 3-22.



,

. in vivo .
.

[4]. 1-,
2 2-
- .

1. P.A.Bottomley, T.H.Foster, R.E.Argersinger, L.M.Pfeifer. A review of normal tissue


hydrogen NMR relaxation times and relaxation mechanisms from 1-100 MHz. Dependence
on tissue type, NMR frequency, temperature, species, excision, and age. Med. Phys. 11
(1984) 425-448
2. P.A.Bottomley, C.J.Hardy, R.E.Argersinger, G.Allen-Moore. A review of !H nuclear
magnetic resonance relaxation in pathology: Are Tl and T2 diagnostic? Med. Phys. 14 (1987)
1-37
3. R.Damadian. Tumor detection by nuclear magnetic resonance. Science 171 (1971) 1151-1153
4. H.W.Fischer, Y.van Haverbeke, PA.Rinck, I.Schmitz-Feuerhake, R.N.Muller. The Effect of
Aging and Storage Conduction on Excised Tissues as Monitored by Longitudinal Relaxation
Dispersion Profiles. Magn. Reson. Med. 9 (1989) 315-324

47

5. A.Rinck, .Appel, E.Moens. Relaxationzeitmessung der weissen und grauen Substanz bei
Patienten mit multipler Sklerose. Fortschritte Rontgenstr 147 (1987) 661-663
6. P.A.Rinck, H.W.Fischer, L.Vander Elst, Y.van Haverbeke, R.N.Muller. Field-Cycling Relaxometry. Medical Applications. Radiology 168 (1988) 843-849
7. P.A.Rinck, S.Meindl, H.P.Higer, E.U.Bieler, P.Pfannenstiel. Brain Honors: Detection and
Typing by Use of CPMG Sequences and in vivo T2 Measurements. Radiology 157 (1985)
103-106
8. M.Skalej, H.EHiger, M.Meves, A.Bruckner, G.Bielke, S.Meindl, RRinck, PPfannenstiel.
T2-Analyse normaler und pathologister Strukturen des Kopfes. Digit Bilddiagn 5 (1985)
112-119
9. F.W.Wehrli, R.J.Herfkens, J.R.MacFall, D.Shutts. Contrast and Contrast-to-Noise in
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, in: S.B.Petersen, R.N.Muller, RA.Rinck. An Introduction to
Biomedical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Thieme: Stuttgart, New York 1985. 59-67

48

II: "

II

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- ,
.
1 2.
-
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(.. ), -
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-
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)
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.
( )
-, .
,
. 2- -, .
2- . 1983 .
2- -
[2].
: - .

, 1974

II: "

49

[3].
-.

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.
:
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,
. .

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in vivo, -,
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. :

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~:, ,
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:*: :
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2 , : 1 2 , .
1985 , in vivo 2
,
[4].
1 2, 1
2, ,
. , ,

50

II: "

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,
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1
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.
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, 2
, . , .

1. P.Mansfield et al.: Whole Body Imaging and Detection of Breast Tamers by NMR. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B289 (1980) 503
2. P.A.Rinck et al. Modified Spin-Echo Sequence in Tumor Diagnosis. Magn. Reson Med. 1
(1984) 237
3. R.Damadian: Tumor Detection by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Science 171, 1151-1153
(1971); and R.Damadian et al. Human Tumors by NMR. Physiol. Chem. and Physics 5 (1973)
381-402
4. EA.Rinck et al.: MRI of Brain Tumors: Discrimination and Attempt of Typing by CMPG
Sequences and In Vivo T2 Measurements. Radiology 157 (1985) 103-106
5. K.E.Jensen et al.: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Bone Marrow in Patients with Acute
Leukemia During and After Chemotherapy. Acta Radiologica 31 (1990) 445-448

51



,
. , *
; , , ,
" .
, ?
,
-
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, . , 20 1
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, , ,
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, .
,
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350 , 4.7 - 700 .

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:

.

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42,575,955

52

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.
,

. , ,
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- . ,
.
, -
,
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300

200

100

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Phosphonates

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-500

-600

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30

20

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31
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53

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, 31 40.5 . ,
31
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, 31
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.
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,

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-

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54

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PCr

15

10

-5

-10 -15

-20

.31 4-3. () 31 .
() .

,
.

,
.
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, - ,
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.
, Pi,
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, .
Pi Pi

55

Recovery

Rest
[8 ppm]

7.5

2.5

-2.5

-5

. 4-4. 31, 90 .

.

.
,
.
,
, , [13].
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, , ,
. in vivo-MP 31-
. in vivo
, . 31- - ,
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, , , ,
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56



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31 ,
. , ^- ,
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31
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31


JH

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'

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100
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57

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13
. , ..
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58

[5 ppm]

as

25

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, NAA - N-).

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.
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.
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,
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59

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.
- .
.


19

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F , ;
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, .
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23

Na 39 , 1/2.
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, in vivo . 23Na 39 23Na
39
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[5,6,10].

60

13Q

31

Na

,

,

2,

,
-
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!!
,

in vivo






in vivo
- ,
. , .
, ,
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, ,
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.

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.

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, ( -

in vivo

61

). . .

Sauter . [11].


-, 90-.
-
, , .
,
1, -
2. 2 , , -
2 .
STEAM [3], STEV [4] VOSY.
- . S/N, -.
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In vivo ISIS (Image


Selected in vivo Spectroscopy)
ISIS- [8] ( 4-6) .
, , .
-
. ,
- ,
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,
, ..
; .
OSIRIS. ,
,
.
ISIS ,
.
TR .


Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI)
[3]

,

62

10

15

10

0 - 5 -10 -15 -20 -25 ()

-5 -10 -15 -20 -25 ()

. 4-6. ()
().

5. -
. (. 5)
, .
, ..
.
CSI .
512 (8 8 8),
. , 512 .
.
.
CSI,
.
(CSI) ,
,
/,
.

in vivo

63

-13.67

[Hz] (Real)

-385

. 4-7. - () ,
. 1- - -. - (
): N-, , . -
, , , .
N- ,
.
,
.
.

64

CSI - ,
,
.
-
1000 , (. 4-7). , , ,
, .. .
, in vivo

.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

J.Frahm, H.Bruhn, M.L.Gyngell, K.D.Merboldt, W.Hanicke and R.Sauter. Localized High


Resolution Proton NMR Spectroscopy Using Stimulated Echoes. Initial Application to
Human Brain in vivo. Magn. Reson Med. 9 (1988) 79-93
D.G.Gadian. Proton NMR Studies of Brain Metabolism. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. bond. A 333
(1990) 561-570
J.W.Hugg, G.B.Matson, D.B.Twieg, A.A.Maudsley, D.Sappey-Marinier and M.WWeiner.
Phosphorus-31 MR Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) of Normal and Pathological Human
Brains. Magn Reson Imag. 10 (1992) 227-243
R.Kimmich and D.Hoepfel. Volume Selective Multipulse Spin Echo Spectroscopy. J. Magn
Reson. 72 (1987) 379-387
S.J.Kohler, S.B.Perry, L.C.Stewart, D.E.Atkinson, K.Clarke and J.S.Ingwall. Analysis of
M
Na NMR Spectra from Isolated Perfused Hearts. Magn Reson Med. 18 (1991) 15-27
G.B.Matson and M.WWeiner. Charter 15; Spectroscopy; in: D.D.Stark and W.G.Bradley
(eds.): Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2nd edition. Vol.1 St. Louis (USA): Mosby Book Inc.
192. 438-478
B.L.Miller. A Review of Chemical Issues in 'H NMR Spectroscopy. N-acetyl-L-aspartate,
creatine and choline. NMR Biomed 4 (1991) 47-52
R.J.Ordidge, A.Connelly and J.A.B.Lohman. Image Selected in vivo Spectroscopy (ISIS).
A New Technique for Spatially Selective NMR Spectroscopy. J. Magn. Reson. 66 (1986)
283-294
R.Pouremad and A.M.Wurwicz. Cerebral Metabolism of Fluorodesoxyglicose Measured
with I9F NMR Spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. 4 (1991) 161-166
39
S.A.Rashid, WR.Adam, D.J.Craik and R.M.Wellard. Factors Affecting K NMR Detectability in Rat Tissue. Magn Reson Med. 17 (1991) 213-224
R.Sauter, M.Schneider, K.Wicklow and H.Kolem. Current Status of Clinically Relevant
Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Electromedica 60 (1992) 32-54
G.I.Shulman, D.L.Rothman and R.G.Shulman. NMR Studies of Glucose Disposal in
Normal and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Humans. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A 333 (1990)
525-529
T.E.Southon, I.S.Gribbestad, G.Nilsen, K.Nordlid, A.J.Svarliaunet, G.Unsgaard and
31
P.A.Rinck. P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Follow-up of Patients with Astrocytomas. Radiol. Diagn. 34 (1993) 11-18

III:

65

III

- ;
1980-, 10
. , -, ,
.
: - ,
. ,
, , .
-
. " 1981
. [1].
,

,
-. , , - -
. 1990
, -, ,
-.
, , .
, , : - . 1982
" '
-. , -
, ,
190 - .
, :
, , (
)
in vivo, " [2].

, -
( ) ,
. ",
.
- , -
,
.
" - .
, ,
.

66

III:

, , .
,
, . ,
,
.
- . ", in vivo .
- (50100 3),
,
. ,
100 3 .
, -
, , , , , , .
,
.
, .

, .
,
1.5 .
,
, .
. ,
,
(SPET) (PET). , .

. ,
.
, .

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, , .
, -
.
( ),
.
, .
,
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-,
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. ,

III:

67

, ,
. ,
, / .
-, ,
.
, ,

.
, ,
, .
, , . , , -.
,
,
.
,
,
.

1. B.D.Ross et al. Examination of a Case of Suspected McArdle's Syndrome by P-31 Nuclear


Magnetic Resosnance. NEJM 304 (1981) 1338-1342
2. P.A.Bottomley et al. Human in Vivo Phosphate Metabolite Imaging with P-31 NMR. Magn.
Reson Med. 7 (1988) 319-336

68



(), , () ,
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77



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phase information
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86

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;
,
" [3].

1. WA.Edelstein, J.M.S.Hutchison, G.Johnson and T.W.Redpath. Spin Warp NMR Imaging.


Phys Med Biol 25 (1980) 751-756
2. J.M.S.Hutchison, W.A.Edelstein and G.Johnson. A Whole Body NMR Imaging Machine.J.
Phys. E. Sci. Instrum. 13 (1980) 947-955

89

3. G.Johnson, J.M.S.Hutchison, T.WRedpath and L.M.Eastwood. Improvements in Performance Time for Simultaneous Three-dimensional NMR Imaging. J Magn Reson 54 (1983)
374-384
4. K.J.Jung and Z.H.Cho. Reduction of Flow Artifacts in NMR Diffusion Imaging Using Viewangle Tilted Line Projection Reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 19 (1991) 349-360
5. A.Kumar, D.Welti and R.R.Ernst. NMR Fourier Zeugmatography. J Magn Reson 18 (1975)
69-83
6. PC.Lauterbur. Image Formation by Induced Local Interactions: Examples Employing
NMR. Nature. 242 (1973) 190-191
7. J.R.MacFall, N.J.Pelc and R.M.Vaurek. Correction of Spatially Dependent Phase Shifts for
Partial Fourier Imaging. Magn Reson Imag 6 (1988) 143-155
3. D.B.Twieg. The k-Trajectory Formulation of the NMR Imaging Process with Applications in
Analysis and Synthesis of Imaging Methods. Med Phys 10(1983) 610-621

90

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.
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91

92

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94

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95

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96

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2-, /.
TR , .
, , CE-FLASH , .. TR , .
(spoiled) FLASH. .
- () .
FLASH 1.
FLASH -
FADE [15] FISP [13]. FADE CE-FLASH , ,
. TR
, , ..
.
FISP , ,
FADE,
/. , :
.
, FISP
(.. , FLASH).

-.
FLASH
( TR 4 10 )
, .
, , ,
.
-
.
FLASH (Snapshot FLASH)

,
TR.

,
. , . z-
[7].
128 128
0.5 1 .
FLASH
, () .

: .

(1-3 ) , (1282), FLASH .
- RARE ,
.
,
( )
.

, . , -,
.

-
- (EPI,Echo Planar Imaging) -
. , , EPI -.
EPI . EPI 1977 [11] ,
, , ;
.
, ,
", (. 6-16) [10].
- 2* .
, EPI-- ,
2*
EPI-. [2,14].
, /
, .
- 64 128 .


. 6-6.
EPI
( MBEST
FID).
9 .
64 128
64.
128
.

-
,
.

99

RF (90)

signal
slice

phase

read

- . ,
. ( 40 / )
, . EPI
,
,
. EPI ,
FLASH.
, EPI,
,
[1].
, .

1. T.EBudinger, H.Fischer, D.Hentschel, H.E.Reinfelder and F.Schmitt. Neural Simulation dB/


dt Thresholds for Frequency and Number of Oscillations Using Sinusoidal Magnetic Gradient
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(1971) 366-383

100

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(1988) 224-234
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101

, , :
, .
. ,
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() :
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.


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.

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,
( 7-1).

102

Volume elements

Picture elements

. 7-1.

,

.

(SI)

.

(
);

.

:
(5-1)
= (1.-1)/(1.+1)
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103

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.

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N)
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, muscle
.

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104

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signals without
noise

image
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image

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. / /
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.
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) [5].

106

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.
- .
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.

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2000

3000

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5000

6000

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107

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108

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7.
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SI = [1 - exp(-TR/Tl)]

(5-3)

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5-1, ,
FID .
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.

109

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(. 7-7 7-8).
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Q - 1. , .
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.
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, -",
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SI
80
60-

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40
20

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. 7-7. TR
.
,
(Cerebro Spinal Fluid - CSF) 1.0 .
TR, (WM:72%; GM:82%;
CSF: 100%).

110

. 7-8.

,
-. TR = 10 .

( [17]).

-
, SR- ,
- (IR)
, . Hammersmith

,
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[2].
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180 . ,
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.

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2000 . ()
,
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(
= 1 ). () -


.

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120

120

300

240

480

360

660

480

600

840

720

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840

1200

960

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SI - , - , , ,
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1
.
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112

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120

240

360

480

600

720

840

960

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V j^

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H (TR =

= 1
)
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'
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TI = 50, 100, 200, 400,
600, 800, 1000 1200 .

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.

.

.
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420 ,

1000 . , ,
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113

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114

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20

50

100

150

200

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,
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.

115

. 7-14.

.

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;

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.

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SI

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60

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40

20

50

100

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. 7-13 7-14.
= 20 (
) CSF ,
- ,

.

,

CSF = 40
( ),
-
60 80 (
).

116

-, -
.
:
SI = Ko[l-exp(TR-TE)/Tl)exp(-TE/T2)]

(5-5)

SI - , - ,
, Q - , TR - , , 1 2 - .
, SE- 2.
1 TR .
(TR-TE) , 1. -

750 1500

100

150

200

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- TR. () -
1-, () 2-. , , TR
.

117

1
TR .
(TR-TE) , -.
, SE
1, - 2 [8].
. 7-16 TR
. TR,
, - 1-. , .
TR,
TR. . 7-17 , TR .
3, 1- 2-
(" 1- 2-), , Tl, T2
, .
,
1 ( 1-

. 7-17. TR . : TR = 400 ; - TR =
800 , TR = 2000 . : = 25 , - = 50 ;
- = 75 , - = 100 . ,
TR, TR.

118

7-2. : (Q)
-, . TR
. 1 TR 1- 2 , .
g-

1 -

2-


,
TR = 2000


,
TR =
200-500

,
TR =
2000-3000

,
=
15-30

,
=
15-30

,
=
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), 2 .
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TR 1-, - 2. TR , 1 2-, -. 7-18
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.
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- 180- .

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, IR,
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.
Tl, T2, , .
1- . 7-12.
MSE-
,
. MSE
, . 7-12
. 7-19 .
MSE ,
, - 2. 1 MSE TR .
, SE MSE,
, (3D).

(^)

119


(

)


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,


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1 -

2-

. 7-18.
-,1- 2- () (). - .
, TR, ,.
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120

:
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2-

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.

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.



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, , .
SE .

.
, , . S/N
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.
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121

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GRE. 2 IR.

SR/PS

IR

SE

RARE

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,
,
.
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.
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122

:
. 7-20.
SE RARE

. SE
(): TR = 2300 , =
90 , 8
; RARE: TR = 2000
, = 120 ,
1 .
2- CSF.


SE-
RARE.

. 7-21.
SE RARE-
. SE
(): TR = 2650 ,
2.8 .

SE
RARE.

RARE-, , . ,
- .
. 7-20 7-21 , SE RARE
.
,
.
SE-.

-
RARE , GRE .
TR.
90- , , ..
, TR <g T1.
, .
, TR 100 , 10 ,
/,
.

123

- TR
, FLASH- [7]. (. ).

, 1, 2.
SI = Q sina [l-exp(-TR/Tl)] exp(-TE/T2)/[l-cosa exp(-TR/Tl)],
a - , TR - , 1 2 - .
FLASH TR . SE-,
, Tl, T2
, TR, .
SE-, GRE-
, ,
. , ,
: SE RARE
2 2- , GRE
2*-.
. 7-22
GRE, -
FLASH. 30 60.
/ SE,
. GRE-. . 7-23 ,
. 7-22.
, . , ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
z -.

. 7-22.

FLASH.
1,
.

18

36

54

72

90

124

. 7-23.

FLASH.

(WM)
CSF. (GM)
(WM)
(MS) .

18

, TR, .. 1. . 7-24 ,
. GRE
,
. . 7-25

. 7-24. - -
. TR = 300 ; = 19 ; = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, (
).
1-. CSF
. 7-23.

125

, , 2*-. 2*-

GRE.
, SE , GRE- , SE. , ,
; ,
1 .
GRE-
, .. ,
, ().
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. . 1 , ,
1, . 2*- , , 2
2 . .
7-22 - . ,
.
2*- ,
.

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, 1-. - 2*-.
CSF 2*- . 1- SE-,
/1- GRE- . .

126

, 2*-
-.
TR , 2,
, , ,
.6. (spoiled) FLASH-

, , .
FLASH- ,
/, ,
( 2/1). CE-FLASH (contrast enhanced,
) 2-,
TR 2. 2-
2 ( 30 60 ), / ,
TR.
. 7-4 FLASH-
.
(Snapshot) - . , ,
- .
180
, .
. .6
,
, EPI,
-.
,
.
. 7-1 ,
. ,
1 2. , .
,
, , , ,
, .

7-4. GRE-
( )

TR ()
()
Q

2*

2*

()

(
)

(
)

(
)

200-400

20-50

200-400

45-90

30-60

200-400
30-60

12-15

12-15

5-20

12-15
5-20

127

-. ,

,
.
, [16].

.
, ,
,
1 2 .
93-95%
1 2 (. 7-26).

1750
(ms)

Gray matter
White matter
250

7-26.

1 ()
2 ()

(
[9]). ,

1,
2 ,
1 2
. . 7-27
(in
vivo
; 25%.).

0.5

1.5

100

6-7 8-1011-14
years

(ms)

Gray matter
White matter
40

0.5

1.5

6-7 8-1011-14
years

128

. 7-27. ().
(SE = 2000 , = 90 ). . , , , , , .. 1 2 ,
.
82-84%, .

. ,
-
TR=3000 1=100
, .
TR TI :
, [13].
SE
; TR , 2-. ,
(. 7-27).
, ,
, ( ).


, , , , . 1
,

129

. 7-28.

1



. 1
.

200
(ms)
Gray matter

White matter

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

MPT 2 .
1
, 1
, [4]. .
1 2 /
.
, , , ,
. - - .
15

1.5

. 7-29.
()
CSF 0.15
1.5 . TR = 2000 .

( 1) ,
,

-.
0.15 ,

= 40 ,
1.5 - = 34 .

:


( .)
.

0.15

-20

15

30

45

60

130

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

. 7-30.
1

.


0.2 0.6 ,

.
, 1

.
,
1-

.


[1,15].
7-28 1 . ,
. , , ,
. (. 7-29).
1-, , (2 Q) ,
.

, , 1
.
, (. 7-30).
,
1 . ,
, .. Tl, T2 ,
. ,
, 1-

65
SI

Multiple sclerosis
White matter

Gray matter

15

0.01

0.1

1.0

. 7-31.
,

( -
),

- 1-.
.

131

, .. ,
1- .
, -.
,
. - .
. 7-31 , 1- SE-
.
2- ,
. 7-12 7-22.

1. According to the definition of the American College of Radiology (cf. Glossary).


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133

:

. ,
.


. 1- SE , ,
, .
. 8-1 . 1-
,
, . , , .
, ,
.

. 8-1.


. %
1-
SE.
,
.


1
Gd-DPTA. -

Gd-DPTA.

,
;

.

134

. 6 .

. ,

,
. . 8-2 .
:
.
SE , , .
GRE-.
.5, -

-, .
145 1 220 1.5 .
, ,
360 4.4 . , - (),
4.4 , ,
-, 2.2 , (.
83). 0
, . -,
, ,
, ,
.
[2,11].
1. .
-, STIR (Short TI Inversion Recovery). ,
( . 7-9

Frequency
gradient
Water
image
Fatty
tissue

Fat
image

Phase
gradient

. 8-2. -






.
,

. -
, .


.

180
2.2

135

360
4.4

540
6.6

720
8.8

900
phase
11.0ms

. 8-3. . - GRE, , .
1.5 , 225 .
360 4.4 (1/225 ). ,
0.0; 4.4; 8.8;... ( )
2.2; 6.6; 11.00; ... ( ).
. 7-10). 1 , ,
, .
-
.


- (Magnetization
Transfer Contrast - ) - - [11]. ,
-
(free) (Hf), ,
(restricted) (),
[3,5,10].
2, Hf ,
.
.
- / , ,
(. 8-4 8-5).
Hf. - - ,
,

136

Cross Relaxation
Chemical Exchange

. 8-4. - ( , Hf)
( , ). .
,
.
.

Toff

. 8-5. ( Toff)
,
- . :
;
: . - magnetization transfer
contrast .

137

. , 2;
- .
,
- [1,7,13], ,
.
,

Hf. , , .
, .. 10% , , ,
Hf
.
[8].
;
, ,
Q-, 1- 2-
, .
.
,
, ,
(. 8-6).


, , .
- , ..
.
.9.
,
. 9.
, , .
, .
, D, .

, .. .
,
. -
,
- .
.

, .
,
- , ,

138

. 8-6. . , - . - . 12 4 .
, 7 (Gd-DPTA-BMA). ,
( ).
[6].

, .
.

,
. SE .

.

, . . 8-7
.
( ) .

. 8-7.

-
:
- (), (), z- ().
(),
.
()
(),

.
,

(),

.
()
(). Hajnal J. V and
Bydder G.M. [4], .

139

140


,
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.

, , , [4,9].

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IV: ?

141

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142

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-,
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cum grano
salis.

1. R.Grashey. Atlas Typischer Rontgenbilder vom Normalen Menschen. Berlin. Urban &
Schwarzenberg, Berlin, 1905
2. Refer to list of reference cited in the article in reference 3 below.
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JMRI 1 (1991) 293-299
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MRI Brain Scans in Saturation Divers. An Epidemiological Study. Electroencephalography
and Clinical Neurophysiology 79 (1991) 332-329

144



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159


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,
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. 9-15.

. -
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(oral magnetic
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. ( Rinck P.A.
et al. [22]
).

-

, (RES). Gd-BOPTA/dimeg,
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- , Mn-DPTA . .
, , , , .


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:
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161

,
, [25]. ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
[28].

, ,
.

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163

10


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, ; ,
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174

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PC
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175

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,
, ).
.
,
1:
(mlP)
.

1. W.G.Bradley, VWaluch, K.S.Lai et al. The Appearance of Rapidly Flowing Blood on


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176

11


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,
.

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, . .
11-1 11-2 .
, .
,
,
. , , - .
-

. 11-1. , . , - 2-.
, :
2- .
- .

177

. 11-2. . () 2- () , 1-
-
. ,
. .

[6]. . 11-1
.
:
(1) ;
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.

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