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Works Cited Primary Sources "75 Years PORGY & BESS - GERSHWIN & DUBOSE HEYWARD - PERFORMANCES Recordings

DISCOGRAPHY History MEMORABILIA."SOUNDFOUNTAIN. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.soundfountain.com/gershwin/porgybess.html>. "Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library: Digital Images & Collections Online."Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Yale University. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. <http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/digitallibrary/>. I used this picture of Langston Hughes for my website. "Billie Holiday God Bless the Child 1952." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Apr. 2009. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQgzEQhtTm4>. This is a video of Billy Holiday performing the song God Bless the Child. I used this video because I wanted to show her singing to express why I chose to talk about her. Billie Holliday. Photograph. Forever Billie Holiday. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://foreverbillie.tumblr.com/>. I used this picture of Billie Holiday who was a blues and jazz singer on my website because she was one of the main figures of the Harlem Renaissance. She sang with Duke Ellington and many other jazz and musical legends. "Cab Calloway - Minnie the Moocher." YouTube. YouTube, 18 Mar. 2008. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8mq4UT4VnbE>.

This is a video of Cab Calloway performing his song Minnie the Moocher. I used this on my website, on the page about musicians. I used this video because it showed what kind of music Cab Calloway composed and performed. "Charlotte Mason College." Charlotte Mason College : An Unofficial Website. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://charlottemasoncollege.freeservers.com/CharlotteMason.html>. "Cover of Opportunity Magazine, February 1926." LEARN NC. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/11423>. Cullen, Counte. "Harlem Wine." Poemhunter.com. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/harlem-wine>. This is a poem written by Countee Cullen. I used it to dive an example of his writing and how it relates to the Harlem Renaissance. "Declaration of the Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World": The Principles of the Universal Negro Improvement Association." Online image. Uhuru News The Burning Spear Newspaper Online Home. Uhuru News, 17 July 2011. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://uhurunews.com/story?resource_name=declaration-of-therights-of-the-negro-peoples-of-the-world-the-principles-of-the-universal-negroimprovement-association>. "Duke At The Cotton Club." YouTube. YouTube, 18 Feb. 2009. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKwu165KS5Y>.

This is a video of Duke Ellington at the Cotton Club. It provides an example of a night of Duke Ellington and dancing. Duke Ellington. Photograph. Duke Ellington Concert Honors Martin Luther King Jr.s Birthday. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://www.oakparkarms.com/calendar/2012/january/16/duke-ellingtonconcert-honors-martin-luther-king-jr%E2%80%99s-birthday>. I used this picture of Duke Ellington on my website. "Duke Ellington, "Take the A Train"" YouTube. YouTube, 08 Oct. 2008. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cb2w2m1JmCY>. This is a video of Duke Ellington performing the song Take the A Train from the movie Reveille in 1943. Bois, W.E.B. Du. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Cosimo, 2007. Print. W.E.B. Du Bois an intellectual who lived during the Harlem Renaissance. It is his view of African Americans during his lifetime in the early 1900s. I mainly used information on slavery and right after the abolition of slavery. Duke Ellington. Photograph. Duke Ellington Concert Honors Martin Luther King Jr.s Birthday. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://www.oakparkarms.com/calendar/2012/january/16/duke-ellingtonconcert-honors-martin-luther-king-jr%E2%80%99s-birthday>. I used this picture of Duke Ellington on my website. "Ella Fitzgerald & Duke Ellington: Take The A Train - YouTube."

YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQnNnPLC_b4>. This is a song performed by Duke Ellington a musician from the Harlem Renaissance and sang by Ella Fitzgerald. I used it for music on the front page of my website because it is about the fastest way to get to Harlem The A Train and shows the popularity of the area at the time. "ExplorePAHistory.com - Image." ExplorePAHistory.com. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://explorepahistory.com/displayimage.php?imgId=1-2-1BC2>. Family on the Road. Timeline of Civil War Illustrated With Original Civil War Photographs. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://civilwarinvirginia.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/to-be-added-3/>. This is a photo of an African American family with their belongings packed on their car. I used it on my website to depict the Great Migration and African Americans moving. "Harlem Renaissance History." Freelance Web Designer. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://www.coffeypark.com/harlem/history.htm>. This is an image poster from the Harlem Renaissance that I used on my website. It says "Pack your Trunk and Go to Harlem." It was appropriate for a page on my website that explains about the "Rise of Harlem," and how African Americans started moving there. "Hot Jazz and Cool Blues: King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, 1923." Hot Jazz and Cool Blues. Web. 29 Mar. 2012.

<http://hotjazzandcoolblues.blogspot.com/2010/11/king-olivers-creole-jazzband-1923.html>. Hughes, Langston. The Panther & the Lash: Poems of Our times. New York: Vintage, 1992. Print. This book was written by Langston Hughes, an activist in the Harlem Renaissance. It was a book filled with poems, and a primary source. Hughes, Langston. The Panther & the Lash: Poems of Our times. New York: Vintage, 1992. Print. This book was written by Langston Hughes, a poet in the Harlem Renaissance. His book contains one of his most famous poem, The Negro Speaks of Rivers. Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2006. Print. This is a book written by Zora Neal Hurston, an author and a playwright, in the Harlem Renaissance. This book is a fictional novel. I read part of it to get a sense of what her writing was like. "JUST LIKE FAMILY." JUST LIKE FAMILY. Wordpress. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://justlikefamily.wordpress.com/>. I used this photo of Mammy for my lingering image of the slave page on my website. It was a great image of what the stereotypical woman African American slave would have looked like if she was not working in the field.

Locke, Alain. The New Negro. New York: Albert & Charles Boni Inc, 1925. Print. This book was written by Alain Locke, an American writer, philosopher, and educator in the Harlem Renaissance. This was a helpful source because it had copies of documents from the Harlem Renaissance. "Marcus Garvey, 1887-1940." 301 Moved Permanently. Library of Congress. Web. 18 Feb. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a03567/>. I used this website for a photo of Marcus Garvey. I used it on my activist page since he was an important activist. "Messenger (1917-1928) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/messenger-1917-1928>. "MN National Guard." Picasa Web Albums. Google. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/h1jf8kWeppBjE_9wb_gUxw>. Mulligan, Rob. "Unsung Heroes: Josephine Baker." Bad Reputation. 14 Apr. 2011. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.badreputation.org.uk/2011/04/14/unsung-heroesjosephine-baker/>. "NorthStar's Week in Black History." NorthStar's Week In Black History. 1-7 Mar. 2012. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.thenorthstarnews.com/Story/NorthStarsWeek-In-Black-History-Mar1-Mar7-2012>. "Portrait Photograph of Countee Cullen Leaning Against a Tree." James Cummins Fine Arts. Web. 18 Feb. 2012. <http://www.jamescumminsfinearts.com/pages/artwork/224150/countee6

cullen-carl-van-vechten/portrait-photograph-of-countee-cullen-leaning-againsta-tree>. I used this photo of Countee Cullen a famous writer during the Harlem Renaissance "Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America by Cameron McWhirter | Cameron McWhirter." Red Summer: The Summer of Hate. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://cameronmcwhirter.com/wordpress/redsummerboo/>. RhythmJunkie. "Big Apple at The Savoy Ballroom." YouTube. YouTube, 29 Oct. 2006. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQJGantR2DA>. This is footage from the Savoy Ballroom. I used this on my night clubs page to give a feeling and description of what the ballroom was like. "Shuffle Along (1921) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.blackpast.org/?q=aah/shuffle-along-1921> "Silent Protest Parade." US History Image Bank. Thomson Wadsworth. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.wadsworth.com/history_d/special_features/image_bank_US/>. Slaves in the Field". Timeline of Civil War Illustrated With Original Civil War Photographs. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://civilwarinvirginia.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/to-be-added-3/>.

This is a photo of African American slaves with their tools walking on a road. I used this photo on my website to depict slavery. "Survey Graphic the March 1925 Number Harlem Mecca of the New Negro [Paperback]."Amazon.com: Survey Graphic the March 1925 Number Harlem Mecca of the New Negro (9780933121058): A. Locke, Alain Locke, Winold Reiss: Books. Amazon. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.amazon.com/Survey-GraphicMarch-Number-Harlem/dp/0933121059>. The Cotton Club. Photograph. Harlem History: The Cotton Club. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://harlemworldblog.wordpress.com/2010/08/13/harlem-history-thecotton-club/>. This is a picture of the Cotton Club in Harlem. It was a place where African Americans would go to, dance, sing, and performer for a white audience. It was owned by a gangster Herman Stark. I used the photo on my website. The Cotton Club. Photograph. Harlem History: The Cotton Club. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://harlemworldblog.wordpress.com/2010/08/13/harlem-history-thecotton-club/>. This is a picture of the Cotton Club I use on my website. "The Crisis." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/bps/media-view/9710/1/0/0>. "The Great Migration." Teaching & Learning Cleveland. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://csudigitalhumanities.org/exhibits/items/show/4491>. This is a photo of two men walking down a road. I used this image for my website on the page about the Great Migration.
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"Uncle Tom's Cabin." Answers.com. Answers. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://www.answers.com/topic/uncle-tom-s-cabin>. I used this website for a picture of a stereotypical slave with the image of being care free, lazy, and "stupid." I used it on my lingering image of the slave page. Vachten, Carl Van. "Lost and Found." Context. 30 Dec. 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2012. <http://jchatoff.wordpress.com/2011/12/>. This is a picture of W.E.B. Dubois I used on my website. He was one of the most important figures of the Harlem Renaissance because of his contributions. "Wallace Thurman." Online Image : Text, Images, Music, Video. Glogster. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://ccwallacethurman.edu.glogster.com/wallace-thurman/>. This is a photo of Wallace Thurman an important writer to the Harlem Renaissance "Wm. H. West's Big Minstrel Jubilee." 301 Moved Permanently. Library of Congress. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/var.1831/>. I used an image off of this site of the stereotyped African American for my lingering image of the slave page because it showed how whites thought African Americans were. "Zora Neale Hurston, 1901-1960." 301 Moved Permanently. Library of Congress. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b10040/>. Neal Hurston who was an author, a journalist, and a playwright, for my website because she is one of the most important people of the Harlem Renaissance. She wrote multiple famous books like, Their Eyes Were Watching God.

Works Cited Secondary Sources "Aaron Douglas Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/aaron-douglas-39794>. This is a biography on Aaron Douglas. It was not a very good source. It only discussed his major accomplishments and not his "life". It gave me general information not specific or detailed. "About the Savoy Ballroom." Savoy Ballroom 1926-1958. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.savoyplaque.org/about_savoy.htm>. I used this site for information on the Savoy Ballroom. It was a bit confusing but I was able to get a lot of information out of it. "African American Art: Harlem Renaissance." ArtLex Art Dictionary. ArtLex. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://artlex.com/ArtLex/a/african_american_4.html>. I used this website for the importance of visual art. It gave me an idea of the importance of visual art and why African Americans used it in the Harlem Renaissance. "Alain Locke." Howard University Libraries. Howard Univerisy. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. <http://www.founders.howard.edu/Locke.htm>. This website written by Howard University contained a biography of Alain Locke provided detailed information about his life and work.

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"ARTSEDGE: Drop Me Off in Harlem." Drop Me Off in Harlem. The Kennedy Center. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://artsedge.kennedycenter.org/interactives/harlem/faces/index.html>. This was a very helpful source. It gave information on each prominent figure of the Harlem Renaissance and media to go with them. I was able to get a sense of what my website should be like from this website. It was also easy to understand. "Augusta Savage Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/augusta-savage-40495>. This is a biography on Augusta Savage a painter during the Harlem Renaissance. It was a great source. It gave information that was easy to read and understand. It also pinpointed important information like major accomplishments as well as works of art. Boddy-Evans, Alistair. "The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade." About.com: Need. Know. Accomplish. About.com. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. <http://www.about.com/>. I used this website for information on the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. It was a good site for the general overview of the Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade. It did not give me too much information. Boyed, Valerie. "Zora Neale Hurston." The Official Website of. The Estate of Zora Neale Hurston. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://zoranealehurston.com/about/>. This website was extremely helpful on information about Zora Neale Hurston. It had quotes she said and her life story. I used most of the information on my section about Zora Neale Hurston on my website.

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Carpenter, Faedra Chatard. "America: 1927." Baltimore Centerstage. CenterStage. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http://www.centerstage.org/marainey/DigitalDramaturgy/America--1927.aspx>. This website explained what events occurred during 1927 and included a general discussion of the Great Migration. "Countee Cullen Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/countee-cullen-38950>. This biography on Countee Cullen discussed his childhood and early life but did not include a great deal of specifics. Driskell, David C., David L. Lewis, and Deborah Willis. Harlem Renaissance: Art of Black America. New York: Studio Museum in Harlem, 1994. Print. This book contains pictures of the key people involved in the Harlem Renaissance and their art. It was a great source because it illustrated the essence of Harlem, the music, and art. "Eyeconart: The Harlem Renaissance." Robin Urton: Original Paintings, Prints, & Pendants. Eyeconart. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. <http://www.robinurton.com/history/Harlem.htm>. This website contained multiple examples of art by Aaron Douglas, Lois Mailon Jones, and William Johnson which I used both for images and quotations. "Fire!! Edited by Wallace Thurman." Nonsuch Books. Nonsuch Books, 15 Feb. 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2012.

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<http://nonsuchbook.typepad.com/nonsuch_book/2010/02/fire-edited-bywallace-thurman.html>. This blog site contained excerpt from the magazine Fire!! written by Langston Hughes and edited by Wallace Thurman. I used the introduction written by Wallace Thurman on my website. Fuller, Samuel. "Streets in Harlem." Pocketful of Yesterdays It Was And Is "Nevertheless" New York in the 1930's. The City Review, 1997. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://www.thecityreview.com/sfuller.htm>. This is a picture of a street in Harlem which shows how busy the area was. "Harlem Renaissance 1920s Music and Culture." Harlem Renaissance 1920s. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.1920s-fashion-and-music.com/Harlem-Renaissance1920s.html>. I only used this website for a quote said by Duke Ellington. Herman, Andrew. "Augusta Savage with Her Sculpture Realization, Ca. 1938." Augusta Savage with Her Sculpture Realization, from the Federal Art Project, Photographic Division Collection. Smithsonian Institution. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/images/detail/augusta-savage-hersculpture-realization-2371>. I used this photo of Augusta Savage in the art section of my website. "The Harlem Renaissance." Art Cyclopedia: The Fine Art Search Engine. Artcyclopedia. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/harlemrenaissance.html>.
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This website included information on the importance of art during the Harlem Renaissance. It included examples of the new art forms that were developed. Hynes, Gerlad C. "W.E.B. DuBois." W.E.B. DuBois Learning Center. W.E.B. DuBois Leanring Center. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://www.duboislc.org/html/DuBoisBio.html>. This was a good website about W.E.B. Dubois. It had many primary sources written by him. I put these on my website for an example of what he had done. "James Van Der Zee Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/james-van-der-zee-9515411>. I used this picture of James VanDerZee for my website in the section of art. I used this photo because I discuss James VanDerZee and wanted to give an image of him. "James Van Der Zee Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/james-van-der-zee-9515411>. This was not a good site. It gave little information on James Van Der Zee. I used it because it had some information that was general. Jealous, Ben. Personal interview. 4 Feb. 2012. I interviewed Ben Jealous, president of the NAACP. It was an extremely helpful source because I was able to see the importance of the Harlem Renaissance from the point of an African American leader. Knight, Heather. E-mail interview. 25 Feb. 2012.
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Heather Knight is the President of Pacific Union College and received her doctorate in literature. She studied the Harlem Renaissance and was able to give me her view of it. "Langston Hughes- Poets.org - Poetry, Poems, Bios & More." Poets.org. Academy of American Poets. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/83>. This site was a helpful source for information on Langston Hughes, his life and his works. Mondestin, Paul. E-mail interview. 20 Feb. 2012. I Interviewed Paul Mondestin, the development director of the Monterey County Jazz Festival provided information on the importance of music in the Harlem Renaissance. Osborne, Elliot. E-mail interview. 21 Feb. 2012. I interviewed Elliot Osborne a college professor. I interviewed him because he was a civil rights activist. He provided his persective of the Harlem Renaissance. Palmer, Kingsly. E-mail interview. 19 Feb. 2012. Kingsly Palmer a civil rights activist and is knowledgeable about the topic of the Harlem Renaissance. Rhodes, Henry. "78.02.08: The Social Contributions of The Harlem Renaissance." The Social Contributions of The Harlem Renaissance. Yale University. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1978/2/78.02.08.x.html>.

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This website, written by Henry Rhodes, a teacher at Yale University, summarizes the Harlem Renaissance. It gave me a good overview of the Harlem Renaissance, but it focused on the "West Indian Negros." Who were African American from the Bahamas. Romare Bearden. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, comp. Print. This is from the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem. It was for an art exhibit for Romare Bearden, a painter of the Harlem Renaissance. It was a great source because it had many details about his life and art work. Schoener, Allon, ed. Harlem on My Mind: Cultural Capital of Black America, 19001968. New York: New, 2007. Print. This book, edited by Allon Schoener, was a good source because of its pictures of Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance. Siegel, Micheal. "The Great Migration." 1916-1930 . Online image. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. The Allasq African-American History and Politics. 2005. Last chance Power Drive. Vinny Vella. 2012.WEB <http://vellastrations.wordpress.com/category/the-great-migration/>. This a map of the Great Migration. It showed the routes that African Americans used form the south to get to the north. Walker, Alice, and Catherine Deeter. Langston Hughes: American Poet. New York: Amistad, 2002. Print.

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This is a biography book about Langston Hughes for children. In it, Langston Hughes's most famous poem, The Negro Speaks of Rivers, is in it. I used his poem to give an example of his writing. "Wallace Henry Thurman Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/wallace-henry-thurman-37835>. This was a biography on Wallace Thurman. It was not a good site because it didn't containe detailed information and it was confusing. "Wallace Thurman." Online Image : Text, Images, Music, Video. Glogster. Web. 19 Feb. 2012. <http://ccwallacethurman.edu.glogster.com/wallace-thurman/>. This is a photo of Wallace Thurman an important writer to the Harlem Renaissance. Watson, Dr. Steven. The Harlem Renaissance Hub of African-American Culture, 19201930. New York: Pantheon, 1995. Print. This is a book on the Harlem Renaissance written by Dr. Steven Watson, an independent scholar and consultant curator. This was a great source because it had many quotes, statistics, pictures, and specific, detailed information. "W.E.B. Du Bois Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television. Web. 27 Feb. 2012. <http://www.biography.com/people/web-du-bois-9279924>. This was a biography of W.E.B. Dubois, one of the most prominent figures of the Harlem Renaissance. This was a good introductory site because it was easy to understand.
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"Welcome To The Harlem Renaissance." Freelance Web Designer. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://www.coffeypark.com/harlem/index.htm>. This website contained information on important people of the Harlem Renaissance including Duke Ellington, Billie Holiday, Zora Neale Hurston, and Cab Calloway. I also used it for information on night clubs like the Cotton Club and the Savoy Ballroom. Wineglass, John. E-mail interview. 17 Feb. 2012. John Wineglass, an Emmy Award winner was a excellent source because I was able to see his perspective of the Harlem Renaissance from a musician point of view. Worth, Richard. The Harlem Renaissance: An Explosion of African-American Culture. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2009. Print. This book written by Richard Worth gives a broader view to the Harlem Renaissance. It does not have specific detail about people or the Renaissance.

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