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2007
1

531.1/4
22.21
69
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,

. ..
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-

, . .
69
/
. . , . . , . . , . . ;
. . . ; . . -. : - . . -, 2007. 154 . ISBN 5-89368-702-7.
, .
.
: , ,
, ,
,
, .
.
, .
.
, , , , .
. 3. . 36. .: 5 .

ISBN 5-89368-702-7
2

531.1/4
22.21

, 2007



.
.

, ().

.
, . . , (V IV . ..)
.
(XIV XVI .)
(384 322 . ..) (284 212 . ..). , , : (1452 1519),
. (1473 1543), . (1571 1630).
. (1564 1642),
, , :
, ,
, .. 1687 . . (1642 1727) "
", , 3

,
.
, , . . (1707 1783), . (1717 1783), . (1736 1813).
. .
(1801 1862), . . (1821 1894), A. M. (1857 1918),
. . (1859 1935), . . (1847 1921),
. . (1863 1945), . . (1869 1942) .
,
, .

: , , .,
, , , . , , , , ,
. .
, ,
, : , , , , ,
. . , .
4

. ,
(. . , ) . ,
(
). , ,
, , . , , . ,
,
. .
( ). ,
, , . , , .
, ,
. , ,
, .

: , .


, -
.
.
. ,
( ),
.

,
4, ,
3.
.
, 4
. .
I.
1.
,
, .
.
1. : , , .
2. : .
.
:
) ;
6

) ;
) ;
) .
.

F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k ,
Fx , Fy , Fz ;

i , j , k .

1. .
2. .
3. .


1. ,
.
.
, .
.
2. , , ,
.
.
3. ,
.
,
, .
,
.
7

4.
, (.1.1)
R = F1 + F 2 .

R = F12 + F22 + 2 F1F2cos ,


F1 F 2 .
5.
. 1.1
, .
6. .
,
. , - - . , , . , , , , , , . .
,
.
, , . , . , . .
, , .
7. , ,
.

.
,
,
8

, . , . . 1.2.


( )

. 1.2


,

(. 1.3).

.1.3

Fx = ab =AB1 = Fcos .
1. , 0 < 90 .
2. , 90 < 180 .
3. , = 90 .

F 0
, F h 0 F ,
(. 1.4).

. 1.4

m0 ( F ) = Fh.

,
, h = 0.

F 0 , , , .
10



/
F F (. 1.5).
,

h,

= Fh.
. 1.5
,
,
, .


1. .
2. , ,
.


, - , .
-
, .
. q (. 1.6, 1.7).
Q.
) (. 1.6).

Q = ql
. 1.6
11

) ,
(. 1.7).
Q

1
qmaxl
2

Q=

. 1.7


, , 0
/

, R , M 0 .
, :

R/ =

(Rx/ )2 + (Ry/ )2 , Rx/ = Fi x , R y/ = Fi y ,


2

n
n

R = Fi x + Fi y
i =1 i =1

i =1

i =1

Rx/

cos =

, cos =

R y/
/

, , R

R
R
x, y.


0 =

i =1

m0 ( Fi ).

,
, :
/

R = 0; M0 = 0.
12

Fi x = 0 ,

i =1

Fi y = 0,

i =1

i =1

m0 ( Fi ) = 0. -

1

, ,
,
.
,
= 20 .
= 200 ,
, . 1.
.
= 0,5 . ,
, , ,
.
. 1.0 1.9 . 1.
.

. 1.0

. 1.1

13

. 1.2

. 1.3

. 1.4

. 1.5

. 1.6
14

. 1.7

. 1.8

. 1.9
1

F1

1
F1 = 10

2
F2 = 20

30

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

C
D

H
B

F2

F3

F4

F3 = 30

45
90

30

45
30

E
K

F4 = 40

30

30

60

30

45
60

C
D

60

60

90
45

45

15

, (. 2.0 2.5), (. 2.6 2.9). ,


, (. 2.1,
2.2, 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 2.9), (. 2.0, 2.3,
2.6, 2.8); (. 2.2, 2.3), ' (. 2.0, 2.1), (. 2.4 2.9);
D DD' (. 2.1, 2.2, 2.7), (. 2.9).
=
= 40 , q =
= 10 / . ,
. 2. . 2 .
, , (. 2.0,
2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.8) D (. 2.1, 2.2, 2.7,
2.9), = 0,4 . . ( 2.0 2.9)

. 2, 2.

16

2

. 1, 2, 4, 7, 9
. 0, 3, 5, 6, 8

. 2.0

. 2.1

. 2.2

. 2.3

. 2.4

. 2.5
17

. 2.6

. 2.8

18

. 2.7

. 2.9

F1 = 10 H

F2

F2 = 20 H

F3

F3 = 30 H

F4

F4 = 40 H

F1

30

30

CL

30

60

CK

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

C
L

H
B

45
90

30

45
30

E
K

30

45
60

C
L

60

60

90
45

45

AE
CL
CK
AE
CL
CK
CL
CK

1 2
1
,
- .
q = 0,6 /, = 200 HM, -

P1 = 4 H, P2 = 5 H. a = 5 , = 45,
= 30, = 60, = , = .
(. 2, . 1).

1. .
, , .
2. .
. ( )
19

X A , Y A , ,
( ) R B
, .
Q = q 3a = 0,6 3 1,5 = 2,7 H , .
P1 P2 (. 2, . 1).
3.
,

Fi x = 0 ,

Fi y = 0 , m ( Fi ) = 0.
i =1

4. ,
.
5. ,
X A + Q P1 cos 45 P2 RB cos 30 = 0 ;
(1)
Fi x = 0 ;

Fi y = 0 ;
n

i =1

Y A P1 cos 45 + RB cos 60 = 0 ;

(2)

m ( Fi )= 0; Q 1,5a + P1 cos 45 3a P1 cos 45a + P2 h1 +

+ RB cos 60h2 = 0 .

(3)

P1 RB .
.
6. .
(3) RB = 1,68 H , h1 = sin 30 ,

h2 = + cos 30 .
(1) X A = 6,78 H .
(2) YA = 1,96 H .
: RB = 1,68 H , X A = 6,78 H , YA = 1,96 H .
2
, , DE. D . . -

20

F, q (. 2, . 2).
: F = 10 ; = 2 ; q = 10 /; = 0,2 .
, D, . .

. . :
DE .
(. 2, . 2, 2).
DE. . : F , N , , Q , (Q = q3 = 6 ),
, X D D D.
,

Fix = 0; Fiy = 0;
Fix = 0;
Fiy = 0;

mD ( Fi )= 0;

F + X D N cos 30 + Q cos 30 = 0;

(1)

Y D + N cos 60 Q cos 60 = 0;

(2)

mD ( Fi )= 0; N 3 Q 4,5 F 6 cos 30 = 0 .

(3)

(. 2, . 2).
N ,
N , DE, , , ,
X A , Y A , .

Fix = 0; Fiy = 0;

Fix = 0;
Fiy = 0;

m ( Fi )= 0;

X A + N cos 30 = 0 ;

(4)

YA N cos 60 = 0 ;

(5)
21

m ( Fi )= 0; MA + M + NX 6a+ N 6a = 0.

(6)

N N , N .
(6) NX N NX = Ncos30, N = Ncos60.
(1) (6), :
N = 26,3 ; XD = 7,66 ; YD = 3,6 , X= 22,8 ; YA = 13,5 ;
= 45,3 .
, Y D , X A
, .
1 2
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. . .
2.

R , R = F i . R
R = Rx2 + R y2 + R z2 .

cos =

Ry
Rx
R
; cos =
; cos = z ,
R
R
R

, , R x, y, z. ,
, , : R = 0 .

F i x = 0 ; Fi y = 0 ; Fi z = 0 .
22


( )
, , . Fxy F (. 1.8)
, Fxy
:

Fx = F cos cos ; Fy = F cossin ; Fz = F sin .


,
, .

Fz

. 1.8

R M 0 .

R / = R x2 + R y2 + R z2 ,

R = Fi x ;

Ry = F i y ;

Rz = Fi z .

( )

M0 = M 2x + M 2y + M 2z , M x = mx F i ;

( )

( )

M y = m y F i ; M z = mz F i .
23

( )

M z F (. 1.9) , F p
P, z, h p
0
F p ,

( )

M z F = Fp h p .
z , F p 0 , ,

( )

, , M z F = Fp h p .
, .

. 1.9


'
, R = 0,

M 0 = 0.

Fi x = 0 ;
Fi y = 0 ;
Fi z = 0 ;

24

mx (F i ) = 0 ;
m y (F i ) = 0 ;
mz (F i ) = 0 .

(. 1.10)
()

. 1.10

3

,
. (
H, K, L, M ) (. 3).
, , = 100 ;
Q = 50 .

P
x, y, z 1 = 60; 1 = 60; 1 = 45, Q 2 = 45; 2 = 60;
2 = 60. x, y, z . 3.0.
, xy, . -

c xy = 60, = 51.
. . 3.10 . . 3.0 3.9 . 3.
25

26

45

2
K

C
B

3
A

M
L

H
C
. 3.9

. 3.10

4

, .
( ) ,
1 (. 4.0
4.7)
1 2 (. 4.8 4.9). .
, x, y, z, 2, 3, (. 5.0 5.4) 2, 3, 4 (. 5.5 5.9).
1 = 6 , 2 = 4 .
(
xy ).
= 2 ,
, .
, , , , . 4.

(). a = 0,8 .
27

4 . 4.0 4.9 . 4.

. 4.0

. 4.2

. 4.4
28

. 4.1

. 4.3

. 4.5

. 4.6

. 4.7

. 4.8

. 4.9
3

H, M

L, M

K, M

L, H

K, H

M, H

L, H

K, H

L, M

K, M

KH,

LM, LB

HM, HA LM, LA KM, KA LH, LC KH, KB

MH,
MB

LH, LB

HB, MA LD, MA KB, MA LD, HA KC, HA MC, HA LD, HA


MC,

MB,

MC,

HB,

HC,

MD

MC

MD

HC

HD

HC, HD

KC
KD, LD, MA
HA

KM, KA
KD, MA

HB,

HB,

MB,

MB,

HC

HC

MC

MC

29

4
y

1
F1

F1 = 6 H

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10

45

60

45

60

4
F3

F2 = 8 H
02
90

30
60
30

90
45

F2

F3 = 10 H

30

60
30
90

60
60
30

F4

F4 = 12 H

04
30

45

90

30

3 4
3
1, 26,
( H L) , , , -

(. 3, . 3). H L P Q .
: P = 200 H ; Q = 100 H ; 1 = 30 ; 1 = 60 ; 2 = 45 ;

2 = 45 ; = 45 ; 55 ; = 45 .
1 6.

(), : L.
. (. 3,
. 3). P 1,
2, 3 S 1 , S 2 , S 3 ,
30

. , Fi x = 0 ; Fi y = 0 ; Fi z = 0 .

Fi x = 0 ;

S 3 cos 45o + S 2 cos 45o = 0 ;

(1)

Fi y = 0 ; S1 S 2 cos 45o + P cos 60o = 0 ;

(2)

Fi z = 0 ; S3 cos 45o + P cos 30o = 0 .

(3)

(1) (3), : S1 = 288 H ; S 2 = 245 H ;


S 3 = 245 H .

L. Q S 2 , S 5 , S 6 . S 2 .
Fi x = 0 ; Fi y = 0 ; Fi z = 0 .

Fi x = 0 ; Q cos 45o S 4 S 2 cos 45o S5 cos 30o cos 45o = 0 ;

(4)

Fi y = 0 ;

(5)

S 2 cos 45o + S 5 cos 30o cos 45o = 0 ;

Fi z = 0 ; Q cos 45o S 6 S5 cos 60o = 0 .

(6)

(4) (6) , S 2 = 245 H ,


S 4 = 70,7 H , S 5 = 283,2 H , S 6 = 91,7 H . -

, 2, 6 , .
: S1 = 288 H ; S 2 = 245 H ; S3 = 245 H ;

S 4 = 70,7 H ; S5 = 283,2 H ; S 6 = 91,7 H .


4
,
1.

. P1 , P 2 .
F M (. 3, . 4).
: P1 = 2 H ; P2 = 1 H ; M = 2 H ; F = 4 H ; = 60 ; a = 0,4 ;
CH = H .

F , zBx.
, 1.
31


.
(. 3, . 4).
P1 , P2 , F M, . X A , Y A , Z A ,
Z B , Y B , S 1
. ,

Fi x = 0 ; Fi y = 0 ; Fi z = 0 ;

m x (F i ) = 0 ; m y (F i ) = 0 ; m z (F i ) = 0 .

, ,
.

(1)
Fi x = 0 ; X A + F cos = 0 ;

Fi y = 0 ; YA + YB = 0 ;
Fi z = 0 ; Z A P1 P2 S1 F sin + Z B = 0 ;
m x (F i ) = 0 ; P1a S1 2a F sin 2a = 0 ;
m y (F i ) = 0 ; P1a + P2a + S1 2a + FZ a FX a Z A 2a = 0 ;
mz (F i ) = 0 ; YA 2a + M F cos 2a = 0 .

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

F
F X F Z .
FX = F cos FZ = F sin .
(1) (6)
, .
: = 2 H; YA = 0,6 H; YB = 0,6 H; ZA = 2,24 H; ZB = 4,24 H;
S1 = 4,48 H.
, Z S 1 , . 4, . 3.
3 4
1. .
2. .
3. .

32

II.
1.
,

.
, , , .
.
.
,
, . .


1.

- r ,
,
. r
, (. 2.1)
r = r (t).
. 2.1
2.


x ,y, z (. 2.2)
x=x (t), y=y (t), z=z(t).

(. . 2.2)
. 2.2
r = i + j + z k .
33

, -

r = 10ti + 3t2 j +2sinpt k


,

x = 10t, y = 3t2, z = 2sinpt.
,
,
.
3.

,

S = S(t) (. 2.3).
. 2.3


1.
V = d r /dt
;
W = d2 r /dt2
.
V
.
. 2.4
W ( 2.4).
2.
) V = Vx2 + V y2 + Vz2 .

Vx= dx/dt , Vy= dy/dt , Vz= dz/dt ,


Vx ,Vy ,Vz .

34

cos = Vx/V ; cos = Vy/V ; cos = Vz/V,


, , , OX,OY, OZ .
) W = Wx2 + W y2 + Wz2 .

Wx=d2x/dt2 ;Wy= d2y/dt2 ;Wz=d2z/dt2,


Wx; Wy; Wz .

cos1= Wx/W; cos 1= Wy/W ; cos1= Wz/W,
1 ,1, 1 , OX,OY, OZ .
3.
(. 2.5).
V= ds / dt ;
W = W n + W ;
Wn=V2/ ;
;
=
;
W=dV/dt ;

. 2.5

W= Wn2 + W2 .
1

: .

:
=f1(t), =f2(t).
1. , .
2. t1.
35

3. t1. .
4. t1. .
5. ,
t1. .
.
. 1.
.
1
/
=f1(t)
=f2(t)
t
0
2 sin (3/4)t
2 cos (3/2)t
1
2
1
4t
2t
1
2
2
2
cos (/4)t
sin (/4)t
2
3
3sin t
2cos2 t
1
4
4 sin (/2)t
2 cos (/2)t
3
2
2
5
4t 2t
1,5t 3t
1
6
2cos t
4sin t+3
2
2
2
7
5 cos (/4)t
2 sin (/4)t+1
1
8
2 cos (/4)t
3 cos (/2)t
2
9
5+3 cos (/2)t
4 sin (/2)t
1

: = 4cos(/2)t
= 3sin(/2)t; (x, y , t ).
. ,
t1= 1. , , t1= l c. , .

1.
t.
36

, ,
sin2 + cos2 = 1.

cos (/2) t = x/4; sin (/2) t = y/3.
, .

x2/16 +y2/9 =1,


4 ; 3 (. 4,
. 1).
2. t1 = 0,5 .
- ,
.
t1 = 0,5

x1 = 4cos /4 = 4cos 45 = 4

2
= 2 2 = 2,82 ;
2

y1 = 3sin /4 = 2,12 .
3.
Vx = dx /dt = 2sin(/2)t;
Vy=dy / dt =3(/2) cos(/2)t.
t1 = 0,5

V1x= 2sin45 =
V1y= 3(/2)

2 = 4,43 /;

2
= 3,32 /;
2

V1= V12x + V12y = 5,53 /.


37

/
) c

, (. . 4, . 1).
V1x V1y V = 1(

4. .
W x = dVx /dt = d2x /dt2 = 2cos(/2)t;
Wy=dVy / dt = d2y /dt2 = 32/4sin(/2)t.
t1 = 0,5

W 1 x = 2sin45 =3,142

2
= 6,9 /2;
2

W1y=- 32/4sin45= (3/4) 3,142

2
= 5,23 /2;
2

W1= W12x + W12y = 8,65 /2.


W x Wy . 1 . 4

/ 2
W = 2(
).

V W
, , (. . 4,
. 1).
5. .

VxWx + V yW
.
W = dV /dt =
V
t1 = 0,5
W1 = (4,43(6,9)+3,23(5,23))/5,53 = 2,38 /2.


.
38

. . ,
, V ,

W1n = W12 (W1 ) 2 =

74,8 5,66 = 8,31 /2.


.
6. t1 = 0,5
1 =

V12

W1n

; 1 = 30,58/8,3 = 3,68 .

1 1 .
.
(. . 4, . 1).

2.

,
( ),
: .
.
, .
,
(r) ( ).

V = r.
V .

39

W =W n +W ,

W n ;
W .

W n = 2 r ;

W n ( ) .

W = r.

W W n , . . W
, V ,
.

W = Wn2 + W2 = r 4 + 2 .

() , ,
,
. , , , , . .
.
( ), .

: , ,
.
40

,

.
VB = V A + VBA ,
VB ;
V A , ;
VBA .

VBA
, , .
VBA = AB ,
.
.
.
Cv ,
, . . VCV = 0.
,

VA = ACv ;

V A ACv ;

VB = BCv ;

VB BCv ;

VD = DCv ; VD DCv ;
VA / VB=ACV / BCV,;
VB / VD=BCV / DCV,;
VA / VD=ACV / DCV;
, , ,
.

.

41

1)
, Cv , (. 2.6).
VA
B

VB

CV

. 2.6
2) , ,
, , Cv
, . . = 0, ( V A = VB = VD = ... ).
3)
.

(. 2.7).
. 2.7

-
WB = W A + WBA ,

WB ;
WA , ;
WBA .
WBA
n

+ WBA
,
WBA = WBA

42

WB = WA + WBA
+ WBA
,

n
;
WBA

WBA
;
n
WBA
= 2 BA.
n
WBA

WBA
= BA .

WBA
.

n 2
2
WBA = (WBA
) + (WBA
) = BA 4 + 2 .

.
Cw , WCW = 0 .

,
, . .
WB = WBCw

WB = WBCw
+ WBCw
,

WB ;
n
WBCw

Cw;

WBCw

Cw
n
WBCw
= 2 BCW
n
WBCw
BCw
Cw

WBCw
= BCW

WBCw
BCw

43

WB = (WBC
) 2 + (WBC
) 2 = BCW 4 + 2 .
W
W



WA / WB=ACW / BCW;
WB / WD=BCW / DCW;
WA / WD=ACW / DCW.

, Cw,

tg = 2


ACW = WA 4 + 2 .

.
2

:
.

(. 2.0, , , 2.9 , , ), (. 2 ). . 2
, 1,
O1 A O1 A .
, .. . (+)
() O1 A , 1
.
(+) () O1 A , 1
.
.
44

O1

O1
C

O3

O3

O2
O2

. 2.0

. 2.1

. 2.0

. 2.1

O1

O1

O2

O2

. 2.2

. 2.3

. 2.2

. 2.3

O1

O1

a
F

O3

O2

. 2.4

. 2.4

. 2.5

. 2.5

45

. 2.6

. 2.7

. 2.8

. 2.9

a
c

. 2.0
46

. 2.1

. 2.2

. 2.3

. 2.4

. 2.5

. 2.6

. 2.7
47

. 2.8

. 2.9

. 2.0

. 2.1
c

. 2.2
48

. 2.3

. 2.4

. 2.5

. 2.6

. 2.7

b
a

. 2.8

. 2.9
49

50

c d

1
1

1
1

:
1.
. 2 2 .
2. , ,
.
3.
.
4.
.
5.
.
6.
.
.
7.
.
51

1. .
2. , ?
3. , ?
4.
,
?
5.
?
?
6.
? ?
7. .
8. ?
9.
? ?
10. ?
11. ?
12.
?
13. ?
?
14. ? ?
15. ?
52

1.

. , m = 1 /,
, 1 , 10 10 .. ,
, , d (. . 2 ) .
(. . 2 )
1. (. . 2 ) .

, , .
1
O1 A O1 A .
. 2.8 =1 ,
= 115, O A = 4,3-1, O A = 12,5-2, 1 = 26 , 2 = 41 , 3F = 28 ,

= 63 ,

= 21 ,

CD = 92 ,

= 46 , F = 48 .

/
l =
= 11

. 2.8.
53

2. ,

1 ()

V A =| O A | 1 ,
1

O A 1;
1

1 .
1= 26 , O A = 4,3-1 ,
1

V A = 4,326= 112 c .
1 1 ( O A ).
1

1 , , .

n

A=

2
O
1 ;
1A

n
=

(4,3)2 26 = 485 2.


1 1.
WA = | O A | 1 ,
1

O1 A 1.

| O A | = 12,52 ,
1

A=

12,5 26 = 325 c 2.


WAn , . . 1 O1 A 1.

W A=

W A=
54

(WAn )2 + (WA )2 ;

(485)2 + (325)2 = 581

2.

3.


,
.
. .

VA = 112,5 , V A O1 A O1 A . v .

(. 2.9), =1 ,
1 V A O1 A ,
O1 A .
( ). v = 1

Oa = VA , | Oa | =

VA
, . .
V

112,5
= 112,5 .
1
, , , | Oa | =

( VB O2 B ).

VB = V A + VBA .

(1)

(1) , VB , . . 2, a ,
, . . VBA BA . b .

55

VA

O A
1


l = 1 /

V = 1


v = 1 /( )
. 2.9.
56

b , Ob ,
, . .

Ob = V B .
Ob v = 1 ( ) , :

VB = Ob v = 29 1 = 29 .
, , ,
ab AB
=
,
ac AC
42
AC
ac = ab
= 95 = 63 .
63
AB
= 63 , . , Oc ,
, . .
Oc = VC .
, Oc
v = 1 ( ) :
VC = v = 53 1 = 53 .

CD, D , VD . D
VD = VC + VDC .

(2)

(2)
, VD .
VDC DC , ,
DC, VDC . -

57

d. d Od ,
D
Od = VD .
Od , v = 1 ( )
D

VD = Od v = 55 1 = 55 .
. , e
46
CE
cd CD
=
, ce = cd
= 36 = 18 .
ce CE
92
CD
ce = 18 , .
Oe , , . .
Oe = VE .
Oe
VE = Oe v = 50 1 = 50 .
EF , , :
VF = VE + VFE .
(3)
F VF O3 F , . .
O3F , 3.
(3), , O3F, F.
, EF, VFE , .. VFE FE
f
. f Of , F
Of = VF .

v = 1 \( ), Of .
VF = Of v = 40 1 = 40
58

4. ,

, , l =1 ( ) (. 2.10).

,
.
, - , - .

AB, CD EF, .
(. .2 ) Va = 112 /.
V A 1 1 .
2. 2
,
2 ( ), , ,
2. 2. , Cvab, .

, . VA =AB CVAB,
AB = VA/CVAB.
CVAB = 76 l = 1/,
CVAB = 76 l = 761 = 76 . AB = 112/76 = 1,47-1.
59

l = 1

V = 3
VD

VA
O A
1

VE

VF

O F
3

VC
EF

AB

CVEF

VB
O B
2

CD

CVCD

AB CVAB
V A .
60

AB, .
. V = AB CVAB.
CVAB = 20 .
CVAB = 20 l = 20 1 = 20 .
V = 1,47 20 = 29,4 /.
V VAB
AB. 2,
2. V = 2 2,
2 = V/2 = 29,4/41 = 0,71-1. 2
3 V .
CD. C D. . ,
CVAB V = AB CVAB.
CVAB = 36 ,
CVAB = 36 L = 361= 36 .
V =1,47 36 = 52,9 /.
V CVAB,
AB .
D .
D , CVD D.
D D D = V/CVD.
CVD = 135
CVD = 135 l = 135 1 = 135
D. D = 52,9/135 =0,39 -1.
D VD = D DCVAB.
DCVD = 139 DCVD = 139 = 139 1 = 139 . VD = 0,39 139 = 54,2 /.
VD 54,2/3 = 18 D D D.
, , EF.
E, D, , CVD
D VE = D ECVCD.
61

ECVCD = 130 .
ECVCD = 130 =130 1 = 130 /;
VE =0,39 130 50,7 /.
V ECVCD
D D.
F EF, 3F. , VF 3F. F.
E F
CVEF,
EF.
EF = VE/ ECVEF.
ECVEF = 46 . ECVEF = 46 L = 46 1 =
= 46 . , : EF = 50,7/46 = 1,1 -1.
F: VF = EF FCVEF.
FCVEF = 37 ,
FCVEF = 37 L = 37 1 = 37 .
VF = 1,1 37 = 40,7 /. VF
FCVEF EF.
3F O3F,
F VF = O3F 3F,
O3F = VF/ 3F = 40,7/28 = 1,45 -1.
O3F 3,
VF .
5.


= 1 (. 2.11).
W nA W A .
W = 10 ( 2 ) .
:
WA = W An + WA .

WAn WA (. 2
)
62

63

WB

WBn

AB

WAn

WBA

WB

WC

O A

WA

WA

WBAn
2

O B

WE

WFEn

WFE

WF

WF

O F

D, F

WE

WFn

, , ,

EF

WD

2
2
)
w = 1=/(c
10 2 )
w =W5=/(c
5 2
W

CD

WDC

WD

ll ==11/

WC

n
WDC

. 2.11.

O A

WA

WAn ,
1, WA , WAn ( WA O1 A ) O1 A
1.
WA (
), WAn WA .
W
WA = W AA1= 10 58,5 = 585 2 .
, :
n

WB = WA + WBA
+ WBA
.

(4)

WB = WBn + WB .
(5) (1)

(5)

WBn + WB = WA + WBA
+ WBA
.
(6)
(6),

2
2
2
WBn = O

2 = 0,73 41 = 22 ;
B
2

n
WBA
= 2AB = 1,472 63 = 136 2 .

(6). (6) n
, WA , WBA
.

n
WBA
,
, .
WBA
(6)

WBn , 2 2.
2, WB ,

, WBA
.

64

1 .
BB1 WB , . . WB = BB1 .
(1 = 28,5 ) W ,
:
WB = BB1 W =10 28,5 = 285 2 .
,
WBA
WB W , :

WBA
= 555 2 .

WB = 285 2 .

WB
, WBA

WBA
= AB ;

WB = O2 B 2,

:
AB

WBA
555
= 8,8 c-2;
=
=
63
AB

WB
285
O B =
=
= 6,95 c-2.
O2 B
41
AB O2 B 2

WB WBA
2.
, :
, .
11. .
AB
AC
AB
= 1 1 , A1C1 =
A1B1 .
A1C1
AC
AB
A1B1 = 97,5 , :
42
11 = 97,5 = 65 .
63

65

1 11 1 ,
WC . 1 = 31,5
w , .
WC = CC1 w = 10 31,5 = 315 2 .
D , :
n

WD = WC + WDC
+ WDC
,

(7)

n
D WDC
;

WDC
D
.

n
WCD
n
2
WDC
= CD
CD = 0,4082 92 = 15,3 2 .

n
WDC
WC , D

W = 5 (2 ) . , , (7)
D ( ).
D ,
. . D WC
.
n
WDC
CD, .
n
WDC
CD,
. D1
WDC
, D,
DD1 , WD .
, D

WD = DD1 W = 5 6 = 30 2 .

, :
, WDC

WDC
W = 5 65 = 325 2 .

66

CD

WDC
325
; CD =
= 3,53 c 2 .
CD =
92
CD
CD
CD.
WDC
WD ()

W = 10 ( 2 ) D .
CD , ,
. C D C1D1.

CD C1D1
,
=
CE C1E1
CE
C1E1 =
C1D1 .
CD
C1D1 ( C1D1 = 86 )
46
C1E1 =
86 = 43 .
92
C1E1 C1 1 ,

WE = EE1 . 1 = 15 , :
WE = w 1 = 1015 = 150 /2.
, F :
n

WF = WE + WFE
+ WFE
,
(8)
n
F WFE
,

WFE
F .
F O3F,
, 3.
F
WF = WFn + WF .
(9)
(9) (8)
n

WFn + WF = WE + WFE
+ WFE
.
,

(10)
67

2
WFn = O
O3 F = 1,3932 28 = 54 2 ;
3F

n
2
WFE
= EF
EF = 1,032 48 = 51 2 .

F W = 5 (2 )
(10).
(10) F
WE . n
EF,
WFE
n
, WFE
EF ,

.
WFE
(10), F WFn , O3F .

WFn O3 F , WF
EF . F1 F, WF F,
.. WF = FF1 . ( WF = 13 ),
WF :

WF = WF W ;

WF = 5 13 = 65 2 ,

WFE

WFE
= WFE
W ;

WFE
= 5 31 = 155 2 .

WFE
= EF O3F WF = O

O3 F ,

EF O3F

WFE
155
=
= 3,23 2 ;
EF =
48
EF
WF
30
=
= 1,07 2 .
O F =
3
O3 F 28
FE O3 F

EF O3F
WFE
WF .
68

6.

.
= 0,65 (. 2.12). .
,
n

WBn + WB = WAn + WA + WBA


+ WBA
.

(11)

WAn = 485 2 ;

WA = 325 2 ;

n
WBA
= 2AB AB;

n
WBA
= (1,47 ) 63 = 136 2 ;

2
WBn = O
O2 B;
2B

WBn = ( 0,73) 41 = 22 2 .

,
WB WBA
. .
(6)
WAn 1 , 1

WA WAn ( W A O1 A ) 1 1 .

, , WBn
2 , 2 , WB 2 , n
, , WBA

, , WBA
.
Bxy
(11) x y .
(11) x , :
n
WBn sin + WB cos = WAn cos WA sin WBA
.

(12)
69

70

WAB

WB

AB

O1

WABn

WAn

O A

O A

= 115 o

WBn
2

O B

O2

O3

.2.12
.

= 0,65

l = l0,65 /

. 2.12.

WA

, = 13o ,
= 32o30' . sin 13o = 0,2282;

cos13o = 0,9736;

sin 32o30' = 0,519; cos32o30' = 0,855.


(12)

WB =
=

1
n
WBn sin + WAn cos WA sin WBA
=
cos

1
( 22 0,519 + 485 0,9736 325 0,2282 136 ) = 289,5 2 .
0,855

, WB = O2 B O2 B , 2 :

WB
289,5
2 =
=
= 7,06 c 2 .
O2 B
41

WB =

(WBn )2 + (WB )2 =

(30)2 + (289,5)2

= 290 2 .

y (6)

WBn cos + WB sin = WAn sin + WA cos WBA


,

WBA
= WAn sin + WA cos WBn cos WB sin =

= 485 0,2282 + 325 0,9736 22 0,855 + 289,5 0,519 = 558 2

= AB AB , , WBA

AB

WBA
558
=
=
= 8,87c 2 .
AB
63

71

, WB

WBA
, WB WBA
-

, .
, D, , F
CD, EF, O3F .
7.

(. 2.13)
. = 0,65 .
D

WA

O3

AB
F

CWAB

= 0,65

l = 0,65l /
2
= 10

)
w = 10 /(

. 2.13.


. W A = 585 2 ,
= 1,48 1 , AB = 8,87 2 :
72

tg =

AB
2AB

8,87

(1,48)

= 4,17 .

= 75
ACWAB =

WA
2AB

+ 4AB

585

(8,87 )

+ (1, 48 )

= 64 .

4
_

WA
.

AB .
_

WA AB
ACWAB = 0,65 .
ACWAB =

64
64
=
= 98,5 .
l 0,65

CWAB . CD EF.
, ,
,
WAB .
WAB.

WAB = 75 , ,
WM .


73

, ,
:

WA/ WM = ACWAB/ WAB,


WM = WA WAB/ ACWAB.
ACWAB WAB ACWAB = 98,5 ;

WAB = 60 .
WM = 584 60/98,5 = 355,7 /2.

. 2 .
2
-

V, /

30

53

AB

CD

EF

O2B

O3F

39

29,4 52,9 54,2 50,7 40,7

285

315

30

150

65

290

1,47 0,39

8,8

9,4

55,5 49,5

W, /

-1

0,71 1,45

, -2

3,53 3,23 6,95 1,07

7,06

,
, 3 5 %.
. 5 6.

74

3.

1.
, ,
,
, .
(. 2.14). ,
1x1y1z1 xyz, .
, .

.
.
.
. 2.14 -:
0 -,
,
r -, ,
-,
.
(.
. 2.14).
= 0 + r = 0 + i + j + z k .

(2.1)

75

. 2.14
2.
Vr , . 0 , i , j , k . , (2.1), :

dx
dy
dz
i+
j+ k .
(2.2)
dt
dt
dt
V Vr =

. , x, y, z .
(2.1),

di
dj
dk
d 0
(2.3)
+
+ +z
.
dt
dt
dt
dt
, ,
, (2.1), :
V =

76

di
dj
d 0
dk
dx
dy
dz
k.
+
+ +z
+
i+
j+
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
(2.2), (2.3) (2.4), :
V =

(2.4)

V = V + Vr .

(2.5)
(2.5) .
3.

W = W + Wr + W ,

(2.6)

W ;
Wr ;
W .

(2.6) .
.

W = 2( e Vr ),

(2.7)

e ;
Vr .


W = 2 Vr sin( e ^ Vr ).

(2.8)

W
. . , Vr , ,
90 (. 2.15). W = 0, e = 0.
(2.6)
W = W + Wr .

(2.9)
77

Vr

Vr
WK

. 2.15
3

: .

,
. t1.


. . 3.0 3.9 . 3. .
R (. 3.0 3.4)
A B (. 3.5 3.9)
= f1(t). (. . 3.0 3.4)
1 = f2(t).
(. 3.5 3.8)
(. 3.9) S = AM = f3(t).
1 .
,
t1 = 1 c.
. 3.
78


= f1(t),

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

t3 2 t2
2 t2
6 t t2
3 t t2
t2 + t
2 t2 + 3t
t t3
4 t + t2
t3 5 t
t2 2 t3

. 3.0

. 3.0 3.4

. 3.5 3.9

1 = f2(t),

R,

s=AM=f3(t),

A,

B,

t2
1/3t2
1/4 t2
1/6 t2
2/3t2
5/6 t2
7/6 t2
4/3t2
3/2t2
7/4 t2

25
30
50
35
40
45
60
36
55
46

20t2 15
8 + 6 t2
16 + 7t2
18t2 6
6 + 12t2
35t2 15
15 + 20t2
36t2 12
14 + 18t2
25t2 20

40
20
30
25
35
60
55
50
70
65

60
40
50
45
55
80
75
70
90
85

. 3.1

79

. 3.3

. 3.2

. 3.4

80

. 3.5

. 3.6

. 3.8
. 3.7

. 3.9
81

3
DE, = 60 ,
Z = 1,2t c-1.
S = 2 = 4t2 (. 7, . 3 ).

t1 = 2.

, DE . . O1X1Y1Z1, 1, ,
DE.
,
.
DE , Z .
1. t1 = 2.
S1= O2M1= 4 4 = 16 = 50,24 .
2.
V = V + Vr .
. ,
Vr = dS/dt = 8t.

t1 = 2 , Vr1 = 8 3,14 2 = 50,24 . Vr 1 S. ,


. ,
CD.
Ve = ehe,
he () .
e = 1,2t c-1;
he = O2M1 sin = 50,24 3 /2 = 43,7 c;
Ve1 = 2,4 43,7 = 105 /.
82

V e .
. 3 . 7 1, , 1.
Vr Ve 90, Va = Ve2 + Vr2 = 116 /.
3. .
,
W = W + Wr + W .

Wr = d2S/ dt2 = 25 /.
Wr Vr , . . Vr Wr .
() ,

We = We + Wen .

Wen = e2he ; We = ehe ,
e = de/dt DE; e = 1,2 -2.
t1 = 2 , We1n = (2,4)2 43,7 = 251,7 /2. We1n .
We1 =1,2 43,7 = 52,4 /2.
We
, Ve , . . Ve We .
W = 2 ( e Vr ).
e O1Z1 ,
. DE , e .
Wk = 2 e Vrsin60. t1 = 2
Wk1 = 2 2,4 50,24 3 /2 = 209,6 /2.;
83

W
. . .
W1 O1X1 . ,
(2.13) OXYZ.
Wax =- We Wk = 52,4 209,6 = 262 /2;
Way = Wr cos 30 We n = 250,87 251,7 = 230 /2;
Waz = Wr cos60 = 25 0,5 = 12,5 /2.

W = W2 + W y2 + Wz2 ;
WM = 262 2 + 230 2 + 12,5 2 ;
W =348,9 /2.
: VM = 116,2 /; WM = 348,9 /2.

III.
,

.

1.
, .
2. ( )


mW = F .
,
mW = Fi .

3.
,

.
84

4.

, ,
.
, ,
, .

.
1.



(3.1)
mW = F1 + F2 + ... + Fn = Fi ,
m ;
W ;
F1 , F2 ,...Fn , (
, , ).
(3.1)
, :
m &x& = F1x+ F2x+ Fnx=Fix;
m &y& = F1y+ F2y+ Fny=Fiy;
(3.2)
m &z& = F1z+ F2z+ Fnz=Fiz.
(3.2) ; &x&, &y&, &z&
; F1x, F2x, Fnx; F1y, F2y, Fny; F1z, F2z,
Fnz .


. .

m
x = f1 (t ), y = f 2 (t ), z = f 3 (t )
, .
85

(3.2)

Rx= Fix= m &x& ;
Ry= Fiy= m &y& ;
(3.3)
Rz= Fiz= m &z& .
& , &y&; &z&. m , x&
. , Rx, Ry, Rz,
R = Rx 2 + R y 2 + Rz 2
Ry
Rx
R
;cos =
;cos = z ,
R
R
R
, , R x, y, z .

, , m,
(
), .
(3.3) m,
, (1, 2,... 6).
1
D m, v A , , ;
, , (. 1.01.9).
, ,
Q R, v ( ).
, ,
, , , ( f = 0,1) F , Fx . 1.
86

cos =

= l
t ,
, . . x = f (t ) , x = D.
( , . 1) .
1

m,

v0,
/

Q,

R,

l,

t1,

Fx,

20

0,4v

2,5

2 sin (4t )

30

1
2

2,4
4,5

12
24

6
9

0,8v 2
0,5v

1,5
-

6t
3sin(2t)

60
30

14

22

-3cos(2t)

60

1,6

18

0,6v 2
0,4v

-4cos(4t)

30

10

16

0,5v 2

-6sin(2t)

45

1,8

24

0,3v

60

12

12

2,5

22

0,8v 2
0,5v

9t 2
-8cos(4t)

2cos(2t)

30

48

10

12

-6sin(4t)

45

0,2v 2

60

D
B

A
Q

. 1.0
z
B

C
x

D
A

. 1.1
87

. 1.2

. 1.3

. 1.4
x
C
D
B
z

. 1.5
88

Q
D

Q
B

D
z

C
C

x
z

. 1.7

. 1.6
A

B
z

C
x

. 1.8

. 1.9
89

1
(. ) D m
R;
l. F = F (t ) , .

: m = 2 , Q = 10 H, R = v , = 0,4 /, v0 = 5 /, l = 2,5 ,

Fx = 6t 2 , f = 0,1.
D x = f (t ) .

, .
. z,
. , . . . ()
, .
, : (), P , Q , R N ( ).

z.
m &z& = Fiz = Q R = Q z&
Q
&z& =
- z& = - b z& ,
(1)
m m

Q
=
= 5, b =
= 0,2.
m
m
90

(1) &z& d z& /dt , , dz&


:
= dt.
a bz&

1
ln b z& =t + C1
(2)
b
1
C1. t = 0 z& = V0, C1 = ln b V0.
b
C1 (2)
1
a bz&
t = ln
.
b a bV0
, z& = 25 20 e-0,2t
t = 1 z& = V = 25 20 e-0,2 = 8,62 /.
.
x y.
m&x& = Fx ; m&x& = F F P cos 30o ;

(3)

m&y& = Fy ; m&y& = N P cos 60o.

(4)

F = fN .
, &y& = 0
y. (4) 0 = N P cos 60o ,
N = P cos 60o F = fP cos 60 = fmg cos 60 = 0,98 H.

(3),
:
m&x& = 6t 2 0,98 mg cos 30o ;

&x& =

6t 2 0,98 mg cos 30o

;
m
m
m

&x& = 3t 2 8,98.
(5), :

(5)

x& = t 3 8,98t + C1;

t 4 8,98t 2
x=
+ C1t + C 2 .
4
2

(6)
91

. : t = 0 x&0 = v B = 8,62 /, x0 = 0, 1 = v =
= 8,62 /; 2 = 0. (6),
D .
x = 0,25t 4 4,49t 2 + 8,62t.
2.

, . ,

;
. .

F e F i .
,
, . , .
, ,
mi ri ,
(3.4)
r c=
M
mi ;
ri -, ;
rc -, ;

M = mi .

i-
e

miWi = Fi + Fi

mi

d 2 ri
dt

= Fi e + Fi i ,

i = 1, 2,n;
Fi e ;

92

(3.5)

Fi i .

(3.5), :

mi

d 2 ri
2

= Fi e + Fi i .

dt
(3.4).
M

d 2 rc
dt 2

= mi

d 2 ri
dt 2

(3.6)

, , Fi i = 0 ( ), (3.6) :
M

d 2 rc
dt 2

d 2 rc
dt

= Fi e = R e .

= Wc , :
MWc =

Fi e .

(3.7)

(3.7) .

, ,
.
(3.8)

Fixe ;
M&y&c = Fiye ;

M&x&c =

(3.8)

M&z&c = Fize .
:
1) Fi e = 0, Wc = 0 vc = const;
2)

Fixe = 0,

&x&c = 0 x&c = const x&c = 0, x&c = dxc/dt = 0,

xc = const .
93

.

,
( )

K = mi v i K = M v c .

(3.9)

.
(3.9), :
dv
dK
= M c = MWc .
(3.10)
dt
dt
(3.7) (3.10)
dK
= Fi e .
(3.11)
dt

, .
(3.11)
dK x
= Fixe ;
dt
dK y
(3.12)
= Fiye ;
dt
dK z
= Fize .
dt
(3.12)
.
.
F t, S
S = F t.

94

, , F .

d S = F dt.

S=

t2

t2

dS = F dt .

t1

(3.13)

t1

(3.11), :
t2

K 2 K1 = Fi e dt .
t1

(3.13), :

K 2 K1 = S i e .

(3.14)

, .
(3.13) .
(3.14)
K 2 x K1x = S ixe ;

K 2 y K1 y = S iye ;
K 2 z K1z = S ize .

(3.11) (3.12):
1.

Fi e = 0, d /dt = 0

const.

2.

Fixe = 0, dKx/dt = 0

Kx const.


.
95


(. 3.1).

l0 = r mv .

(3.15)
l0
l0 = mvh,

l0
;
m ;
v ;
. 3.1
r -,
.
z
l z = mv1h1,
mv1 I, z;
h1 ( mv1 ) z;

lz ,
. l0 lz
(. 3.2):
lz = l0 cos.

. 3.2

, , 96

,

L0 = l0i = ri mi vi .
(3.16)

, ,
Lz = l zi .

Lz= Jz.
, n . i-
d ( mi vi )
dv
(3.17)
= Fie + Fii ,
mi i = Fie + Fii ,
dt
dt
Fi e Fi i
, i- .
i- - ri . (3.17) ri
d (mi v i )
ri
= ri Fi e + ri Fi i .
(3.18)
dt

d ( mi vi )
dr
d
,
( ri mivi ) = i mivi + ri
dt
dt
dt
dr
. . i mi vi = vi mi vi = 0 ( vi mi vi ) ,
dt

( )
ri Fii = m0 ( Fii ) ;

ri Fie = m0 Fie ;

( )

( )

m0 Fie m0 Fii Fi e Fi i .
(3.18)
d
( ri mivi ) = m0 Fie + m0 Fii ;
dt

( )

( )

97

n
n
d
e
r
m
v
m
F

=
+
dt ( i i i ) 0 i m0 Fii .
1
1
1

( )

( )

(3.19)

dt ( ri mivi ) = dt ( ri mivi ) =
1

m (F ) = 0
i

dL0
,
dt

(3.18)

( )

dL0 n
= m0 Fi e .
dt
1

(3.20)

(3.17)
.

, .
(3.17) , :
dL y
dLx
dLz
(3.21)
= x( Fi e );
= y( Fi e );
= z( Fi e ),
dt
dt
dt
Lx , L y , Lz .
(3.20) (3.21):
1.

m0 (Fi e ) = 0,

dL0
= 0 L0 = const.
dt

2.

mx (Fi e ) = 0,

dLx
= 0 Lx = const.
dt

.
98

mi v i2
T = Ti =
.
2

(3.22)


, .
1)
1
T = Mv 2 ,
(3.23)
2
; v .
2)
1
T = J z 2 ,
(3.24)
2
Jz ;
.
3)
1
1
T = Mv c2 + J c 2 ,
(3.25)
2
2
vc ;
Jc ,
.

1
1
T = Mvc2 + J p 2 ,
(3.26)
2
2
vc ;
M ;
J p ,
;
.
99



, ( . ).

, , . . .
mi , vi , :

mi vi2
d
= dAie + dAii .

, :
mi vi2 mi v02i

= Aie + Aii ,
2
2
i = 1, 2..., n ;

(3.27)

mi v02i
;
2
mi vi2
;
2
Aie ,

;
Aii .
(3.27)
2

mivi
2

mi v02i
= Aie + Aii ,
2

(3.28)

mi v02i

= 0 ;
2
mi vi2
= .

2
100

(3.28)
- 0 = Aie + Aii .

(3.29)

, .

Ai = 0 ,

(3.25)
T2 T1 = Aie .


1)
A = F S = FS cos ,

(3.30)

F ;
S ;
= const F S .
,
F S (. 3.3).
2) ,

. 3.3

dA = F dS = FdS cos,

(3.31)


A = dA = F dS = FdS cos .
S

(3.32)

3) F dS

dA = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz ,
(3.33)
Fx , Fy , Fz F ;
dx, dy, dz dS .

101

(3.33)
2

A=

( Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz ) .

(3.34)

4) , :

A = M z ( F )d.

(3.35)

M z ( F ) = const , A = M z ( F ) , M z ; . , , .
z
5)
M1
(. 3.4)
h

P . M2

z1

12 (3.3)
z2

0
x1

y1

y
x2

A=

Px dx + Py dy + Pz dz .

(3.36)

P Px = 0, Py = 0, Py = P,
(3.3)

y2

. 3.4
z2

A = Pdz = P ( z1 z 2 ); z1 z 2 = h; A1,2 = Ph,

(3.37)

z1

h .
, , ,
. ,
, ,
.
102

6)
. 3.5 ,
. x , = x.

. 3.5

F = cx , c , x

.
F : F.x = cx; F.y = F.z = 0
(3.34), :
x2

A = c xdx =
x1

c 2
c
x 2 x12 A = 22 21 ,
2
2

(3.38)

1 = x1 , 2 = x2 ().
, . .
1 = 0, (3.36)
c
c
A = 22 = 2 .
2
2

(3.39)


. ,

, ,
.
7)

Aii = 0.

103


. . 3.1.
3.1


Ml 2
Jz =
12
J z1

Ml 2
=
3

J z = Mr 2

Mr 2
Jx = Jy =
4
Jz =

r2 l2
Jx = Jy = M +
4
3

Jz =

104

Mr 2
2

Mr 2
2

2
J x = J y = J z = Mr 2
5

, , ,
J c = M 2 , , .

(
) 1 2, 3 R3 = 0,3 , r3 = 0,1 3 = 0,2 , 4
R4 = 0,2 5 6; 1 2 , 4 . f = 0,1.
. (. 2.02.9).
F = f (S ), S
, .
3 M
( ).
, S S1 = 0,2 .
. 2, : 3 3;
4 4; v5 5; W2 2 . .
, , , . ,
.
( , . 2) .
2
m1 ,
m2 , m3 ,
m4 , m5 ,
m6 ,
M,
F = f (S ),

105

80(3 + 4 S )

v1

1,2

0,6

0,8

1
60(4 + S )
. 2

/
3

m1 ,

m2 ,

m3 ,

m4 ,

m5 ,

m6 ,

M,

0,3

1,5

F = f (S ),

3
40(3 + 8S )
v6
50(5 + 2 S )

5
6
7
8
9

2
0
6
0
0

0
4
0
6
2

4
0
0
2
0

0
6
4
0
4

0
2
0
4
6

6
0
2
0
0

0,9
0,4
0,3
1,0
0,6

. 2.0

106

20(6 + 5S )

30(4 + 2 S )
60(2 + 5S )
80(1 + 4 S )
20(8 + 2 S )
40(3 + 2 S )

W6

W1
v5
4
3
W2

. 2.1

. 2.2

. 2.3

107

. 2.4

. 2.5

. 2.6

. 2.7

. 2.8

108

. 2.9
2
: m1 = 3 ; m2 = 1 ; m3 = 2 ; F = 10(2 + S ) ; S 1=
1
f = 0,1; 3 = 0,1 ; M = 1,2 ; R2 = R3 = 0,4 ; r3 = R3 .
2
2 .
v1 1 (. 2).

0,1 ;


T T0 = Aie + Aii ,

(1)

T0 T ;

, ;

, .

e
i

i
i

109

. 2
,

Aii = 0. -

, T0 = 0,
(1)
T = Aie .

(2)

T .
1, 2, 3
T = T1 + T2 + T3 .
1, ,
m1v12
.
T1 =
2
3,
:
J z 32
,
T3 =
2
J z ; J z = m332 ;

3 .
2, :
110

m2vc2 J c 22
T2 =
+
,
2
2
vc ;

J c ;
m2 R22
JC =
;
2
2 .
vc , 2 , 3 v1
1 (. 2 ).

. 2

v
( ). , 3 = 1 ;
r3
v = 3 R3 ; v =

v1R3
.
r3

2 , Cv v
v
vR
. 2 = = ; 2 = 1 3 .
Cv R2
r3 R2
111


T3 =

m332v12
2r32

2 0,12
2 0, 2

2
2
v
0,
25
v
;
=
1
1
2

v12 R32 3 0,42 2


m2 v12 R32 1 m2 R22 v12 R32 3
T2 =
+
= m2 2 = 1 2 v1 = 3v12 ;
2
2
2
2 r3
2 2 r3 R2 4
4 0,2
r3
m1v12 3 2
T1 =
= v1 = 1,5v12 ;
2
2
T = 1,5v12 + 0,25v12 + 3v12 = 4,75v12 .

, ,
(. 2 )

. 2
1 : P1 ; N1 ;
F1 , 1; F .
, 3, P3 ; 0 N 3 M. 2 : P2 ; F2 ,
; N 2 .
P1
112

A(P1 ) = P1S1 sin 60o = m1gS1 sin 60o.


F
S1

S1

A(F ) = FdS = 10(2 + S )dS = 20S1 + 5S12 .


F

( 1)

A F = F S1; F = fN1.
1

N1 1 y : m1 &y& = N1 P1 cos 60o ; , 1 &y& = 0, :


0 = N1 P1 cos 60o ;

N 1 = F1 cos 60 o = m1 g cos 60 o ,

F = fmg cos 60o A F 1 = fm1 gS1 cos 60o.



A ( M ) = M3 .
3 3. 3 S1 1 3 =

S
S1
, A(M ) = M 1 .
r3
r3

D
A(P2 ) = P2 S C sin 45o.
SC S1 .
SC = 3 R3 =
A(P2 ) = m2 g

S1R3
;
r3

R3
S1 sin 45o.
r3

A(N1 ) = 0, . . N1 90, cos 90o = 0.


A(P3 ) = 0; A(N 3 ) = 0, . . .

A(N 2 ) = 0, A F 2 = 0, . . -

.
, :
113

Aie = A(P1 ) + A(F ) + A(F ) + A(M ) + A(P2 ),


Aie = 0,256 + 2,05 0,147 0,6 1,386 = 0,173 .
T

Aie , :

4,75v12 = 0,173,

v1 =

0,173
= 0,19 /.
4,75

: v1 = 0,19 /.
3

2 4 (. 3.03.9) ()
1 , . 3 3 = f ( t ) . , , , . t = 0 .
; , .

. 3 . 3.03.9. .
.

Fie

= 0 vcx = 0 , -

xc = const . m1 , m2 , m3
c x1 , x2 , x3 . 114

,
x x1 , x2 , x3 ,
x1 + x1 , x2 + x2 , x3 + x3 . , , xc = const , :
m1 x1 + m2 x2 + m3 x3 = m1 ( x1 + x1 ) + m2 ( x2 + x2 ) + m3 ( x3 + x3 )
m1x1 + m2 x2 + m3x3 = 0 .
:

mi xi = 0 ,
mi i- ;
i i- x, .
3

/
0

m1,

m2 ,

m3 ,

m4 ,

3 = f ( t ) ,

6m

2m

2m

60

30

0,3t 2

5m

2m

60

45

0,3t 3

4m

2m

30

60

0,5t 2

8m

3m

2m

45

45

0,6t 2

9m

4m

2m

30

45

0,9t 3

6m

2m

2m

60

45

0,3t 4

5m

2m

45

30

0,2t 3

8m

3m

2m

30

60

0,8t 2

10m

5m

2m

60

30

0,9t 2

9m

2m

2m

45

45

0,1t 3

115

. 3.0

. 3.1

. 3.2

. 3.3

. 3.4

. 3.5

. 3.6

116

. 3.7

. 3.8

. 3.9

m1 = 6m;

m2 = 2m;

m3 = m4 = m; r3 = r; = 60 0 (. 3).
3 3 ( t ) = 0,5t 2 ; .
. 3.

. 3
x1 1 .
.

, .
: P1 , P2 , P3 3, P4 4, N .
117

, x x. Mx&& = Fixe .
x,

Fixe = 0 .

M&x&c = 0 x&c = C1 .
,
C1 = 0 Mx&c = 0 . , xc = C2 const , . . ,
, .
:
mi xi = 0 ,
mi i- ;

i i-
x.
,
m1x1 + m2 x2 + m3x3 + m4 x4 = 0 .

(1)
, 1 -

, x.
, 1 3 = 4 = 1 , . .
.
2
, .
2
x2 = x2e + x2r ,
2e = 1 ( );

2r x
( ).

r
2r = S2 cos = 3 3 cos = 0,25t 2r cos 60o .
2

118

x2 = x1 + 0,25t 2 r cos 60 .
(1), :

m1x1 + m3x1 + m4 x1 + m2 x1 + 0,25t 2 r cos 60 = 0 .

(2)
x1 =

(2)

m 2 0, 25t 2 r cos 60
2 m 0, 25 t 2 r cos 60
0,5t 2 r cos 60
=
=
= 0,025 t 2 r .
m1 + m 2 + m3 + m 4
6m + 2m + m + m
10

, ,
, .
3.

, .
. m


(3.40)
mW = F + R,
F ;
R ;
W .
F + R mW = 0,

(3.40)
F

= mW ,

(3.41)
F + R + F = 0.
, ,

.
(3.41) .
n .

. , :
i

F i + Ri + F i = 0 ,
i = 1,2,..., n;

(3.42)

F i = mi W i i - .

119

(3.42)

{F , R , F }
i

(3.43)

0; i = 1,2,..., n.

n (3.42) (3.43)
:

.
(3.43)
, , , .
(3.42)
,

F i + Ri + F i

= 0,

Fi

Ri

Fi

(3.44)

(3.42) ri , :

M 0 ( F i ) + M 0 ( Ri ) + M 0 ( F i
e

) = 0.

(3.45)

(3.44) (3.45), , , , , .

M0 ( F i ) -

. ( );

M 0 ( Ri )

( );
120

( )

M0 F i

( ).


,

/
R
, ,


0 , .



R ' = MW ,
,
Wc .
.
1)
,
. , , .
R ,

R = R ' = MW ,
R
W
(. 3.6).
. 3.6
2) , ,
, (. 3.7 ).
121

,

, , .
,
, (. 3.7 ),

R ' = MW .

R ' = MW .

. 3.7
z
M
z = J z ,

J z ;
.
M z .
, R ' = 0, . . Wc = 0
122

3) , (. 3.8).
.

, ,
,
.

R ' = MW .

. 3.7


, , :
M
= J ,
J .
, .
4

4
, . 4.
4

W1

W6

W6

W 1

W5

W3

W 2

( ) 2 (. . 2, . 2.02.9). F
10 . .
123

: m1 = 3 ; m2 = 1 ; m3 = 2 ; F = 10 ; 3 = 0 ,1 ;
1
M = 1,2 ; R2 = R3 = 0,4 ; r3 = R3 .
2
: W1 ,

.
(. 4),
, . 1
F , P1 , N 1
R 1 = MW , R 1
W 1 .

. 4
3 P 3 , X 0 , Y0
, M M
0 = J 0 3 ; J 0
,
J 0 = m3 32 .
124

3
. 3 = v1 / r3 ,

W
d3 1 dv1 d3
dv1
=
;
= 3 ;
= W1. 3 = 1 .
dt
r3 dt
dt
r3
dt

J 0 3 ,
:
2
M
0 = m33

W1
.
r3

, .
2 P 2 , N 2 , F , R'2 = m2 W

M
c = J 2 ; J , .
W 2 W1 . 1 2 (. 2).
vR
vR
v = 1 3 ; 2 = 1 3 .
r3
r3 R2
, :
dv R3 dv1
R
=
, W = 3 W 1;
r3
dt
r3 dt
R
R dv1
d2
m R2
; 2 = 3 W1; J = 2 2 .
= 3
2
dt
r3 R2 dt
r3 R2


R' = m2
2

M
c

R3
W1;
r3

m2 R22 R3W1 m2 R2 R3
W1.
=
=
2 r3 R2
2r3

, .
(. 4 , , ).
125

T 1 , T 2
W 1. .
y
1

R1

T1

T2

N1

N2

45 0

P1
600

R 2

P2

. 4

. 4

. 4

1 (. 4 )

Fxi = 0

F + P1 cos 30o R T1 = 0.

(1)

3 (. 4 )

M0 ( Fi ) = 0

T1r3 T2 R3 M M 3 = 0.

2 (. 4 )

(2)

Mcv ( Fi ) = 0

o
T2 R2 M
R 2 R2 P2 R2 cos 45 = 0.

(3)

(1), (2) (3) , :


F + m1 g cos 30o m1W1 T1 = 0,
T1r3 T2 R3 M m332

126

W1
= 0,
r3

(4)

T2 R2

m2 R2 R3
R
W1 m2 R2 3 W1 m2 gR2 cos 45o = 0.
2r3
r3

(4) ,
:
35,46 3W1 T1 = 0;

0,2T1 0,4T2 1,2 0,1W1 = 0;


T 3W 6,93 = 0.
1
2
, T1 , T2 , W1
W1 = 1,642 /2;

T1 = 30,534 ;
T2 = 11,856 .
4.

.
1.

, .
( ), .
, .
,
, .

. , , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 25 , ,
R = 5 .

f ( x, y, z , x& , y& , z&, t ) = 0 .
(3.46)
127

(3.46) :
1) .
,
.
,
.
. , , .
2) () ().
,
, .

f ( x, y , z , t ) = 0 .

,
.
, .
. , , , . 3.2 (. 3).
Vc = CC v = R x&c = & R .

,
,

xc = R

xx& + yy& + zz& = 0 .

:
xdx + ydy + zdz = 0


x2 + y2 + z2 = C .

128

.

x& 2 + y& 2 + z& 2 = C .

, , , .
3) () ().
, ()
. .
, () .
.
: x 2 + y 2 + z 2 < 25 .
4) (. 3.2, 3.3).
,
.
:

Ri si cosi = 0 ,

Ri ;
si ;
i .
.
129

3.2

1.

A( N ) = 0 ( = 90 )

2.

A( X 0 ) = A(Y0 ) = 0 ,
. . O

3.

A( N ) = A( F ) = 0 ,
. .

3.3

1.

2.

130

A( F ) = FS 0

A( N ) = Nf k 0

, ,
, , , .
2.

,
.
. . .

, , ,
.

. 3.9

. 3.10


, ,
, (
S . 3.9, 3.10).
. , .
. , , dx dy .

.
131

. 3.10 , S , S,
, . . .
3.
,
.
. dA ,
A .
Ai = Fi Si cos i ,
S i Fi ;
i Fi S i .
.
. , ,
Fi + Ri = 0 ,
Fi ; Ri .
. , , ,
S i , , Fi = Ri , :
n

Fi Si cos i Ri Si cos i = 0 .
,
n

RiSi cosi = 0 .

(3.47)

(3.47) ,
.
() .
4.
,
, , .
.
132

(3.46)
.
n

FiSi cosi + FiSi cosi = 0 ,


1

(3.48)

i Fi Si.
(3.48) .

Fi S i cos i = Ai ,
1

FiS i cos i = Ai ,

(3.48) :
n

Ai + Ai = 0.

(3.49)

5.
,

.
()
.
q1 , q 2 ,..., q s ,
(3.50)
S .

. , , , . .
.

S = 1. q

. 3.11

: , S AM , OAM (. 3.11).



q1 , q 2 ,..., q s .

133

q1 = f1 (t ), q2 = f 2 (t ), , q s = f s (t ).
(3.51)
(3.51)
.

.
q&1 , q& 2 ,..., q& s ,
dq
. dt
.

q& =

6.
, n
, F 1 , F 2 ,..., F n .
S (3.50). , q1 q1 , -

. - r i r i = r i (q1 , q2 ,..., qs ) -

( )

r i .
q1` (-

( )1

), r i

r i =

r i
q .
q 1 1


A1 = F 1 r 1 1 + F 2 r 2 2 + ... + F n r n 1 =

( )

= F1

134

( )

( )

r 1
r 2
r n
q 1 + F 2
q 1 + ... + F n
q .
q 1
q 1
q 1 1

q1 Q1 = F i

r i
,
q 1

A1 = Q1q 1 , Q1

Q1 =

A1
.
q1

, , Q1 , Q2 ,..., Qs , .
,
,
(3.52)
Ai = Q1q1 + Q2 q2 + ... + Qs qs .
(3.52)
.
, ,
.
, .
7.

(3.49)

Ai + Ai = 0 .
S (3.50). (3.52)

Ai = Q1q1 + Q2q 2 + ... + Qsqs .

(3.53)

Fi u .

Ai = Q1q1 + Q2q 2 + ... + Qsqs ,

(3.54)
135

Q1 , Q 2 ...Q s ,

Q1 = F i

r i
r i
r
, Q2 = F i i ,, Q S = F i
q1
q 2
q S

(3.55)

(3.49) (3.53) (3.54)


(Q1 + Q1 )q 1 + (Q2 + Q2 )q 2 + ... + (Q s + Q s )q s = 0 .
q 1 , q 2 ,..., q s , , q 1 , q2 ,..., q s , . .

Q1 + Q1 = 0 , Q2 + Q2 = 0 ,, Q s + Q s = 0 .

(3.56)

(3.56) .
(3.56) .

d vi
(3.57)
,.
F i = mi W i = mi
dt
(3.55)
n
d vi r i
.
Q1 = mi

dt

q
1
1
(3.57) , Vi .
d vi r i d r i

= vi
dt q1 dt q1

d ri
vi

dt q1

, , .
:
1) t q 1 ,
d r i
dt q 1
136

= d r i = vi .
q dt q

1
1

(3.58)

2) r i q 1
( r i )1 q 1 ,

dr
i
r& v i
r i
r i
dt
= lim
= lim = lim i =
.
q1
q 1
q& q& 1
dq 1

dt

(3.58) (3.59) (3.57)


d vi r i d vi

= vi
dt q1 dt q& 1

vi d 1 vi2 1 vi
.
=
vi

2 q& 2 q

q
dt

1
1
1

(3.59)

Q1

= mi
1

Q1 =

dt q& 1

(3.59)

(3.60)

d vi r i

dt q1

mi vi2 mi vi2 d T



=

2
2


dt q& 1
1

T
,

mi vi2

.
2

.
(3.56)
d T T

= Q1 ,

dt q& 1 q 1

d T T

= Q2 ,

(3.61)
dt q& 2 q 2

..................................

d T T = Q .
s
dt q& q s
S
(3.61)
, .
.
.
137

, . 4.
. 2.0 2.9 2, . 2 .
F 10 . , .
, ,
.
.
5

:
(. 5)
F = 10 .
: m1 = 3 , m2 =1 , m3 = 2 ,
3 = 0,1 ( ); = 1,2 ; R2 = R3 = 0,4 ;
1
r3 = R3 (. . 5).
2
2 .
W1.

. 5

1.
(. 5), : F , P1 , P2 ,
138

P3 ; N1 , N 2 , F ,
R0 ; : R1 = m1W 1, R / 2 = m2 W 2 ;

M
= J 2 , M 0 = J 3 .


(. ).

. 5
, , ,
1.
3 =

v1
( ,
r3

).
:
3 =

d 3
dt

W
1 dv1 dv1
= W1; 3 = 1 .
;
r3 dt dt
r3

3 3 S1
3 =

S1
.
r3
139


R
dv
R dv dv
v
v = 3 R3 ; v = 1 R3 ; = 3 1 ; = W ; W = 3 W1 ,
r3
r3
dt
r3 dt
dt
Wc .
2 =

2 =

vc
v
vR
= c = 1 3.
CCv R2 r3 R2

R dv1
d2
= 3
, :
dt
r 3 R2 dt

R3
W1 ,
r3 R2

2 .
Sc
2 2 S1
Sc = 3 R3 =

S1R3
S S1R3
=
.
; 2 =
R2
r3 R2
r3


R1 = m1W1 = 3W1 ;
/
R
2 = m2Wc = m2

M
c

R3
W1 = 2W1 ;
r3

m2 R22 R3
= J 2 =
W1 = 0,4W1 ;
2 r3 R2

2

0 = J 0 3 = m33

W1
= 0,1W1 .
r3

S1
:
/
FS1 + P1S1 sin 60o R1S1 M3 M 03 R2
S2

o
M
c 2 P2S 2 sin 45 = 0.

,
, S1 , ,
W1 = 1,655 /2.
: W1 = 1,655 /2.
140

2.
.
. ,
, , (. 5).

. 5

d T T
= Qx ,

dt x& x
;
x ;
x& ( x& = v1 );
Qx

Aie

Aie

.
,
x& :
= 1 + 2 + 3,
141

1, 2, 3 ,
.
,

1
1
1 = m1v12 = m1x& 2 ;
2
2
T1 = 1,5x& 2 .

m2 R22
1
2
2
T2 = J c2 + m2vc , J c =
.
2
2
,
&
&
vR
xR
vR
xR
2 = 1 3 = 3 ;
vc = 1 3 = 3 .
r3 R2 r3 R2
r3
r3
, :
2 = 5 x&;
vc = 2 x&;
J c = 0,08;
T2 = 3x& 2 .

1
T3 = J 032 ;
2

J 0 = m332 = 2 0,12 = 0,02;


v
x&
3 = 1 = = 5 x&;
r3 r3
T3 = 0,25 x& 2 .
,
T = 1,5 x& 2 + 3 x& 2 + 0,25 x& 2 = 4,75 x& 2 .

T
T
d T
= 9,5x& ;
= 0.

= 9,5x&&;
x&
x
dt x&
, . 5 : F , M, P1 = m 1 g , P2 = m 2 g , P3 = m 3 g.
142

Aie = Fx+P1sin 60-M3- P2sin 45Sc,.


3 Sc (. ).
Sc =2 ; 3 = /r3

Ae = Fx + m1gx sin 60o M x / r3 m2 g 2x sin 45o .


, :

Aie = 15,721x;
15,721x
= 15,721 .
x

9,5&& = 15,721 .
Qx =

,
W1 = &x& =

15,721
= 1,655 /2.
9,5

, : .

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .

143


,
, ,
.

, , ,
.
. .
.

-, .
.

144



15-


. -105
..

..

2007
145

2
(, 4)
1

P1

E
3a
D

3a

q
C
6a

P1y
C

60

P1
45

. C1

XA

MA

C
RB

RBy

30

A XA

R Bx 60

. C1a

3a

D
. C2

P2

1,5
YA

YD
XD

1,5 a
1,5 a

YA

P1x

1,5

Q
N

. C2

2a

6a

P2

146

60

Ny

Nx
30

B
. C2
1, 2

..

..

- 105

Q 2

4 A

1
2

2
L

(, 4)
4
B
1 P

1
H

A
3

D
M

B
x

2a

Q 45 0 S 4

30 P
0

S1

S2

S6

60

ZA

30
45

XA

S3

S5

YB

ZB B

450

L 60

. C4

S2

45 0

2a

. C3
z

P2

A
YA

M
C

P1
2a

Fx

S1

Fz
a

. C4a

. C3a

3, 4

..

..

- 105

147

Q 2

4 A

1
2

2
L

(, 4)
4
B
1 P

1
H

A
3

D
M

B
x

30 P
0

S1

S2

S6

60

ZA

30
45

XA

S3

S5

YB

ZB B

450

L 60

. C4

S2

45 0

2a

. C3

Q 45 0 S 4

2a

148

P2

A
YA

M
C

P1
2a

Fx

S1

Fz
a

. C4a

. C3a

3, 4

..

..

- 105

4
(, 4)
y

V1

V 1

2,12

W1
W 1

V 1
1

W1
W 1

2,82

W1n

. 1

1, 3

..

..

- 105

149

5
(, 3)
l = 1

A
VA

l = 1
V = 3 c

O3

O1

VE

C
B

O3

VF

3F

VC

O2

1A

O1

F
B

l = 1

VD

VA

1A

AB
O

VB

2B

EF

C VE F

O2

V = 1

O1

O3

C
d

F
B

O2

CD

C VC D

b
a

150

. .

. .

- 105

6
(, 3)
WA

l = 1 /

WD

O A

CD

O A

WA

WE

WAn

O F

EF

AB

n
F

WF

WD

WF

WFE

WC
WE

WBn

WDC

WFEn
WBAn

WB

WC

O B
2

WBA
n
WDC

W = 10 2

WA

WA

= 115 o
O A
1

O A
1

WAn
AB

WABn


l ==0,650,65
/
l

WAB

WBn

O B
2

WB
x

AB

WA

= 1 /

l = 0,l65

= 10
W
= 10 / 2
2

CWAB

151

7
(, 4)

z1
e

Ve
R
M

2
D

60

Vr y

x
e
y1

B
1

x1

. 3

z1
e

z W
k

We
E

We M

60

x
e
y1

B
x1

Wr
y

2
D

Vr

. 3

1, 3

152

..

..

- 105

1. , . . : 2 . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1985. . 1. 240 . . 2.
496 .
2. , . . : 2 . / . . . . : . ., 1984.
3. , . . /
. . ; . . -. : - . . , 2006. 240 . ISBN 5-89368-643-8.
4. : . /
.: . . [ .]. . : . ., 1989. 50 .
5. , . . / . . .
. : , 1970. 369 .

153


............................................................................................................... 3
................................................................................................... 6
..................................................................... 6
I. ......................................................................................................... 6
1. .................................................................................. 6
1.................................................................................................... 13
2.................................................................................................... 16
2. ............................................................... 22
3 ................................................................................................... 25
4 ................................................................................................... 27
II. ........................................................................................... 33
1. .................................................................................... 33
1. ........................... 35
2. .................................... 39
2. ..................... 44
3. ........................................................................ 75
3. ........................... 78
III. ............................................................................................... 84
1. ............................................................... 85
1 ................................................................................................... 86
2. ...................................................................... 92
2.

....................................................................... 105
3.

..................................................................... 113
3. ................................................................................ 118
4.
........................................................ 122
4. ....................................................................... 126
5.

....................... 137
..................................................................................................... 143
.................................................................................................... 144
.............................................. 152

154



[ .]

22.03.07.
6084/16. . . . 9,07. 100 .

.
600000, , . , 87.

155

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