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.. , .. , .

1999

5
1.
6
1.1.
16
1.2.
19
1.3.
21
1.4.
23
1.5.
26

28
2. C-
28
2.1. -
37
2.2. -
43
2.3. - 45
2.4.
47
2.5. -
48
2.6.
54

55
3.
57
3.1.
60
3.2. - ,

66
3.3.
70
3.4.
77
3.5.
80

80
4.
81
4.1.

87
4.2.
91
4.3.

94
4.4. 99
4.5.
102
4.6.
104
3


5.

5.1.
5.2. ,

5.3.
5.4.

5.5.

5.6.

105
106
106
113
116
121
136
142
147



. ,
. ,

, . , ,
,
.


.
,
(.. )
,
, .
5, . ( . ,
),
.

,
.
, ,
,
.

,
.
..
..
,
.

I.


(Langmuir) 1924 . [1].

.
,
(n 106 -3),
(n ~ 108 - 1016-3),
(n ~ 1013 - 1015-3) ..

, ..
- .
. ,

, .
.
, .1.
(.1, , ), . ,
,
.
1000 0
, .

. 1.
: , ; ;

6

,
, ( ) a,
( )
= 1.5 1012

T 2 ( )
;
n( 3 )


D = 750

T
;
n


e = 3.36 E ( ) / H ( )

i = 144 E / H
( ).

Kn = ,
a

Te

,
Ti

.
,
,
. ,
, ,
, , .

. ,
, .
, -

n e vT
. 4

, '' :
7

3/ 2
j eU

9 m d 2

m - , d - .

,
:

ji ( / 2 ) = 172
je ( / 2 ) = 7.4

U 3 / 2 ()
;
d 2 ( )

U 3 / 2 ()
.
d 2 ( )

,

.
.

Jt

UP

J
U

US
. 2. -

Je


,
8

. ,
,
(. 2).
(
), ,
,
.

je =

ene vT
.
4

, .
, ,

.

- .
,
, -
.
, (Up)
.
.

ji =

en e v Ti
,
4


eU

en e v Te Te
e
4

, eUp.
,

:
Up =

T
M
ln
3.8 T/e.
e
m

,
, .
, Ti T 0
e
U p 3.3Te / e .

,
.
,

. ,


.
, Te / Sen e Te,i M ,
S .
- , .
. 2 .

. ,
.

dj
,
dU

.. (. . 2).
. >0
, ,

dj
j
i .
T
dU

<0

dj
j
e , ,
T
dU

, , ji T . , ,

10


d 2 j
dU 2

.
,
,
.


.
, , (
),
, .. 0.1.
,

, 3 T
.
, ,
,
-
(1-10 A/2).
Te = 1 10121013-3.

, .

(self-emissive probe).

.
,
.
,

. ,
(
). 1.
11

,
, .
(, , ) ,
, . ,
, .

=0
=

x=a

x=x

. 3. ,

,
. ,
.
, : Ti = 0.
. 3.
, ,
. , ,
, .. .

. ,

. ,
12

, ,
. , ,
e

n 0 e Te . ,
,
Te/e, .
, , ,
. ,
, , , Te ,
en e

Te
.
M

, , .
[2].
.

,
D . (. 1 ),
,
n3
, D D ,

( ln(n e ) 10 ).
, >> D
.

, , .

3
D

en i

2
( e ) = j 0 = const .
M

, ,
n0e

Te

, n0 - .
13



e
j0
d 2
= 4e(
n 0 e Te ) .
2
dz
2
( e )


, .
:

d 2
1
1
+ 4n 0 e 2
( ) = 0 .
2
dz
2( e ) Te
(
) -

Te
, ..
2e

.
, ,
. ,

j0
2
( e )
M

= n0 e

Te

, ,
1
1 d
+
= 0.

2( e ) Te dx
,
,

d
,
dx

, Te 2e . ,
.

14

Te
. ,
2e

,
=

Te
.
2e

, , , (, n0
)
ji 0 = en 0 e

1
2

Te
Te
0.6en 0
.
M
M

. [3].

,
.

. ,
.
,

Te
,
2e

.
.
,
.
:
j0
d 2
= 4e(
),
dz 2
2
( e )
M

j0 = exp( 1 / 2)n 0

15

Te


= V = ,

d
= 0
dz

.

:
1/ 2

1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 4

2 2 eV
1 eV


+ 2

=

3 exp(1) e
2 e

1/ 2

1/ 2
eV


1.02
e
2

1/ 2

eV

+ 2 .

,
,
V 3.8Te , 4D .

.

z
,

S . S 1 + .

S . S 1 +

1.1.


.
,
.
, ,
. U -
. ,
16

,
, , , .
, -
.

,
.
, Te = Ti
.

, ,

. ,

.

() (
)

max

2 eU
m

j = en v 3 f ( v )dv 2 cos sin d ,

max v cos max =

2eU
.
m

, ,
max

cos sin d =

1
(1 cos 2 max ) ,
2

j = en v 3 f ( v ) (1
2 eU
m

2eU
)dv .
mv 2

,
[4].
2 j
2ne 2
2eU
f(
=

).
2
2
U

17

, ,
.

,

. ,
, ,
.. ''''
2 (., , [5]). ,

. ,
f (r , v)
r
r
f ( r , v ) :
r r
r
r
f ( r , v ) = f ( r , v ) = f ( v ).

,
mv 2 mv 2
=
eU .
2
2


/ 2
r
r
2
j = en 2v cos sin d v
f ( r , v )dv
0 0

v v , , v dv = vdv ,

/2

2 eU
m

j = en

3
2v cos sin d (1

= en v 3 f ( v ) (1
2 eU
m

2eU
) f ( v )dv =
mv 2

2eU
)dv,
mv 2

.. ,
.

.
18

1. .
.

, .
2. .
, .

j = j (U + U sin t )

dj
d 2 j
j (U ) +
(U )U sin t + 1 / 2
U 2 sin 2 t.
2
dU
d U
sin 2 t = (1 cos 2t ) 2 , ,
,
.

, :
m
f (v ) =

2T

3/ 2

mv 2
2T


j =

8T
= v
m

en
4

8T
en
e eU / T =
v e eU / T ,
m
4

- .

,

T ln

j (U )
= eU
j (0)

.
1.2.
,
,
.
19

,
. .
, . ,
, . , , ,

. ,
ji 0 =

en
v i . 4

, ,

en
v e e eU1 / Te
4

en
v e e eU 2 / Te ,
4

U 1 ,U 2 - . , , , , :
en
en
en

en

J = S
vi
v e e eU1 / Te = S
v e e eU 2 / Te
vi .
4
4
4

. 4.
( . Ji0S)

0,5

-10

-5

-0,5

-1

eU/Te

20

,
, ..
2 ji 0 = je 0 ( e eU1 / Te + e eU 2 / Te ) ,
j e 0 =

en
ve
4

- .


.
:
2j
j ( e eU 2 / Te e eU1 / Te )

J = S ji 0 eU / T i 0 eU / T e eU1 / Te = S i 0 eU / T
e 1 e +e 2 e
e 1 e + e eU 2 / Te

e(U1 U 2 )
.
J = S ji 0 th
2Te

-
. 4.
, U = 0
ji 0 S e
,
2Te

, ,
:
Te =

eji 0 S
.
dJ
2
( 0)
dU

, ,
,
.
1.3.

.
21



, -
, ,
. ,
.
,
,
.
.

. 5.

. 5,
. ,
( 1 2), ,
Te/e. 1,
,
. 2 (. . 5),
,

. ,
-
. 3
22

en
en
vi =
v e e eU 2 / Te .
4
4

3 , ,
en
en
vi =
v e e eU 3 / Te .
4
4

2 3,

Te = e(U 2 U 3 ) / ln 2 . 1-2, .
. 6.
3

. 6. :
1 - 2,5-3; 2
0,3-0,4; 3 0,08

1 mm

,
. ""
.
( 0.25
). , .
1.4.


.
23

-
.
. 7.
7

5
4
8

. 7.

: 1 - 5 ; 6 ;
7 ; 8

3
2
1


, , , .
4
. 3
6. 1

- ,
.

j = e f ( E )
eU

2E
dE ,
M

U - 3.

:
24

1. 3.

.

.
2. . ,
.
3. .
,

, .
,

.
,

.
, ,

2

a c 2 ( ,

),

.
-
.
1. .
,
.

1000 2000 0 .
.
25

2. (. 4 ).
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. - , ,
, 200 300 .
1.5.

1.

n3D
D .

.
,
:

= 2

e2
, E

E~T.

d
d 2
d(1 cos )
d
d
d

e2
1
e4

ln(
) 2 2 2.
T
D ne
min
T
,
n3
1
=
D D .

ne
2. ,
r
u ,
. , ,
[6].
3. , ,

1000 0.
26

. ,
, .

W enS T T

,
,
W = c

dT
V + S T 4 ,
dt

V .

. ,

1000 0, W = S T 4
:
n ( 3 )T ( ) 3 / 2 2 1013 .
,

.
4.
, , , ..
,
V V .
V
d 2 j
dV 2

. , ,

R [6].
,
. ,
,

.
27

1. Langmuir J. and Mott-Smith H. // Gen. Electr. Rev. 1924. Vol. 27.


P. 449.
2. .., .. // . 1963. . 81. . 409.
3. The characteristics of Electrical Discharges in Magnetic Fields,
ed. by Guthrie A. and Wakerling R. N.-York, 1949.
4. Druyvestein M.J. // Z. Phys. 1930. Vol. 64. P. 781.
5. .. . : , 1987. . 11.
6. .., .. // . 1986. 2. . 166.
2. C-


() .

, -
.
, - .

( ndl )
-.

,
N = kc .

, , ,
,
.
,
.

, -.
28


H,E e it .
,

N. ,
rr
r
i ( k r t )
k ( ) ,
e
. , ,
(), ,
..
r
k .

,
.
.


r v
exp(i k dl t )
,
E, H
k

l - , k ( , r ) -

.



, ..

k
k2

<< 1 .

,
v r

k dl = Ndl ,
c
v
k .

,
. ,
29

vT << k , ..
.
, , ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
<< .

[1, 2].
, ,
,
- : >> pi , ci .
.

y
x

. 1.
-

,
. ,
.

, .
, x,
, , z
(. 1).
30

:
.
.
,
,
( ). , ,
, .. .
,
,
.
( )
x,y (. . 1),
Ey , (Ex). ,
. , , ,

, . ,

. ,

, .

[1, 2, 3].
(, ,
):
2
2

pe
pe
ce
i
0

1 2
ce2
( 2 c2 )

2
2

ce
pe

pe
1 2
0 .
= i
2
2
2
ce

( ce )
2
pe

0
0
1 2

31


:
r
r
r
D
E
rotH = i
= i
;
c
c
r
r
H
rotE = i
c

, , ,
, . ,
,
:
r 2
r
rotrotE = 2 E
c


2
2
k ij k i k j 2 ij E j = 0 .
c

,
H . kx Ez.

2
: (k x2 2 zz) E z = 0 ,
c


2pe
(1)
2
2
+ k x2 c 2 .
2 = pe
N 2 =1

.

. Ez = 0,
:
E + E
=0 ,
xx

xy

yx E x ( N 2 yy ) E y
32

=0 ,

N 2 =

k x2 c 2

.
2
,
:
N 2 =1

2pe ( 2 2pe )
2 ( 2 ce2 2pe )

(2)

>> ce , pe ,

E x = xy E y << E y ,
xx
:

2pe
2pe
N = 1 2 O( 2 )

2 2pe + k x2 c 2 .
(1), (2) , N 2 0
.
- .
, pe , -

2
( 2 + 2 ) ce + ce + 2 .
pe

ce

pe

, , ,
,
, . , = pe
.
c / pe ,
. -
, ,
, .
2pe ( r ) .
33

,
. ,
,
,
, . ,
2
kc
n = = 1 pe 2 0 ,

, R = n / grad ( n ) 0 ,
.

. , N 2 0

2
2
pe
+ ce2 ce + 2pe + ce ),
2
4
, .
,

2
+ ce ce ,
pe
4
2
. , ,
.
,
. ,
. , .
,

,
, , ,
, .
,
, ..
.
.
,

34

, ,
,
.

: ,
, - [1-5].
,
,
, .
,
.

.
,
,
:
m 2
1
.
n cr ( 3 ) = e 2 = 1.1 1013 2
4e
vac ( )
, .
. , - >> pe ( n << ncr ).

= kdl = c (1 1

2pe
2

) 2c nncre dl .


,
>> ce .

= 2.82 10 13 n e dl vac ( ) .

,
35

2 l

, l vac
.
,
. , ,

. 2.

.
,

- (

)


. ,
,
. ,
, . 2,
, ,
100 . ,
, .


- 1 , 2 .
36

,

.
.
2.1. -

, ,
,

.
E = ( E0 + E1 e i ) e it , (t ) -
E1 , E0 -
.
,
,
, ,
,
E0 E1 cos . , ..
2
- E = E02 + E12 + 2 E0 E1 cos .
,
, cos (t ) .
,
, , ,
, . ,
,
= 0, ,2 ... ,
:
d E

37

=0.

, , .

. ,
, ( t
). 50 60- .
[1, 2],

.
,
()
.
- .

( ).
. , , ,
, .. ,
,
.
, ,
,

.
,
t

d '
d
+
,
dt
dt


(
).
,
, cos( (t ) + t )
d
+
, .
dt

38

, , >

d
dt

.
max


.

(,
) [1, 2]. ,
L ,
L d
=

t , c

dt

L d

. c dt


. 1.
1
-




3F


N
2

,
0,1-1
0,1-0,3
1

,
0,1-1
0,1-1
0,1


~ 10-3
~ 30%
~ 10-2

0,122
0,0394

<0,01
<0,05

0,0337
0,0119

<0,1
<0,05

,
[4, 6],
.
39

2v

, ,

.

, .
1. .
.

. 3.

. , , -
.
2. - (. 4).
,
.
( ).
3. - (. 5).
. , , , ,
.

.
=
.

40

n
dz , n

. 3.

. 4. -

41

. 5. -
-
nmax

m = sin

nmax nmax

= 8.97 1014 nmax 2 .


ncrit ncrit

z . -
, . ,

m z z
1.16 108 ( z nmax ) 1/ 3 .
~ 1014 -3
,

~ 0.5-1.

.
42

2.2. -

,
, ,
.
, , .
,
(. 6).
ne

. 6. C

ncr

zcr

a Z

,

.
,
1 / 1 n( z ) / ncrit . , ,
.

z .
, n = ncrit,

,
. (
2 ( z)
)
, pe
= n( z )
ncrit
2
43

d 2E 2
+
d 2 z c2

n( z )
E = 0.
1
ncrit

zcrit ( n(zcrit)
= ncrit) ,

.
E =

k ( z)

exp( k dz ) , zcrit


E=

k ( z)

exp( +i k ( z )dz ) +
0

C
k ( z)

exp( i k ( z )dz ) .

k ( z ) =

n( z )
.
1
ncrit


A, B C. ''''
z = zcrit ( n( z crit ) = ncrit ),
. ,

z,
[7, 8].
-/2

zcrit

n( z )
dz . ,
= 2 1

ncrit

.
, ,
, , .

44

n(z)
0.5

zcrit

n( z )
dz ncrit

z crit [1, 3], -

.

,

, . , ,

.
,
dx
p d p
d
= 2 cr
d
cd p
2p 2
,
:

d
d *
xcr ( ) = a +
.
0 d * 2 * 2
c

2.3. -


-
[6, 9]. [6].
,
(0,5 - 5).
,
R
B( R ) =

B0 R0
,
R

. ,
= n ce ( R ) .
45

, -
,
.
"".
2Te ( R )
I n =
.
8 3 c 2

( 10 %).
, n ce 1 ( v ) 2
c .
, v =
1 v|| cos / c

, ,
.

. ,
, (
) n ce 2n

Te
.
mc 2

,
R 2n

Te
B

.
mc 2 dB / dR

,
Te(R):
1.
.
2. ,
"".
3. .
4.
46

, .
5.
,
.
6. pe ce ,
, .
2.4.

, .
, (., , [10]).
( )

- ,
:
1 | E |2 dV

.
=
2

2
| E | dV
, ,
,
,
.

. 7.

47

,
, ,
, (. 7).
2.5. -

(0,1 - 10)
- :
1. . 0,1 1. , , ,
, .
- . 2.
, . 1.
2. /.
3. .
4. . (,
GaAs c , .
1963 .) ,
. N-
. 8. ,
E1.
,
-
. ,
.
, .

, .

48

,
.

j
. 8.

E1

E2

.
. ,
, ,
.
11 11
[11,12].
,
(. 9).
, , , EH11,
, . ,

.
(, 11) (TM) , .
11 11
:
49

EH11

2
D

; TE11

1
. - , D D

. 9.
TE11 EH11
. , ,
. ,

(. 10).

. 10. TE11
EH11

50

, ,
.
,
, .
,
. ,
, , , , .
,
.
,
-, . 2.
2

3
0.8-1.5
./

3.5 ./

1 ./

51

()


1.2

. 2
1

()

v
E

E ,

, ,


~ 100

52

.
-,
() [13].

.
.
.

,
,
.
H10 .
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
(..
). , ,
[13]. ,
,
( . c / a ) (. 11).

z >> R ( R - ).

.
,
- R
<< 1 .

,
- , -

53

. 11. H10 : - E; = b / ,
= 0 / 1 ( 0 / 2a ) 2 - ,


; H; = a /
. , . ,
, - , ,
(
,
).
2.6.

1.
-10 (, ) 21013-3.
?
2. 2
n( r ) = n0 (1 r 2 ) ,
, >> pe . .
54

3. .
, , ,
, ..
.
,

ne = 1014 3 , = 6, f = 1012 .
4. = 4
D=32, .
5. x cr ( ) , .
6.
ce 30 , JET.

1. ..
. .: , 1968.
2. Heald, M.A. and Wharton, C.B. Plasma Diagnostics with
Microwaves, New York: Wiley. 1965.
3. Jahoda, F.C. and Sayer, G.A. (1971). Optical refractivity of
plasmas. In Methods of Experimental Physics. R.H.Lovberg and
H.R.Griem, eds. Vol. 9B. New York: Academic.
4. .., ..
. /
. .. . .: , 1986. . 5. . 89.
5. .., .., ..,
/ . ... .: , 1981.
. 4(1). . 125.
6. Costley A.E., In Proc. of the course "Diagnostics for fusion
reactor conditions", International School of Plasma Phys., Varenna,
Italy, (1982). Vol. 1. . 129.
55

7. .. .. ( ), 2- . .: , 1963. . 197 - 199.


8. .. . .:
, 1975. . 125 - 129.
9. .., ..
/ . .. . ., 1959. . 3, . 141.
10. .., ..
. 2- . .: , 1982. . 428 - 433.
11. Veron, D. (1979). In Infrared and Millimeter Waves. K.J.Button,
ed., Vol. 2. New York: Academic.
12. Luhmann, N.C. (1979). In Infrared and Millimeter Waves.
K.J.Button, ed., Vol. 2. New York: Academic.
13. .. . .:
, 1988. . 197 - 211.

56

3.


( ).

, ,
..
,

.


.
. -
. ,
,
H2+
: H 2 + e H 2+ + 2e .
H2+,
-
2 - 4, .

,
, .
i ,

ch ,

N=i /ch .
,

l ~
N ch
= i ch .
57




(, ,
).
410-13/ Te1/ 2 ( ) 3/ [1],

,
, na
ne/<ive>. ne1014 -3 ,
Te 1 ,
na 108 -3 .
-
.
,
,
.

.

. 1
,
,
.
(. 1) ,
.
, ..

.

.
, ,
.
L n
I+ I0 [2]:
58

I+

(I + + I 0 ) =

01

( 01 + 10 )(1 exp( ( 01 + 10 )nL )) ,

01 10 - .
,
(
) nL<<1.
.

.

, , I + I = 01 .
0
10

H0

. 1.

L
, nL ~ (0,010,5)/i.
- .
~ 10-16-3, , ,
L ~ 30
~ 1013 - 1014 3.



()
L2/va , ,
59

va .
.
:
[3] [4].
,
.


. ,
(
) Z, ,
, ..
3.1.

,
.
:
m

dv
=m ( vv)= eE
dt

( mv2/2 + e) =0 ,

.. .
,
.

m ( vv)= e c [ vH]

p(p)= e c [ pH]
, , .

.
60

, ,
, (W0)
.
,
(W0) ,
: =

W0
. W0

R = 1 .

, (. 2). x
, y .
,
,
y =

eUx 2
, dEi

y(L) = eUL2/dEi , 2U , d - , L
, Ei - .
.

y0 ( .. y(L)=y0) .
E i =W o=

eUL2
.
y0d

,
D = W0

dy 0
[5,6] y0.
dW0

,
, - .
s2 = s1 + L, s1-
, - .
-
:
61

= W0 W = s 2 D =
0

s1 + L
.
y0

, ,
.
,
,
.
, .

+U
S1

S2 . 2.

-U

= 450
(. 3).
, .

2 E i d sin 2
dx
x=
,
= 0 ,
d
eU
. , ,
=

S1 + S 2
1
+ 2 2 + 2 ,
d
2

S1, S2 ,
- , .

( - ), 62

. 4.

r0= r1r2
.
U

. 3.

450

d
o

45


W0 = eU ln

r2
.
r1

,

= / 2 = 1270 17. ,
,
~1270
.

dr 2r0
, v0 - =
dv v0

. 45-
.

(. 5).

+U

. 4.
rO

-U

127,3 o

63


r1 r2,
.
0 = 420 20`.

r2

r1

r1

. 5.


1800
, . 6.
,
, s R2. ,
,
, (. 7),
, ..
R3.

. 6.

. 7.

64



(. 8).
x,y L
.
x = L x = L vx /v y = L y = L H .
,
y2 ~ (q/M)x M/q.
80 90- .
,

c [7],
- . .. (.-).
. 9.


- ,
-
, .


.
y
x

E, H
Mv
q

. 8.
65

M
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1

C5
C4

C3
C2

C1

. 9. : G ,
(
); S1-5 , 1-5


,
.

(. . 9).


.
3.2. - ,



. ,
- ,
,
.
66

,
..
-
[5, 6]. ,

(. 10). ,
- ,
- ,
.
.
, , - .

. 10.

,


.
eU0. ,
,
.
:
m

d 2r
= eE r
dt 2


mv 2
= eU = e (U 0 ) .
2
67

(1)

(1), ,
U (r=0, z)
:
d 2 r d dr
d
dr
e
d
dr
( U ).
=
= v (v ) = 2
U
dz dz
m
dz
dz
dt 2 dt dt

Er , r 2 ( r = 0, z ) r 2U
.
, E r =
=
2
2 2z
z 2

d
dr
r U '' 2
.
( U )=
4 U
dz
dz


, , ..
,
:
dr r
1
=
dz 4 U

U
U

dz =

r
f

[6]:
1
1
=
f
4 U

U
U

dz .

- .
(. 11).

H(z)

68

. 11.


. ,
,
.
.

.
.

:
. 2

e .
r Hz ;
c
.
d
e
( mr 2 ) = r ( v z H r v r H z ) .
dt
c

m( r r ) =

r H z
Hr =
,
2 z
2

2
d
dr
e d r Hz
e r H z dz
( mr & ) = (
(
).
+r H )=
c dt
c 2 z dt
2
dt z
dt
eH
, & =
, .. 2mc

:
d 2r
eH 2
+
=0
2
8mc 2U
dz

, ,

1
e
2
=
H dz .
f 8mc 2U


f ~ 8R2/L,
R - , L -
.
69

3.3.

( 10-14 10-6 ).
,

.

.
- ().
- . 12. D1
- ,
.
K = 123...j .
-
: .
,
I.
I-e> e,
.
U

. 12. -

D
U

.
10 .

.
(~ 0.2),
70

- 2-3.
.
,
.

. 13.
. 13.

8
4

200

400

600

800

E,

-

.
:

= k p( k ) ,
k =0

p(k) k
k max

( , p(k ) = 1 ).
k =0

0,1 0,2 , k :
p( k ) = k exp( ) / k! .
-
.
~ 10-3 ,
~ 0,5 4 .
10
- 25, ~ 3104-105. 71


~10-8 c.

, ,
,
. (
,
, ,
,
..)
Q:
p(Q ) =

Q
1
exp( ) ,
Q
Q

Q - .
.
,
, .
().

(. 14),
, .

,
, .
, , ,
.
,

eU.
d2U0 /4lU,
UU0 /l, Nl/,
,
d 2U
K 2 0
4l U

4 l 2U

d 2U0

72


-
U0 (E).

+
A

. 14. ,

K 104-105 10-4

- .

(. 15).
. 15.

A

-6 l/d ~ 50 - 100,
K ~ 107 - 108,
.
~108
.

,
.

.
Q , ,
73

p(Q ) =

Q
1
exp( ) ,
Q
Q

(Q Q ) 2
p(Q ) ~ exp(
) , Q - .
dQ 2

,
~ 0,5-1. (). , 0,5-1,0
~ 10 - 20 , ~ 50 %.
.
~ 0,8 - 1 K ~ 104 - 105.
K ~ 108
(.16).

(. 17),
, ,
.

(. 18).

.
,

[8].
,
. ,
,

.
74

,
,
, S(E) = n0 ni < ch v > e t dl .
<chv> 120
1,5 10-7 3 / .

. 16.

RA

-U

I1

R2

R2

I2

I2

I1R1 = I2R2

I3

I4

I1

. 17.
: - , -

75

3 45

. 18. :
1 ; 2 - ;
3 ; 4

,
Ti (r ) . [2, 9], n

r
~ 1 , a - .
a


.
ln S(E)
. ,
, ,
, ,
. -
,


. 19. ()

76

,
, ..

(. 19), .
, ~1.
50
,
, . -
~
1 107.
,
, ~ 1 .
3.4.
1
- ,
.


[10]. ,
,

.
.
- ~
100 .
,


[11].
nl 1014 -2.
77



. .
20.
(
) . ,
,
,
. - L, ,
.
-
2 (. 20).
-
3.

2
-U
3

. 20. : 1
; 2 - ; 3

=

ML2
,
2 2

2 . . 21

[12].
. 22.
78

Signal (bits)

500

-100

100 t, s

. 21.

f(E)
-3

10

-4

10

-5

10

10-6

80ev

18ev

-7

10

-8

10

500 E, eV

. 22. ,

79

3.5.
1. ,
.
2.
Ti 1 , n 5 1013 -3,
- Te 500 , ~ 1 .
, .

1. .. . .: , 1992.
2. ., . . .: , 1987.
3. .., .., .. //
. 1975. 5. . 168.
4. .., .., .., ..
// . 1980. 4. . 165.
5. .., ..
. .: , 1978.
6. .., .. . .: , 1972. . 19.
7. .., .., .. . //
. . . .45. . 1. 1972. . 56.
8. .., .., .., ..,
.., .. // . .:
, 1985. . 5.
9. . // . .: , 1984. . 2.
10. .., .., .. //
. 1994. T. 20. 2. . 199.
11. .., .. // . 1988. 2. . 99.
80

12. M.Carter, D.Behne, S. Hulsey, et al. Experiments with the timeof-flight particle analyzer on AMBAL-U. Preprint INP 87-63.
Novosibirsk, 1987.
4.

,
( ),
. , . . 1.

. 1.

, . , , c
, .
, ,
. - ,

.
,
81

, .

, .

,
. , ,
,
. ,

.

, , ,
.
,

.
[1], [2],
[3].

.


, .. (, ,
) . , = ndl
, , .
,

v
ndl
J = J 0 e eff , eff = ( ch + ii + ie e )

vb

; ii ie -
; ve vb -
82

, , ch
.
v
, n( ch + ii + ie e )dl 1 3 ,
vb

-16

10 cm

, .
. 2
Te = Ti = 1.
, ()
(Ar)

.

10

H
ch, H

Ar 0.1
5

. 2.
,

He

10

20

30 60 100
E, keV

, 10
- 20
. 100
(JET, JT-60 .).
,

,
(,
83

)
.
[1]
,
.
,
,
.
, ,
.

.
(1 . 6
1018 /).
E,

I act ~ e ( a , E ) n i n b ch v b f i ( E )ds,

(1)

lb


I pass ~ e ( s , E ) n i n 0 ch v i f ( E )ds ,
(2)
lb -
; -
; f() - ,

.

H,
. ,
(1) (2),
ch
. , (1), (2),
, .
84


.

, ,
.
.
. 3
(-10)
(-15).
10
10
10
10
10
10

11

n, cm

-3

10

. 3.

T -1 0
8

T -1 5
6

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

r /a

,
~ (0,05 0,1)a .
ni = ni(0)(1-r2/a2)

:
2 2
I act ~ l b ni jb ch , I pass ~
ni (0)n 0 ( a ) ch v .
a


:
2 2 n 0 ( a ) ch v
.
jb
al b ch
85

lb ~ 0,2a , <chv> 107 3/, ch 210-16


(Eb = 40 ), n0(a) ~ 1010 - 1011 -3,
jb10-1 - 10-2 ./2.
2

H , e v e 1.5109
3/, ch 310-182 ( Eb = 40 ),
, jb 10-1 - 10-2 .
/2.
,

.


. ,

"" .


.
,
,

0,1 - 1 . /2, 30 - 50 ,
( ) 1 - 10 . .

( ),
, ..
Vni jb Sd ch e [ b ( a ) + 0 ( a ) ]
>> 1 ,
4a 2 e

(3)

Sd - ; V - , . (3)
.
86

, .

ie v e
l b jb ( ch + ii +
)t
vb
T
(4)
<< i .
a

Eb

,
,
.
.
1

,
0,1
1014 -3
,
30
,

15

0,1 0,3

80 - 100

20 - 30

5 - 10

1 - 10

, . 1,
, ,
10-6c << <<10-2.

Eb 0.1 Eb.
4.1.

, ,
87

. . 4.

.
Mb Eb, (Ep), (Mp)
, .
,
,

E s = Eb E f = Eb

Mb 2
Mb
2
Eb E p .
Mp
Mp

(5)

, (5)
. , ,
-,
, (

, ).


Eb = 4

Mb
Ti E p ln 2 . Mp

, , (5).

, , ,

, .
, ,
I = I 0ni s (E b , )lb e b (2 a ) , Io - , s , lb -
, .
.
Ze
e

88

Ze 2
- tg ( 2 ) =
, 2 T

Ze 2
d R =
2T

2 sin d

[4].
4
sin / 2

.
,
. ,
0,1 1 .

, .

ds = cdR , .

.
dR ~ -4 ,
lb d/, d .
, 100.
, dR ~ Eb-2, , ,
,
.
Eb 30-40 ,
Eb 10-20 .

Eb < Es, < ,
Eb < 0,5 , < 10 Ti = 1, Eb = 40 , = 100 .

89

. 4.
: 1
; 2 ; 3

d /dE
10

10

10

10

Ti /E=0

0,25

10 2

0,0025
0,025
0,25

10 1
10

. 5.
Ti./Eb

10

20

30 ,


,
90

m1, .
(. [4]),
m2 < m1
m , .
- ,
, .

, sinm
=m2/m1. Ti = 0
,
. . 5
He
Ti./Eb [5]. Ti
,
m , , m .
4.2.

= ndl
,
.

.

,
.
1016 - 1017 /2
(2 ).
< 0,50
~ 10
.
10-2 -10-1 . A/2,
91

, .
, ,
.
,
. .


. .
,

.
.

, .
,
.
y ,
:
=

a2 y2

n( x 2 + y 2 )dx

a2 y 2

( y ) = 2 n( r )
y

r y2
2

dr .

, .
, ,
.
1 a \ ( y )dy
.
(6)
n( r ) =
r y2 r2
, (6)
.
,
,
, ..,
92

,

.
,
. , ,

n( r ) n0 (1 r
r

a2

2
2

n( r ) n 0 e a .

n0 a. ,



.

:
1.
(
).
.
,

.
2. .
.

r
r r
A n = , n
r
, -

. A
, .
, ( )
,

.
93

4.3.

.
, , .
- ,

.
,
,
.

70 80- .
,
100 , 10 30
,

,
, .

.
-
-
0,5 /2, , ,
1 - 10
2. - " "
j=

e U 3/ 2
M 9d 2

(7)

j = 0,2 /2 U = 30
15 .

1, 10 ,
.
94

,
10-2 .

, .
-
.

P = J /U 3 / 2 .

-
,
.

-
. 6. -
.
,
, ,

,
.


10 %. ,

.
,
H2+ H3+,


, 1/2 1/3
.
95

. 6.

, .

,
.

, , 10 - 40
, 1 - 10 0,1 10 . . 7,

. 2.
, , (2).
1015 -3 3 - 5 .
,
1 .
- -
~ 0, 2 .
96

-5
(1996)
-6
(1994)
-4
(1995)
-7
(1995)
(1997)
-
(1998)

30

1,5

30

1,4

20 1

15

10

0,2

40

0,7

20 1

50
50

1,0
1,0

5000 1
2


-
(3). 1
- ,
,
.

.

x F, - , F -
.

97

. 7. : 1 (); 2
; 3 -
.
- ,

1010 -3, . 1

,
.

- .
- .
98


,
.
.

[6].

- ,
.
4.4.

. ,
, .
, ,

.


(. 8) [6].
- ,

0,

.
( 0) .
, ,
He+,
. He+ He2+,
He+, ,

99

He

0
++

He

. 8.

. -


, .
,
He+ He2+, 0. He+ ,
E < e. He2+
E < e (2 -0).
, ,
, .
,
[5, 7].

. 9. Rb+, Cs+
10 - 1000 .
100 - 200 , .

100

. 9.

Cs
+ +

Cs
P


.
,
. ,
, ,

.
Cs+ E=
e(U-) , eU - , -
.
l Cs2+ ,
2el
.
E= e(U-l ) + 2el = e (U+l ),
.
101

, .

, . 10 - 20
1 .
Cs+ Cs2+ , .
, ,
- .
4.5.

H, , ,
[8]. , (
=

v
cos , ) c

H ,
, . 30-50
, . H.

,
. , , ASDEX (. 10).
102

60 , 0,5 mA 8 .

Li
. 10.
ASDEX

2p-2s
670,8 .

Te = 100 - 200 .
( ). 610-15 2,

.


,
(, ) [7].
,
,
. .
, .
+
I q :
+
+
I q + H I ( q1) + H + .
103

+
I ( q 1)

+
I ( q 1) .
,
.


. , ,
-
.

. ,
.
, v
c

E = B .
20 - 30, v 3108 /,
B = 5 T
E = 1.5105 /.
.

. ,

, ,
.
. , - , - - .
4.6.
1. Te Ti 1 , n 31013-3 c 20
,
104

.
(He) (He*)
. He+,
.
2.
10 ,

.

B(z,0) B0( 1+z2/L2), B0 = 10 , L = 1 .
3.
Te Ti 10 ,
100 .

1. .., .., ..,
.. // . 1980. . 6. . 240.
2. .., .. . // . 1971. . 41. .
1924.
3. Foote J.H., Molvik A.W., Turner W.C. // Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1983.
Vol. 54. P. 928.
4. .., .. .: , 1965. C.70.
5. ., . . . .: , 1987.
6. .. . // , .: , 1986. . 5.
7. .., .., .. . //
. 1992. . 18. C. 208.
8. Hintz E., Schweer B. // Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion. 1995. Vol.
37. P. 87.

105

5.

5.1.
, , .

. ,
( ),

, ( ).
,
.

,

[1, 2].
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
2,
,

n = 1 2pe / 2 ,
2pe =

4e 2 ne
.
me
106

2 >> 2pe ,

n 1 2pe 2 2 .

(1)

, , . .
- n /( n 1)t << 0 .
, ,

r ie 2 ne r
E.
j=
me

, = div (

ne e 2 r
E ) .
me 2

,

( j <<

4ne e 2
1 E

<< 1 ).
4 t
m e 2


r
v
E 0 E .

,
:

r 2 r
pe 2 r
D + 2 D = rotrot 2 E 0 ,

(2)

r
2
D = (1 pe

r
r
) E = E [2 . . 599].


( = n2 , n ) 107

( 1)
,
4i

r ( 1) r
E0
j=
4i

( , ,
). ,
,
, :

r 2 r
r
D + 2 D = rotrot ( n 2 1) E0 .
c

(3)

, (3) ,

, ,

r
A 1

c2

r
2

t 2

4 r r
j ( r , t ) , c

r r
r r
r r'
r 1 j (r ' , t c ) 3
A=
d r' .
r r
c
r r'
,

k . r = R >> r , ,
Ed
r r
(, D = E ,
):

r r
rr
r r
r r '
r
ik r ' i ( t
)

'
r
r
r
2
c
((

1
)(
'
,

E
e
))
rotrot
n
r
t
0
r r
1
c
d 3r' ,
Ed (r , t ) =
r r

4
r r'

108


r r r
r r
r
1
E (r , t )
rotrot ( E0 e ikR it ) ( n 2 1) e i ( k ' k ) r ' d 3r ' =
4R
ikr it
r r r
r r r
e
=
k ' k ' E0 ( n 2 1) e i ( k ' k ) r ' d 3r '
4R
r rr
- .
k ' =
c R

[ [

]]

r
r r r
r r
E0 e ikr it 2
Ed ( r , t )
2 (n 2 1) e i ( k ' k ) r ' d 3 r ' .
4R
c

(4)

(4)
,

.
(4) ,
- n2-1 -

r r

q = k 'k .
. ,
,
(2), (3). , , ,
.
,

: E(r) = exp( + i(r)), - ( ).
,
:

( )2 = k 02 n 2 + 2 + ( )2

109

(5)

2 = 2 .

(6)

, ,
,
(5) ,
. ,

,
= const.

:
r
r

r
r
(r ) (r0 ) = k 0 n(l )dl ,

(7)

r
r0

.
(6):
r
r

r
r
r
1 2
dl .
(r ) = (r ) (r0 ) =
2k0 rr0 n

(8)


:
r

1 r 2 r
r
E (r ) = exp
dl E (r0 ) .
2k 0 rr0 n

(9)

,

. , ,
r r
L r - r 0<< 1/ n / n .
. (8) (3), (4) ,
.

. ,
110

, , .
, , , ..
n = 1 + n*, n* - .

(7), (8).
k2L2n*/4, k -

( , 2 = 2 k 0 ndl k 0 k 2 n L ).
,
(5), ,
,
2= k2 << k02(n2 -1) 2 k02n*, ,
= 2/k0
= 2/k,
L2 << 4 / 2
(10)
( ).
. 1,
,
L,
.
/, 1
. (10) ,

L , .

. 2 , -
r
r
r
k 1 = k 0 k .
,
1 = 0 0 ,

k 1 k 0 , .

sin(/2) = k0/2k.
111

/ . 1.

~k2/k0

kz

k -1
-k

. 2.

k0

k1

k
ex
ez

kz

. 2
. ,
, L,
kz 1/L. ,
,

. . 2,
112

kz >> k2/k0,
(10).
- , , .
,
,
.
, .
,
, .
5.2. ,

. 3.
,
-. ,
,
.
, ,
, (
) .
.

(
),
( ).

,

1
, W - (.
W

). ,
, .

113

, (
. 3).
,

k 0 .
. 3.


:
B
; LO

; V
;
S

; D

ex
k0
ez k
k0l

I = E d + Elo

= Ed

+ Elo + E d Elo* + E d* Elo ,

(11)

lo .
,
.

P = Ed Elo* + E d* Elo dS .
(12)
(12)
, , . ,

(
) .

, ,

114

.
. ,
, ,
,
r
k ol , , .
(4) ,

r r
r
, k = k d k 0 .
,
rr
~
ne = n~e 0 cos( k r t ) , ,

Ps = n~e2 0 Pi re2 2 l 2 / 4 ,
l - , Pi
re = e2/mec2 .
,
.

, ,
TEXT [3, 4] .
= 1.22,
CO2 -.

.

1 ,

. ,
.
,
,
- kx
115

.
:
ky/k = kx/k = 2/r kz/k = k/(k0r),
(13)
r = wk/ = 2w/ [5].
w
1/e
kx,y 1/e
.
z
(14)
l = 2w/ = r2/.


l << L,
L ,
.
,
, ,
.
-

, .

:
[6], ,
[3, 4] 2- [7, 8].
()
.
5.3.
,
, ,
.
116

- , 2.
,
[9]. ,
,
,
[10, 11].
,
,
(10).

. 4. ,
,
, , [12 - 15].

. 4. : S1, S2
; M1, M2 ; ,

,

. ,
117

, .
,

.

,
.
,
, .
-
( ),
.

( x, y ) = k 0 ( x, y ) ,
(15)
(7).
, . 5,

() ,
L1 L2.
( ).
,
, , ,
L1.

, .
,
L1.
,
,
. ,
.
118

. 5.
.
,
- d
d = f2d/f1

. ,
, , . (9) , , z ,
,

I ( x, y ) z 2 ( x, y )
.
=
I0
nk 0

(16)

-
, ,
,
() x,y 2.


- .
-

, (3), (4)
,
119

,
.
,
.

,
,

(10).
,
,
, .
,
,

.
,
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
, .
,
1935 . [16, 17].

( << 1) , .



[18]
.
120

[19]


.
, , ,
,

1.
TCA [20],
DIII-D [21] C-MOD - ,
CO2- ( = 10.6m) -
.
5.4.

.
,
r
B( x ).

,

( 7) << 1:
r
r
r
r
r
B' ( x , t ) = exp(i ( x , t )) B( x ) (1 + i ( x , t )) B( x ) .
(17)

x.
B`2
.
( ),
,
i(x).
iB(x).
, . 4.

B ' ' ( x) = B ( x) + i ( x) B ( x) + iB ( x)
2

I ( x ) = B' ' ( x ) = 2 B ( x )(1 + ( x )).


121

(18)


. 6 , .
1

i
i

e i

z
a

i
1

i
1

. 6. : -
; -
(i) (1)
; -
();
( )
.
? ,

.
L1. (. 7)
- /2 ( + /2) . ,
B ' ' ( x) = B ( x) + ( x) B ( x)
2

I ( x) = B ' ' ( x) = B ( x)(1 + 2 ( x))

(19)

, , ,
m /2
. ,
, .
122

.

.
hi

hi

hi

hi

1
0

-1

-1

a)

b)

2
kc
d)

c
H

Hi
1
k

1
0

i
k

-1

-1

a)

b)

kc

d)

. 7.
: a, a ; ,
; , ; ,


(., , [22 24]), .
L,

:

L : B ' ( x ) B ' ' ( x ) = R ( x ) + D ( x ),


L : B ( x ) R ( x ),
( 20)
L : i ( x ) B ( x ) D ( x ),
L : ( x y ) h( x, y ),
R(x) D(x) - , .
123

,
h(x,y). h(x,y) = h(x-y), ,
H(k),
h(x).

2

I ( x) = R ( x) + R ( x) D ( x) + R ( x) D ( x) + D ( x) .

(21)

<< 1, |R|2 ,
|R|2
- 2|R|2.
(x) .
,
:
Li : ( x) I ( x) ,

( 22)
I ( x) = R ( x) D( x) + R( x) D ( x) .
(x) I(x)

hi(x,y), I(x)
(x) (x-y)
(22).
( ).
, (x)
I(x), ,
. hi(x,x-y)
u = x-y x
.
Hi(k),
, .. hi(x,y)=hi(x-y).

( (22)) ,
,
124

( (20)).



.
, (22)
, .
, ,

- . 4. (18) , I = I, I -
.
, I = I0/2,
I0 = |B|2 ,
, .
,
I = I 0 2 , , hi (u ) = (u ) / 2

H i (k ) = 1 2 . . 7, ,
.
.
. 8.
f1 f2 ,

, .
,
. -
L1.
,
L1

125

xk=kf1/2

D
UD

f1
L1

f2
L2

. 8. :
- ; - ; L1,L2 , P - ; D
; UD
[22 24], L1
f1. , ,
L1. L1 ,

.
(
) k/k0 ,
, xk = kf1/2.
,
,
,
|k| > kc.
,
|k| > kc -/2. L2 -
,

- .

126

, , ,
( - ).
f2/f1 ,
.

, .

B' ( x ) = {1 + i ( x )}B( x ) ,
( 23)
B(x) - .

~
~
~
B ' ( k ) = ( k ) + i ( k ) B ( k ) ,
(24)
~ -, - ,
a (k ) b(k ) = a ( )b(k )d .

(24) , ,
- .
:
~
~
~
B ' ' ( k ) = 1 (1 i )C ( k ) B ' ( k ) ,
(25)
~
~
C ( k ) = 1 k k c C (k ) = 0 k > k c .

.
9.

, , B ' ' (k )
, |k|. , ,
,
(10), , ,
. ,
,
.
,
, .
127

2
~

B(k)

. 9.

H(k)/I0
1
~

C(k)

/
~

-Kc

+Kc


-:
B ' ' ( x) = R ( x) + D( x) ,

(26)

R( x ) = B( x ) + (i 1) B( x ) C ( x ),

D( x ) = i ( x ) B( x ) (1 + i ){ ( x ) B( x ) C ( x )}
~
C (x) - C (k ) . -


(22)

(21).

I ( x ) = {[B( x ) C ( x )] B * ( x ) ( x ) B( x )[C ( x ) B * ( x ) ( x )] }+
+ .c. = 2 B ( x ){ [B( x ) C ( x )] ( x ) C ( x ) [B ( x ) ( x )] } =
( 27)

= 2 B( x ) B( y )C ( y x ) dy ( x ) C ( y x ) B( y ) ( y )dy .
, I(x) (x)
x. ,
(x) = (x-y):

128


B ( y )C ( x y )
hi ( x, y ) = 2 B( x)[B( x) C ( x)] ( x y )
. (28)
B ( x) C ( x)


( y = 0)

B(u )C (u )
hi ( x y ) = h(u ) 2 I 0 (u )
.
B
(
v
)
C
(
v
)
dv

(29)

, B(x)[B(x)C(x)] B(x)2 = I0(x).


, kc ,
.
- hi(u)

~
~

B ( k ) C (k )
H i ( k ) 2 I 0 1 ~
.
~
[ B ( l ) C (l )]l =0

(30)

~
~
B (k ) C (k ) . , ,

: Hi(0) = 0. . 7, b.
k = kc
k . kc
, ,
B(x),
, .


(. ). , k > kc
, , .
7, a.

I0. , ,
. ,
CO2- ( = 10.6 ),
1 /2. ,
129

( ),
CO2-.
,
,
.

(25):
~
~
~
~
B ' ' ( k ) = 1 C ( k ) + iC ( k ) B ' ( k ) ,
(25)
1 .

~
~

B ( k ) C (k )
H i ( k ) 2I 0 1 ~
.
~
[ B ( l ) C (l )]l =0

(30)

-
2 I 0 . , k > k c
I I 2 .
.
,
z , . 7, a. -
, .
8, ,
z. , , ,
.
, 1 2 , . 7, a:
E ( x1 , x 2 , z , t ) = E 0 exp i{k z z + k x1 x1 + k x 2 x 2 0 t},

k 02 = k z2 + k x21 + k x22 .
(31)
, , 1 2 , :
130

1 2, :

H z ( k x1 , k x 2 ) =

E ( x1 , x2 , z, t )
= exp ik z z
E ( x1 , x2 ,0, t )

k2 + k2
= exp izk0 1 x1 2 x 2
k0

(32)

, ,
z:

k2
H z (k ) expik 0 z (1 2 ) .
2k 0

(33)

(33)
(kx1,kx2).

k0 1
x2
hz ( x)
expik 0 z (1 + 2 ) .
2 iz
2z

(34)

z
:

B' ' ( x ) = B' ( x ) hz ( x ) =

(35)

= {[1 + i ( x )]B( x )} hz ( x )
(20) - (22)
R ( x ) = B ( x ) h z ( x ) D ( x ) = i ( x ) B ( x ) h z ( x ) .

{[

I ( x ) = i{B( x ) hz ( x )} ( x ) B * ( x ) hz* ( x ) + .c. .

,
,
:
131

B ( x) hz ( x) exp(ik 0 z ) B( x) .
, :

hi ( x, y )

( x y) 2
k0
B ( x) B * ( y ) cos k 0
,
z
2z

(35a)


( B ( x) B( y ) , . 7, c),

k0u 2
k0
hi (u )
I 0 cos

z
2z

(36)

-:

zk 2
H i (k ) 2 I 0 sin
.
2k 0

(37)


, . 7, ,
. , ,
,
. , k2 < |2k0/z|, Hi(k) -I0zk2/k0,
2/x2,
,
(16). , hz(x),


.

132

.
, ,
,
. . 10 . k > kc , k < kc,
,
.
:

~
~
B ' ' (k ) = B' (k ) 1 E (k ) ,
~
~
E (k ) = 1 k > k c E (k ) = 0 k < k c .

(38)

|B(k)|

E(k)

~
|
(k)B(k)|

kc

i
H(k)/I0
-kc

kc

-i

.10.
,

B ' ' ( x) = {[1 + i ( x)]B ( x)} [ ( x) E ( x)] ,
(39)
133

~
E ( x ) = FT 1 E ( k ) = exp(ik c x )[ ( x ) 2 + i x ].

, , (x) = (x-y),
:
hi ( x, y ) = i{B ( x ) [ ( x ) E ( x )]} B * ( x )
(40)
{ ( x y ) E ( x y ) B* ( y ) B * ( x )}+ .c.
, , ,
{B( x) [ ( x) E ( x)]}B * ( x) B( x) B * ( x) = I 0 ( x) .
(41)
,
x=0:

B * ( u ) E (u ) B ( u ) E * ( u )
hi (u ) = iI 0

*
B(0)
B ( 0)

cos(k c u )
2 I 0 Im( E (u )) = I 0
.
u

(42)

,
:

~
~
~
~
B * (k ) E (k ) B (k ) E (k )
H i (k ) = iI 0

. ( 43)
B ( 0)
B * ( 0)

~
~
, B ( k ) E ( k ) B (0) k . ,
~
, B (k )

, (43)
,

~
~
~
B (k ) E (k ) E (k )
H i (k ) = iI 0
B ( 0)

] .

(44)


. 7, 7, .
134


,
, , , ,
kc/k0. ,

E (k ) = 2 ( 1) k > k c E (k ) = 0 k < k c
(38). , ,
.
. 7, 7, , ,
kc Hi
. ,
.
, Hi
, hi ,
,
,
.
.
, , , , j = Ae , = I / h A . , (I0/2
) ,
[25]

j n2 = 2ef j = 2e 2 Af ,

(45)

f = / 2 - .

j s2 = 4 A 2 e 2 2 2 2 02 ,
0 = I 0 / . -
2

135

(46)

S/N =

2 AI 0 2
hf

(47)

, , S/N ,
(<1), .
,
. (S/N = 1)

N e2

min

1.3 10 4 f
,
3 AI 0

(48)

N e = ne dl - .

, -
( )
20 70 %.
CO2 ( = 10,6) HgCdTe
(AI0 1)

<2>1/2 = 3 10-6 <Ne2>1/2 = 1014 /2 f =


1MHz.
,
(. ), 2 1015
-3. , , ne/ne 10-4

,

.
5.5.

. .11
,
136

TCA (R = 61 , a = 18 , BT = 1,5 T)

[26, 27]. . CO2- 8 , ,
( ).
.
23 5
150 ,

. , . 11 P, L1 . 8.

137

. 11.
TCA: PL ;
; F ;
CV ; BT ; GA
; P (f = 190,5); M
; MP ; MI
(f = 27 );

45 7,

138

, . . 11
.
,
.
,
.
.

,
P,
DIII-D [21, 28].

(23 3,6 ) NaCl 3.0 ,
ZnS.
.
, .
( )
TCA DIII-D

(120 - 1050
120 ),
. . 20 0,
1,4 90 0 (. 12).
(. 12)
ZnSe ( = 0,4) BaF2 ( = 0,2) .
TCA, , ,
, ,

139

. 12. : UD ; D

UD

Au
1.4

Al

M1 f = 27 .
,
" ,

. 30
250 250
50 . 1/19,

.

:
, , , ;
[27].
,
, .
(. ),
, . ,
,
, , 140

.
.
.
TCA
(., , [29]),
1,8 2,7 [30].
[29].

. ,
,
.
, ,
,
, , .
[31].

,
[32]. , ,

p12 ( ) = p ( x, x, ) = * ( x, ) ( x + x, ) , (49)
( 1
2), x. ,
-
. N ,
- .
, x (49)
.
:

12 ( )

p12 ( )

p11 ( ) p 22 ( )
140

(50)

x,
|12| 1 1/e. ,

u=x,

S (k , ) = p(u, ) exp(iku )du ,

(51)

s (k : ) = (u , ) exp(iku )du .

(52)

. ,
( )
. ,
,
,

(. ).


.
,
.
,

.
, (
)
-

~v~ = n~E~ / B , v~ n
r

, E -

B - [32].
5.6.
141

1. . 1 (30a), (25) ,
(26) - (30).
2. .
, . (45) ,
= (2f)-1
f.
3.
.

B ' ( x ) = [1 ( x )]B ( x ) , (0 1).


I(x),
, , .
, (x) = 1
y-w/2 < x < y+w/2 (x) = 0 , w << D, D
. , , .. I I0. ,
, . ,
, ,
(27) , -, ,
,
. (x) << 1, .
.

142

I ( x ) = 2 ( x ) B 2 ( x ) {C ( x ) [ ( x ) B ( x )] }{4[C ( x ) B ( x )] 2 B ( x )}
2 ( x ) B ( x ){C ( x ) [ ( x ) B( x )] }+
+ 2 ( x ) B ( x ){C ( x ) B ( x )} 2 ( x ) B 2 ( x ) +

+ 2{C ( x ) [ ( x ) B( x )] }

27, C ( x) B( x) B( x) ,
,
.

, -
- .
( << 1)
kc .
4. . ,

. , ,
,
? , ,
,
, ?
, ,
iD(x),
B ' ( x) = B ( x) + iD( x) , D ( x) = ( x) B ( x) ,
<< 1 .

= B * ( x) B( x)dx = B' .

B(x)

.
?
B D, D ,
B(x), ..
D||(x) = B(x) D(x) = D(x) - D||(x).
, D(x)
143

. ,
, ,
I ( x ) = B ( x ) D ( x ) + .c. ,
D,
(27) , ,
(27) (30), . , , ,
(x),
B*(x)B(x).
5.
. 3
, ,
,
.

,

.
D
B, .. P 2 D B 2 D B .
max = D

, max(k)
(x) = 0exp(ikx).
B(x)
= exp(-x2/2w2) , max(k) = {1-exp(-k2w2/2}1/2 .
3, 4 [33].
6. .
, z,

L,
(. 13).

144

L
l

L
z
x

. 13.
l
n*rms. ,
. ,
Leff = lL .

m = L/l
s = k0ln*. ,
S = sm1/2,
rms = k0(Ll)1/2n*rms.
7. ,
. 6, , , ,
(x, t ) = (x, z, t )dzdz = L (x, z, t )dz ,

~
~
(x, t ) = N ( x, t ) N ( x + x, t + t ) ,
(x, z , t ) = n~ ( x, z , t )n~ ( x + x, z + z , t + t

145

~
N ( x, t ) = n~ ( x, z , t )dz n~ ( x, z , t ) = 0 .

?
lz , 6,
, N ( x, t )

= l z L n ( x, z , t )

[20].


. .
8. .
( )
n~ (r , t ) = f (r ) exp i (kr t ) ,
. ,
f(r), df(r)/dr << kf(r)
r >> ,
:
~
N ( x, t ) = n~ ( x, z , t )dz f ( x) x exp i (kx t + / 4) ,

= 2 / k - . : r =

x 2 + z 2 x + z 2 2x

, ,
,
:

2n
{
}
exp
(
)
2

i
n
z
dz

n 2

exp i{n(0) / 4},

z =0

146

+ ,

2n
n 2

< 0 , -
z =0

1. . . .: , 1965.
. 9. 14; Jackson J. D. Classical electrodynamics, 2nd edition, John
Wiley and sons, 1975.
2. .., .. .
.: , 1982. . 15.
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148

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