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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.

NAME Aluminum Aluminum Carbide Aluminum Floride Aluminum Nitride Aluminum Oxide (alumina) Antimony Antimony Trioxide Antimony Trisulphide Arsenic Arsenic Trisulphide Barium Barium Floride Barium Oxide Beryllium SYMBOL Al Al4C3 AlF3 AlN MELTING POINT C 660 1400 1257 Subl. Subl. DENSITY g/cc 2.70 2.36 3.07 3.26 410 Subl. 490 Subl. 10-8 TORR 677 10-6 TORR 821 10-4 TORR 1010 800 700 Subl. 1750 G, W, MO LINER BN, CG NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Alloys and wets May fill volume 70% 1 N=2.7 3 N=1.38 @ .55 4 Decomposes Reactive evaporate in 10-3N2 with glow discharge 3 N=1.66 forms smooth hard films 1 Toxic. Evaporates well, film structure is rate-dependent 1 Toxic, decomposes on W.n=2.05 3 N=3.01 @ .55 . No decpomposition 3 Toxic. Sublimes rapidly at low temp. 4 N=2.8 3 Wets w/o alloyingreacts with ceramics 3 N=1.29 @ 5 Density rate dependent 2 Decomposes slightly n=1.98 4 Wets W, Mo, Ta metal powders and oxides are toxic 1 Toxic 2 Powders are toxic. No decomposition n=1.72 2 Vapors are toxic. 1 Vapors are toxic. N=2.55 1

Al2O3 Sb Sb2O3 Sb2S3 As As2S3 Ba BaF2 BaO Be

2045 630 656 550 814 300 710 1280 1923 1278

3.97 6.68 5.2 or 5.76 4.64 5.73 3.43 3.78 4.83 5.72 or 5.32 1.85 545 Subl. 627 Subl. 279 Subl. Subl. 345 Subl. Subl.

1500 425 Subl. Subl. 200 107 Subl. 150 Subl. 210 Subl. 400 735 700 Subl. 300 710 875 100 Al2O3 G, CG BN, G, Al2O3 BN, Al2O3 Al2O3 Al2O3 CG Al2O3 MO

Beryllium Fluoride Beryllium Oxide Bismuth Bismuth Oxide

BeF2 BeO Bi Bi2O3

800 2530 271 820

1.99 3.01 9.80 8.90

Subl.

Subl.

200 1900

330

410

520 1400

CG, Al2O3

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


NAME Boron SYMBOL B MELTING POINT C 2100 DENSITY g/cc 2.36 10-8 TORR 1278 Subl. 2500 Subl. 10-6 TORR 1548 Subl. 2580 Subl. 10-4 TORR 1797 Subl. 2650 1600 Subl. 1400 180 Al2O3 LINER G NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Material explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container 1 Similar to chromium. 1 Decomposes. 4 N=1.46 2 Poisons vacum system, low sticking coefficient. 4 Evaporates easily. N=2.4 @ .6 2 Sticking coeffiient strongly effected by substrate temp. Stoichiometry variable. N=2.4 Corrodes in air. 4 Rate control important. Use gentle preheat to outgas. N=1.2-1.4 1 N=1.61 2 N=1.92 2 1657 Subl. 970 1890 Subl. 1867 Subl. 1150 2000 Subl. 2137 Subl. 1380 2310 Subl. Poor film adhesion 1 Film oxide easily 2 Use 250-300C substrate temperature n=2.22.4. Reacts with W 2 Use gentle preheat to outgas. N=1.63 @ .55 2 Films very adherent. High rates possible. 2 3

Boron Carbide Boron Nitride Boron Oxide Cadmium

B4C BN B2O3 Cd

2350 2300 460 321

2.50 2.20 1.82 8.64

64

120

Cadmium Selenide Cadmium Sulfide

CdSe CdS

1264 1750

5.81 4.82

Subl. Subl.

Subl. Subl.

540 Subl. 550 Subl.

Al2O3 Al2O3

Calcium Calcium Fluoride

Ca CaF2

842 1360

1.55 3.18

272 Subl.

357 Subl.

459 Subl. 1100

Al2O3

Calcium Silicate Calcium Tungstate Carbon Cerium Ceric Oxide

CaO-SiO2 CaWO4 C Ce CeO2

1540 1620 Subl. 795 2600

2.90 6.06 1.80-2.30 8.23 7.30

CG, Al2O3

Cerium Fluoride Chromium Chromium Carbide

CeF3 Cr CR3C2

1418 1890 1890

6.16 7.20 6.68 837 Subl. 977 Subl.

900 1157 Subl. 2000 CG

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


NAME Chromium Oxide Cobalt Copper SYMBOL Cr2O3 MELTING POINT C 2435 DENSITY g/cc 5.21 10-8 TORR 10-6 TORR 10-4 TORR 2000 LINER NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Disproportionate to lower oxides, reoxides @ 600 C in air n=2.4 2 Alloys with refractory metals. 1 Films do not adhere well. Use intermediate layer, e.g., chromium. 1 Evporate in 10-210-2 of O2; n=2.70 2 Large chunks reduce splitting. Little decomposition. N=2.34 @ 6330 1 2 2 2 Al2O3 3 Loses oxygen; iflms hard and clear. 2 High Ta Solubility 1 Loses oxygen. N=1.8 @ .55 3 Alloys with refractory metals. 2 3 N=5.64 @ 10.6 2 Excellent films. N=4.01 1 Film predominantly GeO 2 Evaporate alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating. N=1.47 1

Co Cu

1495 1083

8.90 8.92

850 727

990 857

1200 1017

Al2O3 Ta, Mo, Al2O3 Al2O3 CG

Copper Oxide Cryolite

Cu2o Na3AlF6

1235 1000

6.00 2.90

Subl. 1020

Subl. 1260

600 Subl. 1480

Dysposium Dysprosium Fluoride Erbium Europium Europium Oxide Gadolinium Gadolinium Oxide Gallium Galliuim Antimonide Gallium Arsenide Germanium Germanium Oxide Glass Schott 8329

Dy DyF3 Er Eu Eu2O3 Gd Gd2O3 Ga GaSb GaAs Ge GeO2

1409 1360 1497 822 2056 1312 2310 30 710 1238 937 1086

8.54 9.06 5.26 7.42 7.89 7.41 5.90 5.60 5.30 5.35 6.24 2.20

625 Subl. 650 Subl. 280 Subl.

750 Subl. 775 Subl. 360 Subl.

900 800 930 Subl. 480 Subl. 1600 1175

760

900

Al2O3

619

742

907

Al2O3

CG, G 812 957 1167 625 Al2O3 Al2O3, Quartz

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


NAME Gold Hafnium Hafnium Oxide Holmium Inconel Indium Indium Oxide Iridium Iron SYMBOL Au Hf HfO2 Ho Ni/Cr/Fe In In2O3 Ir Fe MELTING POINT C 1062 2230 2812 1470 1425 157 1565 2459 1535 DENSITY g/cc 19.32 13.09 9.68 8.80 8.50 7.30 7.18 22.65 7.86 487 Subl. 1850 858 597 Subl. 2080 998 742 1200 Subl. 2380 1180 Mo Al2O3 10-8 TORR 807 2160 10-6 TORR 947 2250 10-4 TORR 1132 3090 2500 950 Subl. LINER CG, BN, Al2O3 NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Films soft, not very adherent 1 2 Film HhfO n=2.0 @ .5 3 2 Low rate required for smooth film. 2 Wets W and Cu; use Mo liner. 1 Film In2O transparent conductor 2 3 Attacks W. films hard, smooth. Use gentle preheat to outgas. 1 Decomposes. 1 Dispproportionate to Fe3O4 at 1530C n3.0. 2 Films will burn in air if scraped. 1 2 No decomposition n=1.59 @ .55 2 Loses Oxygen n1.9 @ .5 2 Toxic. Carefully controlled rates required for superconductors. 1 Metal reacts violently in air. 2 Rate control important for optical films. Use gentle preheat to outgas. N=1.36 2 1 Extremely high rates possible. 2 Natural spinel. 2 NOTES

650 Subl.

770 Subl.

Al2O3

Iron Oxide Iron Oxide Lanthanum Lanthanum Boride Lanthanum Fluoride Lanthanum Oxide Lead

FeO Fe2O3 La LaB6 LaF3 La2O3 Pb

1425 1565

5.70 5.24

920 2210 1490 2250 328

6.17 2.61 6.0 5.84 11.34

990

1212

1388

Al2O3

Subl. 5.84 342

Subl.

900 Subl. 1400 497 Al2O3

427

Lithium Lithium Fluoride

Li LiF

179 870

0.53 2.60

227 470

307 530

407 650

Al2O3 Al2O3

Lutetium Magnesium Magnesium Aluminate NAME

Lu Mg MgAl2O4 SYMBOL

1652 651 2135 MELTING

9.84 1.74 3.60 DENSITY

185 Subl.

247 Subl.

1300 327 Subl.

Al2O3 CG, Al2O3

10-8

10-6

10-4

LINER

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


POINT C Magnesium Fluoride MgF2 1266 g/cc 2.90-3.20 TORR TORR TORR 100 Al2O3 N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Rate control and substrate heat important for optical films. N=1.38 1 W produces volatile oxides. N=1.7 2 2 Films hard smooth. Careful degas required. 1 4 Evaporation of Mo(Co)6 yields Mo2C Low Ta solubility. 1 Very little decomposition. N=1.61 @ .55 2 Loses Oxygen, films clear. Hydroscopic n=1.79 n varies with substrate temp. 2 Alloys with refractory metals. 1 Alloys with refractory metals. Forms smooth adherent films. 1 Attacks W. 1 3 Co-evaporate from two sources. 1 3 Alloys with refractory metals; rapid evaporation suggested. Spits. 1 Films low in Ni content use 84% Ni source. 2

Magnesium Oxide Manganese Molybdenum Molybdenum Boride Molybdenum Carbide Neodymium Neodymium Fluoride Neodymium Oxide

MgO Mn Mo MoB2 Mo2C Nd NdF3 Nd2O3

2800 1244 2610 2100 2687 1024 1410 2272

3.58 7.20 10.22 7.12 9.18 7.00 6.50 7.24 7.31 871 507 Subl. 1592 572 Subl. 1822

1300 647 Subl. 2117

CG, G Al2O3 Al2O3

1062 900 1400

Al2O3 Al2O3

Nichrome IV Nickel

Ni/Cr Ni

1395 1453

8.50 8.90

847 927

987 1072

1217 1262

CG, Al2O3 CG, Al2O3

Niobium (Columbium) Niobium Carbide Niobium Tin Osmium Palladium

Nb NbC Nb3Sn Os Pd

2468 3800

8.55 7.82

1728

1977

2287

1700 1550

22.50 12.40

2170 842

2430 992

2760 1192

Al2O3

Permalloy

Ni/F

1395

8.70

947

1047

1307

CG, Al2O3

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


NAME Platinum Potassium Chloride Potassium Fluoride Praseodymium Praseodymium Oxide Rhenium Rhodium Ruthenium Samarium Samarium Oxide Samarium Sulfide Scandium Scandium Oxide Selenium Silicon SYMBOL Pt KCl KF Pr Pr2O3 Re Rh Ru Sm Sm2O3 Sm2S3 Sc 2300 Se Si MELTING POINT C 1769 776 880 931 2125 3180 1966 2700 1072 2350 1900 1539 8.86 217 1410 DENSITY g/cc 21.45 1.98 2.48 6.78 6.88 20.53 12.41 12.45 7.54 7.43 5.72 2.99 714 837 1002 400 170 1337 Al2O3 CG, Al2O3 CG, Ta 800 1928 1277 1780 373 950 2207 1472 1990 460 10-8 TORR 1292 10-6 TORR 1492 10-4 TORR 1747 510 500 1150 1400 2571 1707 2260 573 CG Al2O3 LINER CG NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Alloys with metals. Films soft poor adhesion. 1 Use gentle preheat to outgas. n=1.49 2 Use gentle preheat to outgas. n=1.49 2 2 Loses Oxygen. N=2.0 2 1 2 Splits violently. Requires degas. 1 2 Loses O2 Films smooth, clear. 2 2 Alloys with Ta 1 Loses Oxygen n=1.88 @ .5 3 Toxic. Poisons vacuum systems. 2 Alloys with W. SiO produced above 4X10-6torr. N=3.42 3 4 N=1.47 Tunnels must be swept. 1 Low rate suggested. N=1.6 3 1 N=1.54 2 Use gentle preheat. No decomposition. n=1.30 @ .55 2 N=1.72 2 CG Wets but does not alloy refractory metals. May react violently in air.

4.79 2.42

89 992

125 1147

Silicon Boride Silicon Dioxide Silicon Monoxide Silver Sodium Chloride Sodium Fluoriide Spinel Strontium

SiB6 SiO2 SiO Ag NaCl NaF MgO3 5Al2O3 Sr

1610-1710 1702 961 801 988

2.47 2.20-2.70 2.10 10.49 2.16 2.79 8.00 Subl. Subl. 847 958

1025 850 Subl. 1105 530 700 Ta Mo, Al2O3

769

2.60

239

309

403

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


NAME Sulfur Supermalloy SYMBOL S8 Ni/Fe/Mo MELTING POINT C 115 1410 DENSITY g/cc 2.00 8.90 10-8 TORR 13 10-6 TORR 19 10-4 TORR 57 LINER NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION Poisons vacuum system. 1 Co-evaporate from two sources, Prmalloy and Mo. 2 Forms good films. 1 Slight decomposition; evaporate in 10-3 torr of O2 n2.0 @ 1.5 2 Wets w/o alloying Toxic 4 1 Wets freely, very toxic. 1 Toxic, radioactive. 1 Radioactive. N=1.86 @ 2.2 1 Radioactive n=1.52 Heat substrate to above 150C 3 2 Wets Mo, use Ta liner. 1 N=2.0 1 2 Alloys with refractory metals; evolves gas on first heating. 1 4 Evaporate in 10-4 of O2 onto 350 C substrates. N=2.4 3 Use gentle preheat to outgas. 2 Decomposes. 2 2117 2407 2757 Forms violate oxides. Films hard & adherent. 2

Tantalum Tantalum Pentoxide

Ta Ta2O5

2996 1800

16.60 8.74

1960 1550

2240 1780

2590 1920 CG

Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thorium Dioxide Thorium Fluoride Thulium Tin Tin Oxide Tin Selenide Titanium

Te Tb Tl Th ThO2 ThF4

452 1357 302 1875 3050 1110

6.25 8.27 11.85 11.70 10.03 6.30

157 800 280 1430

207 850 360 1660

277 1150 470 1925 2100 750

Al2O3 Al2O3 Al2O3

CG

Tm Sn SnO2 SnSe Ti

1545 232 1127 861 1675

9.32 7.75 6.95 6.18 4.50

461 Subl. 682 Subl.

554 Subl. 807 Subl.

680 Subl. 997 1000 Subl. 400 1453

Al2O3 Ta, Al2O3 Al2O3

1067

1235

Titanium Boride Titanium Dioxide (rutile) Titanium Monoxide Titanium Nitride Tungsten

TiB2 TiO2 TiO TiN W

2980 1640 1750 2930 3410

4.50 4.29 4.93 5.43 19.30 1300 1500 CG

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


NAME Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Trioxide Uranium Vanadium Ytterbium Yttrium Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Yttrium Oxide Zinc Zinc Oxide Zinc Sulfide SYMBOL W2C WO3 U V Yb Y Y3Al5O12 Y2O3 MELTING POINT C 2860 1473 1132 1890 824 1509 1990 2680 4.84 Subl. Subl. 2000 Al2O3, G Al2O3 DENSITY g/cc 17.15 7.16 19.07 5.96 6.98 4.48 10-8 TORR 1480 Subl. 1132 1162 520 Subl. 830 10-6 TORR 1720 Subl. 1327 1332 590 Subl. 973 10-4 TORR 2120 980 Subl. 1582 1547 690 Subl. 1157 LINER NOTES N=INDEX OF REFRACTION 1 Use gentle preheat to outgas. n=1.68 2 Films oxidize. 2 Wets Mo. 1 2 Al2O3 High Ta solubility. 1 Films not ferroelectric Loses oxygen, films smooth and clear. N=1.79 @ 1 2 1 Anneal in air at 450C to reoxidize. N=2.0 3 Use gentle preheat to gegas. Films partle decompose Sticking coefficient varies with substrate temp. n2.3 @ .5 2 Alloys with W. Films oxide readily. 1 2 Films oxide deficient, clear and hard. N=2.05 @ .75 2

Zn ZnO

419 1975

7.14 5.61

127

177

250 1800

ZnS

1830

4.09

Subl.

Subl.

800

Zirconium Zirconium Boride Zirconium Oxide

Zr ZrB2 ZrO2

1852 3040 2700

6.40 6.08 5.49

1477

1702

1987

2200

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Thermionics Laboratory Inc.


Legend
1 2 3 4 Subl. n G CG Al2O3 BN Mo Ta Excellent material for electron beam evaporation. Good material for electron beam evaporation. Fair material for electron beam evaporation. Poor material for electron beam evaporation. Subliming Material Index of Refraction Graphite Liner Coated Graphite Liner Alumina Liner Boron Nitride Liner Molybdenum Liner Tantalum Liner

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