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standard), 1991 r.

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(boundaries).

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113

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5.3.2. n

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, TCP/IP, NWLink, NetBEUI AppleTalk.


NDIS.
I .

ransmission Control Protocoi/Intemet Protocol (/IP).


,
(Wide Area Network WAN).
/ IP lntemet.
NWLink I/S- .
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
(IPX/SPX), NDIS.

NetBEUI.

,
w .
8- 376S

114

5.

Apple Talk.
Windows NT Server Services for Macintosh
Apple Macintosh.

TCP/IP

/IP
,

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. / IP - r ,
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NT, , ,
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115

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192.15.0.30.

3. -, :
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. .

5.4

TCP/IP.

5.4. TCP/ IP

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)


MIB (Management Information Base).
Windows Sockets (WinSock) -
skt- TCP/ IP.

116

NetBT (NetBIOS

5.

r n

TCP/ IP) -

NetBIOS,

, .
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(Transmission Control Protocol)

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

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,

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,
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r . &
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(host - r
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IP (lnternet Protocol)

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)


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, /I-.


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5.3.

.t n n

117

TCP/IP

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157.104.15.15. ,
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NWLink

NWLink IPX/SPX Compatile Transport -


Microsoft 32- NDIS 4.0-
IPX/SPX (lntemetwork Packet Exchange/ Sequenced
Packet Exchange) Novell.
NWLink ,

- -

118

5.

Novell NetWare, , ,
Novell Windows
NT. NWLink Windows
NT ,
IPX/SPX, - .
NWLink ,
Windows NT Microsoft.
NWLink API,
IPC:
WinSock (Windows Sockets)

Nvll- ,

NetWare IPX/SPX Sockets. WinSock


NetWare Loadaie Modules (NLM).
, -

Server

NLM,

Windows NT

NetBIOS IPX,

NWLink NetBIOS,

Novell, NetBIOS,
Windows N, NWLink NetBIOS.
r NWLink IPX/ SPX
.
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NetBEUI

NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)


() ,
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, .

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, NetBEUI, n
,

Microsoft lAN Manager Microsoft Windows.


NetBEUI

; ; ;
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5.3.

NetBEUI

119

, ,
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Transport Driver Interface (TDI)-

Workstation ( ) - Server (). TDI


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DI
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1 n

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Workstation

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TDI.
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Microsoft.

LAN Manager l.AN Server

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120

5. r n

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lnternet

n ,

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Protocol)

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121

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WWW-r
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(World Wide Web -

, ,

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1 126 (. . 5.5).
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n

0.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255

128.0.0.0 -191.255.255.255

192.0.0.0- 223.255.255.255

224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255

240.0.0.0 - 247.255.255.255

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gov - n ;
mil - ;
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ru, eng

n,

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lntemet.

DNS

n I-
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1034

1035. DNS

, n ' I-.

DNS

n n

DNS-cepep DNS - . DNS-cepep


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124

DNS

5.

11

Intemet.

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IP ,
r I- .

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, : . ror
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, no .
I-
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,

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63 .
lnternet
(fully qualified domai - FQDN),

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citint.dol.ru.
,

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Intemet.

I-.

. ,

5.5.

125

, ,
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254 .
r

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16- .

IPv4

I-.
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(Class/ess lnker-Domain Roting- CIDR).
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IP ,
, .

CIDR

,
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5.5. 1
5.5.1.

.25

X.2S

,
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oryr

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(Packet Assemer

- PAD

Disassemer),

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126

5. n

IP

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(Asynchronous Transfer

)
53
(. 5.8).

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, . . -

5.5.

127

48

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5.8.


,
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5.5.3.

SDH


(SDH) 1988
. SDH
.

SDH

, n

,
; n
; n
& (operation,
administration and maintenance - ,
).


- (PDH),
.


, ,
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(.

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5.9):

128

5.


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5.9.

SDH

SDH

,
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155,520

(STM-1) 2,488

(STM-16) ;
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PDH
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5.5.

129


:.

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SDH,

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2.
3.
4.
5.

.11 r ?
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7. ?
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10. 11 .
11.
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9 - 3765

6.1.

() -
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.
.
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Microsoft,

Windows Server, Windows

. .;

Protocol (TCP/IP),

Transmission Control Protocol/Intemet


UNIX-xoc;

AppleTalk ( Windows NT Server Services for the Macintosh);


Novell Netware.

(, , ) ,

6.1. 11

131

,
,

.
, : . 6.1.
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r JI
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(OS/2, UNIX, Windows 98/2000/ .).

, ,
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rr

(MS-DOS, Windows . .)

(UNIX, Windows Server).

, ,

132


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133

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.

,
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.

. ,

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:

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, n
m
n , n

6.2. n

137

6.2.
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HDD (Hard Disk Drive),

n , n
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n 2 n ,
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6.2. 0611 n

139

6.3.

, .


n, .

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6.4.

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Personal Were ( OOS 7)


Netware ()

Windows

Wotltstallon

Windows N Server

Netware ()

6.4).

. n

140



.
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MS DOS ( , ,
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,

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, IANtastic Personal Ware.

,

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, ,

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Windows NT Microsoft,

I.AN Manager

no

I),

OS/2.


, .

IBM

NetBIOS (Network Basic lnput Output System-

-).

IPX (lntemet-work Packet


) Novell.

Exchange-

.. -

m- -
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6.3. .n .n- .n 1

141

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6.5.

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142

6. n .


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.
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m ,
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pyroro (. .

6.5).

.
.

(.

6.6).

6.6.


(Application Program lnterface - API).

(process),

6.3. -

(object).

143

n, n n
n.

:
.

w:

.
n
;

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n n .

nyre

n ;

n : . (virtual
VRA) n :

memory,

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n n ,

n ;

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n n .

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n.

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6.7).


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144

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(HAL)
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6.3. -

145

. r r

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. API
, .
Win32.
,

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NT, executive - r.
n, n

, , - (
), n
.
10 - 376S

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146

r ,
, n
, , n ,

n n .

6.4. NetWare Novell

NetWare

n n n

n.
n I, n,
, . .

NetWare n

n : n, , ,

n, n . .
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: ,

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NetWare

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m n (

) n .
t- NL- (NetWare Loadale Module-
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. NL--

*.nf

6.8.

SETf!18r,
n

no

NetWare

NetWare.

6.4. NetWare NoveLL

147

() ;
.

NetWare

OSI:
, ( );

IPX, SPX, NetBIOS, TLI);


SPX, NetBIOS, TLI, NCP);
( NetBIOS, NCP);
( RIP, NLSP, SAP).
JPX (lntemetwork Packet eXchange)
(

, ,

NetWare.

IPX
NetWare. rn
- .

,
. ,

IPX

, . .
, IPX,
, .


SPX (Sequenced Packet eXchange),
. SPX
SPX. IPX SPX, ,

IPX , SPX . NetWare NetBIOS IPX

NetBIOS
NetBIOS.EXE, NetWare.
, IPX/ SPX
NetBIOS, ,
NetBIOS . 10'

. n

148

(
(

IPX),

IPX

SPX)

, , .

NetWare

DOS, ]I}{t. DOS,


.
.
, DOS, .

.
, .

, ~ .
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. ()
, , -,
, -, ,
.

NetWare

NetWare

- .

NetWare

;
;
;

;
.

NetWare

. ,

DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh

6.5.

UnixWare,

149

UNIX

n ,

oryr

NetWare.

6.5. UNIX

UNIX

r .
n /IP
& (Streams),

n. Strearns

, n,

. n
-m r ,
,

n
.

UNIX

/ IP.

UNIX

. ,

UNIX

. ,
,

(account name)

(password).

, ,
,

. n
.
, /
.

UNIX

n n

. oryr
(, , , .).
n

UNIX

( -

150

6.

++). r , , -,
UNIX , , -,
.
-
,

UNIX

UNIX

1.

- .

(ootstrap),

.

2.

- ,

(, ).
UNIX
,
(
)
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.

3. -

.

.

4. - ,
, .
UNIX .
ASCII,
.
, . .

;
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UNIX

UNIX

6.5. UNIX

5.

151

r (IPC - Inter-Process
Communications), ,
. ,
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6.

,
.

, ,
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( )
.

, . ,
( ),
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UNIX
,

.
,

, . ,

UNIX,

,
(
).

login

( ), -

152

n
). n

login

shell

n n, n
, jetcjpasswd /etc/

group.

n, n

n .
(
) ,
.
n n

, .
n n

setuid

setgid,

UNIX

, , n ,
.

r
. -, n

UNIX

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(UID - User ldentifier),

.
-, ,
,

. -,

..

i-.

L;nux

Linux -

I-

. r

Window System. Linux n


Internet Unix, DOS,

6.7. Windows Server

MS Windows.

153

,
rr .

Linux -
Unix,
-

. Linux
, Unix,
.

Linux

- rn .
Liux

ware Foundation),

(Free Soft-

SJ

Unix Liux
:
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, oryr

,
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rn
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~

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. Linux
,

Linux

.
, Intemet-yo W-.

. 7.

1
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ll

Windows Server

Windows Server
: ,
n, ,

( . .

6.5).

154

Windows Server :
-;
;
;
;
;
lntemet;
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Windows Server

.
.
.

Windows Server
:

.
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(
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t n

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88W!-88

i\

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6.9.

I
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n
.

w~~.

Windows NT

6.7. Windows Server

155

, n

/ iUi n;
n (RPC Remote Procedure Call),
n;

n:
,

, (
, ).

Windows Server
6.9). :
(Hardware Abstraction
Layer - HAL);
(Kernel);
(Windows N executive);
(Protected subsystems);
(Environment subsystems).

( .

Windows N

,
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NetWare.

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159

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6.8. Windows Server

(Password)

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163

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166

7.

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167

7.2. Internet

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168

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Gopher, USENET, E-mail.


WWW
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
nr , Internet Assistant
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W- n ,
n . .
Apache, Netscape Enterprise Server

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SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
. ,
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n - (),
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174

7. t

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7.5.

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175

<IL > 1</TITLE>


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:
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7.

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7.5.

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190

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106
108
111
112
113
120
125
125
126
127

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191

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6.4. NetWare Novell . .. . ...........
6.5. UNIX ..........................
6.6. Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7. Windows Server .. . ..........
6.8. Windows Server . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8. 1.
................... . .............
6.8.2.
, ..........
6.8.3.
..... . ........

7.

140
146
149
152
153
156
157
159
161

JII ... . ............ . 164

7 .1. ................
7.2. Intemet . . ...........................
7.3. - ........................
7.4. W-r .................... .. .......
7.5. W-

.
.
.
.

164
165
169
172
174

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188



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