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210200 210300


2009

004.7(075)
84173
625
:
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-, 2009. 100 . 100 . ISBN 978-5-8265-0843-5.

625

,
,
, IEEE 802.1Q
IEEE 802.1P. , RTP
RSVP, .
, , 210200 210300 .
004.7(075)
84173

ISBN
0843-5

978-5-8265-

(), 2009

..
..

22.09.2009
60 84/16. 5,81 . . . 100 . 376
-

392000, , , 106, . 14

,
. .
() .
, OSI,
, , .
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1. OSI

1.1.

(Open System Interconnection, OSI). [1]:
1. ( ).
2. ( ).
3. ( ).
4. ( ).
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6. ( ).
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(SASE Specific Application Service Elements). ACSE . , ,
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, ,
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, , (FTAM File Transfer, Access and Management), .
,
OSI- . FTAM , ,
. FTAM
, ,
, , Unisys, ,
. , , , , IBM-.
SASE (VT
Virtual Terminal). VT , , . ,
.
SASE: (trunks actions),
(EDI Electronic Data Interchange), (JTM
Job Transfer and Manipulation). OSI EDI, , . , , -. , .
. .
,
, .
IBM NetView NetView/PC, a Hewlett-Packard
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. OSI ,
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. , , 25- RS-232C, 34 V.35 CCITT 15- , CCITT
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, .

. 1.2 OSI. , OSI


.
1.2. BOC/MOC
.

. . .

CSMA/CD.

.

.
(10
/) 10
s-
(10 /)

.
.

1.2.
? IDC, , ;
[2].
, 2- IEEE 802.1d.
2- . (. 1.1).
, (, Q), 1 2- 2, Q. (forwarding). , ,
2- .
, , , , , 2- . 2- ,
, .
(filtering). , ,
.
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2, , .

MAC. , .
, , MAC.
, .

. 1.1.
, ( ) (wire
speed). ? , , 20 Ethernet . ,
, 20 Ethernet. 64
297 . .
, , , .
,
.
:
Cut-Through ( );
Interim Cut-Through ( );
Store-and-Forward ( );
.
.
2- ,
, ().
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, . , ( ) . , , . ,
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. , , , (root bridge).

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(broadcast domain , ), .

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FAST Fast Ethernet, SLOW Ethernet. ,
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, (routable protocol)
(routing protocols). IP, IPX, Xerox Network System. , ,
, , .
, . ,
.
, , NetBEUI LAT, . , NetBEUI LAT , (, IP), .
,
. -, IP-, -
. , .
, , :
;
;
.
. 1.4.
.
Routing Information Protocol Xerox ( ).

IP RIP, IPX RIP, AppleTalk RTMP


Cisco Interior Gateway Routing Protocol.

. 1.4.
. .
.
, , . , ( ) .
,
.
, . , , .
, .
,
(DUAL). DUAL
.
. Cisco Enhanced IGRP.
. 1970 . , , . . , , . . ,
.

, OSPF, IS-IS NLSP,


.
. DUAL .
. , . , BGP (Border
Gateway Protocol) IDRP (Interdomain Routing Protocol), Internet
. , , , .
,
Internet, , . Intranet, , , , .
: (Routing Information Protocol, RIP), (Open
Shortest Path First, OSPF), (Intermediate System-toIntermediate System, IS-IS). , - ,
.
1.5. RIP
RIP , Internet. , ( ) . RIP 1982 . TCP/IP UNIX, Berkley Software
Distribution. RIP , AppleTalk. (Novell Banyan, ,
) RIP. , Microsoft Windows NT RIP.
, RIP, ,
:
( , , );
(, );
( , , ).
RIP .
.
RIP
. , ,
,
.
.. .
RIP (
30 ) .
. RIP ,
,
; - ( 90
), ,
.
RIP , .
: (hop-count limit), -

(hold-down) (split horizon). . RIP 15, ,


. ( RIP
, 255.)
RIP :
.
1.6. OSPF
RIP (IETF) OSPF; , TCP/IP. OSPF, , , (,
. ) ARPANet 1978 . OSPF . : ,
, . OSPF
, . , OSPF
: , .
OSPF , (link state routing
protocol). link state routing protocol , OSPF
, .
.
, OSPF.
OSPF , , , . ,
. .
OSPF [Type of Service (ToS) Quality of Service (QoS)], IP. OSPF
, ToS. ToS,
, . OSPF , . , ToS , , , OSPF- , . OSPF ,
RFC 1427.
1.7.
, . . switching , .. , , 2, . 3, , , , -
.
(switching) 3 (layer 3) .
-, , . , , ,
.
, 1980-, , ().
. -

80/20, .. 80 % 20 %
. 20 % , .
, , . . .
, ,
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, , .. , . 80/20 ,
: 80/20, 20/80, 50/50, ... , . ( 3- ) . , , , , . :
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, .
3 (OSI).
, , IP IPX.
2- (), , . 3 , 3.
,
-. ,
, : ,
(. 1.2).

1.2.

3 ,

2- .



ISP

3- .
2- .

ISP

3- , , ,



3-


.

(
).

,
ISP

1.8.
, ,
, 3- .
.
.
, , ,
.
,
. , , IP ( AppleTalk IPX), ( IP Multicast OSPF), ( ).
Lucent Tecnologies, Nortel
Networks, Cisco, Extreme Networks .
(drop-in) . . , GRF
IP Switch Ascend ISP (Internet Service Provider)
.
, ,
.
, , SwitchNode Bay Networks IP
Autolearn, , Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
3- 2- . , SwitchNode

.
1.9.
IP-. ( 3- )
,
2- . , , Web-. , , .
ATM (frame relay), .
.
: ATM Forum Ipsilon. ATM Forum
ATM Multiprotocol
over ATM (MPOA), . Ipsilon
MPOA IP-
(IP switching). IP- , Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol (IFMP). Ipsilon
IFMP.
Secure Fast Virtual Networking , (SVC).
-. . , -
( 2). ,
( ) , . . 1.5.

SmartSwitch ARP , .
:
;
;
;
;
.

. 1.5. Secure Fast Virtual Networking


Cabletron
:
;
(
);
SecureFast
Virtual Networking (. ).

. . Smart Switch 2000/6000/9000, ,


.
1.10.
, ,
() ,
3- .
Tag Switching (
), Cisco.
Cisco ,
, .
,
,
. ,
.

. Cisco Tag Distribution Protocol
(TDP),
. Cisco Internet
(Internet Engineering Task Force IETF) .
Multiprotocol Switched Services (MSS) IBM
FastIP 3Com
(Next Hop Resolution Protocol NHRP).
. , .
, , .
NHRP MSS , FastIP , 3Com.

IP-, ,
.
,
(), Lucent, IBM 3Com
3- .
IP- Ipsilon Networks IP Switching.
Ipsilon . IP- , (, ), , . , ,
.. .
, .
, . , , . 1.3.

1.3.

ftp

DNS

telnet

SMTP

HTTP

Network Timing (NTP)


Web

POP

SNMP

, Ipsilon Cisco Systems , Ipsilon ,


IP. , , , IP. ,
. 30 % IP, .
RIP, OSPF, BGR CIP, Ipsilon , (Ipsilon Flow
Management Protocol IFMP). IP . , IFMP, ,
, . c ATM,
. IFMP ,
3Com IBM.
Ipsilon (General Switch
Management Protocol GSMP) ATM. IFMP GSMP
RFC. , www.ipsilon.com.
, Ipsilon .
, IP . IP , , - , , , IPX Novell. Ipsilon ,
IPX.
IP- (QoS). IP
, QoS
RSVP . IP- IP-
.
, IP-, . , IP-, , IP. .
, IP- ,
. , ( ). , ,
IP-.
1.11.
4- . ? .
, . , 4 OSI
TCP User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Internet
Protocol. TCP , UDP ,
. 4 , -

, , .
, TCP- UDP- , , .
, ,
(. 1.6).

POP 3

110
TCP

HTTP

80

NFS

...

SMTP

25

Telnet

...

ICMP(Internet
Control Message
Protocol)

IP

UDP
FTP

...

ARP (Address
Resolution
Protocol)

. 1.6. TCP/IP
4 /
3 . ,
,
.
4, 4- , .
, (QoS), , .
, 4 .
, 4 TCP- HTTP, NFS, Telnet, FTP, SMTP, POP 3 .. (). ,
.
2 , ,
3, , . , 4
3.
. 1.7
2- , 3- ( Smart Switch Router Cabletron Systems
).
,
2
802.1d/p/Q, port based VLANs, Flow Switching, L2 ..; , 3- IP/IPX port based VLANs,
: DNS, L3 QoS, ACLs, Proxy ARP .., 4- ,
, , RMON2, .
, Dataquest,
, . 4 , 3 OSI, , , . 4 . , 3 ,
3.

. 1.7. 2- ,
3-
, 4
. , ,
. 4,
.
1.12. IEEE 802.1Q IEEE 802.1
, P Q, (). :
, , Fast
Ethernet;
, , , Token
Ring FDDI.
, ,
, , Cisco.
802.1Q .
:
;
;
;
;
ATM, ;
.
802.1Q Ethernet . 32 Ethernet . ,
, 12 4096 ,
(Token Ring, FDDI),
Ethernet, ..
, 802.1P.

Ethernet 802.1Q 802.3 ( Ethernet)


( Ethernet II) (. 1.8).
,
802.1P 802.1Q. , Ethernet
(. 1.9).

. 1.8. IEEE 802.1Q Ethernet

. 1.9.
, Ethernet Ethernet, .
, - 802.1Q ( ),
x8100
(Tag Protocol Identifier) 802.1Q.
Ethernet,
. 1518 . , Ethernet . 802.1Q ,
.
, 802.1Q , -

. 802.1Q
802.1Q , .
. IEEE 802.1P,
802.1Q, .
,
.
, . 802.1P , , .

(ISSLL) ,
.
: 10 , 100
. , , . (Resource Reservation
Protocol RSVP) , .
RSVP, ,
, , SSR 8000/8600 Cabletron.
802.1P GARP (Generic
Attributes Registration Protocol) . GMRP
(GARP Multicast Registration Protocol),
. , . GMRP
, , 802.1Q.
GARP GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol),
GMRP. , , . P Q.
802.1Q 802.1P
Ethernet. ,
, , , , Lotus Notes , RealAudio . , 802.1Q 802.1P, ,
Ethernet.
, , (
) . , 802.1Q 802.1P IP- ( ), , ..
.
, IP-. . ? ?
?
? , , ,
.
Ethernet, IP , 1981 .
IP- (Type of Service, ToS),
(. IP):
;
() ,
( ).

ToS IP- ( 0 7), 802.1Q 802.1P, .


Ethernet
IP, , ,
Ethernet IP .
ToS . , , NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol), UseNet, (low cost),
Telnet (low latency).
RFC 791 ( IP)
, , 1
0 . RFC 1349
,
. 16 ( 0 15).
, , ,
OSPF, . , low latency
( ) ,
, ( low cost) ,
.
,
, : , Lotus Notes . Notes , .
, RealAudio (high
throughput).
- , .
.
.
, .
. , IP-.
, . , .
, IP- . WINSOCK.DLL, Windows XP
Windows Server 2003, ,
setsockopt (IP_TOS) invalid operation ( ). , Irix, HP-UX Solaris,
.
ToS Linux
Digital UNIX. , . , Telnet, low latency ToS . FTP, Linux Digital
UNIX, low latency , ,
high throughput , . FTP,

abort operation ( ), ( ).
ToS? ,
, ,
. , Microsoft WINSOCK.DLL
Windows, Lotus Development, Netscape Communications Oracle
.
, ,
. IP , .
, .
, , , , , Notes, FTP.
, , ,
.
IP- , . , 802.1Q 802.1P.
1.13. RTP RSVP
, . (RTP PSVP) .

. - Telnet . World Wide Web .
.
, .
,
.
IP . . , IP , ,
.
,
Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
.
, IP,
.
TCP/IP .
: (Real-Time Transport Protocol, RTP) (Resource Reservation Protocol, RSVP).
RTP .
, . RSVP ,
RTP.
TCP. TCP
,
.
,
(-) . -

- , ( ), , , , , .
TCP . -, , , . , ,
. , TCP , .
UDP ( ), . , UDP -
.
,
, ,
. RTP, RFC 1889.
.
, , .

. , , . ,
, .
RTP .
( RTP,
. RTP.)
RTP ,
. RTP , , . RTP ,
.
, RTP .
, RTP.
RTP ,
RTP . ,
.
. ,
, RTP.
,
.
, RTP, ,
. - . RTP, ,
(-) (-), .
RTP
RTP. , , .
,
, . , .
RTP , , , , . . 1.10. 12
:

(2 ): ;
(1 ): . ( , ,
, , 32 .) ;

Extension

31
V(2)

P(1)

X(1)

(4)

M(1)

T(7)

PN(5)


(SSRC)
(CSRC)
CSRC

. 1.10. RTP-
(1 ): ,
, , RTP;
(4 ): ,
, ;
(1 ): . . .
;
(7 ):
, .
, ,
(Real-Time Transport
Control Protocol);
(16 ): , RTP. . ,
(, , );
(32 ): ,
. , ,
. ;
: , .
RTP- , , , , , .
, .
,
. .
RTP . (Real

Time Transport Control Protocol, RTCP)


RTP .
RTCP , RTP ( UDP), . RTCP- . RFC 1889 , RTCP.
. RTCP- , ,
.
. ,
, . , - , .
.
, ,
.
RTCP . RTCP .
, . ,
, . ,
, .
.
, , RTCP.
.
RTCP .
RFC 1889 . , RTCP-
. , RTCP 5 %
.
,
, .
.
. , , .. , .
, .
. , . , .

. (, ).
,
. .
.
, , , ,
. .
. -,
. , ( ),
.
-, . , : , . : -


.
,
, .
, .
frame relay
.
, ,
.
.
. , , , . , .
,
. ,
, .
.
(, ), .
.
RSVP , : ,
. , . ,
RTP, RSVP RTP .
.
-, , .
.
, .
, .
( ),
(. 1.11). , , , .
.
, .
RSVP , .
: Rspec (R ) Tspec (T ).
. Rspec ,
Tspec . Rspec Tspec RSVP.

(
)

. 1.11.

,
(.. , ). ,
, .
, . 1.12.
.
- , ,
.
RSVP . . 1.13.
Gl, G2 G3 , . S1 S2 . S1 S2. S1 S2
. , , , . Gl,
G2 G3 . S1 S2.
S1 , S2 . S1 S2.
, . , .
RSVP : Resv Path. Resv ,
, . ( ).
Resv -.
,
.
Resv . 1.14.

RTP

(Real time Transport Protocol)

. ,
.
RSVP

(Resourse Reservetion Protocol)
,
RTP.

IP v.4

IP- 8-
(Type of service),
:
,
(
),
.
IP-
8 (07),
802,1Q 802,1P
.

Ethernet IP, , , Ethernet
IP
ISP.

LLC

( Media
Access Control


802.1Q,

Ethernet 4 .
(3 ) .
IEEE 802,1 802,1D;


. ,
IEEE 801.P
,
, IEEE 802.1Q.

. 1.12. OSI

. 1.13. RSVP

. 1.14. Resv
Resv , . .
, ; , . .
Path .
( ). Resv -.
, RSVP Path. , , Path
. - path,
, ,
. Path , .
RSVP. , ( ).

IGMP .
.
Path, .
, ,
Resv .
Resv .
.
.
.
, . RTP RSVP LAN.
VoIP (Voice
over IP) IP-, H.232
-, IP-. RTP , RSVP .

2.

. , () . ,

[4].
2.1.
Internet .
, ,
, . .

. , , . , ,
Internet. , , ,
.
Internet.
, . Internet . 2.1.

. , , , . ,
, , . , .

. 2.1.
Internet [4]
, / . , . [4].
. :
;

- ( );
.
, . .
2.2.

. 2.2.
. , , , , . , Telnet.
, 23 (
Telnet ). I- , . .
, . ,
. ,
. , . , . ,
.
-. , , , -. -.
. - ,
, .
-: , , , .
. -,
.
, .
, ,
. , , .
, .
.
, I- I-
. I- , Internet, I. I- ,
.

. -,
UD, . , .
, UD , . , , ,
.
. ,
, , .
.
,
. , , , . ,
. .
, . , .
, .
.
, .
, ,
[4].
, . ,
. , , . , , , . , .

. 2.3.
. 2.3.
. . .
.
. .
, Internet . , I-, Internet,

, .
Internet.
, , . , I- I- .
. I- , : . , .
- . . 2.4.
,
-, Telnet, F, .

. 2.4.
. 2.4, , ,
, , . .
. ,
, .
-. Internet
. , .

, - , Internet.
,
-. . 2.5.
Internet.
- , , . ,
. , .

Internet

. 2.5.
, ,
F, Telnet, , -. , , , , , -. - , F, ,
Telnet, DNS, SMTP.
, -,
.
, -.
-.
.
, . , , -. , (DMilitarized Zone DZ),
, Internet.
DMZ ,
. , . . 2.6, -
DMZ.

. 2.6.

DMZ Internet. , DMZ, . , . DMZ


. -
, DMZ, .
- , DMZ,
. ,
DMZ, . - .
2.2.

(Virtual Private Network
VPN). . ( ,
.) ,
VN . VPN , . , , VPN
.
VPN , . , ,
VPN.
I-, Internet. , Internet-VPN , VPN,
, . VPN
Internet-VPN [4].
Internet. Internet
,
Internet . - VPN
, Internet,
, .
VPN , . , , Internet
. VPN
Internet.
. Internet
I I, I, 1llk. VPN
I-, , , I- Internet. , , .
, Internet
.
, Internet. , , .
VPN QoS. VPN
. ,
. -

(Service Level Agreement SLA).


I-. , . , Internet. , I- .

QoS- QoS, Internet, .
:
VPN = + + QoS.
, VPN.
VPN. VPN :
.
intranet tranet.
Internet VPN
, intranet. intranet , extranet. , intranet extranet,
3.
VPN
intranet. intranet.
VPN I-.
, I-, .
. VPN. ,
Internet , :
VPN : , , , ,
;
intranet VPN ;
extranet VPN , .
VPN intranet tranet.
VPN. VPN : VPN, (Network Access Server NAS), , , VPN, VPN. VPN
. (NAS) , ISDN. .
NAS ,
VN. , , . ( VPN
.) VPN , . VPN . 2.7.

. 2.7.
VPN ,
:
(Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PPTP);
SI (Layer 2 Forwar-ding L2F);
OSI (Layer 2 Tunneling L2TP);
I- (I Security Protocol IPSec).
L2F IF,
L2.
SI. , L2F, L2.
IS.
OSI. SI.
I. .
. . VPN.
. 2.8. , NAS.
.
, NAS
. , NAS
VPN, L.
VPN
. VPN . .

NAS

VPN

LSP-

VPN
VPN


NCP
VPN-

. 2.8. VPN

. icrosoft , Ascend Communications m.
I I,
NetBEUI, I, I- Internet. ,
, . , I, ..
I.
, VPN, - (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Access Concentrator PAC), VPN (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol Network Server PNS). , , . 2.9.
. .
(Generic Routing Encapsulation GRE) I.
, , ,
GRE. . 2.10. I.

. 2.9. VPN,

IP

GRE

IP

TCP

. 2.10.
, VPN
. . , , - . .
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, .25,
.
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, L2F, .
, ,
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. 2.11. VPN, L2F


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PPP

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L2F. P, , L2
UDP, GRE. GRE, L2 , P L2 (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Access Concentrator LAC), VPN L2 (Layer 2
Tunneling Protocol Network Server LNS). VPN, L2,
. 2.13.

. 2.13. VPN, L2TP


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.
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IP

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, .
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2.3. VPN
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. , . 2.17.
. ,
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. 2.17. ,

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.
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.

3.

[4] , . Internet.
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I.
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. . Internet ,
. VPN . Internet [4].
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, . , ,
, , , .

. 3.1. intranet c
,
. intranet . , .

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I- intranet VPN.
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. , , ; ,
.
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, .
.

. intranet
.
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, , ,
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. extranet intranet.
extranet, ,
.
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extranet, , , ; ,
. .
, extranet . ,
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. 3.2. extranet
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extranet. extranet [4] Web, Internet . Web extranet . , ,


, , . intranet. extranet .
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.
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, , extranet. . extranet .
. : , ,
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. extranet intranet, , .
extranet L2 ISec.
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extranet,
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, extranet, . Web-. Internet, .
, extranet. extranet . . , ,
.
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.
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. .
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.
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.

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I- ,
, intranet, extranet Internet. . ,
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. , Internet,
.
Internet,
.
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, . , Internet intranet .
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, . 3.3.

. 3.3. Internet

. , ,
, , . D ,
G1.
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. , . , -

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. , ,
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. ,
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. . , , , . ;

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.
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,
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.

. , , .
. Internet , .
,
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. intranet, I- , intranet, Internet.


, , , SN.
. VoIP
. , , VoIP, ,
.
, I-, , , ,
/, , . . IU-
.323, (Resource reservation Protocol RSVP),
(LDAP).
.323 ITU. .323 , - . Internet.
. .323
, .
: ITU- G.711, ITU-T G.722, ITU- G.723, ITU- G.723.1, ITU- G.728 ITU-
G.729 ; ITU- .225.0 ; ITU- .245

; ITU- .261 ITU- H.263 ; ITU- .120
( ). , , .323, ITU- Q.931 ,
.
1997 . VoI G.729 G.723.1, . , G.723.1, 64 6,3 /,
8 /. , 8
/, , 6,3 /, VoI
.
, , (Registration, Admission, Status RAS) .245, ITU-
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, , . Q.931 .323.
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. 3.4 , . 3.3,
.
. ,
,
. VoIP.
,
, .
,
. VoIP
1720, .323 VoIP . , , Q.931.



TG 1

TG 2

VPN

Internet
ATC2

. 3.4.

Q.931 .245 , 1024. Q.931.
. , R R .245.
.245 ,
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.323 , .
, : , .
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/I. , /I . , . UDP . , , . ,
5 % .

.323

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Q.931
( )

( .245)

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( RTCP)
(
RTCP&RTP)
( RTCP)

.245
( )

(
RTCP&RTP)
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RTP
( UDP)

. 3.5. VoIP
VoIP . , VoIP I-. Internet , ,
I-.
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.
. I- , ,
. , , ,
, , . IETF .
RSVP
. , . , . ,
. , RSVP, , , ,
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,
. , . ,
.
. ,

(QoS).
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.
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. : (), (RESV). ( ) , , . , , QoS.
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, , , RESV
( , ), ,
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, .
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.
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. . (One Path With
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. ,
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RSVP . 3.6. R,
R, R, RD, , , S1, R1 R2. . 3.5
, R RESV,
. ,
RESV .
RSVP :
1. . , , .. QoS.

2. , RESV , .

RA

R1

RB

R2

S1

RD

RC

PATH

RA

R1

RB

R2

S1

RD

RC

c
RESV

. 3.6. RSVP
3. , RESV, QoS,

. QoS, .
4. , RESV ,
, QoS .
5. RESV, , QoS. REVS.
. , .500.
,
. LDAP Internet-
, Internet PSTN. I, Internet.
I-.
R R. ,

. I, UDP. , QoS.

RTP- ,
, - , .
R R. .
R .
. , R , , RTCP- ,
. , , RTCP-. , R
.
. - (Pulse Code Modulation PCM)
64 /. 8 / .729 5,3 /, .723.1. , 5,3 / 6,3 /.
. , . l ,
36 40 % . , , I . .
, , .
.
, .
3.4. INTERNET
, , , - , . ,
. I-,
, , ,
. ,
, , , , .
() , . , ,
. .
,
. , ,
. ,
, .

: . . , ,
.
.
,
- . , -,
. , -, - . , , . . I, I, Dnet llk.
intranet
. ,
, .
, .
intranet .
, . , , . .
intranet Web-,
.
, . , , , , , , , .

, . OSI, , . , intranet, extranet I-.


,
, , , . .
.

1. , .. : / .. . . :
-, 2006. 334 .
2. , . . Platinum Edition / . , . .
. : , 2005. 720 .
3. , .. / .. . 4- . . :
, 2004. 992 .
4. , . . , : . . / . . . :
, 2002. 336 .
5. , .. . , , / .. , .. . 3- . . : , 2006. 958 .
6. , . : / . . . :
, 2000. 576 .
7. , .. / .. , .. . . :
, 2001. 544 .
8. . TCP/IP. , / . . 4- . . :
, 2003. 880 .
9. , . / . . 2- . . :
, 2003. 783 .
10.
, . / . . . :
, 2003. 640 .
11.
, . / . . 2- . . :
, 2001. 672 .
12.
Web- : http://www.citforum.ru/ ; http://www.protocols.ru/.

..
OSI
..
1.
1.1.

...
1.2.

1.3.
..
1.4.
.
1.5. RIP
.
1.6. OSPF
..
1.7.

1.8. -

3
4

4
14
15
18
23
24
25
28


2.

3.

..
1.9.
..
1.10.
1.11.
.
1.12. IEEE 802.1Q IEEE 802.1
.
1.13. RTP RSVP
.


.
2.1.

.
2.2.
..
2.3. VPN
.


..
3.1. INTRANET

3.2. EXTRANET
...
3.3. I-
..
3.4.
INTERNET

...

.

29
30
33
35
42

54

54
61
70

75
75
78
81
94
97
98