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711 !

--

2011

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373.167.1:51
22.1721
444
20

20

..

711 / .. . /: ,
2011. 331 . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-222-17888-1
, ,
, , , .
9
.
,
.
711 ,
,
, , .

ISBN 978-5-222-17888-1

373.167.1:51
22.1721

.., 2010
: , 2010

www.phoenixbooks.ru

,
,

.
,
40 .
. , , , , . .
- , ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
, , , .
9 ,
. -

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4 ...

,
.
.
, , , XIII . .

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1. 5

1.

1. x3 + x + 3 2 = 0.
.

I
x = y 2 ,
2 2 y3 + 2 y + 3 2 = 0 2y3 + y + 3 = 0. (1)
, y = 1
(1), ,
(y + 1):
2y(y2 1) + 3(y + 1) = 0,
(y + 1)(2y2 2y + 3) = 0, y = 1.
2y2 2y + 3 = 0 (D < 0).
y = 1, , , x = 2
.
: x = 2 .
II

(x3 + 2 2 ) + (x + 2 ) = 0,
(x3 + ( 2 )3) + (x + 2 ) = 0, , ,
(x + 2 )(x2 2x + 2) + (x + 2 ) = 0,
(x +

2 )(x2 2x + 3), x = 2 .

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6 ...

x2 2x + 3 = 0 , D < 0.
: x = 2 .
2.
4x4 49x2 4x + 14 = 0.
.

14, ,
.
, x = 0 , , 4x2 z 0,
49
1
7
=

,
x2
4
x
2x2
1
7
7
7

x  x  = 2 x  , :
x
2
2
2

7
1) x
= 0, x1 = 3,5.
2
7
1
1
1
2) x +
= 2 , x
= 2 4,
2
x
2
x
2
2x  1
1  4x
1 2x  1
=
, (2x 1) 
= 0,
2
2
x
x2
2
1
2x  1
x2 = 0,5,
+
= 0, x2 + 4x + 2 = 0,
2
x2
x3,4 = 2 2 .
: x1 = 3,5; x2 = 0,5; x3,4 = 2

2.

II
4:
16x4 196x2 16x + 56 = 0,
(2x)4 49 (2x)2 8 (2x) + 56 = 0.

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1. 7

2x = y,
y4 49y2 8y + 56 = 0,
y2(y2 1) 8(6y2 + y 7) = 0,
y2(y2 1) 8(y 1)(6y + 7) = 0,
(y 1)(y3 + y2 48y 56) = 0,
y1 = 1, y3 + y2 48y 56 = 0.
y = 1, 2x = 1, x1 = 0,5.
y3 + y2 48y 56 = 0,
y2(y 7) + 8y(y 7) + 8(y 7) = 0,
(y 1)(y3 + y2 48y 56) = 0,
y2 = 7, y3,4 = 4 2 2 .
y = 7, 2x = 7, x2 = 3,5.
y3,4 = 4 2 2 , x3,4 = 2 2 .
: x1 = 0,5; x2 = 3,5; x3,4 = 2

2.

III
4x 49x 4x + 14 = 0.
,
x2(2x 7)(2x + 7) 2(2x 7) = 0,
(2x 7)(2x3 + 7x2 2) = 0, x1 = 3,5;
2x3 + 7x2 2 = 0, x2(2x 1) + 2(4x2 1) = 0,
(2x 1)(x2 + 4x + 2) = 0, . .
: x1 = 0,5; x2 = 3,5; x3,4 = 2 2 .
4

3. (1 + x2)2 = 4x(1 x2).

.

I

(x4 + 4x3 + 4x2) 2x2 4x + 1 = 0,
(x2 + 2x)2 2(x2 + 2x) 1 + 1 = 0.
,
:
(x2 + 2x 1)2 = 0, x2 + 2x 1 = 0,

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2. 23

2.

1.
x2  y2 10,

xy 3.

(1)

.
.
I
II (1),
x2  y2 10,
(2)
2 2
x y 9.
, x 2 y 2
t2 10t + 9 = 0.
, x2 = 9, y2 = 1 x2 = 1, y2 = 9.
, (2) 8 : (3; 1), (3; 1), (3; 1), (3; 1), (1; 3), (1; 3),
(1; 3), (1; 3).
xy = 3 > 0, x y
. (1) 4 .
: (3, 1); (3, 1); (1, 3); (1, 3).
II
(1)
x2  y2 10,

2xy 6.

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(3)

24 ...

(3):
(x  y)2 16, x  y r4,

2
(x  y) 4;
x  y r2.
4
x  y 4,
x  y 4,
)
)
x  y 2;
x  y 2;
x  y 4,
x  y 4,
)
)
x  y 2;
x  y 2.
, 4 .
(3; 1), (1; 3), (1; 3), (3; 1).
: (3; 1), (3; 1), (1; 3), (1; 3).
III
x2  y2 10,
,
2xy 6;
x2 + 2xy + y2 = 16, x + y = 4,

x  y 4, x  y 4,

xy 3;
xy 3;
x1 3, x2 1, x3 3, x4 1,

y1 1; y2 3; y3 1; y4 3.
: (3; 1), (3; 1), (1; 3), (1; 3).
IV
x + y x + y xy:
x2 + y2 = (x + y)2 2xy,
:
(x  y)2  2xy 10,

xy 3.
2

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2. 25

x + y = a, xy = b, :
a2  2b 10, a2 16, a r4,

b 3.
b 3;
b 3;
, :
x  y r4,
. . III .

xy 3;
: (3; 1), (3; 1), (1; 3), (1; 3).
V
(1) , x z 0, y z 0, ,
I II, x
y
10
x
+
=
,
= t, :
y
x
3
y
t +

1
10
=
, 3t2 10t + 3 = 0, t1 = 3,
t
3

1
.
3
II
, :
x
3,

) y
, xy 3;

t2 =

3
, y = 1.
x
, ) (3; 1) (3; 1);
x 1 x
, xy 1, x2 1, x r1,

) y 3 y

xy 3; y r3.
xy 3; xy 3;

: x2 = 9, x = 3, y =

) (1; 3) (1; 3).

4 .
: (3; 1), (3; 1), (1; 3), (1; 3).

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88 ...

3. .

1.
1. 14 3 108 .
,
42 3?
.
I ( )

, 1 3 14
.
108
54
=
(); 42 3 , ,
1 3
14
7
42 , 1 3; 42 3
54 42
= 324 .
7
: 324 .
II ( )

, .
14 : 42 = 108 : x,
108 42
= 324, x .
x=
14
: 324 .

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3. . 89

2. 2 .
2
14 % .
7
?
.
I
2
2
x : 2 = 14 : 114 ,
7
7
2
100
2 14
2
7 =
7 = 2 100 = 1 () = 250 .
x=
2
800
800
4
114
7
7
: 250 .
II
2
1
%,
7
7
, 7 , ;
2
,
= 250 .
8
: 250 .
14

3.
60 /,
40 /. ?
.
I

,
S
1
=
( )
t1 =
v1
60

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90 ...

t2 =

S
1
=
v2
40

( ).
2 S
2 1
2 1 120
=
=
= 48 (/)
v. =
1
1
t1  t2
2

3

60 40
: 48 /.
II

, 40 60, , 120,
240, 360 . .,
.
1.
240 .
2.
:
S
240
=
= 4 ();
t1 =
v1
60
t2 =

S
240
=
= 6 ().
v2
40

3. :
4 + 6 = 10 ().

2 S = 2 240 = 480 ().
4. :
2 S
480
v. =
=
= 48 (/).
t
10
: 48 /.

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4. , 105

4. ,

1.
1.
(2x 1)( x + 4x 2) = x.
.
I

2x x

x + 8x2 4x 4x + 2 = x.

2x x x + 8x2 + 2 9x = 0.
(1)
, x = 0
. (1) x z 0,

1
2
+ 8x +
9 = 0,
2 x
x
x
1
1

2 x 
+ 8 x  4x 9 = 0.
2 x

1
x
= t,
2 x
1
1
t2 = x +
1 x+
= t2 + 1.
4x
4x
, (2)
2t + 8(t2 + 1) 9 = 0, 8t2 + 2t 1 = 0,
D/4 = 1 + 8 = 9 = 32 > 0,

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(2)

106 ...

1 r 3
1
1
, t 1 = , t2 = .
8
4
2
, :
1
1
1) x
= , 4x x 2 = 0, x > 0.
4
2 x
x :
t1,2 =

1 r 33
1  33
, ( x )1 =
,
8
8
1
1
x1 =
(1 + 33 )2 =
(34 + 2 33 ) =
64
64
1
=
(17 + 33 ),
32
x =

( x )2 =

1  33
< 0 ( ,
8

x > 0).

1
1
= , 2x + x 1 = 0,
2
2 x
1 r 3
1
1
, ( x )3 = , . . x = ,
x =
4
2
4
( x )4 = 1 < 0 ( ).
, .
1
1
(17 + 33 ), x2 = .
: x1 =
32
4

2)

II
2x 1 = a, x = b, b t 0,
a(b + 2a) = b2,
ab + 2a2 = b2, b2 ab 2a2 = 0.

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4. , 107

b2 2ab + ab 2a2 = 0,
b(b 2a) + a(b 2a) = 0, (b 2a)(b + a) = 0,

2) b = a,
1) b = 2a,
x = 4x 2,
x = 1 2x,
2
x = 16x 16x + 4,
x = 1 4x + 4x2,
2
16x 17x + 4 = 0,
4x2 5x + 1 = 0,

1
x3 = 1, x4 = .
4
17 r 33
,
x1,2 =
x = 1 32
, 1 2x t 0.
17  33
x1 =
( 32
),
17  33
x2 =
.
32
: x1 =

1
(17 +
32

33 ), x2 =

1
.
4

2.
9x2 + 42x 2  x + 33(2 + x) = 0.
.
I
, x = 2 x = 0
, x 2  x z 0,
9x
33 2  x
+ 42 +
= 0.
x
2 x

x
= y,
2 x

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5. 171

5.

1.
1. 5x 2 = 8.
.
I
:
5  2 t 0,
5  2  0,
)
)
5  2 8;
2  5 8.
) x1 = 2, ) x2 = 1,2.
: x1 = 2, x2 = 1,2.
II
, |5x 2|2 = 64;
|t|2 = t2,
(5x 2)2 = 64, 5x 2 = 8, x1 = 2,
6
x2 = = 1,2.
5
6
: x1 = 2, x2 = = 1,2.
5

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172 ...

2. |5x 2| = x + 6. (1)
.
I
. (1) ,
:
5  2 t 0,
5  2 d 0,
)
)
5  2  6;
2  5  6.
) x1 = 2, ) 2
x2 = .
3
II ,
(1) ,
. . x + 6 t 0. ,
,
. , (1)

 6 t 0,

2
2
(5  2) (6  x) ,
2
x1 = 2; x2 = .
3
2
: x1 = 2; x2 = .
3
3. |x 2| + |x + 5| = 9.
.
I ( )
,
: x1 = 2; x2 = 5.
5

www.phoenixbooks.ru

5. 173

.
1) d 5, 2 x x 5 = 9,
x = 6 ;
2) 5 < x d 2, 2 x + x + 5 = 9, 7 = 9
, , (5; 2] ;
3) x > 2. x 2 + x + 5 = 9,
x = 3 .
: x1 = 6; x2 = 3.
II ()
y = |x 2| + |x + 5|
, Ox.
y
B

y=9

A
7
5
3
1

6 5

1 2 3

y = 8
y = |x 2| + |x + 5| (3; 9), (6; 9).
, .
: x1 = 6; x2 = 3.

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188 ...

6.
,

1.

1. .
1  log2 x + 4log 4 x  2 = 4.
.
I
log4 x =

1
log2 x,
2

1  log2 x +

2log2 x  2 = 4.

(1)

1  log2 x = y, y t 0, 1 + log2 x = y2,

log2 x = y2 1 2 log2 x 2 = 2y2 4.
, (1)
y+

2y2  4 = 4,

2y2  4 = 4 y.

,
2y2 4 = 16 8y + y2, y2 + 8y 20 = 0,
y1 = 10, y2 = 2. y1 = 10 ,
y t 0.
y = 2, , 1 + log2 x = 4.
log2 x = 3, x = 8.
, x = 8
(1), , .
: x = 8.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

6. 189

II
1 + log2 x = a2, 2 log2 x 2 = b2, a t 0, b t 0,
(1) a + b = 4.
, 2a2 b2 = 4. ,

2a2  b2 4, 2a2  (4  a)2 4,

a  b 4;
b 4  a.
,
2a2 16 + 8a a2 = 4,
a2 + 8a 20 = 0, . . (. I ).
2.
2

6log6 x + xlog6 x = 12.

.
I
xlog6 x = t, t > 0,
6,
(1)
log6 x log6 x = log6 t, log26 x = log6 t.

6log6 t + t = 12, t + t = 12,
t = 6, (1)
log26 x = 1, log6 x = 1,
x1 = 6, x2 = 61 =

1
.
6

1
.
6
II

: x1 = 6, x2 =

6log6 xlog6 x + xlog6 x = 12,

(6log6 x )log6 x + xlog6 x = 12, xlog6 x + xlog6 x = 12,

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190 ...

2 xlog6 x = 12, xlog6 x = 6.

(2)
(2) 6, log6 x log6 x = log6 6,
log26 x = 1, . . (. I ).
: x1 = 6, x2 =

1
.
6

3.
64 9x 84 12x + 27 16x = 0.
.
I
12 > 0 x R, ,
12x z 0,
x

3
4
64 + 27 84 = 0.
4
3
x

3
= t, t > 0,
4
27
64t +
84 = 0 64t2 84t + 27 = 0,
t
48
3
36
9
D/4 = 36 = 62 > 0, t1 =
= , t2 =
=
.
64
4
64
16
x

3
3
3
t = , = , x1 = 1;
4
4
4
x

9
9
3
, =
, x2 = 2.
t =
16
16
4
: x1 = 1, x2 = 2.
II
3 = a, 4 = b, a > 0 ; b > 0.
x

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7. 207

7.
.

1.
1. sin x + cos x = 1.
.
I
(
)
x
x
x
cos 1 cos x = 2 sin2 ,
2
2
2

x
x
x
2 sin cos 2 sin2
= 0,
2
2
2
x
x
x
2 sin cos  sin = 0,
2
2
2
x
x
x
sin = 0, cos sin = 0.
2
2
2
x
x
sin = 0,
= Sn, x = 2Sn, n Z;
2
2
x
x
x
x
S
cos sin = 0, tg = 1;
=
+ Sn,
2
2
2
2
4
S
x =
+ 2Sn, n Z.
2
S
+ 2Sn, n Z.
: x = 2Sn, x =
2
sin x = 2 sin

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208 ...

II
( )

1
1
1
sin x +
cos x =
,
2
2
2

2,

1
S
S
S

sin x  =
,x+
= (1)n + Sn,
4
4
4
2

S
S
x = + (1)n + Sn, n Z.
4
4
 , . , n = 2k n = 2k + 1
, , .
S
+ 2Sn, n Z.
: x = 2Sn, x =
2
III
( )
sin x = 2 sin

x
x
x
x
cos ; cos x = cos2 sin2
2
2
2
2

x
x
+ cos2 , 2
2
x
x
x
sin cos sin2 = 0.
2
2
2

.
x
x
x
x
cos2 z 0, tg x tg2 = 0, tg 1  tg = 0,
2
2
2
2
x
x
tg = 0, 1 tg = 0.
2
2
1 = sin2

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7. 209

x
= Sn, x = 2Sn, n Z,
2

x
S
S
=
+ Sn, x =
+ 2Sn, n Z.
2
4
2
S
+ 2Sn, n Z.
: x = 2Sn, x =
2
IV
( sin x + cos x =

2 sin x  .
4

S
S
S

= (1)n + Sn,
2 sin x  = 1, x +
4
4
4

S
S
+ (1)n + Sn, n Z.
4
4
(. II ).
S
: x = 2Sn, x =
+ 2Sn, n Z.
2
V
( )
n Z, x =

S
cos x = sin  x , 2

S
sin x + sin  x = 1, ,
2

S
S

cos x  = 1,
4
4

1
S
S

,
2 cos x  = 1, cos x  =
4
4
2

, 2 sin

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8. 239

8.
1.
1. ,
, .
.
I
CD 'ABC. ,
CE 'CBD 'CD,
S
BD
= 'CBD .
(1)
DA
S'CDA
C
12

, 1 = 2 (DC ),

S'CBD
CB CD
CB
=
.
(2)
=
CD CA
CA
S'CDA
(1) (2),
.

BD
CB
=
, DA
CA

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240 ...

II
BDC = D, ADC = 180 D.
C

D
D

'BCD
BD
sin BCD
=
BC
sin D
sin ACD
sin ACD
'ACD
=
=
.
AC
sin(180q  D)
sin D
CD , BCD = ACD.
BD
,
=
, . . .
BC
AC
III
CD
|| . 2 = 3 (
). , 1 = 2 ( ).
, 1 = 3, . . 'CEA ( )
= ; 'AED ~ 'BCD ( ,
1 = 3 BDC = ADE ).

www.phoenixbooks.ru

8. 241

C
2

3
E

,
.

BD
BC
=
AC

2. , ' = 2, 2 , = 5 .
.
.
I
D , 1 = 2 =
= 3.
'ADC , . . 2 = 3
= x, AD = DC = y, = x + 2,
D = x + 2 y.
, 'ABD ~ 'ABC (B
, 1 = 3).

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286 ...

9.
1.

1. k,
2
2
x  k u ,
.
2
2
x  k v
.
, :
2x2 u2  v2 ,

2
2
2k u  v .

(1)
(2)
2

1 2
uv
uv
(u + v2) =
+
. (3)
2
2
2
, , (3),
, . . x,
uv
uv

2
2
uv
,

2
uv
, x .
2
,
:
x = a2 + b2.
(4)
(1) x2 =

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9. 287

uv
= 2ab.
2
uv
= a2 b2,
2

(5)
(6)

a > b, (a; b) =1.

uv
uv

2
2
, , (3)
, , x.
,

 ,
(4) (6) ,
, , . , .
, . . .
(7)
(5) (6) u2 v2 = 8ab (a2 b2).
(2) (7),
(8)
2k = 8ab (a2 b2), k = 4ab (a2 b2).
k ,
a = 2, b = 1, k = 24, x = 5, x2 = 25.
25
k = 24.
, 52 + 24 = 72, 52 24 = 12.
k , a = 3, b = 2,
k = 4 3 2 (32 22) = 120, x = 32 + 22 =13, x2 = 132,
, 132 + 120 = 172 132 120 = 72.
,
k ,
a = p + 1, b = p, p N, (8) :

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288 ...

k = 4(p + 1) p ((p + 1)2 p2) = 4p (p + 1)(2p + 1) =

= 2p (2p + 1)(2p + 2).
k = 2p (2p +1) (2p +2).
(9)
, k 2 3 4,
4 5 6, 2p (2p + 1) (2p + 2).
(4) x = a2 + b2 = (p + 1)2 + p2.
, k = 2p (2p + 1) (2p + 2), x = (p + 1)2 + p2.
, p = 1 p = 2 .
p = 100, k = 200 201 202 = 8120400,
x = 1012 + 1002 = 20201, x2 = 408080401,
x2 k = 416200801 = 204012,
x2 k = 399960001 = 199992.
 , v2, x2, u2 k.
, x2 v2 = u2 x2 = k 1
; x2 = (u2 + v2) 2
.
 ,
1
12 + 22 + 32 + + p2 = p (p + 1) (2p + 1), (., 2
, . . ( ), 3- ., 1967).
p (p + 1) (2p + 1) = 6 (12 + 22 + 32 + + p2).
(9), :
k = 4p (p + 1) (2p + 1) = 24 (12 + 22 + 32 + + p2).
,
x = 2p (p +1) +1,

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