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# MAGNETISM Earth Magnetism:There are two component of Earth Magnetism.

ism. Horizontal Component:Force H which is maximum at the equator and minimum at the poles. Vertical Component:Force Z which is maximum at the poles and minimum at the equator. Ship Magnetism:Permanent magnetism of the ship is divided into three components. Force P is the fore and aft component of the vessel permanent magnetism. Force Q is the athwartship component of the vessel permanent magnetism. Force R is the vertical component of the vessel. Deviation= Coefficients (A + B + C + D + E) Coefficient A:It is the circular type of deviation, which remain constant on all heading. It is +A if Easterly deviation on Easterly heading, and A if Westerly deviation on easterly heading. Cause:It is due to induction by H in HSI placed unsymmetricaly with reference to the compass. Since merchant ship are symmetrical, means that from the center line Port and Stbd.side construction is same. It is most probably found in naval ships. Coefficient Apparent A It is not due to magnetism, but it is due to following reasons.

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Lubber line is not align with fore and aft line. The magnet axis of the compass needle is not set on North and South line of the compass. Error in graduation. Wrong variation applied for finding the deviation. Error in bearing while the ship is swinging rapidly. Error in azimuth circle. Coefficient B:There are two types of coefficient B

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Permanent B:Which is due to ship permanent magnetism in fore and aft line. Induced B:Which is due to earth magnetism. Coefficient B is a semi circular type of deviation which changes with sin co.

Cause:Permanent B:It is due to that part of ship permanent magnetism which lies in fore and aft with respect to compass.

Induced B :- It is due to Z induction in VSI which lies forward or abaft in fore and aft line Page 1 of 3

B may be +B or B. +B when on easterly course easterly deviation and on westerly course westerly deviation. B when on easterly course westerly deviation & on westerly course easterly deviation. Correction:Permanent B:- permanent B is corrected by placing the permanent magnet fore and aft inside the binnacle.

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compass. Coefficient C :-

## Correction induced B:- It is corrected by placing flinder bar forward of

It is semi circular type of deviation which varies with .cos co. Coefficient C may be +C or negative C. +C:Easterly heading easterly deviation. Westerly heading westerly deviation.

-C:Easterly heading westerly deviation. Westerly heading easterly deviation. There are two types of coefficient C.

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Permanent C:It is caused by ships permanent magnetism which lies in athwart ship direction with respect to compass. Max. on N and S and Zero on E and W

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Correction:Permanent C is corrected by permanent magnet placed in athwartship direction but with opposite polarity.

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Induced C:It is due to Z induction in VSI vertical soft iron which lies in athwartship direction with respect to the compass. It is not normally formed in merchant ship because of symmetry.

Correction of CI:It is corrected by flinder bar with an angle Q from BI. Tan Q = CI BI

Coefficient D:It is a quadrantal type of deviation which varies with Sin 2 Co. Cause:It is due to induction by H in HSI in longitudinal and transverse with respect to compass direction. It is +D and D. It is max. on Intercardinal heading, e.g. NE,SE,SW and NW, and change the name of deviation on SE and NW. In merchant ship only +D. but D is not present in merchant ship. No affect of ____ as Z & P _______ each other.

Correction:Page 2 of 3

Coefficient D is corrected by soft iron Kelvin sphere or dipolar magnet placed on Port and Stbd.side out side the binnacle. In merchant ship D is not present. Coefficient E:It is also quadrantal type of deviation which changes with Cos 2 Co. It is caused by induction by H in HSI which lies 45 either side of F & A with respect to the to the Compass. Corrected by Kelvin sphere or dipolar magnet at an angle of Q. Tan Q = Cos E Cos D Heeling Error:Change in deviation due to heeling of vessel, (e.g.) when ship is upright deviation is 2 W when heeled deviation is 6 W. Its means that deviation due to heeling error is 4 W. There are three causes of heeling error.

1. Due to permanent vertical component of the ship permanent magnetism. 2. Induction by Z in vertical component below the compass. 3. Induction by Z in HSI in athwartship.
Transverse soft iron (as in case of D). Heeling error is corrected by permanent magnetism placed in a heeling arm bucket below the center of the compass. If we change the Pole (e.g.) N to S then heeling arm bucket polarity must be changed. Retentive Error :If a vessel is navigating on a constant course for a considerable period of time, then the ship structure acquire a kind of sub permanent magnetism, and the error due to this reason become apparent. When the ship alter course and this deviation retain for some time, hence the name of this Error is called Retentive Error. Gaussin Error :When a ship changes her course the different part of the hull, will cut the earth magnetism field at different rate. This causes an induced magnetism and the deviation at the compass, but this effect will disappears, as soon as the ship will steady her new course.

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