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INTRODUCTION

Human skin offers some resistance to current and voltage. This resistance changes with the emotional state of the body. The circuit proposed here measures changes in your skin resistance following changes in your mental state. In the relaxed state, the resistance offered by the skin is as high as 2 mega-ohms or more, which reduces to 500 kilo-ohms or less when the emotional stress is too high. The reduction in skin resistance is related to increased blood flow and permeability followed by the physiological changes during high stress. This increases the electrical conductivity of the skin. This circuit is useful to monitor the skins response to relaxation techniques. It is very sensitive and shows response during a sudden moment of stress. Even a deep sigh will give response in the circuit. After assembling the circuit, adjust the presets such that IC1 outputs around 6 volts. None of the LEDs (LED1 through LED3) glows in this position with the touch plates open. Now gently touch the touch plates with your middle finger. Maintain the finger still allowing one minute to bond with the pads and keep your body relaxed. Adjust VR3 until the green LED (LED1) lights up and the meter shows full deflection. Adjust VR2 to get maximum deflection of the meter. This indicates normal resistance of the skin, provided the body is fully relaxed. If you are stressed or have ill feeling, skin resistance decreases and the blue LED lights up followed by the red LED along with a deflection of the meter towards the lower side. In short, the red LED and zero meter reading indicate you are stressed, and the green LED and high meter reading indicate you are relaxed. Practise some relaxation technique and observe how much your body is relaxed.

CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION
The circuit uses a sensitive amplifier to sense variations in the skin resistance. IC CA3140 (IC1) is designed as a resistance- to-voltage converter that outputs varying voltage based on the skins conductivity. It is wired as an inverting amplifier to generate constant current to skin in order to measure the skin resistance. IC CA3140 is a 4.5MHz BiMOS operational amplifier with MOSFET inputs and bipolar output. The gateprotected inputs have high impedance and can sense current as low as 10 pA. This device is ideal to sense small currents in low-input-current applications. The inverting input (pin 2) of IC1 is connected to ground (through preset VR1) and one of the touch plates, while the noninverting input (pin 3) is grounded directly. The output from IC1 passes through current-limiting resistor R1 to the second touch plate. R1 act as a feedback resistor along with the skin when the touch plates make contact with the skin. So the gain of IC1 depends on the feedback provided by R1 and the skin. In the inverting mode of IC1, a positive input voltage to its pin 2 through the feedback network makes its output low. If the skin offers very high resistance in the relaxed state, input voltage to pin 2 reduces and the output remains high. Thus the gain of IC1 varies depending on the current passing through the skin, which, in turn, depends on the skin response and emotional state. In the standby state, touch plates are free. As there is no feedback to IC1, it gives a high output (around 6 volts), which is indicated by shifting of the meter to right side. When the touch plates are shorted by the skin, the feedback circuit completes and the output voltage reduces to 4 volts or less depending on the resistance of the skin. Since the feedback network has a fixed resistor (R1) and VR1 is set to a fixed resistance value, the current flowing through it depends only on the resistance of the skin. The output from IC1 is displayed on a sensitive moving coil meter (VU meter). By varying preset VR2, you can adjust the sensitivity of the meter. For easy visual observation, an LED display is also included. IC LM3915 (IC2) is used to give a logarithmic display through LED indications. It can sink current from pin 18 to pin 10 with each increment of 125 millivolts at its input pin 5. Using VR3 you can adjust the input voltage of IC2, while using VR4 you can control the brightness of the LEDs. In practice, the circuit provides both meter reading and LED indications. If the LED display is not needed, IC2 can be omitted. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet with touch pads glued on the top, 5-10 mm apart.
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Touch pads can be any type of conducting plates, such as aluminium or copper plates, having dimensions of 11 cm2. The moving coil meter can be a small VU meter with 1-kilo-ohm coil resistance and 0-10 digit reading.

After assembling the circuit, adjust the presets such that IC1 outputs around 6 volts. None of the LEDs (LED1 through LED3) glows in this position with the touch plates open. Now gently touch the touch plates with your middle finger. Maintain the finger still allowing one minute to bond with the pads and keep your body relaxed. Adjust VR3 until the green LED (LED1) lights up and the meter shows full deflection. Adjust VR2 to get maximum deflection of the meter. This indicates normal resistance of the skin, provided the body is fully relaxed. If you are stressed or have ill feeling, skin resistance decreases and the blue LED lights up followed by the red LED along with a deflection of the meter towards the lower side. In short, the red LED and zero meter reading indicate you are stressed, and the green LED and high meter reading indicate you are relaxed. Practise some relaxation technique and observe how much your body is relaxed.

IC CA3140

Absolute Maximum Ratings Thermal Information DC Supply Voltage (Between V+ and V- Terminals) . . . . . . . . . 36V Differential Mode Input Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8V DC Input Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (V+ +8V) To (V- -0.5V) Input Terminal Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1mA Output Short Circuit Duration (Note 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indefinite Operating Conditions Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -55oC to 125oC

As shown in the block diagram, the input terminals may be operated down to 0.5V below the negative supply rail. Two class A amplifier stages provide the voltage gain, and a unique class AB amplifier stage provides the current gain necessary to drive low-impedance loads.

Features
MOSFET Input Stage Very High Input Impedance (ZIN) -1.5T (Typ) Very Low Input Current (Il) -10pA (Typ) at +/-15V Wide Common Mode Input Voltage Range (VlCR) - Can be Swung 0.5V Below Negative Supply Voltage Rail Output Swing Complements Input Common Mode Range Directly Replaces Industry Type 741 in Most Applications

Typical Applications
Wide dynamic range of input and output characteristics with the most desirable high input impedance characteristics is achieved in the CA3140 by the use of an unique design based upon the PMOS Bipolar process. Input common mode voltage range and output swing capabilities are complementary, allowing operation with the single supply down to 4V. The wide dynamic range of these parameters also means that this device is suitable for many single supply applications, such as, for example, where one input is driven below the potential of Terminal 4 and the phase sense of the output signal must be maintained a most important consideration in comparator applications.

Applications
Ground-Referenced Single Supply Amplifiers in Automobile and Portable Instrumentation Sample and Hold Amplifiers Long Duration Timers/Multivibrators (seconds-Minutes-Hours) Photocurrent Instrumentation Peak Detectors Active Filters Comparators Interface in 5V TTL Systems and Other Low Supply Voltage Systems All Standard Operational Amplifier Applications Function Generators Tone Controls Power Supplies Portable Instruments Intrusion Alarm Systems

IC LM3915
General Description

The LM3915 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analog voltage levels and drives ten LEDs, LCDs or vacuum fluorescent displays, providing a logarithmic 3 dB/step analog display. One pin changes the display from a bar graph to a moving dot display. LED current drive is regulated and programmable, eliminating the need for current limiting resistors. The whole display system can operate from a single supply as low as 3V or as high as 25V. The IC contains an adjustable voltage reference and an accurate tenstep voltage divider. The high-impedance input buffer accepts signals down to ground and up to within 1.5Vof the positive supply. Further, it needs no protection against inputs of 35V. The input buffer drives 10 individual comparators referenced to the precision divider. Accuracy is typically better than 1 dB. The LM3915s 3 dB/step display is suited for signals with wide dynamic range, such as audio level, power, light in tensityor vibration.
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Audio applications include average or peak level indicators, power meters and RF signal strength meters. Replacing conventional meters with an LED bar graph results in a faster responding, more rugged display with high visibility that retains the ease of interpretation of an analog display. The LM3915 is extremely easy to apply. A 1.2V full-scale meter requires only one resistor in addition to the ten LEDs. One more resistor programs the full-scale anywhere from1.2V to 12V independent of supply voltage. LED brightnessis easily controlled with a single pot. The LM3915 is very versatile. The outputs can drive LCDs, vacuum fluorescents and incandescent bulbs as well as LEDs of any color. Multiple devices can be cascaded for a dot or bar mode display with a range of 60 or 90 dB.LM3915s can also be cascaded with LM3914s for a linear/log display or with LM3916s for an extended-range VU meter.

Features
n 3 dB/step, 30 dB range n Drives LEDs, LCDs, or vacuum fluorescents n Bar or dot display mode externally selectable by user n Expandable to displays of 90 dB n Internal voltage reference from 1.2V to 12V n Operates with single supply of 3V to 25V n Inputs operate down to ground n Output current programmable from 1 mA to 30 mA n Input withstands 35V without damage or false outputs n Outputs are current regulated, open collectors n Directly drives TTL or CMOS n The internal 10-step divider is floating and can be referenced to a wide range of voltages The LM3915 is rated for operation from 0C to +70C. The LM3915N-1 is available in an 18-lead molded DIP package.

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Power Dissipation Molded DIP(N) 1365 mW Supply Voltage 25V

Voltage on Output Drivers 25V Input Signal Overvoltage (Note 4) 35V Divider Voltage 100 mV to V+ Reference Load Current 10 mA Storage Temperature Range 55C to +150C Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec.) 260C

Definition of Terms
Absolute Accuracy: The difference between the observed threshold voltage and the ideal threshold voltage for each comparator. Specified and tested with 10V across the internal voltage divider so that resistor ratio matching error predominates over comparator offset voltage. Adjust Pin Current: Current flowing out of the reference adjust pin when the reference amplifier is in the linear region. Comparator Gain: The ratio of the change in output current (ILED) to the change in input voltage (VIN) required to produce it for a comparator in the linear region. Dropout Voltage: The voltage measured at the current source outputs required to make the output current fall by10%. Input Bias Current: Current flowing out of the signal input when the input buffer is in the linear region.
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LED Current Regulation: The change in output current over the specified range of LED supply voltage (VLED) as measured at the current source outputs. As the forward voltage of an LED does not change significantly with a small change in forward current, this is equivalent to changing the voltage at the LED anodes by the same amount. Line Regulation: The average change in reference output voltage (VREF) over the specified range of supply voltage(V+). Load Regulation: The change in reference output voltage over the specified range of load current (IL(REF)). Offset Voltage: The differential input voltage which must be applied to each comparator to bias the output in the linear region. Most significant error when the voltage across the internal voltage divider is small. Specified and tested with pin 6 voltage (VRHI) equal to pin 4 voltage (VRLO). Relative Accuracy: The difference between any two adjacent threshold points. Specified and tested with 10V across the internal voltage divider so that resistor ratio matching error predominates over comparator offset voltage.

LIGHT EMMITING DIODE


Light-emitting diode

Red, pure green and blue LEDs of the 5mm diffused type

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting.

Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. The advantages of LEDs mentioned above have allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.

Physics
The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carrierselectrons and holesflow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and releases energy in the form of a photon.

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The wavelength of the light emitted, and thus its color depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or near-ultraviolet light. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths, emitting light in a variety of colors. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also use sapphire substrate. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface. Thus, light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production, subject to much research and development.

Advantages

Efficiency: LEDs emit more light per watt than incandescent light bulbs. Their efficiency is not affected by shape and size, unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes. Color: LEDs can emit light of an intended color without using any color filters as traditional lighting methods need. This is more efficient and can lower initial costs. Size: LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm2) and are easily populated onto printed circuit boards. On/Off time: LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in under a microsecond. LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster response times.
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Cycling: LEDs are ideal for uses subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps that fail faster when cycled often, or HID lamps that require a long time before restarting. Dimming: LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse-width modulation or lowering the forward current. Cool light: In contrast to most light sources, LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is dispersed as heat through the base of the LED. Slow failure: LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time, rather than the abrupt failure of incandescent bulbs. Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer. Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 10,000 to 15,000 hours, depending partly on the conditions of use, and incandescent light bulbs at 1,0002,000 hours. Shock resistance: LEDs, being solid state components, are difficult to damage with external shock, unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs which are fragile. Focus: The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable manner.

LED uses fall into four major categories:

Visual signals where light goes more or less directly from the source to the human eye, to convey a message or meaning. Illumination where light is reflected from objects to give visual
response of these objects.

Measuring and interacting with processes involving no human vision. Narrow band light sensors where LEDs operate in a reverse-bias mode and respond to incident light, instead of emitting light.

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VU METER
A VU meter is often included in audio equipment to display a signal level in Volume Units; the device is sometimes also called volume indicator (VI). The response of a VU meter (black line) compared to instantaneous input level (grey area) of a drum beat. Level is in dB and time is in seconds It is intentionally a "slow" measurement, averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness of the material. It was originally developed in 1939 by the combined effort of Bell Labs and broadcasters CBS and NBC for measuring and standardizing the levels of telephone lines. Volume Unit (VU) defined: The reading of the volume indicator shall be 0 VU when it is connected to an AC voltage equal to 1.23 Volts RMS (equal to +4 dBu) at 1000 cycles per second.[1][2]The typical VU scale is from 20 to +3. The rise and fall times of the meter are both 300 milliseconds, meaning that if a constant sine wave of amplitude 0 VU is applied suddenly, the meter will take 300 milliseconds to reach the 0 on the scale. It behaves as a full-wave averaging instrument, and is not optimal for measuring peak levels.

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