Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

.

.. 1
1959 , ..
3 , ,
.
. , (
, ), 4 :
, , , 5 , ,
, -, 6 . , , ,
7 . ! . ,
?.
, , .
, , . ,
, , ,
.
, . ,
, , . , ,
:
2

1) .
2) 8 .
, , . , ,
. , - , , 9 , , ?
, . , ,
([A1],1984):
: , ?
: . , .
- ,
?. . , , , , , , . ,
, , .
1 . ,
- , , .
, .
.
: http: // www. dpmms. cam. ac. uk/ ~wtg10/ 2cultures. pdf
2 Rede lecture, 1959.
3 humanities sciences. -
(), (?). , , , . , (Jerome Kagans The Three Cultures),
, .
4 .
5 .. : , ,
. ,
, , , , , .
. - , , ,
, ,
. , : ,
? , , , , [.
(1871-1937) .. (. 1902 .) ; .. (1882-1944) ; ..
(. 1889 .) .] , , !
, ?.
6 (, , etc) - , , , .
7 : .
8 problem , , , ,
. , , , . -
, , .
.
9 : , , , , .

, . . , ,
. , .
The Mathematical Intelligencer
. , ,
. .
, , ,
, , .
, ; ,
(! ) , ,
,
, .
, , : ) ()10 , ) ()
- ; ,
.
, , ( [A2]) ,
. , ,
, , , ( ), ,
,
. (
) , , , .
, , ,
. ,
. ,
,
, .
, , . : , ,
, , , . ,
, 11 ( !),
- .
, , , ,
-, - ; . ,
{1, ..., n} ,
n/3, .
( , , , ,
, , - ,
n/3, . ecn c).
, ( ),
.
, . : ,
12 . (, , ,
10 problem-solving theory-building. ,
, . , - .
, , .
: .
- , (
). .. , , , .
, - ...
11 core 4) The core of something such as a problem or an issue is the part of it that has to be understood or accepted before the whole
thing can be understood or dealt with.(CollinsCobuild). ,
. : ,
, , ..
12 problem-solving . ,
: , (, ),
(, ). ,
, (= )

). , -. ,
.
, ? , : ? (
, ). (., [A2]),
, . , , .
. ,
, ,
.
(, , , , .) , ,
, . , , ,
. . ,
, .
(
). , , . ,
, , , ,
, . , ,
, , ?
, .
, ,
, .
. ,
, , , .
.
. k N , N ,
, k , , .
N R(k). , 2k/2 R(k) 22k .
G 22k . - . x1 - .
x1 22k1 ,
A1 . x2 A1 . A2 A1 ,
22k2 , x2 A2 . ,
x1 , x2 , . . . , x2n A2k . . . A2 A1 , xi Ai1 xi Ai
. , i j min(i, j).
H x1 , . . . x2k k ,
, , H .
k
C2k
, . , R(k). , R(k) 2k/2
. , ,
. 1/2 , . N x1 , . . . , xk - k . , xi xj
2
2Ck . , k- 2
k
, 21Ck CN
. 1( ,
k/2
, N = 2 ), , , k- .
[E] , , , ,
, . , ,
. (
), :
, ,
, , .
, .
, ,
. ,
, , .
, , , ,
... , .

, . ,
, , . ,
. , ,
. . ,
:
f , f (x)
.

[M] [D].
. k > 0 n, n- x k- - l2k
1 + .
.., , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn X ,
X
X
X
(
a2i )1/2 ||
ai xi || (1 + )(
a2i )1/2
a1 , . . . an . ( )
, n- - k- ,
, .. B (1+)B.
, k- .
, a, ,
x1 , . . . xn X, , ..
X
X
X 2 1/2
ai )
(
a2i )1/2 ||
ai xi || n(
a1 , . . . an . G(n, k)
( ).
, , ,
, . ,

. , ,
P
P ,
ai xi ai . , l2 ( a2i )1/2 ,
, ai . , 13 , , X- l2 .
.
,
. f : S n R 14
M . A S n x , f (x) M . , Sn

n2

A, , 2 e 2 .
f f , y
P
{x|f (x) M }. f (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) || ai xi ||. f ,
x A, , f (y) M . , f (y)
M y. , ,
(.. ) . ,
,
, , ,
. ,
.
15 , . , ,
, :
1) , E1 , E2 , . . . , En ,
. [EL,
J].
2) , , , [Sze].
3) , ,
16 .
13

..
m, P ( m) = 1/2.
15 , , . ,
mathoverflow - http://mathoverflow.net/questions/48692/organizing-principles-of-mathematics .
16 , a 2b + c = 0 (.. 3) A Fp A A ( 14

4) [CGW, T].
5)
.
, ( ), ,
, . , - .
.
, R(k) :
. [K].
. n R2n (
) n-

X, Y , x X Y

l1 - l2 - x c 2n 2n c > 0.
[Sza] ( ):
, l1n
(.. , l1 - l2 - ), ,
. [R].
. > 0 N , {1, 2, . . . , N }
N 3.
. A Z/N Z

A. ( A(0))
A
, 3. , {1, 2, . . . N }, A .
, . ,
. ,
, ,
, .
. , , . .
( ). . . , .
[A1].
- ,
17 .
- - . , , ,
, .
, , , -
, , , ,
.
, . .. , , -, , - 18 .
, : - , , , , , ,
, , ,
.
, (
P = N P ). , , ,
, .
P
a
. A A (x) =
aA x .
k
xP
), P
p- 1). x0
k = A ( P
( aA xa )( bA x2b )( cA xc ). , f p
P

f ( k )

f (0) = k=0..p1
.
p
17 . , ,
, ; . . - , ,
, . - .
18 http://www.claymath.org/millennium/.

. , ,
. :

. a > 2, , R(k) ak
k b < 4, R(k) bk k?
, ,
. -
, .
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
( R(k).) , , R(k) 4k
- .
, .
,
.
, ,
( , , 2n/2 ), ,
, ,
- ,
. ,
, .. - ,
3.99k .
, ,
. -, . G , A, B
G. (A, B) -, > 0 ,
A0 A, B B 0 |A| |B| , A0 B 0
|A0 ||B 0 | |A0 ||B 0 |. , , , G
A B , .
[Sze] ( ).
. G , > 0 k - . K,
k , , G A1 , A2 , . . . Am , k m K
2
(Ai , Aj ), i < j -.
, (1 )Cm
, , 2, (
, ).
, , , , .
- .
, .
. ( ,
, , ).
, , , , . ,
, . ,
, , , , . ,
.
, - ?
, , , , , . ,
. , , , , .
. , A , B, C
.., .
, . , -, . ,
, ,
. 19 , . , ,
19 ,

-
.....

, .
. ,
, , , , . ,
, . ,
([A3],6):
... 20 . ,
, .
- ,
.
, 21 ,
? , ,
CS, . (,
1998 , .) , ,
, , , ,
, ... . , , ,
, , , -
. - .
, , . , .
(i) .
(ii) , , .
(iii) ,
.
(iv) , ,
.
(v) , (: , .).
, .
(vi) - , ,
.
(vii) , , ,
, . .
, (iv) (vii), , . , .
. ,
, .
, , , , , , .
, (i) (ii), ,
, . , -
, .
(iii)( (iv), , , ). (vi) (vii),
, , .
, ,
20

... the ultimate justification for doing mathematics.... ( ) - , , ,


, , , ,
....
21 justify, .. 1. show or prove to be right or reasonable the person appointed has fully justified our confidence,
be a good reason for the situation was grave enough to justify further investigation; 2. declare or make righteous in the sight of God
(OxfordDictionary). : [. fundieren < . fundare - ,
-.] , , , ,
. ( , 2006).

. , ,
, , , ,
, C -, .
, , ,
. , , , ,
, - . , , . , ,
, , . ( , , ,
, )
, ,
, , . . ,
. , ,
22 . , , ,
( , .).
, , ,
. ,
.
, , ,
, .
- , .
, , . , , ,
. , , .
, , , , .
, , .


[A1] [A1] M. F. Atiyah, An interview with Michael Atiyah, Math. Intelligencer 6 (1984), 9-19.
[A2] M. F. Atiyah, How research is carried out, Bull. I.M.A. 10 (1974), 232-4.
[A3] M. F. Atiyah, Identifying progress in mathematics, ESF conference in Colmar, C.U.P. (1985), 24-41.
[CGW] F. Chung, R. L. Graham and R. M. Wilson, Quasi-random graphs, Combinatorica 9 (1990), 345-362.
[D] A. Dvoretzky, Some results on convex bodies and Banach spaces, Proc. Symp. on Linear Spaces, Jerusalem 1961,
123-160. [E] P. Erd
os, Some remarks on the theory of graphs, Bull. A.M.S. 53, 292-4.
[E] P. Erd
os, Some remarks on the theory of graphs, Bull. A.M.S. 53, 292-4.
[EL] P. Erd
os and L. Lov
asz, Problems and results on 3-chromatic hypergraphs and some related questions, in A.
Hajnal et al. eds, Infnite and fnite sets, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 609-628.
[J] S. Janson, Poisson approximation for large deviations, Random Structures and Algorithms 1, 221-230.
[K] B. S. Kashin, Sections of some fnite dimensional sets and classes of smooth functions, Isv. ANSSSR, ser. mat. 41
(1977), 334-351 (Russian).
[M] V. D. Milman, A new proof of the theorem of A. Dvoretzky on sections of convex bodies, Funct. Anal. Appl. 5
(1971), 28-37 (translated from Russian).
[Sza] S. J. Szarek, On Kashins almost Euclidean orthogonal decomposition of n1 , Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci. 26 (1978),
691-694.
[Sze] E. Szemeredi, Regular partitions of graphs, in Proc. Colloque Inter. CNRS, J.-C. Bermond et al. eds, (1978),
399-401.
22 ,

.. , .

[R] K. Roth, On certain sets of integers, J. London Math. Soc. 28 (1953), 245-252.
[T] A. Thomason, Pseudo-random graphs, in M. Karonski, ed., Proceedings of Random Graphs, Poznan 1985, Annals
of Discrete Mathematics 33, 307-331.