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.....................................................................................................10
1. .........................12
1. ..........................................12
2. .......................................14
3. ....................................................................16
.................................16
................................................................17
............................................................18
...................................................................20
...............................................................................21
2. OSI .....................................................23
1. OSI.....................................23
2. (Application layer).................................26
3. (Presentation layer)..............28
4. (Session layer)..........................................29
5. (Transport Layer)................................30
6. (Network Layer)............................................31
7. (Data Link)...............................................33
8. (Physical Layer)......................................35
9. ......................................................38
10. ................................38
..................................................................................................39
3. ................................................41
1. .......................................................41
802.1.....................................................................................................41
802.2.....................................................................................................41
802.3.....................................................................................................41
802.4.....................................................................................................42
802.5.....................................................................................................43
802.6.....................................................................................................43
802.7.....................................................................................................43
802.8.....................................................................................................43
802.9.....................................................................................................44

6
802.10...................................................................................................44
802.11...................................................................................................44
802.12...................................................................................................44
2. ...............................................44
............................................................................45
..................................................................45
.....................................................................46
3. OSI.....................................................................................46
4. Microsoft TCP/IP..................47
.........................................................................48
............................................................................49
(TCP)...........................................50
(UDP).............................50
..........................................................................50
IP......................................................................51
IP-..........................................................................51
ARP RARP.............................52
ICMP ..................................................................................52
IGMP ..................................................................................53
NDIS.....................................................................................................53
...........................................................53
..................................................................................................53
4. .............55
1. .............................................55
..................................................................................55
........................................................................................56
.................................................................................................57
...................................................................................................57
2. ........................................................................58
CSMA/CD............................................................................................59
TPMA...................................................................................................60
TDMA..................................................................................................61
FDMA...................................................................................................62
..................................................................................................63
5. ..........................................................65
1. .............................................................65
2. ........................................................................66

7
3. .....................................................................67
4. ....................................................................67
5. .............................................69
6. .........................................69
7. ..........................................................................70
8. ....................70
9. ......................71
..................................................................................................71
6. ........................................73
1. , , ...............................73
2. .....74
3. ...................................................................75
4. .............................................................................76
(twisted pair)............................................76
........................................................................77
....................................................................78
5. Ethernet....................................................78
10Base-T, 100Base-TX........................................................................78
10Base2................................................................................................79
10Base5................................................................................................79
6. ........................................................80
...........................................................................................80
...................................................80
............................................................................80
..................................................................................................80
7. .............................................82
1. ............................83
............................................84
........................................................................................84
...................................................................................84
UNC..........................................................................................85
..............................................85
.......................85
............................................86
2. NOS NOS ........87
3. NOS ...................................90
.......................................................................................90

8
.....................................................................................90
...........................................................................91
4. NetWare Novell........................................92
NetWare....................................................................92
OC.......................................................................92
.................................................................93
.......................................................93
...........................................................................94
5. Windows NT......................................95
Windows NT......................................................................95
................................................................................96
Windows NT............................................................................96
Windows NT........................................................................97
Windows NT...............................................98
6. UNIX.................................................................98
........................................................................................100
UNIX..................................................................................100
.............................................................................101
............................................................................101
.............102
..................................................................................102
7. Linux.............................................................102
...........................................103
...................................................................................103
............................................................104
..................................................................................................104
................................................................................................104
8. , .....................................106
1. ...............................................................106
2. ...................................................107
3. ...........................................................................108
4. ........................................109
5. .........................................................................110
.........................................................110
...........................................................111
...............................111
........................................................111

9
.........................................................112
6. ........................................................................112
................................................................................................113
9. ............................................................115
1. , NIC (Network Interface Card). ........115
........................................................................................115
...................................115
............................................................117
, , .....................................................118
..................................................................118
2. ..............................................120
.............................................................122
.........................................................123
3. ............................................................123
......................................124
.......................................................................................126
............................................................127
4. .......................................................................128
............................128
5. .....................................................................................129
................................................................................................130
......................................................................................132
...............................................................................146
.........................................................................157
................................................................................................166

10


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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE802
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46

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3. OSI
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GOSIP. OSI
OSI

IEEE 802
OSI

X.400



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OSI
X.500

VT

FTAM

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Macintosh .

48

3
OSI

TCP/IP


Windows

TDI

NetBIOS

TCP
ICMP
IGMP

UDP
IP


ARP

RARP

NDIS

PPP

Ethernet

FDDI

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TCP/IP

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Windows;
NetBIOS.
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Interposes Communications) Windows. NetBIOS
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IEEE 802

49

NetBIOS;
NetBIOS;
NetBIOS.
3.1 TCP/IP.
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WinSock
NetBIOS
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TCP
UDP
ARP
RARP
IP
ICMP
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NDIS
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(Transport
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(Transmission
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(Address Resolution Protocol)
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TCP/IP
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IP-, . IP-
, .
, DNS-, , SERV1.IBM.COM.
,
, , , .
, , FTP telnet.
ARP RARP
IP-
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). ARP
,
(Ethernet, Token
Ring, FDDI)
, (X.25, frame relay),
, .
, IP-
. ARP RARP
(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)
, IP-,
.
ARP
IP-.
, IP-
, ARP-,
, IP-,
. ARP-
IP- .
ARP-, IP-
, ARP . ARP-
.
ICMP
(ICMP Internet Control
Message Protocol) IP
.

. , ,
, ICMP
.

IEEE 802

53

IGMP

(IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol),
.
.
.
, ,
.
NDIS
Network Device Interface Specification

,
.

TCP/IP IP-.
ARP ,
. ,
, Ethernet, Token Ring
ATM, IP- ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

IEEE802.
Ethernet?
?
?
ArcNet?
Token Ring?

?
8. OSI?
9. OSI?
10. .
11. ?
12. .
13. .
14. .

54

15. .
16. Windows NetBIOS.
17. TCP UDP?
18. IP.
19. IP-?
20. IP?
21. IP-
?
22. ?
23. TCP/IP.

55
4.
1.
()
.

,
,
,
.
.

: .
,
.
: , , .

. :
( ), , .
:

;
;

.
.
: () ,
, .
, ArcNet
, . Token Ring
, .
Ethernet ,
.

(. 4.1):
(Bus);
(Ring);
(Star);
(Tree);
(Mesh).

56

. 4.14


,
, .

. 4.15

(. 4.2)
, .
.
,
.
, ,
, .
,
. ,
.
. ,
, .
-
.

10Base5 ( ) 10Base2
( ).

57

. 4.16

,
, (.4.3).
( ).
, ,
.. , .
,
, ,
. .
,
,
, .

, .. .
,
.
.
.
,
, . Token Ring
MAU (Multiple Access Unit). MAU
, ,
,
. MAU,
:
,

(.4.4),
(, ),
, .

. , ,
.

.

58


, .

(, ).

. 4.17

Ethernet
10BASE-T, Hub.
.
,
.
,
, .
,
.
.
. -,
. -, . ,
.
.
. ,

. ArcNet Ethernet
MAU Token Ring .
,
.
2.
,
. ,
(), .
:

(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
CSMA/CD);

59

(Token Passing Multiple


Access TPMA) ;
(Time Division Multiple
Access TDMA);
(Frequency Division Multiple Access FDMA)
(Wavelength Division Multiple Access WDMA).
CSMA/CD

. 4.5.



. 4.18 CSMA/CD


(CSMA/CD) :
,
:
, .
.
- , ,

60

,
, .
, ,
, ,
, .

.
, .
Ethernet ,

.
TPMA
,
, . 4.6.

-



-

61

. 4.19 TPMA

,
,
.
, ,
.
,
. .
(token), , ,
.
,
.
.
,
, , ,
,
.
,
,
, ,
.
. ,
, . ,
().
.
:
;

.
:
, ,
;

.
TDMA

(.4.7).
TDMA ,
.

62

.
. n
, .
.

-
-

-
-

. 4.20


.
()
, (n) ,
.
,
.
,
, .
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
.

.
.
.
FDMA
FDMA
(. 4.8), .
,
.
.
FDMA,
WDMA,
, .

63

.
.
.
, , ,

.



. 4.21


.

.
( ).
.
,
, .
FDMA ,
, .

1. ?
2. ?
3.
.
4. ?
5. .
6. ?
7.
.
8.
?
9. .
10. ?

64

11.
?
12. ?
13.
.
14.
?
15. CSMA/CD?
16.
.
17. ?
18.
?
19. .
20. .
21.
?

65
5.

, .

.
1.
:
1. :
( );
;
.
2. :
;
();
;
.
3. :
;
;
.
:
1. , :
Windows NT;
Windows for Workgroups;
LANtastic;
NetWare;
Unix;
Linux ..
2. ( ):
;
;
;
.

66

( )
, , ,

.
,
,
-. -
(),
.

,
.
, ,
: , ,
, , , ,
.

,
.
2.
(workstation) ,

.
:
;
;
;
;
.

:
( ) ;

, ,
;

.
;

;

67

,
.
3.
,
, , , .
.
.

, .

,
- , .
Plug
and Play ( ). ,

.

, :
;
;
;
;
;
(DMA);
/ ;
.
4.
, (,
, , ..) .
.
Pentium,
500 , 128
. .

. ,
.
,
.

68


.
(
)
.


. .
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
Proxy , Internet.
Web, web.
,
, , .
,
. , ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
. ,
,
, .

.
, ,
.
,
, (,
,
).

69


, .
, ,
.
,
, .
,
, ,
, , .
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
5.

(Network Operating System NOS)


, ,
.
,
.
. -
.

.
,
, . NOS
.
NOS ,
. :
;
;
;
.
6.

, .

70

,
.
, IRQ ( ) /.

.

.

.

.
.
7.

:
.
.
.
, ;
.
, ,
.
.
-
.
8.
.
,
. .

( ),
.

.

.

.

71

9.

,
.

, , ,
.
, , ,
.
:
(WAN) ;
(
);
(TA
ISDN,
CSU/DSU ..).
. 5.1 .
Hub

Hub 1

Hub 2

User1

User1
Server Shark

Server Delphin
User2

User2

User3

User3

User4

User4

. 5.22

1. .
2. ?

72

3. .
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. 7
8. ?
9. Proxy?
10. ?
11.
?
12. Web
?
13. .
14. ?
15. .
16. ?
17. ?
18. ?
19. .
20. ?
21. ?
22. .
23. Web?
24. Internet?
25.
?

73
6.
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
,

.

() ,
:
;
;
0 1.

.
, ,
.

.
1. , ,
:
;
;
.

. (, ,
..) .
.
. -
: , , , ,
, ( ) .
, , ;
, ( , ,
, , ).

74

,
, . ()
. ,
, .
.
.
, , ,
. ,
.
(, ,
). , ,
( ),
:
10800 (0,3 3,4 )
, 64 /.
,
.
. , .
2.

: ,
.
( 100
) ,

100 / ( 5).

, .

( /)
(
).

, ,
.
, , ,
. ,
.


,
.

75


.
.
(Structured Cabling System
SCS) (, ,
, ),
, ,
.
.
.


.
.
8-10 .

.
, .
.
, ,
,
.
.
.
.
,

.
3.
: ,
.

( ),
(, ,
. .). ,
.

,
( ).

,

76

, ,
, ,
.
Mohawk/CDT, Lucent Technologies AMP.
4.
,
.
.
, ,
.
.
(twisted pair)
,
.

,
.

, Ethernet, ARCNet IBM Token Ring.
: (UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair) .
:
(STP Shielded Twisted Pair)
(FTP Foiled Twisted Pair).
,
.
.
,

.

,
, ,
,
.
, 6.1.

.
6.2


3
4
5
5+
6
7

77

, ()
16
20
100
300
200
600


. 10
/ 185 500 .
.
6.2.
6.3

RG-8 RG-11
RG-58/U
RG-58 /U
RG-59

RG-59 /U

RG-62

,
Thicknet, 50
Thinnet, 50 ,

Thinnet, 50 ,

Broadband/Cable television
(
), 75
Broadband/Cable television
(
), 50
ARCNet, 93

Thinnet, RG-58,
.
.
(Thin Ethernet)
, ,
BNC -50

. Ethernet 10Base2, .
(Thick Ethernet)
, ,

78

,
. ,
. Ethernet 10Base5, .
ARCNet RG-62 /U.

(Fiber Optic Cable)
.
.
. ,
,
, , .
, ,

.
,
. , ,
.

.
(LED - Light Emitting Diode),
.
.

. ,
.
,

.
.
5. Ethernet
10Base-T, 100Base-TX
(Unshielded Twisted Pair UTP)
.
:
0.4 0.6 (22~26 AWG), 4 (8
, 10Base-T 100Base-TX
4). 3 5 data grade
;
100 ;

79

RJ-45.

. 6.23 RJ-45

6.3 ,
RJ-45.
6.4

RD+ ()

TD+ ()

RD- ()

TD- ()

TD+ ()

RD+ ()

TD- ()

RD- ()

10Base2

;
: 0.2 , RG-58A/U 50 ;
BNC;
185 ;
0.5 ;
30.
10Base5

;
50 ;
500 ;
: 2.5 ;
100.

80

6
6.

(Radio Waves)
, .
, (
) .
.
:
;
;
.


.
.

, ,
.

(Microwaves)
,
. ,
. ,
.

.

(Infrared transmission),
, .

.
(LED Light Emitting Diode)
.

.

1. ?
2.
?


3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. .
7. ?
8. , .
9. ?
10. ?
11. 10BaseT?
12. 10Base2?
13. 10Base5?
14. ?
15. Ethernet?
16. ?
17. ?
18. ?
19. .

81

82
7.
(Network Operating System NOS)
, ,
[32].

,
,
.
. NOS
, .
NOS
, . ,
, :
;
;
;
.
NOS .
:
, ;
,
;
;
;
;
;
, , ;
, ;
;
;
, ;
,
;
,
.

83

1.

. ,

,

.
, .

( )

-

. 7.24

, . 7.1,

.
1. :
,
, ,

.
2.
(). ,
, ,
;
;
.
3.
().

.

84

,
.
4. ,
.
, ,
.., . . .


.
,
.
(redirector), (designator)
UNC (UNC pathnames).[5]

,
/ ,

. ,
, .
, :
(client redirector)
(server redirector).

OSI. ,
,
( ) (
). , ,
.
,
. ,
.
,
.

(designator)
, (drive letter)
,
, .

85

, (mapping a drive),

. , ,
,
.
UNC
,
.
, Windows 95, 98, NT,
UNC (Universal Naming Convention
). UNC
. \\_\_.
UNC
UNC .


,

.
. (network security). ,
, ,
, .

.

:
(logon identification)
;
;
,
;
.

, Windows NT,
,
, .

. ,

86

, .

, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,

.
, ,
,
.
. 7.2 1 , 2
,
, - .
1

2
1

. 7.25 NOS

,
.
, ,
,
. 2
,
. , ,
,
.
,
.

:

87

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
2. NOS NOS


, , ,
: .

, . ,
, . ,
, , ,
. . 7.3, 7.4
.

-

. 7.26

-
,
. ,
, , ,
, , , Web . .

.
,

88

,
.

.
- ,
.
,
.
, , LANtastic, Personal Ware, Windows for Workgroup, Windows NT Workstation.
.
,
,
.

,
,

.

89

-
-

- -

. 7.27


, ,
. ,
Novell NetWare ,
-,
,
.
, ,
Windows NT. NetWare,
Windows NT Server ( ) Windows NT Workstation ( ) -
. Windows NT

,
,
, ,
.

90

7
3. NOS


, (),
.
,
.
, , ,
. .

.
,
.
, ,
, .
( )
.
, .
,
, , -
.

,
, ,
, , , ,
.
30 .
.
, ,
.
, ,
, .
.
NetWare Windows NT,
, Windows for Workgroups.

, ,

. ,
, ,
,
. ,

91

,
.
. ,
,
.
, .


.
(WAN links)
.
,
, ,

. ,
, , ,
,
, ,
, -, ,
.

.
1. .
,
. ,


.
2. .
. , Windows NT
.
(NT Domain Directory Service)
,
.
, Microsoft Mail.

: WINS Netbios- IP-,
DNS
NT- Internet, , , DHCP
IP-
.
.

92

3. .
.

, :
,
, .
4. NetWare Novell
NetWare
NetWare ,
.

.
,
.
NetWare
,
,
.
NetWare 3 4
.
, , , . .
NetWare
: , , , ,
. .
. ,
: , , .
,
. ,
SYS .
OC
OC . 7.5. NetWare
- DOS.
()
. - NLM (NetWare Loadable Module NetWare),
. NLM-
NetWare 3 4.


:

93

;
();
.


N e t W a r e
* . n c f
( s e r v e r .e x e )

S E T -
,

N L M -

. 7.28 NetWare



,
, .
DOS, .
DOS, .
. ,
DOS, . .

, .
, .

. , ,
-, , -,
, .
NetWare
, ,
DOS

NetWare
OSI:
, (
);
( IPX, SPX, NetBIOS, TLI);
( SPX, NetBIOS, TLI, NCP);

94

( NetBIOS, NCP);
( RIP, NLSP, SAP).
IPX (Internetwork Packet eXchange) ,
,
NetWare.
IPX
NetWare.
"" . ,

. , IPX :
;

;
, . . ,
IPX,
, .
SPX
(Sequenced Packet eXchange), .
SPX SPX. IPX SPX,
, IPX , SPX . NetWare
NETBIOS IPX
.
NetBIOS NetBIOS.EXE,
NetWare. ,
IPX/SPX NetBIOS, ,
NetBIOS .
( IPX SPX) (
IPX), , .

NetWare
, -
. NetWare -
,
, -.
NetWare
:
;
;
;
;

95

.
NetWare
. ,
DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh UnixWare,
,
, NetWare.
5. Windows NT
1993 . NT Windows NT 3.1
Windows NT Advanced Server 3.1. 3.5,
, , ,
Windows NT.
,
, .
Windows NT Server
C-2. ,

.
Windows NT
Windows NT :
, ,
, (. 7.6).
Windows NT Server :
-;
;
;
;
;
Internet;
;
;
;
.

96

. 7.29


Windows NT
,
,
.
Windows NT
:
, ;
, /
.
(RPC Remote Procedure
Call),
.
,
: ,
, (
, ).
Windows NT
Windows NT .
:
(Hardware Abstraction Layer HAL);
(Kernel);
(Windows NT executive);
(Protected subsystems);
(Environment subsystems).


POSIX

Win32

POSIX

QS/2

Logon

OS/2

Win32

97

(
)

Windows NT executive

Windows NT

. 7.30 Windows NT

Windows NT
,
,
.
NetWare.
NetWare, Windows NT-
, NetWare.
TCP/IP.
TCP/IP, ,
. ,
, ftp, tftp, telnet, rarp , arp, route finger.
RAS,
IPX/SPX TCP/IP, Point
to Point Protocol (PPP) Serial Line IP (SLIP). RAS
256 ( 64 3.1).
OLE 2.x
. ,
, , "drag-anddrop" OLE-Automation.
. , MS Windows 3.x MSDOS, ,
.

98

. Windows NT Server
.
: MS-DOS, OS/2, Windows for Workgroups,
UNIX, Macintosh, Windows NT Workstation.
Windows NT Server.
UNIX Windows NT
( TCP/IP),
,
,
. , Windows NT
,
UNIX- .
SNMP. Windows NT ,
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol),
Windows NT
, , SUN Net Manager HP Open View.
.
Windows NT
Windows NT Workstation
Windows NT Server, NetWare, UNIX. ,
, . Windows NT
Workstation
, ,
,
.
Windows NT Server
, , .

,

. , , ,
(). , Windows NT Server
, ,
.
6. UNIX
UNIX
.
TCP/IP AT&T
(Streams),

99

. Streams
,
, .

/ ,
,
.
UNIX
TCP/IP. UNIX System V Release 4
TCP/IP
TLI (Transport Level Interface -
). TLI
. ,
TLI, TCP/IP.


( )

. 7.31

UNIX ,
.
UNIX .
, UNIX
. , ""
, (account name) ,
, (password). ,
, , ,

.
, /
.

100

UNIX

. (,
, , .).
UNIX (
++). , , -,
UNIX , , -,
.
UNIX
,

, UNIX
,
.
UNIX .
1. .
(bootstrap),
.
2. ,
(,
). UNIX
,
(
)
,
.
3.


, .


.
4. ,
, . UNIX
.
ASCII,
. ,
..
; .
UNIX .

101

UNIX
.
5. - ,
,
(IPC - Inter-Process Communications), ,

,
.
6. ,

, .

UNIX.
, ,
, ,
, .
(
) .

( UNIX full pathname ,
,

; " ", pathname ). ,
( ),
"/" ().

UNIX
,

. ,


, . ,
UNIX,
,
(
).

102

login ,
(
),
shell. login
,
, /etc/passwd /etc/group.
, ,
.
(
) ,
.
,
.
setuid
setgid,
.

, ,
UNIX
.
, ,
, .
UNIX
. -, ,
( ),
(UID - User Identifier),
. , ,
, -
. -,
i-.
7. Linux
UNIX-
.
- .
.
,
,
,
..

103

, ,
.
,
. ,

.
,
.
,
.
.
- ,
.
, telnet
, .

,
.
, , .

, ,
FTP .

UNIX, Linux,
.
. ,
.
,
. , .
Linux
X Window System ( X).
, , . . ,
.
X
Athena, Motif Open Look.

,

,
. ,
, ,

104

.
.

. , telnet rlogin TCP/IP .

,
, .
, Network File System NFS,
Sun.

, ,
.
, ,
. ,
- .


.
.
.
, ,
,
. ,

.
,
, .
.

(, sendmail smail),

(, Pine elm).
/var/spool/mail.

1.
2.
3.
4.

NOS ?
?
NOS?
?

105

5.
?
6. ?
7. ?
8. NetWare
Novell.
9.
NetWare?
10. NetWare.
11.
NetWare?
12. IPX, SPX.
13. Windows NT.
14. Windows NT.
15.
Windows NT?
16. Windows NT.
17. Windows NT?
18. Windows NT
.
19. Windows NT.
20. Windows NT?
21. UNIX.
22. UNIX.
23. UNIX.
24. UNIX?
25. Linux.
26. Linux.
27. Linux.

106
8. ,

:
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
1.
, ,

.
:
;
;
;
;
.

,
:
,
;
,
;
.

.
Ethernet Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, FDDI
100VG-AnyLAN 10
.

.
.

107

, ,
.

, , ,
.
.

. ,

.
,
.
, ,

, . .
(VLAN)
.
.
2.
.
.


,
, ,
,
.
,

, , .

. ,
, .

, , ,
.
,
.
,
, .

.

108

- ,
.
, ,
, ..

. 8.32


,
.
(backup).
.
, .

. ,
.

.
, , .
,
.

.
.
3.
, ,
, .

, ,
. ,
-
.

109

,
.

() , ,
.
,
, .
,
,
, Plug-and-play (
).
.
(end-to-end) ,
.
,
.

(Wide-Area Network WAN).
,

(Metropolitan-Area Network MAN) WAN.
. ,

, ,
WAN.
4.
,
. ,
, , (,
), ,
,
. ,
.

( ). ,
, .
.
,
, , ,
. ,
.
,

110

,
.

. ,
, ,
;
, .
, ,
, ,
.

, ()
, : ,
- ,
.

.
5.
ISO .

. 5 :
;
;
;
;
.


,
.
, ,
,
.
:
1. ,
;
2. ( )
;

111

3.
,
, .


,

. ..
, ( ),
,
.

, . ,

. - ,
,
.


,

.
(.. )
.

, ,
( )
,
.
, , ,

ISO.
:
1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. .

112


,

, . ,

, ,
, .

.

.

:
( ,
);

;
;

.
6.
.

IBM/360.
,

.
,
(
, ) ,
, ,
-
,
. ,


.
,

113

, -
.
. ,


. -,

, ..
. ,
-
, .

,

,
, .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. .
9. ?
10. ?
11. ?
12. ?
13. ?
14. ?
15. ?
16. ?
17.
.
18. ?
19. ?
20. ?
21. ?

114

22. ?
23. .

115
9.
1. , NIC (Network Interface Card).
.
,
.
,
,

.

, .
,
,
.
, ,
(
, ).
.

.
, .
,
,
.
,
.


. , PnP,
.
IRQ (Interrupt Request Line) / (Input/Output
address). / ,

.
, IRQ
/. IRQ /
9.1.

116

,
(
/).
.
(transceiver) , ,
.
. ,
,
. , ( ,
), ,
. ,
RJ-45
, .
9.5


/
IRQ0

IRQ

2 4

1 3
(
LPT2)
-

IRQ1
IRQ2
IRQ3

2F0 2FF

IRQ4

3F0 3FF


LPT1

IRQ7


(
SCSI)
(
SCSI)
PS/2



(

IRQ9
IRQ10

370 37F

IRQ11

IRQ11

IRQ12
IRQ13
IRQ14

IRQ12
IRQ13
IRQ14

IRQ15

IRQ15

IRQ5
IRQ6

IRQ8

117


IDE)


:
1. .
.
.
2. () .
/,
.
3. .
.
, .
.

.
4. .
( )
.
,
,
.
5. . ,
. .
6. .
,
.
7.
,
.
.
8. .
,
.
.

, 1 0
.

118

9. .
(
).

,
- , .
Plug
and Play ( ). ,

. . 9.1.

. 9.33

, ,


. (Base Memory Address)
,
, .
.


ISA, EISA, PCI, MCA.

119


Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI .. ,

(, Ethernet). ,
(
Ethernet ,
),
, . ,
,
, .

, :
;
;
;
;
;
(DMA);
/ ;
.
:
Ethernet ,
() . -
ISA
,
ISA, , .
Ethernet :
( BNC) .
,
.
Fast Ethernet
.
( ).
10BASE-FL
ISA, PCI, .
.

.
RJ-45.
100BASE-FX

120

SC ST. (SC ST)


, .
, PCI.
,
.
. ,
, ,
.
Gigabit Ethernet
.

.
FDRI
.
FDDI,
: ISA, EISA, VESA Local Bus (VLB) . .
FDDI ,
: (DAS)
(SAS) . DAS
, ,
.
() . SAS
FDDI
. ,

() .
2.
(repeater),
, , .
,

.
(concentrator) (hub), ,
,
.

,
.
Hub ,
OSI.

121

,
, ,
,
, .
,

.
, .
, ,
, .
.
.

. , , ,
. ()
,
.
.
.
()
. (,
, , .)
.
,
.

.

,
.
H u b 1
H u b 2

...

H u b 3

1
7

...

6
1

...

. 9.34 ,


.
,

122

,
,
. , ,
,
(. 9.2), , ,
,

.

. 9.35

. 9.3
plug and play -
.
.


:
;
;
.

.
(
). .

100 .

.
, .

() .

123


. -,
,
, .
.

. , ,

( ).

.

,
:
(,
, ) ;

( ,
. .);
,
;

(, ,
, );
SNMP,
MIB.
3.
(bridge) ,
.

124

2A
1A

2 B

1 B

. 9.36



, .
,
.
(1A, 1B) (2A, 2B) (. 9.4).
,
.
(bridge),
(switching hub),
.
( )
.
/. -
/ , ,
, , ,
-.
,
, 10BaseT ( ) 10Base2 (
). ,
Ethernet ( CSMA/CD) Token Ring (
TPMA).

,

,
. ,
, .
,
,

125


.

1

2A

2A
1A

2B
1B

1 A

1B

2 B

. 9.37

,
( , hub), (bridge-).
,
(switch-).
,
.
,
,
. ,
.
, ,
.
.
.
.
( ,
) ,
, .
, .
, , ,
.
.
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
. ,
. .
(bridges)
. -,
, ,

126


.
, (
).

(switch) ,
.

. 9.38 Switch 2000


(,
), (..
- ).
.

. ,
,
. , ,
, .


1A

1 B


B
. 9.39

.
, ,
.
. .
(Switch)
.

127

.

, .

(
).
,
. ,

.

-.

(local-area network switch) ,

.
, ,
(.9.8).
,
.
Ethernet, IBM,
.
1

6
. 9.40

, ,
:
;
;
;
;
;
.

128

4.
(router) ,
.
(1, 1B),
(2, 2B) (3A, 3B) , .9.9.

. ,
.

,
.
.
, .

, . ,

- -.


3A
2A
1 A


3B
2B
1 B

B

. 9.41


.


.
, ,
, .

,
.

129


,
.
.
,
,
,
.

, ,
( OSI).
.

, IPX Novell TCP


Microsoft.
,
, .
.

.
5.
(gateway)
.


7
6
5
4
3
2
1

A
A
A
A
A
A
A

7
6
5
4
3
2
1

B
B
B
B
B
B
B

. 9.42

130

. ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
OSI (,
)
.
,
. ,
TCP/IP SNA.
,
,
.
,

,
. .
IPX/SPX TCP/IP
TCP/IP.
. ,
.

1. .
2. ?
3. .
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. OSI ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?
11. OSI Hub?
12. .
13. OSI ?
14. ?
15. .


16. OSI ?
17. ?
18. .
19. OSI ?
20. ?
21. .
22. OSI ?

131

132

1000BaseLX Gigabit Ethernet
1,3 .
1000BaseSX Gigabit Ethernet
0,85 .
1000BaseCX Gigabit Ethernet
.
100BaseFX Fast Ethernet 802.3
Fast Ethernet
.
100Base-T4 Fast Ethernet 802.3
100 / .
4B/5 8B/6T.
100BaseX Fast Ethernet
802.3 c MLT-3
5- 4/5B ,
(Auto-negotiation)
.
10Base2 Ethernet 802.3
10 / .
10Base5 Ethernet 802.3
10 / .
10BaseFL Ethernet
.
10Base Ethernet 802.3
10 / .
(adapter)
.
(management system) ,
.
(address)
.
IP , (
32
TCP/IP). IP
( );
, 102.54.94.97.

133

(analog signal) ,
.
.
- (analog-to-digital conversion)
.
,

,
.
, , ,
.
,
, ,
.

.
.
() ,

.
/ (base I/O port) ,
,
.
(data security)
, ,
, .
(data unit)
,
.
(baud) , ,
,
.
,
, .
(buffer) ,
,
, ,
.
(buffer) ,

.

134
(twisted-pair cable)
, .
,
.
()
,
. , ,
,
,
. .
2,

.
, (impedance)
,
. .
(dedicated line) (-)
,
. ,

.
(dedicated server) ,

.
(gigabyte) 1000 . 1024 ,
1 1 048 576 (220).

, ,
.
,
.
HTTP Internet,
.
(Primary Domain Controller, PDC)
, Windows NT Server PDC
.
, (Wide Area Network, WAN)
, .
(group) ,
.

135

(data) ,
,
.
(datagrams) ,
. ,
.
(defragmentation)
PDU ( )
PDU .
(diagnostic software)
,
,
,
.
(discrete signal) , ,
, .
.
.
(domain) ,
Windows NT Server,
. .
(DNS Domain Name System)
IP , ,
Internet. DNS DNS.
(access) , , ,
.

(driver)

,

.
(device driver) ,

/ .
(Uniform Resource Locator, URL)
, , Internet.
WWW.
(hard disk)
.
(frame preamble)
OSI, .

136
(IRQ interrupt request) ,
.
, .
(requester, LAN requester) () ,
.

.
(attenuation)
.
(star topology) ,
, .
(disk mirroring) 1 RAID,
( )
.
.
(image) ,
.
- (PCM Pulse Code Modulation)
.
,
.
(information network) ,
, .
(information system) ,
, .
: , ,
, .
- (IRS Information Retrieval
System) , .
(information) , , ,
, .
(information) ,
.
(infrared channel) ,
.
,
.
(cable) ,
.
(frame) .

137

(data frame) ,
PDU ( ),
.
(link) .
(data channel)
.
(Date link layer) OSI.
, ,
.
(client) ,
.
(client) , ,
.
- (clientserver) ,
(),
().
(coaxial cable) ,
.

, ,

() .
(coaxial cable) ,
, ,

.
(collision) ,
( ).
,
, , .
(switch) ,
.

,


.
/
, .
, ATM-
, .

138
ATM

()
,

, , .
hub (concentrator or hub)
, .

, FDDI
.
MSAU (Multi Station Access Unit)
,
.
(enterprise network) ,
.
(laser printer) ,

.
(logical disk) ,

.
(logical channel) ,
.

.
(local group) Windows NT Server
, .
.
(Local-Area Network) ,
.
(backbone) ,
, .
,
. , 1,
, ,
. 0,
, ,
.
(token) .
, .
(router) ,
,
( , ).

139

(routing)
, .
(network mask) 32- ,
IP-, IP-/.

Web- (
)

.
(megabyte) 1 048 576 (220).
,
. , ,
,
, ,
.
(channel access method) ,
,
, - .
,
. CSMA/CD (Ethernet)
(Token Ring).

(CSMA/CD) ,
:
,
, , .

. , ,
,
, ,
.

, .

.
(TPMA)
,
, .
,
, . ,
,
- . .

140
(microkernel) ,
.
(modem) -.
,
.
. .
(network monitor) - ,
. ,
.
(bridge) ,
.
.
OSI.
.
.
- (bridge-router) ,
.
(multiplexor) ,
.
. ,
.

(neural
network)

,
.
(carrier) ,
, .
(UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair)
,
.
.
(shell) ,
(
).
(demand priority)
, 100VG-Any
LAN .
(shared resource) ,
.
(peer-to-peer architecture)
,
.

141

- .
(main memory) ,
,
.
(optical cable) ,
. ,
,
.
(optical channel) ,
.
(optical fiber) ,
.
,
. OSI.
(password) ,
- .
(data communications)
.
(repeater) ,

.
.
(token) ,
.
(bandwidth)
; ,
.
(user) ,
- , .
(port) .
.
(provider) ,
Internet .
,
, ,
- ,
-.
(hub)
. -
.

142
,
.
(redirector) ,
/ ,

. Windows NT
.
(redirector)
,

.
(registry) Windows NT
, ,
, .
,
. ,
.
.
(segment) ,
(, , ).
,
.
.
(network service) ,

(network) ,
,
.
(adapter slot) , .
RS-232
.
(telecommunication) ,
.
(terminal) /
.
(testing)
.
RAID
. . 1 , 2
, 3

143

, 4 ,
5 .
(frame type) ,
Ethernet: Ethernet 802.3, Ethernet 802.2, Ethernet
SNAP Ethernet II.
,
- .
,
.
.
(remote logon)
,
.
(dial-up)
,
.
(remote access)

.
(utility) , -
.
(node) ; ,
.
(account) ,
Windows NT ( , , ).
(facsimile)
.
(physical media) ,
.
(fragmentation)

.
(characterization data file) ,

, .
(central processing unit)
. ,
.
(CRC Cyclical Redundancy Check)
,

144
.
. , .
(digital line) ,
() .
(ISDN Integrated Services Digital
Network) ,
.
(parity)
.
(bus)
.
(bus) ,
.
(broadcast)
, ,
-
.
(encryption)
.
(gateway) ,
.
(shielding) ,
. ,
, .
(Shielded Twisted-Pair, STP) ,
, .
(email)
,
.
(OSI Open
System Interconnection) ,

.
(ether) ,

.
.
HTML ,
.

145

(page description language)


, .
.
(SQL Structured Query Language) , ,
.
(mesh network topology) ,
.
.

146

Access .
Access auditing .
Adapter ,
.
Address ,
.
Addressing ,
.
Administration , .
Analog network ,
.
Analog signal ,
.
Analog-to-digital conversion - ,
.
Animation , , ,
.
Application layer OSI,
.
Archivator , , .
Arithmetic and logical unit (ALU) -
, ,

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
, - .
Banyan network ,
.
Baud , .
(, , ),
. , , ,
, 1200 = 1200 /.
Binary code ,
(0, +1).
Bipolar code .
(-1, 0, +1),
. .

147

Bit ,
.
Bridge ,
.
Broadband channel .
Broadcasting .
Bus .
Byte , , .
Cable , .
Cache memory -, ,
,
.
Carrier , ,
, .
Cellular packet radio network .
Channel , , .
Circuit
switching


.
Client , ,
.
Client-server architecture -.
Clock rate .
Closed channel .
Coaxial cable ,
, .
Communication network ,
, ,
.
Compiler ,
( ).
Concentrator , ,

.
Confidention , , .
Conformance , .
.
Connection .

148
Console ,
.
Data link layer , OSI,

.
Data management .
Data processing .
Data protection .
Data security .
Data security architecture ,
, .
Data transfer .
Data unit .
Databank .
Database .
Database management system (DBMS)
().
Database server .
Datagram , ,
.
Decoding .
Dedicated channel .
Designator .
Determinate access - ,
.
Device .
Diagnostic .
Dialog .
Digital network .
Digital signal ,
Digit-to-analog conversion - ,
.
Direct Memory Access (DMA) .
Directory .
Directory network service .
DirectX ,
Windows .

149

DirectDraw DirectX,
, ,
.
Disk .
Disk drive .
Disk Operating System (DOS) - ().
Diskette .
Display .
Distance learning ,
.
Domain , ,
(, , ) .
Driver - ,
.
Duplex channel - ,
.
Electronic mail ,
.
Emulation , ,
.
Encryption ,
.
Enterprise network ,
.
Ether , ,
,
.
Ethernet network Ethernet, ,
Xerox.
Explorer Web-.
External device .
External memory ,
.
Facsimile ,
.
Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet, Ethernet
100 /.
Fiber Channel network Fiber Channel,
, .

150
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
.
Fiber-optic link - - .
File .
Flash memory -,
.
Floppy disk .
Folder .
Font .
Frame .
Frame relay .
Frequency band .
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
.
Frequency modulation .
Functional profile .
Gateway .
Global network .
Gopher ,
Internet.
.
Graphic interface .
Hacker .
Hard disk .
Hardware .
Hardware Description Language (HDL)
.
Hardware platform .
Heterogeneous network ,
.
Hierarchical addressing ,
, .
High-level language .
Host computer -
.
Hypermedia .
Hypertext .
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) .

151

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)


.
Identification .
Image .
Index .
Information .
Information network .
Infrared channel .
Infrared network .
Infrared radiation .
Infrastructure .
Input/output device /.
Input/output interface /.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
.
Intelligent Hub .
,
.
Interconnection area .
Interface .
Internet network Internet.
Interpreter , ,
.
Java language Java, - ,
SUN Microsystems
Java Script language JavaScript.
Jet-printer .
Job .
Key .
Keyboard .
Knowledge base ().
Laser printer .
Light guide .
Link Access Procedure (LAP) .
Loader , ,

.
Local-area network (LAN) .

152
Locking .
Logical address ,
.
Logical channel .
Low-level language .
Machine language .
Macro instruction .
Manageable Hub - .
.
, ,
.
Manager .
Manchester coding - .
Matrix printer .
Message , .
Mirroring .
Modular hub - .
, .
,
.
Narrowband channel .
Navigator .
NetWare network NetWare.
Network .
Network analyzer .
Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS)
/.
Network layer .
Network management .
Network Operating System (NOS)
().
Network printer .
Network service .
Neural network .
Notebook personal computer .
Object .
Object Linking and Embedding technology (OLE)

Object-oriented architecture - .

153

Object-Oriented Database (OODB) - -


.
Optical fiber .
Optical disk .
Packet , .
Packet switching .
Paging device , .
Parity -
Pascal language - Pascal.
Password -
PCI bus - PCI
Peer-to-peer architecture - .
Permission .
Physical address .
Physical interconnection facility .
Physical layer .
Physical link .
Physical medium .
Ping .
Postscript language - ,
.
Presentation layer - .
Printer .
Protocol .
Quantization ,
().
Quantum .
Radio channel .
Radio local-area network .
Radio network .
Raster , ,
.
Raster image ,
.
Real-time system . ,

, , .
Record .

154
Redirector .
Relational database (RDB) .
Relay system - .
Remote access .
Repeater .
Repeater . .
Resource
Resource sharing
Ribbon cable .
Rout , .
Scanner .
Screen .
Semantics .
Serial interface .
Server .
Service .
Session .
Session layer .
Sharing () .
Shell . .
Simulation .
Software - .
Sound board .
Speech recognition - .
Stackable hub .
,
- ,
.
.
Stand-alone .
Stand-alone hub - . (
4 32) , .

.
Switch .
Synchronizing .
Syntax .

155

Talk Internet.
.
Telecommunications .
Telefax -.
Telephone mail .
Telephone network .
Telnet .
Internet .
Testing .
Time sharing - .
Timer .
Token .
Topology .
Traffic .
Transaction ,
, - - .
Translator , , ,
, .
Transparency ,
, , ()
, .
Transport layer ( ) ,
.
Three-dimensional image ( )
, .
Unauthorized access .
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
.
Unique address .
Unipolar code .
Universal CODE (UNICODE) - , 16 .
7-8- .
UNIX operating system ( ) UNIX
(), Bell Laboratory
User , ,
- , .
User interface .

156
Utility , , -
.
Vector image ,
,
, .
Verification ,
, .
Video board , ,
, .
Video bus , , ,
.
Video conferencing ,

.
Viewer , .
Virtual reality ( ) ,
.
Wavequide .
Webster .
Whois Internet.

157

ACF (Advanced Communications Function)
.
ACP (ANSI Code Page) ANSI.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
.
ACS (Advanced Connectivity System) .
ADC (Analog Digital Converter) -
(). .
AFP (Apple Talk File Protocol) Apple Talk).
Macintosh.
ANR (Automatic Network Routing)
.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
.
API (Application Programming Interface)
. ,
,
.
APPC
(Advanced
Program-to
Program
Communication)

.
APPN
(Advanced
Program-to
Program
Communication)

.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) .
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
.
ASMP
(ASymmetric
Multi
Processing)

.
ASP (Active Server Page) ,
Web-.
AT (Advanced Technology) .
ATandT (American Telephone and Telegraph)
.
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) .
,
.

158
ATP (Apple Talk Protocol) Apple
Talk.
AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) .
,
.
BASE BASEband, .
BASIC (Beginning All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code )
.
BBS (Broadcast Bulletin System)
. ,
.
BDC (Backup Domain Controller) .
BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) /.
B-ISDN
(Broadband-Integrated
Services
Digital
Network)

.
BNS (Broadband Network Service) .
B-WIN
(Broadband-Wissenchafts
Nets)

.
CAS (Column Address Strobe) , ,
.
CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering)
.
CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Date)
, .
CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) -
.
CGI (Common Gateway Interface) .
CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile)
CLNP (Connection Less Network Protocol)
.
CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol)
.
CPI (Common Programming Interface)
.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) .
CRC (Cycle Redundancy Check) .
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)

.

159

CWIS (Campus Wide Information System)


.
DAS (Double Attached Station) FDDI
.
DBMS (DataBase Management System)
().
DDC (Display Data Channel)
.
DDE (Dynamic Date Exchange) .
DDP (Delivery Protocol ).
Apple, Apple Talk.
Demand packet ,
100VG-AnyLAN, ,
.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
.
DLC (Dada Link Control)
.
DLL (Dynamic Linked Library) .
DMA (Direct Memory Access) .
DNS (Domain Name System) .
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
, ,
( ) .
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) .

.
DVI (Digital Video Interactive)
.
DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) ,
()
.
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
IBM. .
ECC (Error Correction Code) .
EISA (Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture) 32-
Intel.
Ethernet , 802.3 IEEE.
FAG (Frequently Asked Questions) .

160
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Date Interface Station)
- .
, 100 /.
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
.
FDSE (Full Duplex Switched Ethernet)
Ethernet.
FTAM (File Transfer, Access, and Management) ,

.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) .
.
GDI (Graphics Device Interface) .
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) ,
256 .
GUI (Graphics User Interface) .
HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) .
HDL (Hardware Description Language)
.
HDLC (High Level Data Link Control)
.
HP (Hewlett Packard) ( ).
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language,) .
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) .
IBM (International Business Machines) .
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
.
IDE (Integrated Device Electronic) .
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
.
IIS (Internet Information Server) Microsoft Back Office,
Web- Windows NT.
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
. SMTP.
IP (Internet Protocol) Internet,
TCP/IP, .
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange)
,
Novell.

161

IRQ (Interrupt Request) .


ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) IBM PC/IT.
,
.
ISAPI (Microsoft API)
Microsoft.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
.
ISO (International Standard Organization)
.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)
, 16,7 . (24-
).
JTM (Job Transfer and Manipulation)
.
LAN (Local-Area Network) .
LAP (Link Access Procedure) .
LAT (Local-Area Transport)
Digital Equipment Corporation.
LLC (Logical Link Control) .
MAC (Media Assess Control) .
MAPI (Messaging Application Program Interface)
.
MCA (Micro Channel Architecture) 32-
IBM PS/2.
MIB (Management Information Base) .
MNP (Microcom Network Protocol) ,

.
NBP (Name Binding Protocol)
Apple Talk.
NCP (NetWare Core Protocol) NetWare.
NDIS (Network Device Interface Specification)
, ,

162
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) ,
Microsoft,
NetBIOS.
NetBIOS (Network Basis Input/Output System)
, . .
NFS (Network File System) .
NIS (Network Information System) .
NIS ,
,
.
NLM (NetWare Loadable Module) NetWare.
NLSP (NetWare Link Service Protocol)
NetWare.
NOS (Network Operating System) .
NRZ (Non-Return to Zero) .
,
, .
NSAPI (Netscape API)
Netscape.
ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) .
OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) .
OME (Open Messaging Environment) .
OSA (Open Scripting Architecture) .
OSPM (Operating System Directed Power Management)
.
OSI (Open System Interconnection) .
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
, PCI.
PDC (Primary Domain Controller) ,
Windows NT Server,
.
PnP (Plug-and-Play) .
PPP (Point to Point Protocol) -. ,
(,
). .
PTM (Packet Transfer Mode) .
RAID (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive)
.
RAM (Random Access Mammary) .

163

RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)


.
RFS (Remote File System) .
RIP
(Routing
Internet
Protocol)

.
RPC (Remote Procedure Call) .
RTOS (Real-Time Operating System)
.
RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol)
.
SAP (Service Access Point) . ,
- OSI
.
, .
SAS (Single Attached Station) FDDI
.
SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control)
.
SDN (Software-Defined Network) ,
- .
SID (Security Identification) .
SLIP (Serial Line IP) IP .
.
IP (, , ),
,
RS-232 .
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
.
SNA (System Network Architecture) ,
.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
. SNMP
.
TCP/IP.
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) .
SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) ,
Novell.
SQL (Structured Query Language) .
SSL (Secure Socket Layer) ,
TCP/IP.

164
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) ()
.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) .
TDI (Transport Driver Interface) .
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
.
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
.
TIFF (Tagged Image Format File)
.
TLI (Transport Level Interface) .
TP4 (Transmission Protocol) 4.
TPMA (Token Passing Multiple Access)
.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
.
UNI (User-to-Network Interface) .
,
ATM .
UNS (Universal Name Convention)
, \\\_.
UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) .
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
.
UTP (Unsealing Twist Pare) .
UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Copy Protocol) Unix
Unix.
VESA (Video Electronics Standard Association)
.
VGA (Video Graphics Array) .
VHDL (Very High-speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language)
.
WAIS (Wide Area Information Server)
.
WDMA (Wavelength Division Multiple Access)
.
WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) Windows,
IP- NetBIOS.
WWW (Word Wide Web) .

165

X.25
.

166

1. .. : .
.: , 1996.
2. . . . .: , 1996.
3. ..
, 1998.
4. Microsoft Windows NT Workstation 4.0 . . . BNV ,
1998.
5. , , . Networking Essentials
, 1999.
6. , , . TCP/IP , 1999.
7. : Microsoft Corporation .:
, 1999.
8. http://www.bilim.com/koi8/library/glossary/
9. Novell Netware 4 .. , "", 1994.
http://www.citforum.kts.ru/operating_systems/nw4/
10.CISCO Internetworking Technology Overview -,
http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/ito/index.shtml.
11. . . .: BHV, 1996 288 c.:
ISBN 5773300281.
12. OSI BiLiM Systems Ltd.
13.http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/switche/osi.shtml.
14. Ethernet
http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/ethernet/starter.shtml.
15.
http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/protocols2/index.shtml.
16. IP- http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/ip/contents.shtml
17. Plug-and-Play Ethernet
http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/ethernet/pract.shtml.
18. TCP/IP
http://www.citforum.ru/win/internet/tifamily/index.shtml.
19. IP-,
http://www.citforum.ru/win/internet/tifamily/iproutng.shtml.
20. TCP/IP . " TCP/IP"
http://www.citforum.ru/win/internet/comer/contents.shtml.
21. IP
http://www.citforum.ru/win/internet/tifamily/ipspec.shtml.
22. http://citforum.ru/operating_systems/index.shtml.

167
23.. http://www.idcom.ru/rationet/sysint/active.htm#nic.
24.
http://www.idcom.ru/rationet/sysint/cabsys.htm#magistral.
25. http://ixbt.stack.net/comm/cable_utp.html.
26. Ethernet
http://www.bilim.com/koi8/bay/netgear/cables.htm.
27. http://old.pcweek.ru/97_40/koi/re1.htm.
28. 100Base-FX -
http://www.citforum.ru/nets/protocols2/2_06_06.shtml.
29.
http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/tpns/glava_3.shtml.
30. http://www.idcom.ru/rationet/sysint/chanels.htm.
31.
. . , .
, http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/protocols/index.shtml.
32. .
. . , . ,
http://www.citforum.ru/win/nets/protocols/1_03_04.shtml.
33. . . . , . . , ,
http://www.citforum.kcn.ru/operating_systems/sos/contents.shtml.
34. . . . , 1999.

89


1999 .



..
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. . ..
, 59, . , 50