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R factor and expected damage

Rodrigo Garca

Assume we can consider a complex structure as a single degrees of freedom system

Also assume we can consider the earthquake action as a single force applied on our system

According Hookes law, if the stiffness of the system is k, the relationship between the force and displacement is:
Do
P

Po

Po

P=kD

Po

Do

But if non-linear behavior is considerer, the Hookes law is not valid


D1 D2 D3
P 3P1 2P1 P1 P=kD

D1

D2

3D1

D3

P1

2P1

3P1

Non-linear behavior

Damage

Response Modification Factor R means how many times the maximum elastic force Pe is reduced due the nonlinear behavior for a given demand (De)
D
P

Pe

Pe/R

De

Comparison between R=1, R=1.5, R=2.5 and R=5


P Pe R=1

Pe/1.5

R=1.5

Pe/2.5

R=2.5

Pe/5

R=5

De

What happens when we have, for example, half of maximum displacement?


P Pe

R=1

R=1.5

R=2.5

R=5 De/2 D

And third of displacement?


P Pe

R=1 R=1.5

R=2.5 R=5 De/3 D

When a Response Modification Factor is selected, you must estimate the expected damage for earthquake levels lower than design level