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14:19-20; 19:18; 20:18; 33:9-11; 40:34-38).
(4) (. 12:1-3;
. 15:5), .
, , 603550
20 (. 1:46). ,
' . N.M. Sarna, Exploring Exodus:
The Heritage of Biblical Israel (New York: Schocken, 1986), pp. 1-2; R. Hendel, "The
Exodus in Biblical Memory," JBL 120 (2001): 601; K.A. Kitchen, "Exodus, The," ABD
(1992): 2:701.

86

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(1:21 2:2).
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2

. Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 57; Harrison, Introduction, p. 506; EJ.


Young, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1964), pp. 6263; J.E. Hartley, "Exodus: Message," in Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and
Background of the Old Testament, 2nd ed., ed. by W.S. Lasor, D.A. Hubbard, and E W.
Bush (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996), p. 63; J.R Fokkelman, "Exodus," in The Literary
Guide to the Bible, ed. by R. Altar and F. Kermode (Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 1987), pp. 56-65; Sarna, Exploring Exodus, pp. 5-6.


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III (1403-1364),
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. Hartley, "Exodus: Historical Background," in Old Testament Survey: The


Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament, 2nd ed., ed. by W.S. Lasor, D.A.
Hubbard, and F.W Bush (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996), pp. 52-58; J. Bright, A History
of Israel, 3rd ed. (Philadelphia: Westminister, 1981), pp. 108-133.

88

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. 4
Harley, "Exodus: Historical Background,"
5
Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 58.
6

Harrison, Introduction, pp. 568-569.

p. 59.

89

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., ., W.E Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: A Historical Analysis


of Two Contrasting Faiths (New York: Doubleday, 1968), pp. 159, 164; Bright, History,
pp. 120ff.; G.L. Archer Jr., A Survey of Old Testament Introduction (Chicago: Moody,
1964), pp. 164,213-223; Young, Introduction, p. 67; Dillard and Longman, Introduction,
pp. 58-62; Hartley, "Exodus: Historical Background," pp. 58-59.
8
. ., J.M. Miller and J.H. Hayes, A History of Israel andJudah (Philadelphia:
Westminster, 1986), pp. 67-68,78-79; J. A. Soggin, An Introduction to the History of Israel
andjudah, 2nd ed. (London: SCM, 1993), pp. 108-139.
9
Kitchen, "Exodus," ABD, 2:701-702; B.W Anderson, Understanding the Old
Testament, 3rd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ/London: Prentice-Hall, 1978), pp. 43-45; G.
Garbini, History and Ideology in Ancient Israel (New York: Crossroad, 1988), p. 15;N.P.
Lemche, Ancient Israel: A New History of Israelite Society, The Biblical Seminar 5
(Sheffield: Sheffield, 1988) p. 109.
10

, (Hendel, "Exodus
in Biblical Memory," p. 602, esp. n. 3). : . Halpern, "The Exodus and the
Israelite Historians," Erlsr 24 (1993): 89-96; id., "The Exodus from Egypt: Myth of
Reality," in 77ze Rise of Ancient Israel, ed. by Hershel Shanks (Washington, DC: Biblical
Archaeology Society, 1992), pp. 86-117; A. Malamat, "the Exodus: Egyptian Lcsko
(Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997), pp. 15-26; C.A. Redmount "Bitter Lives: Israel
In and Out of Egypt," in The Oxford History of the Biblical World, ed. by M.D. Coognan
(New York: Oxford, 1998) pp. 79-121; Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 59.
11
G.A. Rendsburg, "The Date of the Exodus and the Conquest/Settlement: The
Case for the 1100s," VT42 (1992): 510-527; cf. Harrison, Introduction, p. 315; Hartley,
"Exodus: Historical Background," p. 58.

XV XI .
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91

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. Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 59; Archer, Survey, pp. 212-214;


Harrison, Introduction, pp. 315-317.
13
J. Cyavstangjoshua-Judges (New York: R.R. Smith, 1931), p. 146.
14
K.M. Kenyon, Archeology of the Holy Land, 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton,
1979), pp. 208,331-332; cp. Kenyon, Digging Up Jericho (New York: Praeger, 1957); cp.
Harrison, Introduction, p. 318.
15
Harrison, Introduction, pp. 318-321.

92

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. XV , ,
, 16

. Harrison, Introduction,
pp. 321-323; Hartley, "Exodus: Historical Background," pp. 59-60; P. Monet, LesNowelles
fouiless de Tanis (1929-33); Dillard and Longman, Introduction, pp. 59-62; J J. Bimson,
Redatingthe Exodus, JSOTSupp 5 (Sheffield: JSOT, 1978), pp. 1-351; Archer, Survey,
pp. 164,212-223; J. Finegan, Light from the Ancient Past: The Archaeological Background
of Judaism and Christianity (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959), pp. 120121.
17
. J.H.
Walton, Chronological Charts of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978),
pp. 29-30. . : Dillard and Longman, Introduction, pp. 59-62; Bimson, Redating,
pp. 42,47-48,67-80.

93

XV ,
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(1:1-13:16), (13:17-18:27)
(19:1-40:38). ,
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21
(25:1-40:38).

.

.
18

Harley, "Exodus: Historical Background," p. 60; . D.H. Freedman, "The


Chronology of Israel and the Ancient Near East," in The Bible and the Ancient Near
East, ed. by G.E. Wright (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961), pp. 206-208.
19
Harrison, Introduction, pp. 324-325.
20
Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 61.
21
Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 62; cp. Sarna, Exploring Exodus, pp.6-7.

94

7

1. - 1:1-22
2. , - 2 : 1 - 7 : 7
3. , - 7 : 8 - 1 5 : 2 1
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(7:15; 8:20; 9:13),
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10:3), (8:16-19; 9:8-12;
10:21-29). , . ^
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[. 7:26]; 9:1)
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8:16], 9:13). ,
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Sarna, "Exodus, Book of," ABD, 2:695.


, (7:15; 8:20
[. 8:161, 9:13). (, )
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[. 7:26]; 9:1; 10:1).
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, pp. 695-696. . Sarna, Exploring Exodus, pp. 15-11,


4.2; . Hartley, "Exodus: Message," pp. 68-70; Young,
Introduction, pp. 64-65.

95

96

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. Young, Introduction, p. 66.
25
Sarna, "Exodus," ABD, 2:696.
26

97_

98

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(. 25:16;
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. 28:1-14, 15-68

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27


. : Harley, "Exodus: Message," pp. 72-75; G. Mendenhall,

,
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26), ;
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(33:19-23) ;
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(20:33-23:33);
(1:1-5; 6:14-27).
,
(25:1-31; 35:4-40:33); ,
(30:13-16); ,
, (7:7),
(12:40-41),
(19:1), (40:2);,
,

(4:24-26; 12:44,48-49).
29
, .

"Ancient Oriental and Biblical Law," BA 17 (1954): 26-46; id., "Covenant Forms in
Israelite Tradition," BA 17 (1954): 50-76; repr. in The Biblical Archaeologist Reader 3,
ed. by E.F Campbell and D.N. Freedman (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970), pp. 2553; J.A. Thompson, The Ancient Near Eastern Treaties and the Old Testament (London:
Tyndale, 1964); R.E. Friedman, Commentary on the Torah (San Francisco:
HarperSanFrancisco, 2001), pp. 234-235.
28
J.H. Sailhamer, The Pentateuch as Narrative (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992),
pp. 248-249.
29
Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 64; Sarna, "Exodus," ABD, pp. 693-694.

99

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. 2:13-15). (. 12-18; . 2:15).
- (. 14; 1 . 10:1-6), -
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40 (. 16:35; . 14:33-34; 32:13; .
2:7; 8:2-4; 29:5; . . 5:6; 14:7; . 11:1-2), - 40
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30
Sarna, Exploring Exodus, pp. 2-3.
31
Dillard and Longman, Introduction, p. 64.
32

B.S. Childs, The Book of Exodus (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1974), p. 169.


,
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(. . 1:22; 2:15; 3:15; 5:17; 8:17; 12:17; 13:35; 21:4; .
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Dillard and Longman, Introduction, . 64-67.

34

, . 67-71.

101