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CH3

,
, .
, ,
,
.

:
;
, ;
;
;
;
;
; ;
;
.
:

, (,
, , , ..),
, , .
.. " ", 2009

, , ,
, , , , ..
. ,
( )
.
, () .

-
.

( - ).
20
.

: (,
), (,
) .
,
.
.. " ", 2009

800 ,
, ,
= ,
(COOH, OH, SH, NH2 .).


HO

C16H32O2

C 16:0

C18H36O2

C 18:0

C20H40O2

C 20:0

C22H44O2

C 22:0

HO

HO
O

C 14:0

O
HO

C14H28O2

HO
O

.. " ", 2009


, - .
HO
O

C19H38O2


9 10

HO

O
9 10

HO

C14H26O2

C 14:1

C16H30O2

C 16:1

C18H34O2

C 18:1

C22H42O2

C 22:1

9 10

HO
O


13 14

HO
O


( 42 55% )

.. " ", 2009

-
9 10

HO
O

9 10

C 18:2

12 13

15 16

C18H30O2

C 18:3

C20H32O2

C 20:4

C18H32O2

HO

HO

12 13

11 12

14 15

60%
.

.. " ", 2009

.. " ", 2009

.. " ", 2009

.. " ", 2009

90%
12--18:1(n-9); 500 . .
Hydnocarpus
OH
laurifoliaC H O
18 34
3

69% a-O
HO

9c,11t,13t-18:3; 100 . .
OH 12-OH-18:1 (9t)
Ricinus
C18H30O2
communis

55%

8t,10t,12c-18:3;
O
Hydnocarpus
Kurzii
OH C H O
18 30 2
O 18:3
a-

11t, 13c)
Aleurites fordii
(9t,
Hydnocarpus:
Hydnocarpus
laurifolia
wightiana)
49%

(H.18:3
(8t, 10t,
12c) -
Hydnocarpus Kurzii 27% -
Calendula
officinales
O
O
OH (Cuphea): OH

Cuphea
ferrisiae
82.2%

10:0
C18polymorpha
H32O2
C16H28
O2
Cuphea
80.1%

12:0

.. " ", 2009

10

(18:0):
(Theobroma
34.4% (+ 34.8% );
(Shorea robusta)
44.3% (+ 40.4% ); 1975
35 . .;
(Butyrospermum
44.3% (+ 45.6% ); 1979
35 . .

cacao)

parkii)

.. " ", 2009


CH3
O

COOH
CoA

H2C

CoA

CoA

O
-

11

-
(
)

C18:1n-9

( -)

C18:0

( -)

C16:0

( -)

( )

C18:2n-6

( -)

C18:3n-3

( -)

( ,
; - !)
.. " ", 2009


HO

12


,
=> .

-
18:2n-6

18:3n-6

20:3n-6

20:4n-6

22:4n-6

22:5n-6

22:5n-3

22:6n-3

-
18:3n-3

18:4n-3

20:4n-3

20:5n-3

( , !)

.. " ", 2009

13

O
O

O
O
O
O

( )
.
HO

C16H33OH

HO

C26H53OH

HO

C30
H61OH


.. "

", 2009

14

O
R

H3C
O

H 3C
H3C

R1

H 3C





C15H31 OH -
C25H51 OH -

H
H

CH3
CH3

HO

-
OH
C19H39-CH-C6H11 -
n-C30H61OH -

.. " ", 2009

O
O

15

HO

O
O

NH
O


( )


18
16

( )

.. " ", 2009



L-

O P O
O

OH

16

O
O


( )

R1

R2

= , , , , .

= -
(1-5% ;
, ;
)
.. " ", 2009


50%

+ (
)
HO

HO

18

16

14

12

10

HO

HO

OH
3

HO

17

HO

1 OH

H2N

(2S, 3R)-2- -1,3


4

CH2OR1

COR1

OH
3

(2S, 3R, 4)-2- -4- -1,3

R2O

3 CH2OR3

R2O

OH

COR3

OH

H2N

OH

N
H

O


.. " ", 2009




R1

O
O

R2

OH
O P O
O



R1

OH
O P O
O

O
R2

18

O

R1

OH
O P O
O

O
R2

(

,

)

(

)

( 22%
;
- ,
,
, , )

H3C
H3C N
H3C

O
O P O
O

(CH2)n CH3

O
O

n = 15 17
CH3


( <1 ,
5- ;
)

.. " ", 2009


H3C
H3C N
H3C

19

O
O
O P O
O

2
3

R1
R2
O

R1, R2 -
C16- C18-, R1 , R2 - .


50%
.
.
O
NH2

OH
O P O
O

R1
R2

O
O


.
- 15-30%
.



.
.
.. " ", 2009


O
H2N

COOH
OH
O P O
O

R1
R2

O
O

20

10-15%
. : , ,
, , , .



;
.

.
X

HO
OH
O P O
O

N
H O
(
)

= -CH CH N(CH ) -

2 "
2
3 3 ", 2009
..

21

.
O

OH

HO
HO

O
O

OH


OH

R1

R2

HO
HO

HO
O

OH

N
HO

HO
Gly O

N
HO

NHCOCH3

HO
HO
HOOC


(N- ),

HO
OH
.. "
", 2009
OH

22


, , , - -5,8,11,14-
O

5-
[O]

OH
CH3
15

C20H32O2 C 20:4
15-
[O]
O

OOH

OH
CH3

OH
CH3

15

OOH

[O]
O
12

OOH O

COOH

15

CH3

[O]

OH

OH
CH3

15

OH

COOH

HO

5
12

OH
15

5-

CH3

COOH

HO OH

CH3

HO

OH
COOH


HO

CH3

.. " ", 2009

23

G2
8

2-
O
COOH

O
OH
CH3

12

CH3

15

15

OOH

HO

OH

OH

COOH

COOH

OH
O

CH3

OH

PGE2

HO

OOH

5
15

O
COOH

CH3

COOH

HO

PGF2

5
15

O
COOH

HO

COOH

5
15

CH3

OH

O
H

H
OH

H 3C
OH

(PGI2)

.. " ", 2009

COOH

COOH

OH
HO

OH

PGB2
O

COOH
HO

OH

PGD2
COOH

PGC2
HO

COOH
OH

COOH

OH

PGA2

24

COOH
HO

PGE2

OH

COOH

PGF2
COOH

O
OOH

OH

PGG2
HOOC

HO

PGH2

OH

PGJ2

PGI2 ( )

OH
.. " ", 2009

25

a- - 18:3
- 20:4
- 20:5
- 22:6
O

HO

(CH2)3CO2H

HO

OH

E2
O
O

(CH2)3CO2H

(CH2)3CO2H

HO
O

C5H11
OH

HO

A2

15-A2
HO

OH
(CH2)2CO2H

OH
C5H11

C5H11
OH

OH

15-F2t

(CH2)3CO2H

O
O

C5H11

C5H11
HO

(CH2)3CO2H

HO

C2H5

7-F4t

-
.. " ", 2009

26

a- - 18:3
- 20:4
- 20:5
- 22:6
(CH2)7CO2H
C2 H 5

12- -

CO2H
C2 H 5

AcO

C5H11

C2H5

6-1

(CH2)2CO2Me

(CH2)7CO2H
OH

OAc

OAc

O
Cl

AcO

HO

(CH2)3CO2Me
C5H11

.. " ", 2009

27
O

()
(
F2a).

HO

HO


(
1).

OH
O

OH
HO

OH

(
1).
O

O
OH
HO

OCH3

OCH3
HO

OH

(PGF2a) (PGE2)

.. " ", 2009