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REAL & REACTIVE POWER CONCEPTS and GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE

- K. Arputharaju, Assistant Executive Engineer / Operation, Basin Bridge Gas Turbine Power Station, TANGEDCO, TNEB Ltd., Chennai 600 012.
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REQUIREMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM


It must supply energy practically everywhere the customer demands. The load demands vary with time. The system must able to supply this ever changing demand. The delivered energy must meet certain minimum requirements in regard to quality. The following factors determine the quality: a) The system frequency must be kept around 50Hz with a variation of 0.05Hz. b) The magnitude of the bus voltages are maintained within prescribed limit around the normal value. Generally the voltage variation should be limited to 5%. The energy must be available with high reliability. The energy must be delivered without overloading any element in the power system. The energy must be delivered at minimum cost.

REAL POWER (P): The real power, P is defined as the average value of P and therefore, physically, means the useful power being transmitted. Its magnitude depends very strongly on the power factor cos. REACTIVE POWER (Q): The reactive power, Q is by definition equal to the peak value of that power component that travels back & forth on the line, resulting in zero average, and therefore capable of no useful work.
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TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD I V R I V PHASOR PHASE ANGLE POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD P Q P>0 Q=0

= 0

I V I L I

= +90

P=0

Q>0

= - 90

P=0

Q<0

I V

R V L

0<<+90

P>0

Q>0

L
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TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD I V R C V R C I V -90<<0 P>0 Q<0 PHASOR PHASE ANGLE POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD P Q

Tuned to
Resonance I V C Ic L IL = Ic PL = Pc Energy travels
-90<=<=+90

IL

P=0

Q=0

Back & forth Between C&L


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TYPE OF LOADS
Inductive load absorbs positive Q. i.e., an inductor consumes reactive power. Capacitive load absorbs negative Q. i.e., a capacitor generates reactive power. Sign change in Q simply means a 180 phase shift. Resistive load consumes real power. Inductive load consumes positive reactive power Capacitive load consumes negative reactive power. Combination of R & L load consumes real & positive reactive power. Combination of R & C load consumes real & negative reactive power. Reactive power is bi-directional power. It travels from source to load as well as load to source.
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FREQUENCY IS RELATED TO REAL POWER ( P f )


SMALL DROP IN SYSTEM LOAD. VALVE SETTINGS ARE IGNORANT OF THE LOAD CHANGE. INPUT TORQUE TO EACH MACHINE REMAINS UNALTERED. DECREASE IN CURRENT SUPPLIED BY EACH ALTERNATOR. DECREASE IN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TORQUE BY EACH ALTERNATOR. EACH ALTERNATOR EXPERIENCES SURPLES ACCELERATING TORQUE. SLIGHT INCREASE IN SPEED AND FREQUENCY.

EFFECT ON OTHER LOADS:


AT HIGHER FREQUENCY, THE REMAINING LOAD ROTATES AT HIGHER SPEED AND TAKES MORE CURRENT. HENCE THE LOAD DEMAND INCREASES. POWER GENERATION AT HIGHER FREQUENCY EQUALS THE LOAD DEMAND POWER. TO DECREASE THE FREQUENCY, THE VALVE MUST BE CLOSED SLIGHTLY. EXAMPLE: PUMP SET (INDUCTION MOTOR) At high frequency, the speed of IM increases. Ns = 120f / P Nr = Ns ( 1 - s ) The current taken by the IM will be more. Hence the demand on the system increases.
ADJUSTING INPUT VALVES CONTROLS FREQUENCY CONTROLS REAL POWER

VOLTAGE IS RELATED TO REACTIVE POWER ( Q V )


G1

V1

V2 jX P jQ

1. 2. 3.

Bus Voltage V1 is kept at constant magnitude. Transmission line has reactance only i.e. jX. Power flow is P jQ.

Take V1 as reference. V2=V1-jXI -----------------------------------(1) V1 * I = P jQ I = (P-jQ) / V1 ------------------------------(2) Substitute (2) in (1) V2 = V1 jX [(P/V1) j(Q/V1)] V2 = [V1 (X/V1)Q] j(X/V1)P]

VECTOR DIAGRAMS:
V2 = V1- X Q V1
-j X P V1
DOUBLE P DOUBLE Q

BOTH DROPS EQUAL

V1
X Q V1 X P V1

V1
X
V1

V1
Q
X P V1 2X Q V1

V2

V2

V2

2X P V1

DOUBLE P : VOLTAGE ANGLE WILL CHANGE. NO CHANGE IN MAGNITUDE. DOUBLE Q : VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE IS VERY MUCH RELATED TO REACTIVE POWER. MORE Q FLOW WILL AFFECT THE VOLTAGE EXCITATION MORE EXCITATION LESS LAGGING MVAR LAGGING MVAR GEN. VOLTAGE GEN. VOLTAGE 10

REACTIVE POWER INJECTION AT LOAD SIDE BY USING SHUNT CAPACITORS, IMPROVES THE VOLTAGE. UNDER LIGHT LOAD CONDITIONS, RECEIVING END VOLTAGE > SENDING END VOLTAGE (FERRANTI EFFECT) DUE TO CAPACITIVE LOAD. CONNECT SHUNT REACTORS TO CONTROL VOLTAGE. PEAK LOAD CONDITION CONNECT CAPACITORS TO CONTROL VOLTAGE

LIGHT LOAD CONDITION

CONNECT REACTORS

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER IS USED TO ABSORB or TO DELIVER THE REACTIVE POWER. SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR UNDER NO-LOAD CONDITION IS SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER.
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SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO ( SCR ):


SCR = FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO PRODUCE RATED VOLTAGE ON O.C. FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO CIRCULATE RATED CURRENT ON S.C.

S.C.C. O.C.C. PER UNIT CURRENT PER UNIT VOLTAGE a b

1.0

C
E
AD AE AC DE BC

AB

o
SCR = o Fo o Fs c Fo b Fs c Fo a Fo

Fo

Fs

FIELD CURRENT
1 Per unit voltage on open circuit Corresponding per unit current on short circuit 12 1 Xd

1 a Fo / c Fo

= RECIPROCAL OF SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE

TYPICAL S.C.R. VALUES:


For 500 MW T.G., SCR= 0.48 For 210 MW T.G., SCR= 0.49 For 110 MW T.G., SCR= 0.50 For 60 MW T.G., SCR= 0.59 The SCR value may have to be raised to 1.0 to 1.5, if the loading is likely to be capacitive i.e. leading MVAR supply. For modern Turbo-alternator, the SCR is normally between 0.48 to 0.7

EFFECT OF S.C.R. ON MACHINE PERFORMANCE:


Higher value of SCR has higher stability limit. Better voltage regulation for high SCR. High value of SCR has a long air gap which means that the mmf required by field is large. Hence machine with higher SCR is costlier to build. TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM

SCR

AIR GAP

WEIGHT

SIZE

Present trend is to build low value of SCR since fast acting excitation system available.
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POWER DIAGRAM (CAPABILITY DIAGRAM):

CASE-I: In ABC, BC=E Sin B In BCD, BC=IXd Cos E E Sin = IXd Cos MW A Multiply both sides by V V D C Xd I MVAR EV Sin = VI Cos = REAL Xd POWER At =90, We get the maximum power i.e. the theoritical stability line.
In ABC, CD=AC AD; In BCD, CD=IXd Sin In ABC, AC=E Cos & AD = V IXd Sin = E Cos - V ; Multiply both sides by V , We get Xd EV Cos V2 = VI Sin = REACTIVE POWER Xd Xd CASE-I I:
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ASSUMPTION: I.R. drop is negligible.

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR


I) COLLECT THE INFORMATIONS FROM T.G. NAME PLATE / MANUAL: 1. Terminal Voltage : 11,000 V 2. Rated MVA : 137.5 3. Rated p.f. (cos ) : 0.8 Lagging 4. Rated Armature Current : 7220 A 5. Rated Field Current : 1500 A 6. Short Circuit Ratio : 0.5 II) CALCULATED VALUES: 1. MW = MVA X p.f. = 137.5 X 0.8 = 110 MW 2. MVAR = MVA X SCR = 137.5 X 0.5 = 68.75 MVAR (Max. permissible zero p.f. leading MVAR) 3. = cos-1(0.8) = 36.87 4. To ensure operational safety, there should be a margin of at least 12.5 % (given by the manufacturer) of the power rating of the generator between the working point & the theoretical stability (load angle ) limit line. The operational limit of a generator rated at 0.8 p.f. lagging can be tabulated below: p.u. MW p.u. MW + Margin 0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 15

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR


REAL POWER p.u. MW Unity p.f. Leading p.f. VAR IMPORT VAR EXPORT Lagging p.f.

OE : No-load Field Current OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

=90
1.0 0.9 0.9

B
P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING

G
THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE
0.7

TURBINE LIMIT LINE 0.8 0.7

ARG IN ( =6 3)

0.8

OR AT ST

%M

IT W ITH 12.5

AT UR

0.5

0.5

0.4 0.3

TIC AL STA BIL ITY LIM

ST AT OR

.87

L TA 0.3 TO
0.2

R) 0.4 R (O TO RO

AR M

D EL FI

CU

RR

T EN

CU

0.6

0.6

RR

EN T

CU

RR T EN LIM

CUR OR ROT

(O R)

IT

REN IT T LIM

A
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 SCR

E
0.5

PRA C

0.1

0.1

F
0.3 0.2 0.1

=3 6

0.2

TO TA L

H O
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

C
1.0

0.4

REACTIVE POWER p.u. MVAR (leading)

MVA X SCR MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.

REACTIVE POWER p.u. MVAR (lagging)

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CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR


REAL POWER p.u. MW Unity p.f. Leading p.f. VAR IMPORT VAR EXPORT Lagging p.f.

OE : No-load Field Current OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

=90
1.0 0.9 0.9

B
P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING

G
THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE
0.7

TURBINE LIMIT LINE 0.8 0.7

ARG IN ( =6

3)

0.8

OR AT ST

%M

IT W ITH 12.5

AT UR

0.5

0.5

0.4 0.3

TIC AL STA BIL ITY LIM

ST AT OR

=36 .87

L TA 0.3 TO
0.2

R) 0.4 R (O TO RO

AR M

D EL FI

CU

RR

T EN

CU

0.6

0.6

RR

EN T

CU

RR T EN LIM

CUR OR ROT

(O R)

IT

REN IT T LIM

0.2

PRA C

0.1

0.1

TO TA L

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

A
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 SCR

E
0.5

0.1
0.3

H
0.9

C
1.0

0.4

0.2

0.1

REACTIVE POWER p.u. MVAR (leading)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

MVA X SCR MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.

REACTIVE POWER p.u. MVAR (lagging)

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III) COMPARISON
Actual MW=50 (i.e. 50/137.5=0.364p.u.) Actual MVAR=6 (i.e. 6/137.5=0.044p.u.) Arm. Current = 0.36p.u. X 7220A=2599A Field Current=0.475p.u. X 1500A=712.5A p.f.=cos(6.5)=0.994 lag Load Angle =33.4 V=(MVA X 106)/(3 X

E.T.P.S. *** UNIT-5


Actual Readings taken from Meters: DATE: 09.08.2004 TIME: 11:00 Hrs. MW = 50 MVAR = 6 Armature Current = 2600A Field Current = 710A p.f.= 0.98 lag = -- (No measurement) V = 11.2 KV

Iarm.) Iarm.)

=((MW2+MVAR2) X 106)/(3 X

=((502+62) X 106)/(3 X 2599) = 11.12KV

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A.

Rotor current limit

CAPABILITY CURVE

B.

Class of insulation (to take care of rotor insulation)

Stator current limit

C.
D.

MW load limit

Class of insulation for stator.

Turbine limit (steam power generation capability) Turbine is designed for MW load only .

Minimum load angle limit

E.

Leading p.f. operation Stability limit of generation

Stator end heating limit

Stressing stator winding & heating of stator 10 to 20 MVAR (leading p.f.) is safe Rotor is relieved from stress Stator end winding heated due to capacitive effect Remove capacitor banks in load centres In NCTPS 210 MW unit, running the generator at -64 MVAR load for an hour. Not able to reduce the load.
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USEFULNESS OF CAPABILITY DIAGRAM FOR EXCITATION CONTROL The information given by the capability diagram regarding full load rotor current (excitation), maximum rotor angle during steady state leading p.f. zone operation (<75) etc., are essential for proper setting of the various limiters in the excitation control system. Capability diagram give the basic information regarding the limiting zones of the operation so that limiters can be set / commissioned suitably for safe operation of the units.
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