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The driving force by which humans achieve their goals.

Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic

Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure

Extrinsic motivation

comes from outside of the individual.

1. The Economic Man With long and hard work comes high pay to take care of his material and physiological needs. 2. The Social Man An individual craves for affiliation and communion with his fellow workers.

The theory on the complex nature of man was posited by Maslow who averred that mans need fall into a hierarchy of relative potency.

Individual workers have two different categories of needs

Hygiene Factors

Satisfying Factors

Policies and administration Supervision Working Condition Interpersonal relations Money

Achievement Recognition for accomplishment Challenging work Increased responsibility Growth and development

Alderfer's ERG theory


Alderfer, expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theory posits that there are three groups of core needs existence, relatedness, and growth.

People with high need to achieve do achieve more than those with low need and no need at all

motivation is much more about expectations than satisfaction

Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. Three components of Expectancy theory 1. Expectancy 2. Instrumentality 3. Valence

The managers assumptions about people defines his style of managing them.

Theory x

The average person dislikes work and will avoid it if he/she can.
Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of

punishment to work towards organizational objectives. The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively un ambitious, and wants security above all else.

Man learns from his environment and greater control of this environment improves his development.