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. ..

,
-
,
,

. . .

2008




:


. ; ..,
..,
_________________________________________________
:
Translated from the Russian by Joseph Snyper, Jana Printz

__________________________________________________

, , ,


.
Textbook is designed for beginners learning Russian under the guidance of a
teacher or for those who are unable to get regular help from a teacher.

LESSON 1

1. DERS

Nouns

10
10


Animate and Inanimate Nouns

10

The Noun Gender

11


The Singular and the Plural of Nouns

15

The Personal Pronouns

19


Possessive Pronouns

20

21

The Form of the Possessive Pronouns in the Nominative



CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

23

Read with a dictionary

25

LESSON 2

Verbs

2. DERS

26

Conjugation of Verbs in the Present Tense

29

:
Some Irregular Verbs:

30

()
The Imperative Mood

33


Adverbs of Motion and Direction

35


CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

LESSON 3

37

The Simple Sentence

41


Interrogative Sentences without Question Words

48

Read with a dictionary

54

4 LESSON 4

ases

54


Prepositional Case Denoting Place
4

56

,
Prepositional Case for the Object Thought of or Spoken about

62


CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

65

Read with a dictionary

67

LESSON 5

68

Numerals
,

Adjectives, Possessive Pronouns and Ordinal Numerals

70

,

Prepositional Case of Adjectives,
Ordinal Numerals and Possessive Pronouns

74


CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

80

Read with a dictionary 85

LESSON 6


The Past Tense of the Verb

85

The Accusative Case

88


Accusative Case of Noun

90

,

Ajectives, Pronouns, and Numerals in Accusative Case

Read with a dictionary

7 LESSON 7

92
100


The Genitive Case

102

, ,

Nouns, Ajectives, Possessive Pronouns and Ordinal Numerals Using with
the Genitive Cas

103

Possesion

105

Quantity

106

Absence

109

Time

111

, .
Prepositions Using the Genitive Case

112


MEANINGS OF THE GENITIVE CASE USED WITHOUT PREPOSITIONS

117


CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

127

Read with a dictionary

129

8 LESSON 8

Verbs of Motion

131


Conjugation of the Motion Verbs

133

The Aspects of the Verb

136


The Main Formations of Aspect Pairs

136


Motion verbs with prefixes

CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE
7

137

147

Read with a dictionary

149

9 LESSON 9

Dative Case for the Addresse

153

, ,


Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns
and Ordinal Numbers in th Dative

154


The Dative with Prepositions

155


The Dative in Impersonal Sentences

159


CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

163

Read with a dictionary

166

10

LESSON 10


The Instrumental Case .
8

168

c
The Instrumental Case with Prepositions
and without prepositions

169


Instrumental Case Denoting Place

170


Declinsion of Personal Pronouns

174

175


CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

179

Read with a dictionary

183

11 LESSON 11


The Principal Meaning of the Aspects of Russian Verbs

185



The Use of the Aspects of the Verb with Adverbial Words

186

Future Tense of Verbs

189

:
Summary Table of the Tenses of the Russian Verb:

190
9


CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

199

Read with a dictionary

201

12 LESSON 12
The Adverb

202

Read with a dictionary

211

10

1 LESSON 1


Nouns
( )
(Grammatical notes)


Animate and Inanimate Nouns

, ,
. ?

?
Russian nouns denoting people or animals (so-called animate nouns) answer the
question ? All the other nouns(so-called inanimate nouns) answer the
question ? The questions ? and ? are asked about nouns
either in the singular or the plural.

?
?

Exersices
1. , .
Listen and repeat after the teacher.
.
11

: Compare the translation:


? - .
Who is this? - It is a student.
-

? - .
Who are they? - They are students.
-
? - .
What is this? - It is a newspaper.

-
? - .
What are these? - They are newspapars.
-
? - .
What is this? - It is a cat.
-
? - .
What are these? - They are cats.
-

The Noun Gender

12

:
1. ( ..) 2. ( ..)
3. (..)
Russian nouns are grouped according to gender:
1. Masculine 2. Feminine 3. Neuter

1 2 3
1. Masculine
.
Masculine words end in a consonant.

- - -

2. . Feminine.
-,-.
Feminine words end in -a,-.
-,-

3. . Neuter.
o -,-.
Neuter words end in -o,-e.
-,-.
13

- -

! Remember!
1.

, //,

.
There are nouns of both masculine and feminine gender ending in a soft sign //.
//

()

()

Masculine (he)

Feminine (she)

2. -, -.
There are masculine nouns ending in -a, -.
-, -.

, , , , , ,
.
2. , , .
There are neuter nouns ending in -.

14

-.
, , . , ,
Exersices
2.
:
Determine the gender of the following nouns by their endings and group them
according to the model:

) , , , , , ;
) , , , , , , , ;
) , , , , , , , ;
) , , , , , ;
) , , ;
) , , , , , , ;
) , , , , , ;
) , , , , , , ;
) , , , , ;
) , , , , , , , , , , .
3. , .
Listen and repeat after the teacher. .
? ?

, . (, , ).

? ?

, . (, , ).

? ?

, . (, , ).

? ?

, . (, ).
15

? ?

, . (, ).

? ?

, . (, ).

? ?

, . (, ).

? ?

, . (, ).

? ?

, . (, ).

? ?

, . (, ).

? ?

, . (, ).


The Singular and the Plural of Nouns

( ) -: - -, -. -: -, - -, -.

- : - -,
: - -.
, , , , , ,
-: -, -, -, -, -.
Masculine and feminine nouns with a stem that ends in a hard consonant ( the
stem is comprised of all parts of a word except the grammatical ending ) take the
ending - in the plural: - -, - -. Whereas nouns with a stem
16

that ends in a soft consonant take the ending -: - -, -, -.


Neuter nouns take the ending - in the plural for words with a stem that ends in a
hard consonant: - -, or the ending - for words with a stem that ends
in a soft consonant: - -.
Nouns whose stem ends in , , , , , , take the ending - in the plural:
-, -, -, -, -.

- -:
- -, - - -: -, - -, -.

- - -
- -.
, , , , , , -: -, -, -,
-, -.

Gender

Ending

Singular

Plural

Masc.

,
,
-
17

Feminine

Masc.

,
-

, ,

Feminine

,
,

Neuter

he

they

she -

they

it

- its

--

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -


:
Memorize the following special forms of the plural:
18


1. - --

2.

- --

- --
- --

- ---

3.

- ---

4. Masc.
- -

- -

:
A number of nouns have only the plural form, e.g.:

, , , , , , .
:
A number of nouns have only the singular form, e.g.:

, , , , , , , , , .

Exersices

4. , . Listen and repeat.


- , - , - , - ,
- , - , - , - , - ,
- , - , - , - .

19

5. . Answer the questions according to the


model.
: Model:
?

, .(, . )

... .

... .

... .

... .

... .

... .

... .

... .

... .

... .

... .

6. : Plural: :
: Model:
, , -
-

, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , ,

, , , , ,

.

The Personal Pronouns

20

Person Singular

Plural

we

you

you

2
3

, he,she

they

it


, .
()
.
The pronoun is used in addressing children, members of the speaker's own
family or his close friends. The pronoun () can used with respect to one
person or several persons:


()


Possessive Pronouns

21

1- 2- (, , , )

(? , ,, ).
Possessive pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons (, and )
and the interrogative pronoun change for gender in the singular and have one
form common to all genders in the plural (? , , ).
(, , , ) ?
(? , , ,
)

? . .
. .
?

. .

. .

. .
Whose pencil is it? It is my pencil. It is your pencil. It is our pencil. It is
your ptncil.
Whose book is it? It is my book. It is your book. It is our book. It is your
book.
Whose letter is it? It is my letter. It is your letter. It is our letter. It is your
letter.


22

,
, .
As is seen from the preceding examples, these possessive pronouns
invariably agree in gender with the noun they qualify.


The Form of the Possessive Pronouns in the Nominative

3- (, , )
,
. , ,
, ,
, .
,
, , , ,
( , ,
).
Possessive pronouns of the 3rd person (, and ) do not change for
number and gender, the choice of the appropriate pronoun depending on the
possessor of the object being qualified. If the possessor is a man

pronoun

is used, if the possessor is a.woman is used, if the object beini qualified


belongs to a number of possessors is used.

23

For instance, the word can be qualified either by the pronoun or,
or depending on who it belongs to, the gender and number of the object
qualified not influencing the form of the pronoun ( , ).
(, , )

.
,
( , , ).

Person

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

24

Exersices
7. , . ( ).
Listen and repeat. .
?

, - .

, - .

, - .

Compare the translation:


What are you doing? I am reading, Ayshe answers me.
What are you doing? I am reading, Ivan Ivanovich answers me.
What are you doing? We are reading, Ivan Ivanovich and Ayshe answer.

8. . Answer the questions.


1.- ? ? ?
"Whose son is he? Whose daughter is she? Whose overcoat is it?
-
9.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests
1. ?

10.

.
.

25

.
2. ?

11.

.
3. .

. ?

. ?

12.

.
.
.

4. .

. ?

. ?

13.

.
.

5. ?
?

. , .
. ,

. , .

. , .

14.

.
.
.

6. ?

.
.

15.

.
.
.

7. ?
,

.
.

16.

.
.
.

8. ?

17.

.
.
.

9. ?
,

.
.

18.

.
.
.

26


Read with a dictionary

Dialoque

( . )
. ?
: , . ? (
) , .
: , ! . , !
, . .
: , . .
: , . .
: . , ,
- , .
: , ! ?
: . . .
: ?
: , , -.
.
: .

27

2 LESSON 2

Verbs

( )
(Grammatical notes)


. ,
- .
- () - ().
, - ().
( )
.
,

-, -, (,

,, ), 1- .
,

- (, ),

2- .
, -, ( ,
,,, . ), 2- .
Russian verbs have many forms.

The primary invariable

verb form that

usually appears in dictionaries is called the infinitive; in English the infinitve form
of verbs always appears with preposition "to" such as "to read" or "to go". The
Russian infinitive ends either in - ( - to read) or - ( - to go). The
infinitive of a small group of verbs take the ending ( - to take care of).
In accordance with their present tense forms, Russian verbs fall into two main
groups or two conjugations.
28

The infinitive of most 1-st conjugation verbs ends in , -, such as the


verbs (to read), (to walk), ( to be ill with); ( to can).
The infinitive of most 2-nd conjugation verbs ends in such as the verbs
(to speak), (to believe).
Infinitives ending in , - may be either 1-st or 2-nd conjugation such as
the verbs (to look), ( to hear), ( to see), ( to
breathe).

() - ().
- ().

-, -, (, , )

- (, )
-, (, , , ),

, -/-,
(-),
(-).
Infinitive endings in -/- are called reflexive verbs and may be either 1-st
or 2-nd conjugation such as the verbs -, - (- - to
study).
-/- -/-

29

: , .
Russian verbs have three tense: the present, the past and the future.

:
The present tense is used to denote:

1) , :
an action taking place at the moment of speaking:

.
We are studying.

2) , :
an action taking place habitually:

.
She studies Russian.

3) , :
an action which began in the past and is continuing at
the moment of speaking:

.
She has been studying Russian for two years.
30


e :
A verb in the present tense answers the questions:

?
What I am doing?

?
What do you do?/What are you doing?

/ ?
What does he/she do?/What is he/she doing?
/
: Compare:
? ?
?
What do we do?/What are we doing?

?
What do you do?/What are you doing?

?
What do they do?/What are they doing?

: Compare:
31


Conjugation of Verbs in the Present Tense

Conjugation

Conjugation

-, -,-

- -

- --

to read

to speak

to study

--

to walk

- -

- --

--

--

--

to be sick

to look

--

32

:
Some Irregular Verbs:

.
The conjugation of irregular verbs must be memorized.

--

to live

-- --
--

--
--

--

--

to go

--

to eat

--

--

to write

--
--

--

--
--
--

--
33

--

to love

-
-

\ -

--

--

--

--

\ --

--

Exersices

10. .
Choose the right word from those given in the brackets.

. (, , ). (, ,
).
(,

, ), (, ,

). . (, , ) (,
, ).

11. . Answer the questions.


: Model:
?

(). .

What are you doing? (To read). I am reading.


34

--

? ().

...

? ().

...

? ().

...

?().

...

?()

...

?()

...

12. . Complete the following!.


: Model:
. , .
,
. , . .
, .
. , . , .
, .

, .

, . , .

. , . , . , .
,

. , .

13. . Answer the questions.


? ().

?( ) .

?().

?().

?().

14.
35

Choose the right personal pronoun:


.
.

. .. .

. . . . . (, , , ,
, ).

()
The Imperative Mood

,
,

: 2 : - (),
2 : -- ()
-/- .
- -() - --()
To express a request, advise, or command, a special verb form, called the
imperative, is used. Each verb has two forms of the imperative: one for the 2-nd
person singular: - - - and one for the 2-nd person plural: --.
The imperative is never used with pronouns.As in the case of other forms, the
imperative of verbs ending in -/- takes the particle -/- at the end: - -, - --

- ()
-- () -/-
- -() - --()

Infinitive

..

36

Sterm imperfect.

Imperative

present

singular

.
plural

--

--

- --
-

--

--

--

--

Exersices

15.
.
Give the either present tense form or the simple future form and then put into the
imperative mood.

: Model:
- , ,
- , ,
- , ,
- , ,
, , , , , .

37

16. : Ask your friend:


,


Adverbs of Motion and Direction

, .
There are adverbs in Russian denoting the place or the direction of an action.

Exersices

17. , . Listen and repeat.


: Compare:

(?).
He is going home (where to?).

(?).
38

She is at home (where?).

(?).
They are going there (where to?).

(?).
They are there (where?).

(?).
You are coming here (where to).

(?).
He is here (where?)

, , , , -.

where?

, , , , , -, , , ,

.
where to?

, , , -.

from where?

18. .
39

Read the sentences and ask questions according to the model.


.
Model
. ?
. . .
. . . .
19. . :
Give short answers using the following adverbs:

, , , .
? ? ? ?

20.
HOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

.
1.
2.
.
1.
2.
.
1.
2.
.
1.
40

2.
. ...
1.
2.
.
1.
2.
.
1.
2.
.
1.
2.

21.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests
1. .

. ?

. ?

.
2. .

.?

.
3. .

. ?

. ?
41

. ?

4.

5. ,,

.
.

6. - ?

- ,

.
.

7. ?

.
.
.

8. ?

.
.
.

9. ?

.
.
.

10. ?
.
.
.
11. .,, .

.
.
42

.
12. ?

, , .

.
.

13.

? , .

.
.

14. , .

., .

.
.

15. ? ., .
.
.
.
16. .
.
.

.
.

17. , .

.
.
.

18. .
.
43

.
.
.
, ? ? (,
, ,, ...)? ?
? ?
? ?
? : ? ?
? ? ?
.
, , (, , ) ?
( ) ? (
)? ? ?
? ? ? ?
( )?
( )? ( )?
: ? ?
? ? : ?
? ()?

? ?

? ?
?

3 LESSON 3

44


The Simple Sentence

( )
(Grammatical notes)

Interrogative sentences

Narrative sentences

with question words

Exersices

22. . .
Read after the teacher. Pay attention to the intonation.

45

...

(,

)?

(, )

.
Let's get acquainted!

, , .
.
.
Meet my friend!
It is very nice to meet you!
My pleasure, too.

______________________________
!
Good morning(Good afternoon)!

46

- ?
- .
What is your name?
My name is Sasha.

?
.
What's your surname?
My surname is Ivanova.

?
.
Who is it?
This is Anna.



?
47

.
What's your nationality?
I am Russian.

?
, . .
Are you Russian?
No, I am not Russian. I am Englishman.

?
.
What do you do? What is your occupation?
I am a teacher.

?
48

. .
Are you a student or do you work?
I am a student. I am a student at the University.

.?
_________________________
!
Good-bye!

23. . .
Read after the teacher. Pay attention to the intonation.

) ! ?
.
) ?
.
?
.
) ?
, .
.
, ?
.
49

.
) ?
.
?
, .
24. ? What will you answer?
?
?
?
?
25. ? What are the questions?
...?
.
... ?
.
?
.
?
, . .
?
, .

50

26. , , . Listen, repeat and read.

Country

he

she

they

! Remember! !

"

"

"

-
-

51

"

27. . .
Repeat after the teacher. Pay attention to the intonation.

? . ? .
? . ? .
? . ? .


Interrogative Sentences without Question Words

, . (, ).

Do you study?

Yes, I study.

? . ( ).
Do you study or work? I work.

? , .
Do you have a large room Yes, I have a large room

, . (, )

Do you have a brother?

Yes, I have.
(No, I do not have a brother)

52

28. ? .
How can you answer the following questions?
?

, .

, .

, .

, .

.


.

29.. ?
What are the questions to the following answers?
...?

...?

.
...?
.
30. , . Read the words, try to remember.

a family
53

a husband

a wife

sister

a brother

a son

a daughter

a mother

a father

a grandmother

a grandfather

31. . Compare the translation.


-

he - my

she - my

it - my

they - my

- - - -

32. , . .
Look over the following phrases and tell about your family.


54


33. . Complete the following!

...
...
...
...
...

34. , , , , , , ,
.
Ask your friend if he has a son, a sister, a wife, a father, a mother, grandfather,
grandmother.

35. ? ,
, ?
Do you have a picture of your family? If you do, tell us which members of your
family we can see in the picture, and what they do.

36. , .
Make up sentences with the given words by putting them in the required forms.

, , ,
, , .
, , .
, , .
, , ,
55

37. .
Put questions to each of the following answers.
.
. .
. .

38.

The Text

1. . - . - . .
, . . ,
. , . , .
. .
2. . , . .
. . .
. . . .
? ?
Is it correct? What is correct?

- , - .
. .
- .
.
.
.
.
56

39. Dialoque

. ! .
. . .
. .
. . -.
. . .
. , ?
. , . ?
. .
. .
. , . ?
. , . . . ,
?
. , .
. ?
. , . .
? ?
Is it correct? What is correct?

.
-.
.
.
Answer the questions.
57


- -?
- ?
- ?
- ?
- ?

Read with a dictionary

()
: - ?
: - , , .
. :
?
, .
:
: ?
, , , , , ,
, .

58

4 LESSON 4

ases

( )
(Grammatical notes)

,

.
All nominal parts of speech (i.e. nouns, adjectives and numerals) and pronouns
change their cases.

.
Nouns always appear in dictionaries in the nominative.

:
There are six cases in Russian:

Nominative case

Genitive

Dative

Accusative
59

Instrumental

Prepositional

. .
.
A small group of words (known as indeclinable) never change their form in any
case - these tend to be words imported from other languages.


Prepositional Case Denoting Place

(, ),
.
?
To denote place not only adverbs can be used (e.g. - here, - there),
but also nouns in the prepositional case with the preposition or .
(, ), .
?
?

Where?
Prepositions

in

on

60

/../

Singular

preposition

phrases

Nominative

add(prep.case)

..

-
-
..

..

! Remember!

preposition

prepozition

______________ ?__________________
-

-
61

! Remember!

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -
62

- -

___________ ?___________________________
2008 -, , , ,
,
- - - - - -
- - - - - -

/../
lural

.
.

add(prep.case)

:
Most Russian verbs require a certain case, and the prepositional is used to
indicate place after the following verbs:

63

?
to work
to study

to live

to sit

to stand

to lie

to rest

Exersices

40. , . Listen and repeat.


: Compare the translation:
?

Where is the book?

Where do you study?

The book is on the table.

I study at the university.

?
64

Where is she living?

Where do they work?

She is living in Russia.

They work at the plant.

. .
Where does his parents live?

Where are you walking?

His parents live in Turkey.

We are walking in the park.

41. .
Answer the questions according to the model.
: Model:
? () .
? (). ? ().
? (). ? ().
? (). ? ( ).
? ()
? ( ). ?
( ). ? ( ). ? ( ).
42. . .
65

Read after the teacher. Pay attention to the intonation.

. .
. .
. .
. .
43. .

lural
, , , ,
, , , , .

44. , .
Make up sentences with the given words by putting them in the required forms.

() . . () . () .
( ) .
() . ( ) . () .
( ) .
() . () .
45. : : ,,.
Insert the required prepositions. ( in , on

).

. () . .
() . . () .
. () . . () .,
. () ()
66

. () () ()
. () .
,
Prepositional Case for the Object Thought of or Spoken about

(/)

).

? ?
To denote the object thought of or spoken about, the prepositional is preceded
by the preposition . This preposition takes the form when it precedes a noun
beginning with a vowel.
In such cases the noun answers the question ? ?
)
? ?

Exersices

46. , . Listen and repeat.


: Compare the translation:

What are you talking about?

We are talking about a film.

What is he thinking about?

He is thinking about his father.


67

What is my mother thinking

My mother thinking about me.

about?

Remember!

The forms of the prepositional of personal


pronouns:

,
:
?

to speak

to think

to remember

to keep in mind

to tell

to ask

68

to forget

to dream

Exersices

47. .
Answer the questions according to the model.

: Model:
? , .
?

48. . Complete the following!


) , ..; (, , ,, , , ,
) ).; (,,,,,)., , )
) ,.; (, ).
) ,; ( , , , , ).
) ,; ().

69

49. . Finish the following sentences. .


, . . . . .
.
, . . .
. .. . . .
. . . .
50.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests
1. .

.
.
.

2. .

.
.
.

3. .

.
.
.

4. , , ... .

.
.
.

5. .

.
.
70

.
6. .

.
.
.

7. .

.
.
.

8. .

.
.
.

9. .

.
.
.

10. ... .

.
.
.

11. .

. ?
. ?

12 . .

. ?
. ?

13. .

. ?
71

. ?
14. .

. ?
. ?


Read with a dictionary

()
? , , , , , ,
.
?
.
, , .
.
, ?
. ,
.

. . .
? .
? .
, ! .
. , .

?
72

.
. :
, .
, ?
, , ?
, .

5 LESSON 5

Numerals
( )
(Grammatical notes)

? ?

How much/many?

What/which...?

______________________________________________
1

-
73

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

...

...

30

32

40

50

53

60

70

80

90

100

101

200

300

74

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

2008
Exersices

51.)
.
Read the following numerals to a lassmate and ask him to write them down in
numbers.

12, 19, 16, 6, 20, 11, 30, 41, 15, 78, 125
) : .( ,
)
Make the correct choice: numeral number. (Choose from the
numbers given above).
--
, ., , , , , ,
, , , , , ,

52. : Let's do some counting!
) 1-10, ) 10-20, ) 30-40
,

75

Adjectives, Possessive Pronouns and Ordinal Numerals

, .
.
Russian adjectives, possessive pronouns and ordinal numerals invariably agree
with the nouns they qualify in gender, number and case. In dictionaries adjectives
are entered in the masculine singular.

. /..

. /.

Singular

Plural


Masculine

Feminine

Neuter


possessive pronouns

,, , .

,,
76


adjectives

-,-,-

-,-

-,-

-, -

- -


ordinal numerals

-,-,-

-,

-,-

-,-

77

! Remember!

1) : , , ,
, , , , , .
2) ,, -;
3) -- -, -
.
Plural endings same for all genders.

Exersices
53.
) , , . Listen, repeat and read.

, , , ;
78

, ,
,

, ;

, , , ;
, , , ;
, , , .

. Write the required adjective.

...

, ,

, ,
,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, , .

54. . Compare the translation.


?
, (, ).
Is this your pencil?
Yes, this is my pencil. (No, this is not my pencil).



79

?
, . ( ).
Is this a new house?
Yes, this is a new house. (No this is not a new house).

?
, . (, ).
Is it the first lesson?
Yes, it is first lesson. (No it is not first lesson).

,

Prepositional Case of Adjectives,
Ordinal Numerals and Possessive Pronouns

.. .

.. .

.. ..
-,-

-,-

-, -

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

80

, ,

, ,

, ,

Exersices
55. . Write out the following numbers as words.

5 (...).
4( ...) .
12 (...) .
3 (...) .
56. . Compare the translation..
?
Where do you live?

_______________________
?
.
In what country do you live?
I live in America.

?
-.
In what city do your parents live?
81

In Nev-York.

.
___________________________
.
I do not know yet.

57. :
Answer the following questions according to the model:

:
? ( ) .
? ( )
? ( )
? ( )
? ( )
! 58.
Choose the required ending,

.
.
.
( -, -, - ,

-, - , -) .

82

59. , .
Make up sentences with the given words and put those words into correct forms.

, , , , , .
60. . .
Ask the questions according to the model.

:
...? ( ?)
, .
?

( ?)

, , .
...?
,.
?
, , .
... ?
, .
?
, , .
?
, .
?
, , .
?
, .
?
, , .
( 109 ?
83

?
?
?
?
?
?
?)

61. . .
Read after the teacher. Pay attention to the intonation!

? ?

, , , .
62. : , ,
.
Lets play! Give the names of cites- your friend will tell in what country they are
located!

:

()

84

63. . .
Read together with the teacher! Pay attention to the intnation.

?
?
, . , .
?
, . .
?
.
64.. .
Find the answers in the right-hand column.

, .

, .

? , .
?

, .

? , .
65. ? What are the questions?
...?
.

...?

, .

...?

?
85

...?
, .
...?
, .

66.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests

1. 13.

.
.
.

2. 5 .

.
.
.

3. 10 .

.
.

4. 1 .

.
.
.

5. 2 .

.
86

.
6. 1 .

.
.
.

7. 1 .

.
.
.
.

8. .

.
. -

9. . .

.
.

10. .. .

.
.
.

11. . .

.
.
.

87

12.

.
.

13. .

.
.
.

14. . .

.
.
.

15. . .

.
.
.

. . ,
. : , .
. . ,
, .
. , .
.

.
? ?
Is it correct? What is correct?
88

O .

. .
. .
. .

Task
.

1. , ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. , ?

"". .
.
Ayshe, who lives near the hotel "Zarya", has invited Anna to her flat. Anna has
some trouble in finding the flat and asks passer by for help.

. , , , ""?
89

. . ?
.

, . .

. .( .

Points to map

Haritadan

gosteriyor ). . ?
.

, .

. . ?
.

, .

.
.

: , , .
.

. .
.

( "". Arrives at "Zarya".

).

"Zarya". ? ( . Looks in her bag


for the address. )
: , 120, 5.
, , 120?
2. , ? , .
.

2. .
? ?
Is it correct? What is correct?

) , .
) , "".
) , 120.

90

.
Answer the questions.

) 1 , ""?
) ?


Read with a dictionary

()
. :
, ?
! , ,
.
, ...
.
? ?
.

6 LESSON 6


The Past Tense of the Verb

( )
(Grammatical notes)

91

.
.
You have already learned to use verbs in the present tense. Look at the table
and compare them with the past tense forms.
.


Infinitive
()

Present tense

Past tense

-(-)

-(-)

Infinitive

Present tense

()

-
-
-
-
-
-

92

Past tense

() ,

-()

,,

Exersices
! 67. Put the
following verbs into the Past tense form
, , , , , , , , ,

! 68. 3 . .
Put the following verbs into the 3rd
person singular, Present Tense and into the 3rd person plural, Past Tense.

, , , , , , ,
69. ? Which form is correct?

, ... .
, ... .
, ... .
, ... .
70. : Give the answer:
, ? ,
? , ?
71. , , ?
Ask your friend where he was yesterday, what he did.
93



The Accusative Case

?
(

).
, ,
, (, , ,

, , , , , ,, , ,
, ).
.
Nouns in the accusative case answer the question ?(animate nouns) or ?
(inanimate nouns) and function as the direct object in the sentences.
To express the object of an action, so-called transitive verbs ( - to
listen, - to read, - to look, - to see, - to ask,
- to know, - to write, - to love, - to eat, - to drink,
- to explain, - to repeat, - to teach, - to kiss)
are followed by the accusative without a preposition.

? ?
(, ,
,

, , , , , , ,,

, , , ).

94

? .
Who does mother love? Mother loves her son.

? .
What are the children drawing? The children are drawing a car.


.
, , , ..
To denote the direction of action, the accusative with the prepositions and
are used.The accusative of direction is used after the verbs , - to go,
- to put, - to hung, - to stand, etc.


, , ,
: Compare:

to go

to the museum.

I am going

to the factory.

95

to put

on the table

I am putting the book .

in the the table.


Accusative Case of Noun

?
?

..

(-)

(-)

(-)

(-)

(-)

(-)

96

..
-

(-)

(-)

(-)

..
-

-
-

?
?

..
-

(-)

(-)

(-)

97

-..
-

(-)

(-)

..
-

,

Ajectives, Pronouns, and Numerals in Accusative Case

,
. .

..

. .

..

..

/
,

98

, ,

, ,

(-)

,/

, ,

, ,

, ,

(-)

(-)

(-)

--

,
..

..

99

..

- ,,
.

, , ,

, , , , ,

/ ,

-
-

, ,

, ,

- / -

/ -

-
-

-
-

,
. .

..

..

..

..

100

/
-

- ,

, ,

, ,

,,

, ,

, ,

/ -

/ ,
-

-
-

-
-

/
-

Remember!

__________________________________________________

animate nouns
1. = :
101

- -

(?), , , .
2.
, - ,-:
, , , .


Inanimate nouns

1. . .
, .:
= :
(?) , , , ,.
2. .
-:
, , .
:
? ?
to remind

to meet

to hang

to forget

to love

102

to hear

to liste

to prepare/to cook

to do

to close

to open

to learn/to study

to finish

to begi

to write

to buy

to read

to sell

to go

to go(t)

to fly

to run

to put

103

to stand

to hung

What time is it?

ne o'clock

two

"

"

three "

"

four "

five

"

"

six

"

"

nine

"

eleven "

twelve "

At what time?

at one o'clock

t four o'clock

at six

"

- at fourteen "
? What is day it?
104

onday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

When?

on Monday

on Tuesday

on Wednesday

on Thursday

on Friday

on Saturday

on Sunday

"

Exersices
72. . Answer the questions..
1: ? () .
()
? ()
105

? ()
()
()
2: ? () .
? ()
()
()
()
()
( )
( )
3: ? ( ) .
? ( ).
? ( )
? ( )
? ( )
? ( ).
73. Put the words in brackets
into the correct form.
( ). ( , ). ( , ).
( ,). (, ).
( , ). (, ).
() 74. . . (
) Finish the sentences. Select the correct answer (words to choose from)

.
106

. . . . .
. . .
: ( , ,
, , , ).

Read with a dictionary

. ,
. .
. , ,
. :
. ,
.
, ! ,
, ,
.
:
! " ",
!
:
, ! ,
?
, ?
, .
, ! - !
?
:
, ,
?
107

, .
.
.
, , .
(, )? ?

()?

( , )?
, ? ?
, , , ?
?
? ? ?
, ?
? ?
(, ...)?
? ?
? ?
.
, , ?
?
? ?
(, , ...)? , ?
? ? ? ?
?

108

7 LESSON 7


The Genitive Case

( )
(Grammatical notes)

: ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
, , .

),

.
Genitive case answers the questions whose?(? ? ? ? ?)
what?(?). And after the word , , genitive case is used.
To express

possession, not only possessive pronouns (which you already

know) are used, but also nouns in genitive as well.

? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?, ,

109

, ,

Nouns, Ajectives, Possessive Pronouns and Ordinal Numerals Using with the
Genitive Cas


. .

gen-

()

()

der

noun

adjective

(ordinal)
posessive

numeral

pronoun

sra

.. ? ? ?

-
-
-
-
-
..

-
-

110

?
.. -
-

-, -
/,

() -,-, -

.. ()

(), -,-

"

.. ()
-
-
()
()
()

(), -, -
.. ()
()
-

"

-
111

1.
Possesion

? .
Whose house is this? It is brother's house.

? .
Whose book is this? It is Oleg's book.

? .
Whose dress is this? It is Leila's dress.
.

Exersices

75. .
Answer the questions according the model.

:
? , .
112

? .
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?

76. .
Answer the questions according the model.

: ? ( , , ).
.
? ( , , ).
? ( , , ).
? ( , , ).
? ( , , ).
? ( , , ).
? ( , , ).
? ( , , ).
2. .
Quantity

.
2, 3 4 ( 22, 23, 24 ..)
,

113

( "1")
.
After the numeral 2, 3, 4 (22, 23, 24, etc.) the noun takes the genitive singular,
after the other numerals (except "1") the noun takes the genitive plural.

234 222324 234


1

, , -, -, -, -.
two, three, four roubles, houses, sisters, famalies.
234

Exersices

77. , , . Listen, repeat and read.

-, -,

-.

-, -

-,-
,, ,
,


-, -,


114

-
, , ,
,

-. -,

, -,

Exersices
78. .
Answer the questions according the model.

1.: ? ? ( 2 .) .
? ? 3 .
? ? 4 .
? ? 6 .
? ? 2 .
2. : ? ( 43 .) .
? ( 8 .)
? ( 550 .)
? ( 28 .
? ( 12 .)
115

? ( 9 .)
? ( 20 .)
3. : ? ( 2).
, .
? ( 3).

? ( 5). ? ( 2).

? ( 4). ? ( 2). ?
( 3). ? ( 2).
? ( 5). ? ( 4).
? ( 2). ? ( 3).

!! 79. . Put the words in brackets


into the correct form
( 4, ). ( 3 , ).
( 2, , 2, ). ( 92, ).
( 12, ). ( 75, , ).
( , , ).
( , , ). ( , , ).
3..
Absence

:
1) . , .
, .
2) , . , . , .
116

To expresse absence use the following models:


1) Now somebody doesnt have somebody or something. Yesterday somebody
didnt have somebody, something. Tomorrow somebody will not have
somebody, something.
2) At some place somebody, something is absent. At some place somebody,
something was absent. At some place somebody, something will be absent.


Exersices

80. .
.
Read together with the teacher! Pay attention to the intnation.

. . . .
. .
. . .
.
. .
. . .
. .

117

81. .
Answer the questions according the model.

1. :
? , .
? .
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
2. :
? , .
? ?
? ? ?
? ?
3. : ?
, .
? ?
?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
4..
118

Time

. The Genitive Casi


s used to indicate dates
?
,

- -.
?
- - - -.
Exersices
82. , ) , ) ?
) 01.01, 31.12, 20.02, 09. 09, 16. 08, 25. 07,
) 27.03. 2008, 12.04.2000, 01.06.1999.

83. .
Answer the questions according the model.

: ? ( 08.03)
.
? ( 05.05). ? ( 05.02)
? ( 12.01). ? ( 25.12).
? ( 01.09.2007). ?
119

( 31.12.2008).
, .
Prepositions Using the Genitive Case

Prepositions

Examples

at, by

stand at/by the door

,
live at/by ones brothers ;
be at /by the doctors

-
-

from, away

drive away from the town

of

on the left of the door

go from the doctor

-
-

from, out of

come from the town


120

come out of the house

-
to,up to,down to (up) to the top
as far as, till, until

-
-
-
,

from,off

turn off the road

with

wind from the sea


feed from a spoon

- -
- -

from,

from across the sea

from behind

from the other side


of the door

121

about,close to,

it is about two

beside,

not far from the lake

not far from

around

around the town

opposite

opposite the house

facing

for

for him

without

without exception

exept

exept me

after

come after work

122

Exersices
84. .
Answer the questions according the model.

1. :
? .
? ? ?
? ?
2. :
? (,) .
? (, ).
? ( , ).
? (, ).
85. ,
.
Read the text, inserting the words in brakets in the correct form.

, ( )
, . . (
) - , () . ( )
- . ( ) - . () - ().
( ) .

123

86. . Finish the following sentences.


:
(). .
5 (). .
(). ... .
11 (). ... .
(). ... .
(). ... .
() ? ... .
87. ,
A housewife made her shopping list:

1.

5.

2.

6.

3. 200 7.
4. 2

8.

5. 5 10.
6. 3

11. 4

, . ,
.
She bought everything she wanted. Say what food-stuffs she bought and how
much of each.

: Model:
, ...

MEANINGS OF THE GENITIVE CASE USED WITHOUT PREPOSITIONS
124

Meaning

Example
.
.

A person to whom something

Comments
: Question:
? ? ? ?
?

belongs
.

Social relations

: Questions:
? ? ? ?
?

(Centre of what)

? (of what)

Definition of a part from a greater


whole

(Following verbal nouns).

h thing upon which an action


is performed

(: , , )

Time (complete date)

9 1945 .

: Question:
?
Date, month, year

125

-. .

The absence of a person or a thing .

With the words

The absence of a person or a thing

in a certain location

2, 3, 4

In combination with the

, , ,

5 - 2 0

numerals 2, 3, 4 the Genetive

singular is used. In combination

In combination with the numerals

with the numerals 5- 20 the

Someones possession: - used

Genetive plural is used.

without numerals - with the words

and are used with

"", "", "" ,

the Genetive plural for

""

countable objects (i.e. books,

cassettes, etc.)They are used


whit the Genetive singular for

objects that cannot be counted


(i.e. milk, tea, salt, etc.).
With words such as:

(, , )

Measure, ammount

126

, , etc.

Remember!

,
The object of certain verbs

-
-
-
-

Exersices

88. . Read after the teacher.

?
At what time shall we meet?
________________________________
?
.
What is the time?
It is two o clock



________________________________
127

, , ?
.
What is the time?
It is half past five?



_________________________________
, ?
- ( -) .
Excuse me, what time is it now?
It is fifteen minutes to eight.

89. . Read after the teacher.


-, - , -,
-, ... ... -.
01:00 .
03:00 -
04:20 -/ /
02:30 - / /
13:00 / /
15:15 -/ /
17:40 - / /
128

20:55 - / /

90. , ? What time is it?


12.25 , 10.30 , 5.10 , 6.40
3.05 , 18,15 , 9.50 , 11.54
____________________________________
91.

. . Read the dialogues. Make


similar ones.

?
.
When shall we meet?
At five o clock.


_____________________________________
, ?
.
Do you know when we shall go on an excursion?
On Wednesday.


_____________________________________
?
.
129

When is the Ankara flight?


At 14.10.


______________________________________
, , ?
.
Tell me, please, when the Moscow train arrives?
Tomorrow at fifteen minutes past five.



_____________________________________
/ ?
When does the lesson begin/finish?
/
_____________________________________
92. , , . Listen, repeat and read.

begins

finishes

today

yesterday

tomorrow

130

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening

93. .
Read together with the teacher.

, , : ?
.
?
.
94. .
Make up questions, ask your classmate.

: / / ?
.

-/-
/

-/-
-/-
-/-
-/-
-/-

95. ! Read!

- -

- - -
131

- - -

, ?
?
?
?
96. . Complete the dialogues..
:
10 .
?
.
13 .
... ?
... ?
8 .
... ?
... ?
7 .
... ?
... ?

97. .
Ask your classmates questions and get answers to them.

. ?
. ?
. (,,)?
132

. (,,)?
. ?
98. ! Read!
-

--

--

?
(, )

99. , / / , ,
.
Ask your classmate what she/he did last night, yesterday morning today in the
morning.
/
100. ! Read!
-
3

,5 .

150

200

2 ..

2

, 30 ,
, , , 10 .
2 . .

133

101. , , ,
, 10 , 8 .
Ask your classmate what he will be doing tomorrow, on Monday, on Saturday,

at 10 o clock tonight, at 8 o clock tomorrow morning.

10 8

102. The Text

. . .
. 8 . 12 .
, .
6 10 .
. , ,
. .
? ?
Is it correct? What is correct?

- . . 12
. , .
18 21 .
, . .
.
Complete the sentences.

... . ... . ... . 12


... . ... . ... .
103.
!

134

,
.
Ayshe has introduced John to her friend Andrew, who works at a film studio.

. , . - ?
. . ?
. .
. , ! , ?
. , .
. .
,

. ?
. .
. ! ?
. , .
. ?
. .
. ?
. 7 .
.
. ?
. 7-8 .
. ?
. .
? ?
Is it correct? What is correct?

135

- ?
?

- ?

9 ?
.
Answer the questions.

? ?
? ? ?
( ) 104.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests

1. .

. ?

2. .

. ?

3. .

. ?!

4..

5. .

6. .

.
.

7.. ,

8.

9.

.
.
136

.
.
10. ?

11. ?

.
.

12.. ?

.
.
.

13. ?

. -
.
.

14. .

15.

.
.
.

16.. .

17. .

18.
19..

20. .

21. .

22. ?

.
.
137

. 9
23 ?

. 12
.
.

24. ?

.
.
.
.

25. 10 .

.
.
.
.


Read with a dictionary

()
? , , ,

1. . :
, , ?
, .
2. ! .
138

, ? , ?
.
, .
3. ?
, , .
4. ?
. .
? ?
, .
5. , . ?
, , ,
.
6. " " "? " ,
, ".
7.

,
. :
, ?
, . .
8. :
? ?
.
?
.

139

9. (2-). ?
, , .
, , .
.

8 LESSON 8


Verbs of Motion

( )
(Grammatical notes)

,
.
There are two special groups of Russian verbs which denote various kinds of
movement. They are called verbs of motion.

1. ,
.
The verbs of Group / (in the present and past tenses) can denote
movement proceeding in one direction.
,
/ .
He is going to the plant.
/
140

2. /
.
The verbs

of Group / denote movement proceeding in both

directions.
/
/ .
He goes to work every day.
/

The verbs of uni-directional

The verbs of multi-directional

movement

movement

to walk

to walk

to go(t)

to go(t)

to fly(t)

to fly

to carry

to carry

to carry(t))

to carry(t)

* (t) = transport

Conjugation of the Motion Verbs


Present Tense
141

--

--


--

-- -

- - - - - -
/ -

- -

- - - -

- -

- - - -

- -
----> ---->

- -
---->

<----

---->

--

---->

---
----

<----

--

- -

/ -


Past Tense
Gemi Zaman


,,

- -

- - - - -

142

,, - - - - -

,,

,, -

! : .
:

.
20 .
.
Exersices

! 105. .
Insert motion verbs in correct form:

... ?
... .
... ?
, ... . ... ?
, ... .
... ?
... .
( 106.
Choose the right verb:

143

(, )?
(, )?
(, ) ?
(, ) ?
(, ) ?
(, ) ?
? ( , ) .
( , ) .
( , ) .
( , ) .
(, ) .
( , ) .

The Aspects of the Verb


: (, ,
, ) (,

, ). (-,
-).
Depending on how they characterize their action, all Russian verbs fall into two
groups:

imperfective

(,

and,

correspondingly, perfective verbs (, , , ). Most


verbs can be paired together according to aspect - that is imperfective/ perfective
(-, -).

(, , , )(, ,

144

, ).(-,
-).

The Main Formations of Aspect Pairs

--,--

--

--,--

.
--

--

--,-

--

--,-- --,--


Motion verbs with prefixes

145

Prefixes

Prepositions

Examples

Perfective
aspect

-/

Imperfective
aspect

to enter

to exit

to go through

- ,
to cross over

()

()

to depart
,

146

to arrive

to drop by on
the way some
where

else

- ()

to go

to go to

around

set off
go off

147

Exersices
107. , ,
:
To each verb on the left find the verb of opposite aspect from those given in the
right column:

108. , .
Match the pairs of verbs and indentify their aspects

148

, - , , , ,
, , , ,
.

109. .
Insert imperfective or perfective verbs

1. ? ?
? ? ?
( ).
2. ? ? ,
. ( ).
3. . 11 .
, 11 30 .
? ?
? ?( ).
4. .
. ,
. .
. .
. , ,
. ( ).
5. . , . ,
. , . ,
. , . , .
( ).
) 110. .
Insert the required prepositions.
149


... 8 . ... , ...
, ... . ... .
. (-, - , -, -).
! 111. .
Change the sentences according to the given models.
:
.
.
. .
. . 8 .
! 112. , , .
.
Complete the words given on the right be putting them into the right form.
Underline the prepositions and the prefixes.

, , , ,

, , , ,

, , ,

113. , , .
.
Complete the words given on the right be putting them into the right form.
Underline the prepositions and the prefixes.
150

... . ... . ... ,


... . ... , .
... . ... , ... .
... . ... .
(, , ,,.
, , , , .
, , , , .
,).
114 . Text.
, ,
, , .
. .
,
.
115.C . Read. Compare the translation.
?

Where to go?

How to get there?

What transport to use?

___________________________________________
?
. .
Where are you going?
I am walking to my work.
I always walk to my office.
151



___________________________________________
?
. .
Where did you go last night?
I went to the library. I go there every day.



_____________________________________________
?
.
Where will you go tomorrow morning?
Tomorrow morning I will go to work.


______________________________________________
?
. .
How do you usually get to your work?
In my car. But today I'll go there by the underground.

116. . Read after the teacher.


152

?
.
?
.
?
.
?
, . .
?
.
?
, , .

117. . .
Give short and full answers.
odel
?

... .

... .

?
...

?
... .

? ?
153

... .
?

... .
?

... .
?

... .
?

... .

... .

118. ? What are the questions?


:
...?

...?
.
...?
.
...?
6 .
...?
.
! 119. " ?" " ?"
Replace the construction "Where were you?" by "Where did you go?"
" ?"" ?"
:
? ?
? ... ?

... ?

? ?
? ... ?
154

120. : Compare the tranlation:


abroad

I'm going

to Russia

Ben

to Moscow

gidiyorum

to the South

by bus

to go

by trolley-bus

gitmek

by streetcar

by underground

, , "oc"?
, .
.
Excuse me, how can I get to the "Moscow" department store?
Go straight ahead, then turn to the left.
Thank you very much!
Afferdersiniz ltfen,"Moskova" maazasna nasl gidilir?

__________________________________________________
, , ?
. .
Tell me, please. Is there a chemist's here?
155

The chemist's is just opposite you. You have to cross the road.

121. , .
Answer using the table below..

//

, , ?

... .

, ?

... .

, , ""?

... .

! 122. . Make up the sentences.


:
/ .

156

123.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests

1. ?

2. ?

3. .

.
4. ?

. ?

5. .

6. , .

.
.
.

7. ,

8. . ,

.
.
.

157

9. .

10. .

11. ,, .

.
.

12. ?

, . ,

13. .

.
.
.

14. .

.
.
.

15. .

.
.
.

16. 5 .

.

.
.

17. .

.
.
.
.
158


Read with a dictionary

()

1. .
? .
, .
2.

:
?
- , , .
3.
. :
, ?
4. ! ! , !
.

5. :
, .
?
, .
6. . :
, .
159

, ?
, .
7. :
10 ,
3 . .
?
.
8. :
.
?
,
.
9. .
:
, , ,
.

10. .
, ! - .
! ?
!
, - ! ?
? , !
11. . .
. , .
. :
, ?
160

, - .
.
, .
12.

.
, , .
.
, .
.
13. , ,
. ,
. ,
,
. ,
:
, ?
? . , ...
14. , ,
, .
, , .

, .
.15. :
.
. . .
, ?

161

16. :
?
, .
?
.
17.

. ,

.
.
, ?
: " , ".
18. :
?
. ,
.
19. :
, .
, - , - , .
20. :
, .
? - .
.

9 LESSON 9

Dative Case for the Addresse
( )
162

(Grammatical notes)

.
? ?
To denote the addresse (towards whom the action is directed), the so-called
dative case of addresse is used in Russian. A noun in the question ? (to whom?
who to?) ? (to what?) is the indirect object of the sentence in which it stands.

? ?
:
?

to believe

to call

to ansver

to help

? (?)

to cook, to prepare

to give

to explain

to show

163

to buy

to read

, ,


Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns
and Ordinal Numbers in th Dative


. .

..

(.)

? ? ?

()

..
-

,
,,
..
-

-
? ?

..
-

-
-

.. ?? ?
-

164

..

-
..
-
-


The Dative with Prepositions

(-,
,

..)

.
The verbs (-, - ect.) can be followed by adverbial
modifers of place which are nouns in the dative preceded by the preposition and
which denote movement along a surface.

(-, - )

: Compare the sentences:

along

He is walking along the street.

about in

He is walked about in the square.


165

-
.
If it

is nesessary to stress not the destination,

but only the direction of

movement towards some object or person, the construction + the dative is used.

: Compare the sentences:

to

She is going to the doctor.

(.)
She is going to the polyclinic (acc.case).

. (. .).
The policlinic is over there. She is going to the polyclinic
(dat. case).

!
Remember!

1.


166

2.


3.

?+ + ?
?+ +
.
-.
Exersices

!
124. .
Answer the following questions.
:
(,) , ?
, (, ) .
(, ) , ?
(, , ) , 8
?
125.
Put the words in brackets into the correct form

( ).
( ).
( ).
. ( ).
. ( ).
, , ( ).
167

? , , . ().
. ( ).
. ( ).
. ( ).
. ( ).
126. , .
, , .
, , , , .
, , , , , , .
, , , , .
, , , .
, , , .

127. .
Ask clarifying questions and express what you had supposed.

:
.
? ? , .
.
.
.
.
.

.

168


The Dative in Impersonal Sentences

()

, ,
, .
The dative is also used in so-called impersonal sentences, i.e. sentences
which have no subject and inwhich the nouns or pronouns with the meaning of the
logical subject do not take the nominative case but the dative.

It is cold today.

I am cold.

Girl s cold.

(, ,
, , , ..) (, ,
, , ),
.
(, , , , ,
.)(, , , , ),

169

Exersices

128. : Compare the tranlation:


(, ) .
Mother (was, will be) warm today.

(, ) .
It is (was, will be) cold in the room.

(, ) .
Sister (was, will be) happy.

(, ) .
He is (was, will be) bored.

(, ) .
It is (was, will be) difficult for brother to do it.

/ ( , , ) (, ) .
He must(should not, may, must not) do that.

! 129. ,
.
Answer the questions by putting the words given in the in the right form.

170

:
?() - .
?( )
?( )
?( )
( )
? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).

! 130. .
Answer the questions according to the model.

:
+40 ( ). ?
.
-20( ). ?
. ?
. ?
-?
. ?
131. Text
. . .
. , ,
.

171

, .
. . .
.
, , , .
. ,
.
. .
, -.
. , .
.
132.
?
. , ?
. , ...
. ?
. .
. , ?
. , 12- .
. ?
. .
. ?
. , .
. ?
. , .
. ?
. , .
. , , .
, ?
172

. .
. ... . , .
. .
? ?
1.
)
)
)
2.
)
)
3.
)
)
)
)
4.
)
)
)
() 133.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests
1. ...
173

.
.
.
2. ... , .
.
.
.
3. ...?
.
.
.
4. ... .
.
.
.
5... ?
.
.
.
6. ... .
.
.
.
7. ... ?
.
.
.
174

8. ... , .
.
.
.
9. .
.
.
.
10. ... , .
.
.
.
11. ... 280 .

.
.
.

12. ... .

.
.
.

13. . .. .
.
.
.
14.
.
.
.
175

15. , .
.
.
.
16

.
.
.

17 .

.
.
.

18. .
. ?
.?
19. .
. ?
. ?

20. .

.
.
.

Read with a dictionary

()
176

?
, .
.
? - .
, , - .
, .
, ! .
, .
:
, , ?
, - . ,
, .
. . , .
.
, 50
: !
, ,
:
50, 100 ?
, , .

, .
e-mail? ? ?
? ?
? ?
177

?
?

10 LESSON 10


The Instrumental Case

( )
(Grammatical notes)


C.

()
()
? ?
?
?
?
..
-

-,-,

-,-

-
-

..
-
-
-
? ?

..
-

-, -,

178

- -

-, -

-

? ? ?

..
-

-, -

-, - -

-
..
- -
-

..
-
-

c
The Instrumental Case with Prepositions
and without prepositions

1. " - " ()
() .
""
(, ).
If the sentences " - " is put in the past tense () or in
the future tense () the predicate noun must use the instrumental case. Only
with the verb "" is the instrumental case is used also in the present tense.
" - "
()()

() .
My brother was (will be) an engineer.
179


(, )
.
My brother works (worked, will work) as an engineer.

2. ( ).
To express a mutual and joint action with the preposition C.

:
the question:

? (with whom?)
? (with what?)


.
I am going to the store with Sasha.

.
I drink tea with lemon.

3. ,

,
. ?
To denote the instrument with which an action is performed, inanimate nouns
in the instrumental are used without a preposition. They answer the question ?
(with what?)

180

().
I am writing with the pencil(pen).


Instrumental Case Denoting Place

Prepositions ntaklar

-.

on

there is lamp on the table.

under

there is suitcase under the bed.

in front of

-
there is kiosk in front of the house.

behind

there is cat behind the wardrobe.

beside, next,

there is the hause nextdo to the theatre.

next door

, :
?

?
181

to be

to call

to work

to serve

to be interested in

to study

to meet

to walk

to speak

to get to know

Exersices
134. .
nswer the questions according to the model.

:
? ().
.

182

? ().

... .

? ().

... .

? ().

... .

? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).
132 :
? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).
! 135. .
Change the sentences according to the model.

:
, - .
, ... .
, ... .
, ... .
, ... .
! 136. .
Answer the questions according to the model.

:
? ().

183

? (). ... .
? ().

... .

?
()

... .

?
.
- .
- .
- .
- .
- .
.
.

, , ? (,

, )

! 137. . Answer the questions..


? () ... .
? ()

... .

? ()

... .

? ( ).

? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).
? ( ).

Declinsion of Personal Pronouns

184

..

you

..

he

she

we

you

they

me

you

his

her

us

..

me

him

her

myself you

you

..

us

you

their

you

them

him her ourselves you

them

..
(c/)
() () ()
(with)

me

you

him her

us

you

them

..
(,)


them

(ut) +me you

him

her

us

you


185

..

..

..

..

______

..

______

186

(-)

..
?

-AM

..

(-)

= .

-
?

= . .

= . .
_________________
_

. .
?

-EM

187

Exersices

138.
Put the words in brackets into the correct form

, ( , ).
, ( , ).
, ( , ).
, ( , ).
, . ( , ).

139. .
Answer the questions. Answer the questions. Put the words in brackets into the
correct form
.
? ( , ).
? ( , ).
? ( , ).
( , ).
? ( , ).
? ( , ).
? ( , ).
? ( , ).
? ( , ).
? ( , ).
! 140. . Answer the questions..
188

1. 7
?
?
?
A.

. ? ( 9)
?
?
?

?
/?

?
?

?
9
?
?
?
?

?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?

2.
?
?

?
?
?

3. ?

?
?

?
?

?
?
4. ?
?
?

?
?
?

5. ?

?
189


?
?
?

?
6. ?
?

?
?
?
.

?

?

? . , ?
?
, ?
?
,
?
?
?

141.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests

1.

.
.
.

2.

.
.
.

3. .

.
.
.

4. .

.
.
190

.
5.

.
.
.

6.

.
.
.

7.

.
.
.

8. .

.
.
.

9.

.
.

10.

11.

12.

13.



191


14.

15.

16.


17. .

- ?

18. . .

19.

20. .




192

21. ?

. ?

22. .

. ?
. ?
. ?

. ?

e .
.
23. .



24. .

25.
.

26.
.

27. .




193

28.

29. .


Read with a dictionary

()
1. :
, , ! !
?
, !
2. . :
, !
? .
3. -:
, ?
, , .
:
, ?
, .
, :
, ?
194

, , .
?
.
4. , ?
, , .
, , ?
, . ?
, ?

5. , ?
.
?
.
?
.
6. - , ?
, .
?
, , . ,
, .
7. . ,
. . ,
, . ,
:
. .

195

11 LESSON 11


The Principal Meaning of the Aspects of Russian Verbs

( )
(Grammatical notes)

Imperfective verbs denote:

Perfective verbs denote:

1. .

Unspecified action (an action

Result or completion of

without reference to its

the action.

completion.)

.
,

.
Here the fact itself is
important.
John was not reading, he was

.
Here the result is important
John was not only writing
a letter, he had actually

writing a letter. Whether or

written it.

not he has finished the letter


is of no consequence.

2. .
Continuity of Action concerned.

196

.
He wrote the letter all evening.

3. .
Repetition of the action
(its taking place on more
the one occasion)

.
The momentaneous character
of the action, its taking
place on one occasion only.

.
He often called by telephone.

.
He called us one time.

4.

Simultaneity of

The succession of two or

two or more actions.

more actions. The actions

These actions take

succeed one another: one

place at the same

action is completed and then

time.

the other action is begun.

John sat in the

He had read the magazine, put

chair, looked through

it on the table, stood up,

magazine and listened

and went out of the room.

to music.

197



The Use of the Aspects of the Verb with Adverbial Words
Fiil eitlerinin Zaman Zarflaryla Kullanl

, , ,,
, ,
Perfective

, ,e,

, , ,

Imperfective , , ,
, ,

! Remember!

/,

/.
Imperfective verbs in the infinitive used after the verbs /,
/ and /.
/,
/ /.
.
He began to work at three o'clock.

198

.
He continued to work the whole day.

.
He finished working in the evening.

Exersices
142. :
Answer the following questions according to the model:

: - (/)?
.
(/) ?
(/) ?
(/) ?
( / )?
( /) ?
143. ,
.
Complete the sentences by using the verbs in the perfective or imperfective aspect.

, ...
8 , ...
, ...
, ...
199

, ...
144. :
Answer the following questions according to the model:

:- ?
, , .
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?


Future Tense of Verbs


-.

(, , , , , ) +
.

200

The future tense of imperfective verbs is formed differently from perfective


verbs.
The future tense of imperfective verbs is formed by means of the future tense of
the verb - to be (i.e. , , , , , ) + infinitive
of the verb.
.
They will watch TV.

(, , ,
, , ) +


, .
The future tense of perfective verbs, on the other hand, is a simple form, its
endings coinciding with those of the present tense of imperfective verbs.

I am watching the TY.

I'll watch the TV tomorrow.

/ -

/ -

201


(. .74 ?? ).
The aspectual meanings of future tense verbs are the same as in the past tense,
which you have learned earlier( p. ).

:
Summary Table of the Tenses of the Russian Verb:


Aspect Past tense

Present tense

Future tense

/ /

__

: ,
. O
.
Russian verbs have three tenses: the past, present and future. As is seen from
the table, all verbs have the past and future tenses, but only imperfective verbs have
the present tense.
202

Exersices

146 . : Compare the translation:


?
. ,
.
What will the friends do next Sunday?
They will relax. They will play volley-ball in the
morning and then will walk about in Moscow.

147. .
Answer the question according to the model.

:
? (/ )
, .
... ?
, ... . (/)
... ?
203

, ... . (/)
...?
, ... ... .(/,
/).
... ?
, ... . (/).
148. ?
What do we buy in the market?

__________________________________________________
. :
?
, .
I have to buy apples. Where should I go: to the market or
to a shop?
Let's go to th market, there is a big choice of things
to buy there.


______________________________________________________
?
. , .
How much are apples in the market?
The prices are changing all the time. It seems they are
30 rubles a kilo now.

30
204

______________________________________________________
. 50 . ?
30 . 20 .
Please, give me one kilo of apples. Here is 50 rubles.
How much do I owe you for the apples?
You owe me 30 rubles. Take the change 20 rubles.
50
30 20

149. , , .
Listen, repeat nd remember.

food

vegetables

onion

garlic

pepper

tomatoes

fruit

oranges

lemons

bananas

potatoes

205

carrot

cabbage

150. . Read after the teacher.

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206

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151. , . Read and try to remember.

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152. . Complete the following!

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153. ? What does the salesperson say?
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207

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155. . Read.
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156. . .
Read together with the teacher. Pay attention to the intonation.

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209

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157.
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210

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158.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT PHRASE

Tests Testler

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12 LESSON 12

The Adverb

( )
(Grammatical notes)

here

Adverbs of place

where? near,close

at home

- some where
?

where?

to the left

here,this way

forward

from here

from where?

from there

o?

in the morning
214

when?

today

in the spring

always

how often?

usually

Adverbs of time

?
how?

Adverbs
of

rerely

quickly

together

expensive

manner

correctly

bad

many

how much?

not enough

Quantitative

how many?

very

quite

almost

adverbs

Exersices Altrmalar
159. , , .
Answer the questions and use the words, given in the brackets.

215

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?(). ?(). ?(). ?().


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160. .
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161. "", "".
Impersonal sentences with "one/you can/may, it can be" "it is impossible".

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162. .
.
Ask for permission to do the following things.
Pay attention to the change of aspect in your answers.

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216

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163. . Give the negative answers.

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164. ?
What will you be doing tonight?

_________________________________________
?
. , .
What will you be doing tonight?
I do not know yet. Maybe, I'll go to the movies.


____________________________________________
.
. .
Come round to see me tonight.
Thank you for your invitation. I'll come.
217



_____________________________________________
, . , .
.
.
I do not remember where you live. Tell me, please.
Here is my visiting card. I live not far
from your place - on Mir prospect.


_______________________________________________
7 . , . .
, .
I'll be expecting you at seven sharp. Please,
do not be late.
I'll have guests from America.

165. . .
You invited guests to come round to your place. What might you hear as response

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218

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166. . Put questions to the following.
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167. ?
What can you hear in answer?

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219

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168. ?

May I come in?

_________________________________________
?
, . .
May I come in?
Come in, please. We are expecting you.


__________________________________________
?
, , . .
May I use your telephone?
Yes, of course. The telephone is in the corridor.


_______________________________________________
, , .
. .
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Please, come into the sitting room. Sit down
at the table. Its time for dinner.
220

Thanks. Where can I take a seat?


Sit down wherever you want.



_______________________________________________
, .
Well, its time for us to go home.

, .
Excuse us, we have to leave.

! Try to remember!

sitting-room

dinning-room

bedroom

nursery

kitchen

study

toilet

bathroom

221

169.

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222

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224