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98, 1

, 1994

1994 .

. . , . . , . .


.
,

,
.

1. , (., , [1]),
,
,
. -
,
.

[2-13].
.
.

, ,
( )
.
2. (
),
(1).

(ihdt - ) = 0,

= (,),

= (*, , ),

(,) .
(, ),
.
48

49

,
(2)

p2/2m+V(x,t).

H =

:
[,] = *>

(3)

, h (3) (1).

(, , t)
(4)

A = A(t)=

(v,A(x,p,t)*\

, ,
, (1),
.
X exp(iHt/h)x
x
exp(iHt/h) = exp(iHt/h)pexp(iHt/H)
(2)
[1]

(5)

rrtX = P,

P = -V'(X,t)

= F(X,t),

V'(X,t)=dxV(x,t)\x=x

.
[1] (
),
(3) t = to
t. )
. (5)
(, F(x, t) )
( )
(1)
(3).
(5)
(6)

F(x)t)i

(F(x, t)
, t),
(, , t).

50

.., .., ..

3.
(7)

= ,

= ,

(3):
(8)

[, ] = ih.

F(x, t) = F(x -f Ax, t) ,


F ( ) ,

F(x,t) = JT,FkAxk,

(9)

l^gf*)

= ()

Jb!

=1

,
(10)

F(*,0 = X ^ A x * .
t=i


(11) an(su

5 2 , . . . , s2fc+i) = ^(Ap S l Ax 5 2 . . . ^ * 2 ^ 1 . . . Ax*Aps+i


+ ApS2k+1Ax82k

.. . 2 + 1 2 .. . 5 2 5 1 ),

*i + 2 + + 2Jb+i =)

= 0,1,2,...,

. S{
, S( ( s\) , .
, cr n (0,s, 0 , . . . ,0) = <7n(0,s) = Axs. (10)
, , (6),
,, <:
(12)

mx-p,

P=^2

Fs(r8(0, s),

s=0

^n(*l,...,*2*+l) =

2^2, S2r

<Tn(si + 1,- . . , * 2 r - l , * 2 r - 1, ,2fc+l)

r=l
- h ( T n ( s i , . . . , S 2 r - l , * 2 r + l i . . , S 2 f c + l + 1)
OO

-rs2r+l 1
l

"*" X / X / F \
/=1 r = 0

X/

^n-l+/(l, , S2r, 0,'/., 2r+l

q=0

- 1 - ? , 2 + 2 , -,S2A;+l)
- 5 2 r + l ^ " / ( 0 , / ) o r n - l ( s i , . , 2 r + l , ,S2fc + l )

51

(12) ft,

A(x,p,t) = ( -f , + ]),
() (.. ).
4. .
(12) .
, ()
(
< 4 , ., , [14],
), ,

(13)

4a 2 (0,2)<r 2 (2)>ft 2 ,

(V2(l,l))

<< 2 (0,2)(7 2 (2).

(8) ,
, , , ft,
,

(14)

< 2+5 (1,5,1) = (7 2+5 (2, s) + ^h2s(s - 1)<,_2(0,8 - 2).

(, (12)
), (
ft). (12)
(14).

(15)

\ = <(,-),

< ,

- . <\
< ,
(11), (8)
<* ( < s < n),
ft (
fi'crj, 2/ + s = ).
, ft
(13) (14).
. ,
(, p,t) =
(+,+
Ap,t) , (11)

52

.., .., ..

(15) <r*,

(16)

.,* = 1 [ ' , * * ] .

(8)

** ~ A j (* - 2i/ - - 2i/ - i ) i ^ + * - 4 ^ 2 .

N - ,
2N < 1, 27V < s 1.
*!/ (* = l , i =
1/12,...).
, (, , t),
^ ,
&. <
A{x,p,t).
5. ,
, , t to < r n ( s i , . . . , $2fc+i)
( <~" > / - , / () ). (12) , Wn ~
t = ^
(18)

an=enfe{t))

fe(t) - () t) -
/(*) (13) (14)
: ~ /. /

. , (
1^2), (18) t = t0. , ,
- ( t = t0)
, [15,16], (18) ( [17]
, , /).
, ,
(18).
,
A{x)p)i) n- (..

53

71 / 2 ), {) ) t)
,

x}p,t.
, , ( ) ,
(12) /71/2,
( )
, .
(12)
. ,
( yfh)

,
.
, 3 , , , ,
[18].
St/(2) [19] , , < 3
,
[20].
6. (12)
,
< ( h ).

(19)

p=Y,F^k,

=}

* = - i ^ M i i + ^ ^

+i

. 2

+ . ( - * - - i)3 M _ f c _ 2 ,

Ak,s (17), ^
k l

(20)

\ = Y,Y*Fia(*> 1>~1 - ' * ' - * ) >

*^>

/= 1 8= 0

<r(s, /,& 1 s,n )


<% ( <1 + 1, g < ? 1).

.., .., ..

54

,
. 0,1,2,3
:

*:-*.
3= 0

'

V^+ ^(n-1)(n-2)(n-3)^-4'

^+1 ( ** + * " ^ n - l ^ + l )

= ^2

+ ^(-2-3)(-4)-4,

+ ^
/
3=0

+ ( , + 1)(3 - 9 + *)5 _ 4+8 ) +


+ ^(

^ * *

~ 3)( - 4)( - 5 ) ( W ' _ 4 + ^ 2 ( " - )( - 7 _ 8 ) .

(19) (14),
(13) (18), ,
, (13).
, ~&\
, , - .
.
7. , ,

.
n ( n - f 3 ) / 2 , .
()
,
. ft71/2
. ()
.
.
CONACyT, , 920322.

55


[I] X. . .: , 1968.
[2] .. . .: - , 1965.
[3] .., ..
. .: , 1976.
[4] .. . .: , 1988,
[5] B.C. / / . . 1969. . 3. 3. . 17-31.
[6] .. / / . . .. 1974. . 38. . 625-662.
[7] . . .: , 1981.
[8] .., .. / / . . . 1980. . 17.
. 3-91.
[9] .., .. / / . . . 1975. . 6. . 5-132.
[10] . , .., ..
. .: , 1978.
[II] .., . / / . 1988. . 298. 5. . 1037-1042.
[12] .., .
, : . .: , 1988.
[13] .., .. / / . . . . 1983. . 47. 5.
. 999-1029.
[14] .., .. / / .. . 183. . 5-70.
[15] .., .., .. / / . 1982. . 50. 3. . 390-396.
[16] Bagrov V.G., Belov V. V., Ternov I.M. / / J. Math. Phys. 1983. V. 24. 12. P. 2855-2859.
[17] A.M. . , 29-9. M.: , 1992.
[18] .., .. / / . 1990. . 311. 4. . 849-853.
[19] .., .. / / . 1992. . 92. 1. . 41-60.
[20] Wong S.K. I/ Nuovo Cim. 1970. V. LXV A. 4. P. 689-694.



22.11.1993.

V . G. Bagrov, V . V. Belov, M. F. Kondratyeva


Q U A S I C L A S S I C A L A P P R O X I M A T I O N IN Q U A N T U M M E C H A N I C S .
NEW APPROACH
It is shown, that the quasiclassical approximation in quantum mechanics is equivalent to
substitution of Schrodinger equation for finite closed system of ordinary differential equations
of the first order with initial conditions, which satisfy special restrictions.

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