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Brand Management

2 Brand Identity

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure Four Brand Identity Perspectives Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity

Customers must recognize that you stand for something

They laughed when I sat down at the piano but when I start to play . . .

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

What is Brand Identity?


A persons identity serves to provide direction, purpose, and meaning for that

person. Consider how important the following questions are:


What are my core values? What do I stand for?

How do I want to be perceived?


What personality traits do I want to project? What are the important relationships in my life?

A brand identity similarly provides direction, purpose and meaning for the brand
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

What is Brand Identity?


Brand identity is a unique set of associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to customer from the organization members

David Aaker
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

What is Brand Identity?

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

What is Brand Identity?

Eg. Lets take a company that has a very strong brand identity Adidas is known to be one such company The brand strongly perceives itself to be a sporty, daring, smart and enduring brand. If we look at the slogan, it says impossible is nothing which shows what the brand means to itself The brand has a logo which is highly popular. The brand holds a product portfolio which calls for excellent engineering, comfort and being futuristic This is what the company wants to show to the customer, that is; this is what Adidas is

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

What is Brand Identity?

Dove wants to create and identify purity. It calls itself a pure soap Now if you notice, Dove soap and facewash are white in colour The sigh of the dove is a white bird which itself is a symobol of peace and purity In a world of hype and stereotypes, Dove provides a refreshingly real alternative for women who recognise that beauty comes in all shapes and sizes

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

What is Brand Identity?

There are many ways through which a brand puts forward its identity. They are: Logos Signs Slogans Symbols Organizational mission and vision statements Mascots Product ragne Product usages, etc

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

What is Brand Identity?


Brand identity is a unique set of brand associations

Brand identity should help establish a


relationship Brand identity consists of 12 dimensions

organized around 4 perspectives:


1.Brand as product 2.Brand as organization

3.Brand as person 4.Brand as symbol


Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity Planning Model


STRATEGIC BRAND ANALYSIS

BRAND IDENTITY SYSTEM

BRAND IDENTITY IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM

STRATEGIC BRAND ANALYSIS Customer Analysis


Trends Motivation Unmet needs Segmentation Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Competitor Analysis
Brand image/identity Strengths, strategies Vulnerabilities

Self-Analysis
Existing brand image Brand heritage Strengths / Capabilities Organization values

Brand Identity Planning Model


BRAND IDENTITY SYSTEM BRAND IDENTITY

Extended

Core
Brand as product
1. Product scope 2. Product attributes 3. Quality / value 4. Uses 5. Users 6. Country of orgin

Brand as Organ
7. Organization attributes (e.g. innovation, consumer concern, trustworthiness) 8. Local vs global VALUE PROPOSITION

Brand as person
9. Personality (e.g. genuine, energetic, rugged) 10. Brand customer relationships (e.g. friend, adviser)

Brand as symbol
11. Visual imagery & metaphors 12. Brand heritage

CREDIBILITY Self-expressive benefits Support other brands

Functional benefits

Emotional benefits

BRAND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP


Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity Planning Model


BRAND IDENTITY IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM BRAND POSITION
Subset of the brand identity and value proposition At a target audience

To be actively communicated Providing competitive advantage

EXECUTION Generate alternatives Symbols and Metaphors TRACKING Testing

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

THE IDENTITY STRUCTURE Brand identity consists of a core identity and an extended identity

Extended Identity

Core Identity

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

THE IDENTITY STRUCTURE

The CORE Identity It represents the timeless essence of the brand. Johnson & Johnson trust and quality, Rubbermaid value and innovation, Michelin advanced technology tires
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

THE IDENTITY STRUCTURE


The EXTENDED Identity It provides texture & completeness. The core identity of an insurance company delivering peace of mind and the extended identity can be Strength (Prudential or Fortis), Planning ahead for retirement or emergencies (Firemans Fund), and Personal caring & concern (Allstate, State Farm)
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

THE IDENTITY STRUCTURE

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

THE IDENTITY STRUCTURE

A Nike Brand Identity


The CORE Identity Product thrust: sports and fitness User profile: top athletes, plus all those interested in fitness & health Performance: performance shoes base on technological superiority Enhancing lives: enhancing peoples lives through athletics The EXTENDED Identity Brand personality: exciting, provocative, spirited, cool, innovative, and aggressive; into health and fitness and the pursuit of excellence Basis for relationship: hanging out with a rugged, macho person who goes for the best in clothing, shoes, and everything else Subbrands: Air Jordan and many others Logo: swoosh symbol Slogan: Just do it Organizational associations: connected to and supportive of athletes and their sports; innovative Endorsers: top athletes, including Michael Jordan, Andre Agassi, Deion Sander, Charles Barkley, and John McEnroe
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

AMUL : Aakers Model


Extended Pride Value Core
Available

Brand Essence: Milk

Taste

Quality

Indian Food

Variety

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

4 Brand Identity Perspective


Brand as a product Brand as organization

Brand as person
Brand as symbol

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives


The Brand as a Product
Although strategists should avoid the product-attribute fixation trap, product-related associations (like product attributes, country of origin, quality, uses, users, etc) will almost be an important part of a brand identity The Product Scope Visa (Credit card), Compaq (Computers), Nokia (Phone), Coca Cola (Soft drink), Laxme (beauty products), Motorola (mobiles), Kwality Walls (ice creams), Bandaid (antiseptic bandages)

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives

The Brand as a Product


Product-related Attributes McDonalds (Product Consistency), Virgin Airlines (free limousine service), Samsung (health portfolio with bio-fresh technology in refrigerators), LG (golden eye technology)

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives


The Brand as a Product
Quality / Value Gillette (The Best a Man Can Get), Starbucks (provides finest coffee in the world with integrity and consistency), Loreal uses the slogan Because you are worth it, to show its focus on high class and quality products

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives

The Brand as a Product


Associations with Use Occasion Nike (owns the use context of athletes looking to sustain a high level of performance) Clorox bleach (strongly associated with the whitening of cloth), like Ujala in India

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives

The Brand as a Product


Associations with Users Eddie Bauer, for example, offers contemporary fashions for the person with an outdoor lifestyle. Gerber focuses on babies

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives

The Brand as a Product


Link to a Country or Region Swatch watches is seen as Swiss, Mercedes, BMW, Opel, Porsche and Audi (German car as highly engineered luxury automobiles), Champagne means France, Bloomingdales means New York, Maruti, TATA, Infosys, Wipro (represent India)

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives


The Brand as ORGANIZATION
It focuses on the attributes of the organization rather than the product or service This perspective include organizational associations such as innovation and care for customers It also includes the local versus global

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

dimension E.g. 3M (organizational attributes as innovation), Johnson & Johnson (a drive for quality), TATA (quality and assurance) markets all its products under the TATA umbrella, each product establishes in the mind the same brand identity of quality and assurance as other TATA products

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives


The Brand as PERSON
This is a 3rd perspective and includes the brand personality dimension as well as the brand customer relationship dimension. A brand personality suggest that there is a set of human characteristics that can be associated with the brand like gender, age, warmth, honesty, integrity, ruggedness, sophistication, concern, etc Brand personality is so useful that it is considered as a separate element of Brand management Firstly, Brand personality can become a vehicle for customer to express his / her own identity. E.g., Harley-Davidson projects a personality that is masculine, macho and freedom seeking Next, just as human personalities affect the relationships between people, brand personalities can be the basis of a relationship between customer and brand, bands and insurance companies try to show a friendly, competent and helpful personality to attract the customers Thirdly, a brand personality may help in communicating the product attribute and thus contribute to a functional benefit. E.g., MRF muscle man show the strength of the product

Gujarat Ambuja Cement


Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives


The Brand as PERSON
Upscale (Mercedes), competent (SONY), impressive, trustworthy (Birla Group), fun (Disney), active (Nike), humorous, casual (Apple), formal (Doordarshan), youthful (MTV), or intellectual (CNBC)

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Apple user might identify himself or herself as casual, anti-corporate, and creative. Dell computer might be professional who helps with the tough jobs; Levi Strauss a rugged outdoor companion; Mercedes-Benz an upscale, admired person; Hallmark a warm, emotional relative

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives


The Brand as SYMBOL
A strong symbol can provide cohesion and structure to an identity. Symbols involving visual imagery can be memorable and powerful. Nikes Swoosh, the McDonalds golden arches, the Kodak yellow, the Mercedes-Benz emblem. Symbols are more meaningful if they involve a metaphor. The prudential rock is a metaphor for strength (Gujarat Ambuja Cement), Good Hands logo for reliable (LIC), Green leafs for freshness (Reliance fress) A vivid, meaningful heritage can represent
Gujarat Ambuja Cement

the essence of the brand.The U.S. Marines


draw on a rich, stored legacy with the tag line the few, the proud, the Marines.
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

FOUR Brand Identity Perspectives


Bajajs metamorphasis into a successful motorcycle major came with a change in its brand identity too. The 40 year old hexagonal shaped logo was changed to a fresher abstract B It represents style, technology, speed and transparency Its blue colour represents Bajajs strength and stabililty While Logotype is all capital Bajaj, whose look presents perfection and precision engineering The slogan distinctively Ahead projects its philosophy of being distinct from others Bajajs older logo was Humara Bajaj which projected it as a possession of the whole family
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

PROVINDING VALUE PROPOSITION

A brands value proposition is a statement of the functional, emotional and selfexpressive brand should that LEAD benefits provide to a delivered VALUE by to the the

customer. And effective value proposition


brand-customer relationship and DRIVE purchase decisions
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

PROVINDING VALUE PROPOSITION

Functional Benefits
A benefit based on a product attribute that provides functional utility to the customer For laser printers, functional benefits might be their speed, resolution, quality, paper capacity, or lack of downtime Volvo is a safe, durable car because of its weight and design Huggies deliver comfort and fit, so leaks are reduced. A BMW car handles well, even on ice Coke provides refreshment and taste Limitations of functional benefits: Productattribute fixation TRAP
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

PROVINDING VALUE PROPOSITION

Self Expressive Benefits


We are what we have Products & Brands can become symbols of a persons self-concept A brand can thus provide a self-expressive benefit A person may define himself or herself as: Hip by buying fashions from the Gap Sophisticated by using Ralph Lauren perfume Successful and powerful by driving a Lincoln Competent by using Microsoft Office
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

PROVINDING CREDIBILITY
Brand some times plays an endorser role Nike play endorser roles for Nike Air Jordan Chevrolet for Chevrolet Spark Kelloggs for Kelloggs Corn Flakes, and Sony for Sony Walkman Maruti for Maruti Swift Endorser brands primary role is to provide CREDIBILITY for the sub brand rather than a VALUE PROPOSITION
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities

Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Customer Relationship

It can be based upon a value proposition

Many brand customer relationship emerge when the brand is considered as an organization or as a person Organizational associations (such as concern for consumers or for the environment) might translate into a respect or liking that forms the basis for a relationship.

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

STRATEGIC BRAND ANALYSIS Customer Analysis Competitor Analysis BRAND IDENTITY SYSTEM BRAND IDENTITY Self-Analysis

Extended

Core
Brand as product Brand as Organ
VALUE PROPOSITION Functional benefits Emotional benefits Self-expressive benefits

Brand as person

Brand as symbol
CREDIBILITY Support other brands

BRAND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP BRAND IDENTITY IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEM BRAND POSITION


Subset of the brand identity and value proposition At a target audience

To be actively communicated Providing competitive advantage EXECUTION

Generate alternatives Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Symbols and

Metaphors

Testing

TRACKING

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

MULTIPLE BRAND IDENTITIES


In some cases, a brand identity is so persuasive and universal that it will work in all markets. British Airways expects its Worlds Favorite Airline tag line to work throughout the world. Coca-Cola also has long used a core identity across segments and countries. The Levis identity needs to be adapted to Europe and Japan (where it is seen as them rather than us, and upscale rather than utilitarian)
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Brand Identity
What is Brand Identity? The Identity Structure

Four Brand Identity Perspectives


Providing a Value Proposition Providing Credibility Brand-Customer Relationship Working with Multiple Identities Brand Identity Prism

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM


Kapferer uses an identity prism to describe bradn identity from a sender perspective and receiver perspective in 6 dimensions The left side of the prism is intended to project outward nad externalize the brand, its physique, relationship and reflection The right dimensions transfer in, internalizing the brand

Physique
Salient objective features

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

EXTERNALISATION

Relationship
Transactions & exchanges

Culture
Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Reflection
Customers outward mirror

Self image
Own internal mirror

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

EXTERNALISATION

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Salient objective features

Physique

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

Relationship
Transactions & exchanges

Culture
Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Reflection
Customers outward mirror

Self image
Own internal mirror

Physique of the Brand (EXTERNALIZATION) This is the backbone, the most comprehensible value of the brand. It consists of external attributes, forms and colours A brands physical quality, its physique, is made up of a

combination of either salient objective features or emerging ones The first step in developing brand is to define its physical aspect: what it is, what it does and what it looks like. Modern packaging tends to standardize brands, making them all clones of one another. This is why Coca-Cola uses the image of its traditional bottle: to remind Coke fans of its roots

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

EXTERNALISATION

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Physique
Salient objective features

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

Relationship
Transactions & exchanges

Culture
Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Reflection

Self image
Own internal mirror

Personality of the Brand (INTERNALIZATION)

Customers outward mirror

Creating a personality aims to describe the brand in


such a way that it is possible to associate how the brand would be as a person. Personality is the brads soul. The simplest method is to give the brand a real or symbolic spokesperson. Since a brand gradually builds up character through communication, it has a personality of its own The way a brand speaks of its products or services shows what kind of person it would be if it were human E.g., Amul chose the friendly moppet which is still very popular. MRF chose the muscleman to signify its strength. Pillsbury chose the doughboy to convince mothers to try ready made dough
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

EXTERNALISATION

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM


Culture of the Brand (INTERNALIZATION) The culture aspect includes both the culture that the physical product communicates and the messages carried in the media This is the key to understanding the differentiating various brands, for e.g.,

Physique
Salient objective features

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

Relationship
Transactions & exchanges

Culture

Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Reflection
Customers outward mirror

Self image
Own internal mirror

communicating the country of origin or the connection between the brand and the company through use of the same name Brands like Coca-Cola, IBM , TATA motors first small car TATA Indica to establish the identity of a completely Indian car, even for TATA Nano
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

EXTERNALISATION

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM


Brand as Relationship (ENTERNALIZATION) The brand is often a relationship when it acts as an intermediary in an exchange between tro people This is true of both products and services, but primarily services, which are by definition a

Physique
Salient objective features

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

Transactions & exchanges

Relationship

Culture

Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Reflection
Customers outward mirror

Self image
Own internal mirror

relationship. The relationship binds together the brand and its customers E.g., Nike relates to specific cultural values, to the Olympic Games and to the glorification of the human body. It also suggests another relationship, based on provocation, it encourages us to let loose: Just do it.
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

EXTERNALISATION

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Physique
Salient objective features

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

Transactions & exchanges

Relationship

Culture

Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Reflection
Customers outward mirror

Self image
Own internal mirror

The Self-image of the Brand (INTERNALIZATION) This comprises of the consumers inner image of the brand. The consumer creates a relationship to himself through the

brand, as an internal mirror These dimensions define not only the brand identity, but also the limits of the aspects that can be changes or developed, that it, one aspect can be mirrored in another

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

EXTERNALISATION

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Physique
Salient objective features

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

Transactions & exchanges

Relationship

Culture

Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Customers outward mirror

Reflection

Self image
Own internal mirror

Brand as a Reflection (ENTERNALIZATION) A brand will always tend to build up a reflection or an image of the buyer or user, which it seems to be addressing; thus a brand is a reflection This reflection is not to be confused with the target segment of

the brand. Whereas the target segment is the group of potential purchasers of the brand, the brand as a reflection displays the image that the consumer wants to be seen after purchasing or using the brand
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

EXTERNALISATION

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Salient objective features

Physique

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

Transactions & exchanges

Relationship

Culture

Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Customers outward mirror

Reflection

Self image
Own internal mirror

These 6 facets, as well as the boundaries, define the identity of a brand. These facets are interrelated and form a well-structured entity. Thus, the content of one facet echoes that of another. Since brands can only exist if they communicate, the prism concept derives from the assumption that brands have the gift of speech The facets to the left physique, relationship and reflection are the social facets, which give the brand its outward expression. All 3 are visible facets To the right, the facets are personality, culture and self-image, which are incorporated within the brand self, within its spirit

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Physique
Salient objective features

Personality
Character

INTERNALISATION

EXTERNALISATION

Relationship
Transactions & exchanges

Culture
Set of values feeding the brand inspiration

Reflection

Self image
Own internal mirror

Customers outward mirror

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Sample BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Physique
Crocodile Colours

Personality
Well balanced Authentic Serene

Relationship
Valorisation Accessible

Lacoste Shirt 12x12 (Chic)

Culture
Aristocratic ideals Sophistication & simplicity Sport and classicism Individualism

Reflection
They are non-conspicuous men and women having real class

Self image
I am discreetly elegant I am always correct although casual

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Sample BRAND IDENTITY PRISM

Physique
Self-assured, dynamic Proud, energetic

Personality
American way of life Boston elitism

Relationship
Social, Distinctive Exclusive

Ralph Lauren Polo (SUCCESS)

Culture
Typical Discreet American Luxury

Reflection
They are comfortable, young men of good social standing, nice rich: ideal son-in-law

Self image
I belong to my time I am fashionable I am the elite

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

AMUL : Kapferers Prism

EXTERNALISATION

Physique : Taste, Quality

INTERNALISATION

Personality : Simple, Indian

Relationship : Sociable

AMUL

Culture : Co-operative, Sharing

Reflection : Value Oriented

Self-Image : Proud Indian, Fun loving

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

Mahindra Bolero
Physique: Good looking rugged vehicle with car like comfort

EXTERNALISATION

Personality : Young, Vibrant Sophisticated


Culture : Breaking free with a modern outlook Someone who pushes very hard

INTERNALISATION

Relationship: Fun outdoor companion

Mahindra BOLERO

Reflection : Yappy, City dweller and sporty


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Self-Image : Free Someone who enjoys life

Mahindra Scorpio
Physique : International looks; power car like comfort Relationship : An extension of his life style. Young, modern, premium, city companion

EXTERNALISATION

Personality : Powerful; in-control; sophisticated

INTERNALISATION

Mahindra SCORPIO

Culture : Living life at ones own terms

Reflection : Successful new economy business Man, self made

Self-Image : Cut above, expect the best from life because nothing else will do

Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management

R E C A P:

Brand Identity

The understanding and management of brand identity are

keys to building strong brands and thus creating brand equity. We have learned an overview of brand identity in other words, what a brand stands for. A brand identity potentially consists of 12 elements organized around 4 perspectives: the brand as product, organization, person & symbol. The brand identity structure includes a core and extended identity The Brand Identity Prism has six facets: Physique, Relationship, Reflection, Personality, Culture, & Self-image
Prof. Vikram Parekh on Brand Management