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TARA NGGO EL

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MEDICOLEGAL ASPECT OF INJURY

RADHIKA AGARWAL (64)

INJURY

Medico-legally-injury is defined as breach or dissolution of natural continuity of any of the tissue of a living body by actual physical violence. Legally- trauma or injury may be defined as any harm whatsoever in nature caused illegally to the body,mind,reputation or property ( Section 44 IPC) 4/23/12

INJURIES MEDICOLEGAL ASPECT


Some important terms in relation to medicolegal aspect of injury

ASSAULT-

An assault is an offer of threat or an attempt to apply force to the body of another in a hostile manner. COGNISABLE OFFENCECognisable offence means an offence for which a police officer may arrest the offender without a warrant. Eg:-Murder, rape, kidnapping. HOMICIDEHomicide means killing of one individual as a result of conduct of the other.
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It may be LAWFUL or UNLAWFUL.

INTERPRETATION OF WOUNDS
(1)Causative object or weapon Imprint abrasion from direct impact with patterned surface Trace material in sliding abrasion, laceration Stab may indicate shape, width, length of instrument (2) Order of Infliction Tentative or scattered FIRST Fatal or grouped LATER Distant shots before close shots
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S A L C
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Click to edit Master subtitle style

I S

A C I F N

O I T

Legal classification A) simple injury B) Grievous injury 2. Medicolegal classification


1. (A)

Classification of injuries according to causative factors Mechanical or physical injury:Those caused by blunt force Abrasion Contusion or bruise Laceration

1)

(a) (i) (ii) (iii)

(b) Those caused by sharp force (i) Incision (ii) Punctured wound (c) Caused by firearms (i) By rifled firearm (ii) By smooth bored firearm (iii) By country made weapons 4/23/12

(2) Thermal injury Due to application of heat (i) Generalised effect () Heat hyperpyrexia (heat stroke) () Heat exhaustion ( heat collapse) () Heat cramps ( miners cramps (ii) Localized effect of heat () Burn () Scald
(a)

(b) Due to application of cold (i) Generalized effect of cold Hypothermia (ii) Localized effect of cold () Frost bite () Trench foot
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(3) Chemical injury


(A)

corrosions( due to strong acids or alkalis)

(B) Irritation (due to weak acid, weak alkalis, vegetable or animal extract) (4) Miscellaneous (a) Electrical injury( due to electrocution) (b) Radiation injury (c) Lightening (d) Blast injury (B) Classification according to severity of injury Simple (2) Grievous 4/23/12 (3) dangerous
(1)

C. Depending upon the time of infection


(a) (b)

Ante-mortem Post-mortem

D. Depending upon the manner of infliction sustaining


(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Suicidal Accidental Homicidal Defence wound Self-inflicted fabricated

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Types of wounds

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Types of wounds
Abrasions Lacerations Incised Wounds

Bruises

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al eg L ion at fic ssi cla


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SIMPLE INJURY

A simple injury is one which Is neither extensive nor serious which would heal rapidly without leaving any permanent deformity and disfiguration

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GRIEVOUS HURT Any hurt which endangers life

OR Which causes the sufferer to be during the space of 20 days in severe bodily pain OR Unable to follow his ordinary pursuits ANY DANGEROUS HURT IS GRIEVOUS.. An act neither intended nor likely to cause 4/23/12 death is hurt even though death

GRIEVOUS INJURY

Sec 320 IPC designates grievous hurt. Emasculation Permanent privation(loss) of sight of either eye Permanent privation of hearing of either ear Privation of any member or any joint Destruction or permanent impairing of power of any member or joint Permanent disfiguration of head & face Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth or both Any hurt which endangers life or which causes the sufferer to
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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

be during the space of twenty days in severe bodily pain,

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EMASCULATIO N -It means loss of masculine power.


-Only applicable to MALES . -Loss of masculine power. Causes:- a) direct trauma to genitaliaAMPUTATION OF ORGAN. NOTE- Even if one testis with intact male organ is present, it cannot be called as emasculation.
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b) trauma to lumbosacral region-

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CASTRATED MALE

PERMANENT PRIVATION OF SIGHT OF EITHER EYE


-PERMANENT PRIVATION of sight of either eye-It is the permanent privation or impairment of vision of either eye. Even if the vision changes from 6/6 or 6/5 to 6/9, it would be grievous hurt. Example:- a) corneal scarring
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b) retinal detachment, etc.

Her eyeballs have been gouged out causing permanent loss of eyesight of both eyes.

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PERMANENT PRIVATION OF HEARING OF EITHER EAR

It is the permanent loss or impairment of hearing of either ear. EXAMPLE :- Rupture of Tympanic Membrane Cause:- Blow to the head , even if there is PARTIAL hearing loss.
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PERMANENT DISFIGURATION OF HEAD OR FACE

Permanent disfiguration of head or face is referred to as grievous hurt . It depends on :- the nature of the injury on the person associated . EXAMPLE :- a) a small scar on a young girl may be considered as grievous hurt and even a large scar on an old aged man may not be

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Her nose & ears have been cut off by using sharp knife causing permanent disfiguration ( injured ears are being covered by her scalp hair at 4/23/12 temples)

PRIVATION OF ANY MEMBER OR ANY JOINT

MEMBER -

Any organ or tissue of the body capable of performing a DISTINCT function in the body , is termed as a member .

It is the anatomical separation of any part of body , leading to loss of its function permanently . EXAMPLE:- Privation or anatomical 4/23/12 separation of a leg of an individual

DESTRUCTION OR PERMANENT IMPAIRMENT OF POWER OF ANY MEMBER OR JOINT

It is any destruction or privation to a joint, causing loss of its function permanently . There may also damage to any other organ or part of the organ , leading to loss of its distinct function . The damage should be permanent .
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FRACTURE DISLOCATION OF A BONE OR TOOTH

Any dislocation of tooth or all fractures , including HAIRLINE FRACTURES , is considered as grievous hurt .

NOTE :- Even if the fracture is on the outer table of skull , it is sufficient for the purpose of law to be labelled as grievous .
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LOSS OF LOWER INCISOR TOOTH (LEFT) IN A FORCIBLE BITE


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ENDANGERS LIFE , which causes its suffer severe bodily pain or makes him unable to follow his Ordinary Pursuits for a period of Ordinary / Daily Pursuits 20 days. routine in Means acts which are daily
EXAMPLE :- a) Eating food , taking bath , using restroom , etc .
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every human beings day to day life .

al eg -l co tion di c a e M sifi as cl
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MECHANICAL INJURYBY BLUNT FORCE


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ABRASION
It is defined as destruction or damage of the superficial epithelial covering of skin (epidermis) or mucous membrane due to impact with hard, blunt and rough object or weapon.

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Types of abrasions
1. Linear abrasions ( Scratches) : caused by relative movement of a pointed object on the skin eg. nail, thorn, point of sword or knife 2. Grazed abrasions : caused by relative movement of a rough surface on a wide area of skin. eg. falls , a victim being dragged on the ground , road traffic accidents 3. Imprint abrasions ( patterned abrasions, crushing abrasion) : caused by the impact of a rigid hard rough surface over a localized area of the skin without any movement eg. fingernail , tyre , grills , bicycle chain , bite marks 4/23/12

MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE OF ABRASIONS


The medicolegal aspect of abrasions include the following important points required in its evaluation

Site of impact -It suggests: 1)site of external impact 2)possibility of internal injury

Identification of object-It is obtained by the pattern of injury. Eg:-Ligature mark in hanging, -teeth mark in biting, etc.

Cause of injury-It is determined by the site of an abrasion.

Eg:-Abrasions are found on neck in throttling, around nose and mouth in smothering, etc.

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Direction of injury-This is surmised on examination with a hand lens.

DETERMINATION OF AGE OF AN ABRASION


TIME FRESH 8-12 HOURS 2-3 DAYS 4-5 DAYS
6

CHANGES IN ABRASION REDDISH & SWOLLEN,NO SCAB REDDISH SCAB BROWN SCAB DARK BROWN SCAB BLACK SCAB, STARTS FALLING

DAYS

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CAUSATIVE AGENT

Imprint of the muzzle of a shotgun (Abrasion ring)

Imprint of the hilt guard of a knife

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Patterned
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LIGATURE

LIGATURE
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LIGATURE

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BRUISE/ CONTUSION

A bruise signifies haemorrhage into the skin, subcutaneous tissues. It is due to an infiltration or extravasation of blood into the tissues following rupture of small vessels, as a result of application of blunt force. NOTE- In bruise,there is no breach of continuity of the covering skin but 4/23/12 epidermis may occasionally the

The medicolegal aspect of bruses provide information in regard to

MEDICOLEGAL ASPECT OF BRUISES

Identification of object-The external pattern of bruise correspond4/23/12

to to the object or weapon causing

DETERMINATION OF AGE OF A BRUISE


COLOR OF BRUISE RED BLUE PIGMENT HAEMOGLOBIN TIME IMMEDIATE (24 HOURS)

DE-OXYGENATED 1-3 DAYS HAEMOGLOBIN 4 DAYS 5-6 DAYS 7-12 DAYS 2 WEEKS

BLUISH-BLACK TO HAEMOSIDERIN BROWN GREENISH YELLOW COMPLETELY DISAPPEARS HAEMOTOIDIN BILIRUBIN -

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CONTUSION INDICATES

TRAUM A TIME OF TRAUMA TYPE OF TRAUMA contusions multiple


of different ages indicate repeated trauma - physical child abuseor domestic violence.

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LACERATIONS

In laceration, there is breach of continuity of tissue involving depth more than the covering epithelium of the skin or that of an organ. Lacerations are caused due to impact by hard blunt object & by the rough weapons.

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Laceration
Characteristics

Slightly inverted margins. Margins are often bruise and abraded. Ragged wounds Gape open

caused by crushing and tearing of the skin

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EXTENT OF LACERATIONS

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MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE OF LACERATION Lacerations are usually


1) Accidental 2)Homicidal 3)Rarely suicidal.

From a laceration,some idea about causative agent may be found, sometimes the shape & the design of the weapon may be known from wound. The design of a tyre may get deep imprinted when a person is runover by a vehicle. Inspection- Foregin substances like dust, sand etc present on wound will speak about the site on place where the injury was sustained/ It4/23/12 a permanent scar which may link the person with leaves

It may also caused by animals like jackals, dogs & other carnivores. As lacerations do not have uniform healing pattern & timing, the time of infliction of the wound cant be satisfactorily estimated from the healing porcess of laceration. External evidence of injury as well as the degree of internal injuries. Eg:-A forceful impact to the precordial region cause sudden cessation of effective heart beat, a punch or kick on the upper abdomen may cause injury to duodenum or pancreas, etc.

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The arrow shows the direction of a impact . At the point of impact the skin splits cleanly and the torn skin is either everted or inverted.
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The arrow shows the rolled off edges with hair follicles everted The point of impactis where the bone is seen.

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MECHANICAL INJURYBY SHARP INSTRUMENT


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INCISED WOUND

Incised wounds are cuts or slashes produced by the sharp edge of a weapon like, knife, razor, sword etc.

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On examination, the type of incised wounds should be carefully identified.

MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE

Eg :- 1) Incised wounds may be homicidal, suicidal or accidental, identified on bases of situation, character, circumstances. 2) Suicidal incised wounds are usually placed in front and sides of the neck or sometimes in front of the wrists, to cut the radial artery to bleed to die.

Presence of incised wound indicates intent. Incised wound with hesitation cuts indicate suicide. Eg :- It involves throat, groin, elbows, wrist, etc.

Incised wound without hesitation cuts indicate homicidal incised wound. Eg:- Involves face, neck and genitals. Incised wound on palm indicate defence wound. Multiple superficial incised wound indicates fabricated wound. In traffic injuries, accidental incised wound caused by broken glass are seen on exposed parts. Therefore, these fragments provide valuable forensic evidence. Direction of application of force From the tailing

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Direction of trauma

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AGE

FRESH

AGE OF INCISED WOUND


GROSS FINDING HAEMATOMA FORMATION

HISTOPATHOGOLICAL FINDINGS CAPILLARY DILATATION,MARGINATON,EMMIG RATION OF NEUTROPHILS,SWELLING OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM,& REACTIVE CHANGES IN TISSUE HISTIOCYTES

12 HOURS

EDGES RED REACTIVE CHANGES IN ,SWOLLEN, ADHERENT FIBROBLAST & MONOCYTE IN WITH BLOOD & LYMPH EXUDATE MONOCYTES UNDERGO MITOTIC DIVISION

15 HOURS 24 HOURS

CONTINUOUS LAYER ENDOTHELIUM BEGINS TO GROW OF ENDOTHELIAL AT EDGES, VASCULAR BUDS CELLS COVER BEGIN TO FORM SURFACE WITH CRUST OR SCAB OF DRIED CLOT. VASCULARISED GRANULATION TISSUE FORMATION FORMATION OF NEW FIBRILS

72 HOURS

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4-5 DAYS

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STAB WOUND/ PUNCTURED WOUND

Punctured or stab wounds are deep wounds produced by the pointed end of a weapon or an object, entering the body. Depth is the greatest dimension of

punctured wound.
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HOMICIDAL STAB WOUNDS

Homicidal stab wounds are usually more than one in number, all are quite deep, may be located anywhere on the body, including self unapproachable parts. In homicidal cases, the covering clothes usually bear corresponding cutmarks or 4/23/12 tears.

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DEFENCE WOUNDS

A wound sustained when a victim places a hand, arm or other body part to prevent or minimize a blow or slashing by a sharp weapon.

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MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE OF If the weapon is blunt, bruises and WOUND on DEFENSE abrasions are producedthe the extensor or ulnar surfaces of the forearms, wrists, backs of hands

and knuckles. Defence wounds may be found rarely on the shins and feet if ihe victim was lying on the ground and used his legs to defend himself. In the female, they suggest sexual assault.

The size and shape of the bruises depends upon the attacking object.

A typical knife defence wound is seen in the web between the base of the thumb and index finger, when the blade is grasped

Defence wounds indicate homicide.


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SUICIDAL STAB WOUNDS


Suicidal stab wounds are located on the approachable parts of the body, more commonly over the left side front of chest, neck and lower abdomen.The main wound may be only one.The covering clothes may not bear corresponding cut marks as that may be partly removed from the areawhiledoingthe act.
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MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE

In the examination of a stab wound, the following essential points are kept into consideration-

1)The effects of stabbing depends upon the direction and depth of penetration of structures involved in it. 2)Position of the wound indicates about the position of victim at the time of injury. 4/23/12

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CHOP Chopping wounds results from hacking or WOUNDS chopping motion made with a fairly sharp
& relatively heavy weapon like axe, hatchet, cleaver, saber, bayonet, etc. Margins-sharp, abraded or contused. Usually the lower end (heel) of the axe strikes the surface first, which produces a deeper wound than the upper (toe) end If extremities are attacked, amputation.
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MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE OF CHOP WOUNDS


The deeper end indicates the position of the assailant. In the skull, the undermined edge of the fracture defect is the direction in which the force is exerted, and the slanted edge is the side from which the force was directed.

In case of long bones, the bone fragments get loosened on the opposite side of the force.

Most of these injuries are homicidal and usually inflicted on the exposed & easily accessible portions of the body like the head, face, neck, shoulders and extremities.

Few are accidental due to machinery. Very rarely suicidal. 4/23/12 Sometimes chop wounds are found on bodies recovered from

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Self-inflicted injuries
Self-inflicted wounds are those inflicted by a person on his own body. Fabricated wounds (fictitious, forged or invented wounds) are those which may be produced by a person on his own body, or by another with his consent

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Self-inflicted injuries

Cuts are usually superficial, multiple and parallel. In right handed people most of injuries are on the left side.

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MEDICOLEGAL IMPORTANCE OF (I) To charge an enemy with assault or attempted SELF-INFLICTED murder. WOUNDS injury appear serious. (2) To make a simple
(3) By the assailant to pretend self-defence or to change the appearance of wounds, which might connect him with the crime. (4) By policemen and watchmen acting in collusion with robbers to show that they were defending the property. (5) In thefts by servants or messengers for the above reason. 4/23/12 (6) By prisoners, to bring a charge of beating

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SELF-INFLICTED WOUND
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PHYSICAL INJURYFIREARM WEAPONS


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FIREARM INJURY
Firearm injuries are regarded as a special form of blunt trauma. The damage to the organism is caused by the impact of a single projectile (or a multitude of pellets) propelled from a barrel by highpressure combustion gases and striking the body at a high velocity.
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MEDICOLEGAL ASPECT OF FIREARM INJURIES

RECONSTRUCTION, SUICIDE, ACCIDENT & MURDER


The questions the doctor will be suspected to answer are:

1.

Could the wound have been inflicted with that weapon. At what range was it fires? From what direction? Could it have been self-inflicted?

2.

3.

4.

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FEATURES SITE

SUICIDE

ACCIDENT

HOMICIDE Any area

Head,side of Any area temple, centre of forehead, under the chin,over the heart, rarely epigastrium

SHORT DISTANCE

Contact or very close range Upward or backward

Close or very Any range. Usually distant close range Any directionUsually upwards Usually one Present Any number Absent

DIRECTION

NUMBER OF WOUNDSUsually one POWDER RESIDUE OVER HANDS WEAPON SCENE OF CRIME Present

Found at the Found at the Not found at the scene scene scene Usually in his Maybe own house indoors or with no outdoors in evidence of the Any place & there is evidence of disturbed scene and struggle

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INLET & EXIT

exit
Large Less NO Everted Eternal
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inlet
Small More ++++ Inverted Internal
n

Size Loss of substance Powder marks Edge Beveling

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MEDICOLEGAL ASPECT OF FIREARM WOUNDS ENTRY WOUND1) PRESENCE OF ABRASION COLLAR - Indicates that it is entry wound 2) ABRASION COLLAR - indicates the direction of firing.

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MEDICOLEGAL ASPECT OF EXIT WOUND


1) 2) 3)

DIRECTION OF FIRING QUESTION OF VICTIM WHILE FIRING NUMBER OF BULLETS THAT ARE REMAINING IN THE BODY.

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Medico legal importance of powder marks:


1- Diagnosis of fire arm injuries 2- Differentiation between inlet and exit 3- Identification the type of powder used 4- Estimation the distance of firing 5- Determination the direction of firing

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DETERMINATION OF AGE OF INJURY The age of injuries can be obtained


from data of its healing process. Eg:- A fresh abrasion is bright red, a fresh bruise is red at first then the colour gradually changes, etc. The above data itself depends upon1)Vitality of the injured per son. 2)Extent of damage .
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IMMEDIATE CAUSES OF DEATH FROM WOUNDSq

Haemorrhage Injury to a vital organ Neurogenic shock Combination of any of these

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Site of haemorrhage Cause of death

Haemorrha ge

Extradural, subdural, Cerebral compression or subarachnoid

Medulla Pericardial sac Pleural cavity

Failure of vital functions Cardiac tamponade Collapse of lung & displacement of mediastinum

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INJURY TO A VITAL ORGANExtensive damage to vital organs i.e. brain, heart, and lungs, is usually fatal. NOTE- extensive damage to abdominal viscera may be present without visible NEUROGENIC SHOCKmarks of injury. It is also known as primary shock or vagal inhibition. It is characterized by sudden stoppage of heart & respiration as a result of reflex 4/23/12 stimulation of the vagus nerve & consequent

REMOTE CAUSES OF DEATH FROM WOUNDS Infection

a) b) c) d)

Sepsis Infective processes in internal organs Necrosis or sloughing Tetanus

renal failure( crush syndrome) thrombosis embolism a) fat embolism b) air embolism secondary shock consumptive( disseminated intravascular ) coagulopathy

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CAUSE OF DEATH-

MEDICOLEGAL IMPLICATIONS IN RELATION TO CAUSE OF DEATH


1) IMMEDIATE or DIRECT CAUSE 2) REMOTE or INDIRECT CAUSE

There are mainly 2 causes of death:-

Other causes of death:1) PROXIMATE CAUSE 2) IMMEDIATE CAUSE

EXAMPLE:- A person dies of PERITONITIS two weeks after a STAB in its ABDOMEN. Here,
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MEDICOLEGAL IMPLICATION :

Under section 300 IPC , to substantiate a charge of murder , it is necessary to determine-

a)The injury inflicted on the deceased was actually the cause of death. b)It was sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death. 4/23/12

MEDICOLEGAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTEMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM WOUNDS MEDICOLEGAL ASPECTThe recognisation of antemortem and postmortem wounds helps in Conviction of the guilty and acquittal of the suspended. EXAMPLE:-

-A person after a natural death, may be run over by a car.


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-The body of a murdered person may

HISTOLOGICAL TIMING OF WOUNDS


Routine histological staining techniques form the basis of a forensic age estimation of human skin wounds and the determination of vitality is aided by the detection of neutrophilic granulocytes which appear earliest about 20-30 min after wounding. A clear granulocyte infiltration and a significant increase in the number of macrophages indicates a post infliction interval of at least several hours. Macrophages containing incorporated particles such as lipophages, erythrophages or siderophages appear earliest at a wound age of 2-3 days similarly to extracellular deposits of hemosiderin, whereas the rarely detectable iron-free pigment hematoidin and spot-like lymphocytic infiltrates in the granulation tissue appear approximately one week or more after wounding. A complete re-epithelialization of surgically treated and primarily 4/23/12 healing human skin lesions can be expected earliest 5 days after

HISTOCHEMICAL TIMING OF Enzyme histochemical methods allow a wound age WOUNDS differentiation especially in the range of a few hours. An
increase in nonspecific esterases can be observed earliest approximately 1 hour after wounding followed by other enzymes such as acid phosphatase (approximately 2 h), ATPase (approximately 4 h), aminopeptidase (approximately 4 h) or alkaline phosphatase (approximately 4 h). Positive results, however, cannot be regularly found. Therefore, the detection of reactive changes is useful for a wound age estimation whereas negative findings, which in general must be interpreted with caution, can provide information only in a limited 4/23/12 number of histological parameters.

CHANGES IN ENZYMES AS SEEN HISTOCHEMICALLY IN THE FIRST HOURS OF WOUNDING

Enzyme histochemical methods allow determination of wound age, especially in the range of a few hours, and are used to distinguish between postmortem and antemortem skin wounds. The methods are based on the determination of the presence and changes of the enzyme reaction in the wound area.
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Two zones around antemortem Central( superficial) wounds-

zone- it is in immediate vicinity of the wound edge Shows decreasing enzyme activity Regressive phenomenon in this zone- NEGATIVE VITAL REACTIONS( since no such decrease in enzyme activty is observed in the wounds inflicted after death.

Peripheral zone- It surrounds central zone Increasing enzyme activity


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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN ANTEMORTEM & POSTMORTEM WOUND

BIOCHEMICAL TIMING OF The BIOCHEMICAL TIMING OF WOUNDS WOUND depends upon


measurement of histamine and serotonin contents of the INJURED SKIN. In the first period of INFLAMMATION , the vascular response is dominated by vasoactive substances , including 4/23/12 histamine and serotonin.

TIME OF THE WOUND BIOCHEMICHAL CHANGES Wound inflicted Great increase in the immediately before death. serotonin content and slight increase in the free histamine content. Wound inflicted 5-15 Relatively higher increase minutes before death. in histamine than in serotonin. Wound inflicted 15-60 minutes before death. Higher increase in serotonin content than histamine. No changes in the serotonin and histamine content of the severe wounds caused by the

In road accidents , Death before the crash ( i.e , death due to natural cause . Eg :- signs of 4/23/12

DIFFERENTIATING SUICIDAL, HOMICIDAL, OR ACCIDENTAL WOUNDS


CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE THE WEAPON THE INJURY SCENE OF CRIME

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CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE
Circumstantial Evidence prior or after death includes

Actions of deceased immediately prior to death. Mental condition of victim, his family affairs, financial condition ,etc., is an important indication of suicide. Farewell letters , such as suicide notes. 4/23/12 stains on the body and clothes, blood

THE WEAPON

CONFIRMATORY OF SUICIDE-

1)If the weapon is firmly GRASPED in the hand of the deceased by cadaveric spasm , and 2) If there is no sign of struggle or other injuries.

PRESUMTIVE OF HOMICIDE-

1)If the weapon cannot be found ,and 2)Or the weapon is found concealed in 4/23/12

THE INJURY

PREFERENTIAL SITES or SITES OF ELECTION -

The certain specific situations selected preferentially by a suicide, known as Preferential sites. Eg :- a) For Incised Wound- throat , wrist , elbow or groin. b) For stab wound left side of the chest over the heart , abdomen.
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c) For gunshot wounds

SCENE OF CRIME

SUICIDE The suicide will find some secluded place, like :- bedroom or locked bathroom, etc.

EXAMPLE:- When a suicide cuts his throat, he will do it in front of the mirror and blood splashes will be found on the mirror itself.

HOMICIDAL ATTACK In case of a homicidal attack , there is a 4/23/12

Thank you
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Parikhs Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence, Forensic Medicine & Toxicology


BIBLIOGRA PHY

Textbook of Forensic Medicine & ToxicologyP.C. Dikshit http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov www.similima.com www.forensicmed.co.uk/ www.medicinaforense.cl/sw.a www.forensic.sc.su.ac.th www.sciencedirect.com www.thetruthaboutforensicscience.com www.scribd.com www.forensicindia.com www.exploreforensics.co.uk www.dundee.ac.uk

Times of India The Hindustan times 4/23/12