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2009 .


1. ..6
1.1 .....7
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World Wide Web (WWW)..9
3D- ...9
...9
().10
1.2. .......11
.11
12
12
2. ...13
2.1 13
2.1.1. ...13
..14

16
..17
...19
.21
23
...23
2.1.2 24
.26
2.2 .27
2.2.1 .27
2.2.2 ...28
3. . ....37
3.1 ...37
3.2 ...39
3.3 .41
3.4 .48
.48
...50
.51
...52
...53
.56
3.5 ..65
. 65
.66
.66
...67
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....69
(Levels)70
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2

Abkmnhs (Plug-ins) b cgtwaatrns (Effects).73


..76
3.6 ...76
4. ...78
4.1 .78
4.2
.80
4.3 .80
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4.5 () .83
4.6 ..89
5. ..91
5.1 . ...92
5.2 ....95
6. .97
6.1 .97
6.1.1 ..97
6.1.2 ...98
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6.1.5 ...101
6.2 ...103
6.2.1 ...103
6.2.2 .....103
...104
....105
....106
6.3 ...107
6.4 ..109
6.4.1 .109
RGB ..111
RGB- ?......................................114
RGB-116
sRGB RGB-
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6.4.2 ...117
CMY...118
CMY CMYK.119
CMYK.120
CMYK..121
6.4.3 ...122
HSB-126
6.4.4 ...126
...126
....127
. .....128
6.4.5 ..129
6.4.6 .132
7. .....137
7.1 .137
7.1.1 ..137
7.1.2 ...139
3

7.1.3 141
7.1.4 .142
7.1.5 . .144
7.2 ..146
7.2.1 ...147
7.2.2 ..147
8. ...154
8.1 ...154
8.1.1 ..154
8.1.2 .156
8.2 ...160
8.3 .....161
8.4. 162
8.5 ...164
8.6 ..172
9. ....181
9.1 ...181
9.2 ....181
9.3 181
9.4 i82786.....182
9.5 ()..183
9.6 DP-8500....184
9.7 ..185
9.8 .186
9.9 () ....187
10. ..189
10.1 NGP (Network graphics rotocol)...189
10.2 .190
10.3 ...193
Core-System.....193
GKS (Graphical Kernel System)..194
GKS-3D (Graphical Kernel System for Three Dimensions)...196
PHIGS (Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System).196
PHIGS+....197
CGI (Computer Graphics Interface).198
10.4 ....198
10.4.1 - ..198
TEKTRONIX.199
REGIS.199
HP-GL.199
10.4.2 199
PostScript200
PCL.201
10.4.3 - ...201
10.4.4 - 203
11. ..205
11.1 ..206
11.2 ...208
11.3 ..211
11.4 218
12. ( ).....223
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4

12.2 ....227
12.3 .230
12.4 ...232
..233
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12.6 ..238
12.6.1 .239
12.6.2 .241
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12.10 ()....245
12.11 ...246
.247

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113

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118

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120

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128

. 6.32. Pantone.

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PANTONE Pastel Colors Coated;


PANTONE Pastel Colors Uncoated.
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CMYK.


.
: PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM

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131

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132

. DIC (DIC Color Guide, DIC Color Guide Part II DIC Traditional
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Corel CMYK.
TOYO 88 TOYO.
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134

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135


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( , ) 4 - ,
.
: 3 2 1 0
3 = ( <x min)
B2 = (x > x max )

B1 = (y < y min)
B0 = ( y > y max )

,
. ,
1 (. )
n (Xn , Yn).
, .
F -, , :
0,
-1,
1,

154

8.

:
,
().

:





, , ,
.. .
8.1
, -
,
.
8.1.1
,

, .
.
. ,
(. 8.1).

. 8.1.

, -
, . .
.
. , ,
, :
, . ,
0.5 .
,
,
. , , .

. , 90 .

155

. 8.2. p

, ,
, ,
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
(cosa)
.
1 1000 . :
Is = I cos p ,
I -
. .
,
, .
, , , , .
,

:
Id = I cos ,
I .
, ,
, .

,
.
:

Kd
. Kd 0 1,
Kd + = 1.

.
, ,
(. 8.3).

156

. 8.3.


:
I = IaKa + IdKd + IsKs = IaKa + I (Kd cos +Ks cos p )
Ia - , .
, ,

R - , F(R)
.
.
.

,
:

8.1.2
. ,
, , , .

.
. , ,
,
. ,

157

-
.
.
, (. 8.4).

, .
, , 1-2 1-3.
-.
-, ,
1, .
:

. 8.4.

(1-2) , (1-3) , .
8.4. , N. (', ', ')

.
,
. ,
, (N).

158

, , ,
,
.
.
. .
-, .
S. - S
N .


S N
, |S|*|N| = 1.

,
. -. ,
Z
, Z
-

. , - S,
, - N.
.
- .
R. , . 8.5.

. 8.5. R1, S1 N1

159

R1, S1, N1.


,
, R1 + S1 = N1, N1 ,
y . N1
2cos . N1 N1,

cos . N S:

R1:

, ,
, .. R = S R1 , :

. R:


. K -, .
:

160

S, N R
( R ).
8.2

,
. ,
,
, . ,
.

. ,
,
,
.
,
,
. .
.
.
(. 8.6).

. 8.6.


.
,
.
()


(, , )
.
(. 8.7).

. 8.7.

161

I (X, ) ,

I1 I2

8.3
,
,
.
.
. .
.
. ()
. ,
, .

, (. 8.8).
.
.

162

. 8.8.

, .
.

.
.
, ( ),
, , .
8.4.
,
. ,
, , , . .
,
.
.
,
.

- DOT3. , (. 8.9).
,
? ,
,
.
,
.

. 8.9. DOT3 Bump Mapping

163

24-
RGB
UVN. UVN
(. 8.10).

. 8.10.

UVN U N ,
T YT, N .
L. , ,
, ,
L Nbump:
= ( ) x DOT3(L, Nbump)
D
(bot product) ( D ing).
,
L Nbump .
Nbump , L (
). , L
UVN.


.
.
, ,
( ).
1,
2. ,

n1sin 1 = n2 sin 2
164

n1 n2 .

. 8.11.

. 8.11 .
(,
). , 1 4, 2
3. , .
.
, . , ,
, , .
.
(, ).
,
. 1.00029, 1.33, :
1.52 ( ), 1.65 ( ).
, , .
(n1/2),
.
,
. , .
, .
8.5
(Ray Tracing)
.

. ,
,
, .

165

. 8.12. : , - , ,
, , - ,

? -, ,
. ,
, . ,
:
;
;
.

. 8.13. , -

.
, , ,
. ( )
(, ,
).
( ) (),
(), -. ()
.
.

,
(. 8.12 8.14).
,
.
,
.
,
.
, . 8.13.
166

,
, .

, , , ,
. ,
()
, ,
.

. 8.14. , -


.
,
, , , . ,
, , ,
.
, ,
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() .
.
,
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).
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. .

(
, ,
). , (
) .
, , , ,
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, .
,
.
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,
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167

. ,
.

,
, .

. 8.15.


.
.
, .
, ,
. . .
. , , ? , . - (,
, ), , ,
. , , .

. 80- ,
- . , ' .
, .
,
. ,
.
.
()
(. 8.15). .
,
.
, ,
.

168

. 8.16. ,

( ),
, , , .

.
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. "
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, ,
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( ,
),
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.
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, , (. 8.16).
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
, .
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
.
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169

,
,
, , ? ,
.
.
,
,
. .
1. ,
. ,
( ).
2.
.
3. , .
(reflection) ,
. r .
(Specular) .
,
(r). , .
.
4. .
. ,
, , ,
. .
5. (15()
.
, I .
6. ,
, (bient).
7.
, ,
.

I( ) = KaIa( )C( ) + KdId( )C( ) + KsIs( ) + KrIr( ) + KtIt( )


- ,
() - ,
, Kd, Ks, Kr t ,
, , ,
,
Ia - ,
Id - , ,
Is - , ,
Ir - , ,
It - , .
(1)
. .

170

I i ( ) cos

Id =

Ii() i-ro , i
i-vi .
:
I i ( ) cos p i
Id =
i

- ( ), i ( ) '-
.
(Ir),
(It), ,
, .
- d d - ,
,
, .
,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
, -.
.
. ,
, , , .
.

. ,
, . ,
, , ,

, . ,
, ,
.

. , , (. 8.17).
. ,
Y .
. .
, , (
), .

171

. 8.17. , : - ,

.
,
, , .
.
.
, , .
,
.
.

1. ,
. .
.
2.
. (
), .
, , .
3. ( ) ,
.
4.
,
() ().
5.
,
,
.

1.
2.
.
.

172

8.6

. ,
.

, - .
,
: "" "".
. "" ,
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) .
" ",
, , . ,
( ) -
(). , ""
, ,
: .
, :


,

(1825 .) (1834 .).
, , .
.
XX ( ),
.
.
:
( )
,
, - tween
). , .

, Blend (),
. ,
Macromedia Flash. Flash
. motion tween (
) shape tween ( ).
, , , , .
(motion path),
(easy in/easy out).


: 2D - D - . ,
, 2D-
D- . 2D-
, . ,
.
173

,
. .

. 2D-
. , ,
,
, .
3D-.

D-.
, , 20-,
D-.
.
- ( ),
, (
) .
.

, ,
, .
& D- - tweening -
(

). ,
, 2D- D-.
.

()
(, , ).
, , .

( , , ,
. .). ,
()
.
.
,
, , ,
.
(FFD free-form deformation),
. ,
- ,
, . ,
- ,

.
, , ,
,
. ,
, , . -,
,
, . .
174

, ,
(
). "
.
( , ,
, . .).
,
.
.
"" ,
( ) ,
. , ,
, , . "
" .
,
, , , , .
()

( , ). , ,

,
,
( ). ,
""
. (, ,
. .), .

. , ,
.
, ,
(tweening)
.
,
( ).
,
( ),
(,
).

( metamorphosing ).

()
()
. ,

, , . ,

.
, , ,
. ,
,
175


.
-
.
.
: , ,
. . ""
, .

,
"" (bones),
- "" (skeleton). ,
.
(. 8.18).
-
.

.
90 .
.
.

. ,
.
. 8.18
.

. 8.18.


. , , - ,
, , ,
(. 8.19).

176

() ( . 8.19
). i- :
(li) .
, ,
. ,
. ,

-
.
.

. ,
(i).

. 8.19.


, ,
.
(. 8.20).
(0, 0, z0)
( 0 ). (1)
( ).
, :
= R1 T1 R2 2 2,
2 ,
(2, y2, z2), , R1 R2
1 2, 1 T2 z .
.
= * P n ,
,
, .
:
i = 1,2, , n,

Mi = Mi-1 x Ri x Ti,
M1 = R1 x T1.
177

. 8.20. .

(
) ,
,
, . ,
i.
,
.
,
.
(, , ..),
( , . .).

. ,
,

.

( / ). ,
, (root)
, . ,
.
,

.
,
.
, , ,
.
(
vertex blending).
vertex
skinning .
vertex skinning , (
, , )
, , . ,
.
, skinning matrices.
.
, ,
178

.
( ) ,
, , .
, V
vertex blending :
V= V1 x k + V2 x (1-k),
V1 , V2 , k
0 1.
vertex skinning - vertex blending ,
(1,2):
V = V1 x M1 x k + V2 x M2 x (1-k).
ATI (matrix
skinning) RADEON.
, .. ""

, . -
, , (
). .
,
. -
, ,
. ,
, .
:
, ,
;

( ) ;
-,
.

. -
, . , ,
,
. ,
.
(Forward Kinematics)
, .
. (, )
(
), ,
-. , ,
, ,
.
-, .
() (Inverse
Kinematics) , ,
. ,
. (
179

), (, , ..)
. ,
: , , ,
..
, ,
( )
. . 8.21 ,
.

. 8.21. : , -


.

.
, , ,
, .
,
()
.
,
.
.
.
, , , ..
, ,
, .

(particle systems).
, "" : , , .
.
(particles)
( , ,
). , ,
- , ,
, , , ..
, RealSoft OY 3D RealSoft 4D : 1D, 2D, 3D, NURBS (NURBS Non Uniform Rational B-Spline - ), .
180

, , ,
.
, .
, , ,
.. ,
(, , ) .
, ,
.
, RealSoft 4D Envelope System ,

. ,
. NURBS 4D- ,

. (channel
animation) -
(). ,
,
,
. , ,
, (
) -,
, . ,
,
.
,
.

real tim e performance animation, ()
(Motion Capture), ,
.
.
,
. ,
.
,
,
.
.

181

9.

:
,
,
/,
.
, .
, , Unix, - Windows.
. 3D . 1980 2005 .
2 .
9.1

(3D , ) (
/, ).
:
32/64- ();
/ ;
, Z-;
32- ;
(FDDI, Ethernet Token Ring);
(IPI, SCSI);
16 256 ;
/ (VME, EISA, MCA)
;
;
, , ;
Unix, X Window, NFS, PHIGS, GKS, C, Fortran, TCP-IP,
, .
9.2

. 9.1.

BitBlt ;
- ;
, ,
.
9.3
1) , -
, .

182


(Intel, i82786);
2) -
(),
(National Smiconductor, DP 85xx);
3) - ,

(Texas Instruments, TMS 34010, TMS 34020 Intel, i860).
9.4 i82786

. 9.2. i82786

:
Intel,
, .
22- - 4 ,
16- ,
- 10 ,
- 25 ,
- 25 . /,
:
6404808 102410242,
- 40964096
:
,
,
,
,
.
,
. .
-. - 1/16 .

183

. 9.3.

9.5 ()
,
. , AGCS 85xx (Advanced
Graphics Chip Set) National Semiconductor :
DP-8500 - (RGP - Raster Graphics Processor),
DP-8510 (BPU - BitBlt Processing Unit),
DP-8512 - (VCG Video Clock Generator),
DP-8515 - (VSR - Video Shift Register).

184

. 9.4. AGCS 85xx

9.6 DP-8500

. 9.5. DP-8500

:
20 ,
100 ,
10 160 /,
, 28 , 16 ,
, 16 , 16 ,
,
,
,
185

, , ,
.
9.7
.
:
1. .
, , .
2. "" ,
( , , , ..) ..
,
, , (endpoint shape).
3.
, , .
.
.
4. ,
. (,
/ .)
-
, .
RISC i860
:
50 ;
- 40 MIPS 80 MFLOPS;
- 8, 16 32-
;
;
64-
;
- 8/16/32 ;
3D ;
Z-;
- 50000 /;
500 000 /.

186

. 9.6 . RISC

9.8

,
,
, .
:
(Silicon Graphics);
,
(Stardent);
() Silicon Graphics
(James Clark) 1981 . ,
3D .
. 1982 . Silicon Graphics, 1984 .
. . 1988 . SG
RISC- MIPS.

. 9.7 . Silicon Graphics

187

106 Z- .
- 20106 ./.
:
R, G, B - 8 ,
Z-,
R, G, B -,
,
( ,
/ ).

. 9.8. RISC- MIPS.

9.9 ()
,
( ,
..).

,
.
GS2000 Stardent.

188

. 9.9.

VFP (600 K 3D
), .
RP 80 /. (600
K 3D /, 10 160 K 100
c Z-).

189

10.

, ,
, .

. , , " ".

. -, -
, , ,
..; -,
- , , .

,
. ,
,
.
10.1 NGP (Network graphics rotocol)
ARPA
-
.

. 10.1

. 10.1.

,
,
,
.
/ ,
.

-
.
, ,
, -
. :
.
, (,
, ).
.
, .
, , ,
.
190

,
, , (/),
, , : 1)
, , ; 2)
,
"" .
, p
.

.
,
.
10.2

. 1974 .
GSPC /SIGGRAPH. 1975 .
- DIN-NI/UA-5.9. 1977 .
(ISO) TC97/SC5/WG2
" " .

(),
WG 5.2 IFIP 1976 .
. ,
- ,
(
), , - ,
. :
; ;
; .

,
(. 10.2).

. 10.2.


(. 10.3):
1. . -
,
,
() .
.
191

2. .
, , ..
, ,
, 0.0 1.0.
3. .
(
), ,
, .
4. . 3D 2D

. , 2D 3D
, .
, ,
.
- , .
5. .
-
.

.

.10.3.

. 10.4.
,
.
- IGES
.
- (GKS)
.
.
-
(CGI) /,
.
-.

192

. 10.4.

ISO, IEC

ISO (International Organization for Standartization)
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). 1987 .
(JTC1) ISO/IEC
. 24-
(ISO/IEC JTC1/SC24). 1988 .
. :
1. GKS (Graphical Kernel System) - 2D .
2. GKS-3D (Graphical Kernel System for 3 Dimensions) - GKS
3D.
3. PHIGS (Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System) -
3D GKS-3D, GKS-3D,
, ,
.
PHIGS ,
, .
4. (Language bindings) -

.
5. CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) - -
. ,
.
6. CGI (Computer Graphics Interafce) -
- -
.
7. CGRM (Computer Graphics Reference Model) -
,
.
8. -
, , escape- (
) .
9. -
: ,
,

.
24- 5 (WG):
193

WG1: . - CGRM -
.
WG2: .
.
WG3: .
, .
WG4: .
.
WG5: , .


.
10.3
. 10.4 ,
:
, ..
( ) - Core System, GKS, GKS-3D, PMIG, PHIGS,
PHIGS+ ..
( ) - IGES, CGM
.
,
,
, - - - CGM .
Core-System

CORE-SYSTEM (GSPC-77) ,
. 10.5. , CORE :
;
; - ,
, ,
; ,
; ,
;

.
: ;
; (, ,
..) (, , ..); ;
, , ,
, ; .
1979 . CORE-SYSTEM (GSPC79) . , ( )
. 266 ,
,
.

194

. 10.5. , CORE-SYSTEM

, ,
, ,
.
- , ,
. -.
:
, ,
,
;

-
, .
:
, .. ;
-
, .. ;
-
,
.

, , , , .

:
2D

2D
;
3D - 2D 3D .
GSPC
.
GKS (Graphical Kernel System)
GKS.
, , . 10.6. 1979 . GKS
.
GKS ,
CORE-SYSTEM,
.
,
/,
.
:
;
,
; ,
, ,
; , ,
.. ;
,
195

- , ,
;
.
, ,
.
- .
, GKS
/, CORE.
GKS CORE,
(; ; ;
, "" , , ,
; ,
; ,
).
CORE GKS ,
. GKS 2
. -
CORE, ,
.
-
.
, .
, ()
, , GKS, CORE,
, / .
GKS CORE, GKS

- -
().
,
GKS .

. 10.6. , GKS

GKS,
CORE, .
.
:
0: . .
, .
. - .
- .
196

1: . 0.
. .
.
. /
. / .
( ). .
2: - . 1.
.
:
A: .
B: . ,
(request).
C: . B.
(event sample).
1985 . GKS . 1988 .

GKS c Fortran, Pascal, Ada, C .
GKS-3D (Graphical Kernel System for Three Dimensions)
GKS-3D GKS 3D :
(9 );
);
GKS GKS-3D, .. 2D
, GKS, 3D
- .
1988 . GKS-3D .
1988 1990 . ISO 8806 GKS-3D
. 1991 .
.
PHIGS (Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System)

( , ,
, ,
..).
GKS GKS-3D
, ,
/
.
PHIGS

, .
PHIGS , GKS-3D
"annotation text relative" .
PHIGS GKS , PHIGS
-

197

(CSS - Centralized Structure Store)


.
.
CSS.
. 9
:
10.1. CSS

;
;
; ;
;
;
; ;
.
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" ,
.
"" ,
.
.
" "
.
" " .
.
PHIGS GKS-3D
" " (Execute Structure),
.
,
, .
,
" ".

.
,
.
, ,
.
PHIGS ,
GKS,
, , ,
.
PHIGS+
PHIGS+ - PHIGS,
, , (
),

.
1-3 PHIGS 4 .

" ",
.

198

" ".
, (
) (
).
,
, .
CGI (Computer Graphics Interface)
ISO -
( ) (). ( ANSI)
.

CGI -
:
,
,
,
,
,
.
CGI (
) :
, ,
, . CGI

. CGI
.
,

,
.
.
10.4

:
-
,
- ,
,
10.4.1 -
- ,
.
.

. ,
.
-
. ,
199


.
TEKTRONIX, REGIS HPGL.

.
TEKTRONIX
, .

TEKTRONIX'
.
(, VTERM, ST240, TEEMTALK)
IBM PC.
TEKTRONIX,
4010/12/14 41, 42, 43. 4010/12/14
.
TEKTRONIX 41XX

-
,

(hardcopy, , ).

( - Esc),
.
REGIS
VT (240 ).
LabTam
. REGIS
IBM PC (VTERM, ST240). REGIS
TEKTRONIX. ,
, ,
, ,
, .
HP-GL
HP-GL ( Graphic Language)
Hewlett Packard 1976 . ,
. HP-GL/2.
,
. 88 , 9
. 5 55 ,
. 3 33
. ,
, .
10.4.2
,
.
.
:
1. -
.

200

2. , ,
.
.
,
().
PostScript

PostScript , Adobe
,
-
.
PostScript -
. , ,
,
.
PostScript' ,
. (
) PostScript
.
, PostScript,
.

. -
,
(, ).
,

.
- , , ,
(, ).
. ,
, .
(, ,
)
LIFO.
:

;
, ,
;

(, , , ..);
, , ,
.
PostScript "-"

,
.
201

, PostScript,
Xerox ( Interpress) Imagen ( DDL).
PostScript Sun Microsystems
NEWS (the Network extensible Window System) .
PCL
Printer Communication Language (PCL)
Hewlett-Packard
. PCL5 64 ,
10 . Esc
( 01BH) .
, PCL,
, , PostScript,
.
10.4.3 -
-
.
,
(
)
. ,

.

- NAPLPS, GKSM, CGM WMF - Microsoft .
NAPLPS - North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax

VIDEOTEX ( - SET).
:
-
,
.
,
7- 8- ASCII.
,

.
GKSM - Graphical Kernel System Metafile
de-facto
GKS ( GKS).
GKS
. , ,
GKS.
GKSM- ( GKS) , ,
( 5),

202

.
ESCAPE-
( )
.
GKSM , (,
)
NAPLPS CGM.
CGM - Computer Graphics Metafile
ISO .
CGI (Computer Graphics
Interface),

.
CGM
.
CGM - ,
. ( NAPLPS)

.
.

.
.
DXF
AutoCad.
- , (
) .
,
Autocad.
WMF - Windows Metafile Format
Windows Microsoft
. WMF
- , ,
,
, .
GDI (Graphical Device
Interface) . - ,
(placeable) (clipboard).
. Windows
.
-
2- ,
3D
. ,
CGM
3D .

,

203

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247


1. . . , . . . . . :
. , 2004 . 812 . ISBN 5-94723-758-
2. . . The Complete Idiot's Guide ti Computer
Illustration. : The Complete Idiot's Guide. . ,
2007 .
3. . . , . . , . . . . 2 .
:

-,
2007
.
88 . ISBN 978-5-8199-0284-4, 978-5-16-002734-0
4. . . , . . .
. : . , 2008 . 288 .
5. . . , . . , . . .
. : . , 2008 .
512 . ISBN 978-5-91134-230-2
6. .., .. " :
". - .: "-", 1996 .
7. .., ... " ACAD 2004". .: "", 2005 .
8. ., . 3D Studio . - .:
"-", 2003 .

248

.. . , 2009. 247 .

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