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UMTS (WCDMA)

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Handover

UTRAN


1G

3G

2G

Global
GlobalDigital
Digital
Technology
Technology

IMT-2000
IMT-2000(ITU)
(ITU)

GSM,
GSM,
CDMA
CDMA(IS-95),
(IS-95),
D-AMPS
D-AMPS

UMTS
UMTS

(WCDMA,
(WCDMA,TDTDSCDMA),
SCDMA),

CDMA
CDMA2000
2000

1990

2000

CDMA
UMTS

Cdma2000-1X

TD-SCDMA

5MHz

1.25MHz

1.6MHz

cdma

cdma

TDMA+CDMA

FDD

TDD

1.2288Mcps

1.28Mcps

(GPS)

10ms

20ms

5ms

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

Handover

Soft handoverInter-freq
HandoverHandover
between GSM

Soft handoverInter-freq
HandoverHandover
between IS-95

Hard handover


FDD
- (hip rate) 3.84Mcps

RF )

,
,
1500Hz

,
, 800Hz

,
,
200Hz

WCDMA

R99

3GPP UMTS R5 3Q02


RAN WCDMA
PS GPRS
CS
TDM

3GPP UMTS R4 March01


3GPP UMTS R99 March00

R4

CS ,
IP

PS

R5

IMS
RANHSDPA,IP UTRAN
CN: IMS

RAN

CS

UMTS
UL:

1920-1980 MHz

DL:

2110-2170 MHz

2110

2170

FDD downlink
1900

1920

TDD

MSS
1980

FDD uplink

2200

2010

2025

MSS TDD

FDD:
TDD:
MSS:

UMTS
Operating Band

UL/DL Frequencies

Regions/Countries

I (2100M)

1920 1980 MHz / 2110 2170 MHz

Europe, Asia Pacific, Africa, etc.

II (1900M)

1850 1910 MHz / 1930 1990 MHz

North America, Latin America, etc.

III (1800M)

1710-1785 MHz / 1805-1880 MHz

Europe, Asia Pacific, Africa, etc.

IV (1700/2100M)

1710-1755 MHz / 2110-2155 MHz

USA

V (850M)

824 849 MHz / 869-894 MHz

North America, Latin America,


Australia, etc.

VI (800M)

830-840 MHz / 875-885 MHz

Japan

VII

2500 2570 MHz / 2620 2690 MHz

VIII (900M)

880 915 MHz / 925 960 MHz

Europe, Asia Pacific, Africa, etc.

IX (1700M)

1749.9 1784.9 MHz / 1844.9 - 1879.9 MHz

Japan

Handover

UTRAN

Po w e r

FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access


Ti m e

O n e U se r
Fr e q u e n cy

Po w e r

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

U se r

Ti m e

Fr e q u e n cy

Power

CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

Time
Carrier 1

Carrier 2

Frequency
One User

CDMA

Code 1
Code 2
Code 3

USER 1

Code 4

USER 2

Code 5

USER 3
USER 4

Power spectrum

USER 5

5 MHz

Spreading ()
S1

S1xC1

Spreading
W
S2

S2XC2
AirAir-IF

[S1xC1+S2xC2]xC1
=S1

(S1xC1)+(S2xC2)

De-spreading
[S1xC1+S2xC2]xC2
=S2

C1xC2=0,
C1,C2 -

Spreading & De-spreading


Spreading code

P(f)

P(f)

f
P(f)

Signal
Combination

P(f)

+
P(f)

Spreading code

Spreading
(CDMA 2000) (WCDMA)
: IS-95: 64; W-CDMA: 4 - 256
= SF spreading factor = Pg processing gain
(C0) .

Code length 8

Code length 4
Code length 2
Code length 1

+1

+1 +1
+1 -1

+1 +1
+1 -1

+1 +1
+1 -1

+1 +1
+1 -1

+1 +1
+1 -1

C0

+1 +1
+1 -1

-1 -1
-1 +1

+1 +1
+1 -1

-1 -1
-1 +1

C2

C1
C3
...

+1 +1
+1 -1

+1 +1
+1 -1

+1 +1
+1 -1

+1 +1
+1 -1

-1 -1
-1 +1

-1 -1
-1 +1

C4

+1 +1
+1 -1

-1 -1
-1 +1

+1 +1
+1 -1

-1 -1
-1 +1

-1 -1
-1 +1

+1 +1
+1 -1

C6

C5
C7


(Spreading Gain)
P

Processing Gain =

Processing
Gain

W
R

Despreading
W

Rb

Spreading Gain Pg=W/R (W=3.84Mchips/s)

-
- ,

Spreading&Scrambling

bits

(Channelization
Code)

chips

chips

QPSK

Power

+1
1 -1

T bit
Power

1/T bit

+1
2

-1
+1

3 -1

T
chip

Power

1/T chip

f
1/T chip

Spreading and Scrambling

Channelization codes

Scrambling codes

UL

Separation of physical data


(DPDCH) and
control channels (DPCCH)
from same terminal

Separation of terminal

DL

Separation of downlink
connections to different users
within one cell

Separation of sectors
(cells)

Number of codes

Number of codes under one


scrambling code
= Spreading Factor

UL: Several millions


DL: 512

Chip Rate, Symbol Rate, Data Rate


WCDMA:
3.84Mchips/s

(Interleaving )

(Spreading)

cdma2000:
1.2288Mchips/s

Data rate

Symbol rate

Chip rate

WCDMA: DL data rate=384kbps, symbol rate=960ksps,


chip rate=3.84Mcps

Transmitter

Receiving
Signal

RAKE

Correlator 1
Correlator 2

Combiner

Correlator 3

Searcher correlator
s(t)

s(t)

RAKE

RAKE

RX

Delay (n)

C(t-n)
Delay 1

n
D(t)

D(t)
TX

RX

Delay (1)

C(t-1)
C(t)

Delay 0

D(t)
RX

BTS

C(t-0)
0

Delay (0)

(+) D(t)

Handover

UTRAN


3
UMTS:

RLC (Radio Link Control)

Logical Channels
MAC (Medium Access Control)




( )

Transport Channels

Physical Channels

PHY
(PHYsical Layer)

Channel Mapping
Higher
Layer data
Logical
Channels
(Data
Dependent)

Paging
Paging

System
System
Info
Info

Signaling
Signaling

Cell
Cell
Broadcast
Broadcast
Service
Service

Signaling
Signaling
and
and
User
data
User data
DCCH

PCCH

BCCH

CCCH

CTCH

Decicated
Logical
Channel
CipherOn
{XOR}

Transport
Channels
(L1 Characteristics
Dependent)

Physical
Channels

PCH

S-CCPCH

BCH

P-CCPCH

FACH

RACH

DCH

PRACH

DPDCH

DTCH
DTCH
DTCH

Downlink Physical Channel

Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel


(Downlink DPCH)

Downlink Common Physical Channel


Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH)
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)
Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)

Downlink
Physical
Channel

Uplink Physical Channel

Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel


Uplink Dedicated Physical Data
Channel (Uplink DPDCH)
Uplink Dedicated Physical Control
Channel (Uplink DPCCH)

Uplink Common Physical Channel


Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)

Uplink
Physical
Channel


WCDMA


Common Channel

Dedicated Channel

OVSF

Ortogonal Variable
Spreading Factor

Shared Channel

DCH

FACH

RACH

CPCH

DSCH

DL&UL
Dedicated,
Variable

DL

UL

UL

DL

Dedicated Dedicated Dedicated

Shared

Low - High

Low

Low

Mid

Mid

Long

Short

Short

Short

Short

DL Power
Max Tx Power

DCH
reserved for
Soft handover

CPICH

DCH

Common Channel
Power

P-CPICH
Other Channel

Pcommon = PCPICH + max(PP-CCPCHPP-SCH + PS-SCH ) + PAICH + PPICH + PS-CCPCH


-


MS2

MS1
Node
B

WCDMA -
-.

- : Node B

, MS2
. MS1
.

Node B

Power Control
Open loop power control
Inner loop power control
Outer loop power control

Open Loop Power Control DPCH


OLPC
power

C OLPC

time

power




time

1
Node
B

1
Node
B


NodeB
.

NodeB
.



Inner Loop

Power down
SIR estimation

RNC

SIR
target

Node
B

Outer Loop

SIR
Power down
estimation

Power up
SIR
estimation

SIR estimation

Power ...
...

NodeB
SIR (signal-tointerference ratio).
RNC
SIR

SIRtarget

Handover

UTRAN

Handover
UMTS Carrier x
Inter-Frequency HHO

UMTS Carrier 1

Iur

SRNC

Iub
NodeB 2

Iub
NodeB 1

GSM/GPRS
DRNC

Iub

2G to 3G HHO

NodeB 3

BSC

Abis
BTS 1

Cell 2

Cell 3

Cell 1

Cell 4
Cell 1

Softer HO

Soft HO

Soft HO inter -RNC

3G to 2G HHO

Softer Handover
Soft Handover intra-RNC
2G to 3G HHO (PS)
2G to 3G HHO (CS)

Soft Handover inter-RNC


3G to 2G HHO (CS PS separated)
3G to 2G HHO (CS PS simultaneously)
Inter-Frequency HHO

Soft Handover
:
UL soft handover RNC
UL softer handover NodeB
DL soft handover UE

UE Combined Power

Soft Handover
C
A

C
A

B
C

C
A

C
A

A
B

,
call drop rate,

Soft Handover Measurement

Handover

UTRAN

UTRAN

Core Network (CS-Domain & PS-Domain)


Iu

Iu
Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)

Iur

RNC
Iub
Node B

RNS

RNC

Iub

Iub

Node B

Node B
Uu

UE

Iub
Node B

RNC
RRM
RAB

QoS
Parameters

Core
Network

Packet Switching

O&M
Iur

Packet
Distribution
Node B
(iBTS)
Traffic Functions

Iub

Iu

Node B
Baseband Processing

Call control

Overview

DDDDDDDD
12345678

Coding

DDDDDDDD
12345678

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interleaving
Cell Management CCH Management

DCH management

01

11

PC

QPSK
Measurement
Handover

Transmission

00

10
Modulation

00
2

00
2

10
4

10
4

01
7

01
7

11
3

11
3

Demodulation

synchronization

!
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