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2 [23-48], 4 [3-8]
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4. MATLAB?
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plus (M1, M2) ,
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6) all (M1) , .
4. .
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X.
2) factor(n) -,
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3) log (X) X.
4) mod(X, Y) x y, X
Y.
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5. .
1) cos(X) X.
2) acot (X) X.
3) tan(X) X.
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6. .
1) fix(A) ,
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2) floor(A) ,
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3) ceil (A) .
4) sign(X) Y , X,
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8. .
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3) union(a ,b) b
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9. .
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4) strrep(sl,s2,s3) s2,
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5) strncmp(S,T,n) ,
( n ) S
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5oc[49-52, 67-71, 294 -304]
2 [23-48], 4 [3-8]
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1. MATLAB?
2. MATLAB?
3. MATLAB?
4. MATLAB?
5. MATLAB?
3

MATLAB:
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plot (X, Y) - (), (, )
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2)
plot (Y) (i), Y,
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3)
plot (X,Y,S) plot(X,Y),
S;
4)
loglogx(...) ,
plot(...);
5)
semilogx(...)
( 10) X Y;
6)
semilogy(...)
Y X.
1 - .
X=[1 2 3 4 5 6]
Y=[10 3 7 18 4 20]
plot (X, Y)
2.

2 plot
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1)
bar (X, Y) - Y (
Y) ,
X,
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2)
bar (Y) - Y ,
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2 -
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bar ( rand (5, 7))
3.

3

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3 - 1000 :
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y=randn(1000,1)
hist(y, x)
4.

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4
MATLAB
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1) stairs(Y) Y;
2) stairs(X,Y) Y
,
X;
3) stairs(...,S) ,
, S.
4 - :
=[0 : 0.2 : 12]
y=sin(x)
stairs(y)
5.

5
:
1) pie(X)
X/ SUM(X), SUM(X) , SUM(X)<=1.0,
X ;

2) pie(X,EXPLODE) ,

EXPLODE,
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5 - ,
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=[1 9 3 4 8 12]
pie(X,[0 0 3 0 0 8])
6.

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5oc[157-212, 245 -278]
2 [112-124], 4 [8-24]
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1. MATLAB?
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4. MATLAB?
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4


z(x, ).
, .
X Y - .
meshgrid.
. meshgrid
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1) [X,Y] = meshgrid(x) [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,x);


2) [X,Y,Z] = meshgrid(x,y,z) ,

;
3) [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y) , ,
X Y,
.
X ; Y .
:
[X,Y] = meshgrid(l : 4, 13 : 17);
[X,Y] = meshgrid(-2 : .2 : 2, -2 : .2 : 2);
ndgrid meshgrid:
1) [1,2,,...]=ndgrid(xl,x2,x3....)
,
x1, x2, x3... 1, 2, ...,

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xi;
2) [XI,2....]=ndgrid(x) [XI,2....]=ndgrid(x,x,...).
ndgrid:
[1, 2] = ndgrid(-2 : .2 : 2, -2 : .2 : 2);
Z = XI .* (-1.^2 - 2.^2);
mesh(Z)
.
plot3(...) plot (...),
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:
1) plot3(x,y,z) , , z,
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2) plot3(X,Y,Z) X(i,:), Y(i,:) Z(i,:)
, X, Y Z ;
:
[X,Y]=meshgrid([-3 : 0.15 : 3]);
Z=X.^2+Y.^2;
plot3(X,Y,Z)

.
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1) mesh(X,Y,Z,C) Z(X,Y)
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mesh(x,y,Z), mesh(x,y,Z,C), mesh(Z)
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[X,Y]=meshgrid([-4:0,25:5]);
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mesh(X,Y,Z)
7.

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2) fill3(Xl,Yl,Zl,Cl,X2,Y2,Z2,C2,...)
.
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X=[6 5 7 3 5 4];
Y=[5 4 6 3 7 2];
Z=[4 3 2 1 6 8];
C=[1 2 3 4 5 6];
fill3(X,Y,Z,C)
8.
pie3:
pie3(...) ,
pie(...).

surf (X, Y, Z) surfl (X,Y,Z) :
1) [X,Y,Z]=cylinder(R,N) X, Y Z,
R N
surf(X.Y.Z);
2) [X,Y,Z]=cylinder(R) [X,Y,Z]=cylinder
N=20 R=[1 1];

3) [X,Y,Z]=sphere(N) X, Y Z (N+l)x(N+l)

;
4) [X,Y,Z]=sphere N=20.

8
:
[X,Y,Z]=cylinder(15, 40);
surf(X,Y,Z,X)
9.

9

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( ) :
1) trimesh(TRI,X,Y,Z,C)
, TRI,

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;

2) trimesh(TRI,X,Y,Z) ,

C=Z, . . , ;
,
:
= rand(1,40);
= rand(1,40);
z = sin(x.*y);
tri = delaunay(x,y);
trimesh(tri,x,y,z)

Edit Plot ( ) -.
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MATLAB.
: Figure
Properties ( ) Axis Properties ( )
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MATLAB
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. RGB MAP ,
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0.0 1.0. , [0 0 0] , [1 1 1] , [0 0 1]
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RGB.
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- title('string')
, 'string';
- xlabel('String'), ylabel('String'), zlabel('String')
, z;
- text(X,Y, 'string') ,
'string',
(X, Y), X Y ,
[x(i) ,y(i)];
- text(X,Y, Z, 'string') ;

- gtext('string')
'string'
; ,
;
- gtext()
;
- legend(stringl, string2, strings,...)
, ;
- legend () , ;
- legend OFF ;
- axis([XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX])
;
- axis([XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX ZMIN ZMAX])
, z ;
- axis auto ;
- grid on ;
- grid off ;
- zoom
;
- zoom (FACTOR)
FACTOR;
- zoom on
;
- zoom off
;
- colormap('default') ,
;
- colormap(MAP) RGB, MAP;
- shading flat
;
- shading interp ;
- shading faceted (
).
:
[X,Y]=meshgrid([-3 : 0.1 : 3]);
Z=sin(X)./(X.^2+Y.^2+0.3);
surfl(X,Y,Z)
colorbar
colormap(gray)
shading interp
xlabel('Axis X')
ylabel('Axis Y')

zlabel('Axis Z')
title('My graphic')
(-4, 0.7):
=10 : 0.1 : 10;
plot(x,sin(x).^3)
text(-4,0.7,'Graphic sin(x)^3')
5oc[157-212, 245 -278]
2 [112-124], 4 [8-24]
:
1. MATLAB?
2.
MATLAB?
3.
MATLAB?
4. MATLAB?
5. MATLAB?
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5oc[56-60, 467-491]
2 [135-144], 4 [3-8]
:
1. MATLAB?
2. MATLAB?
3. MATLAB?
4. MATLAB?
5. MATLAB?

6


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5) min(A) , ,
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6) min(A,B) , ,

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7) min(A,[ ],dim)
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1) mean ()
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2) mean(A,dim)
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3) median (A) , , -
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5) std(X) , X

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6) std(X,flag) , std(X), flag=0,
flag=l, (
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7) std(X,flag,dim)
dim.
:
A=[1 50 100];
mean(A) = 50.3333;
median(A) = 50;
std(A) = 49.5008

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S(i,j)=C(i,j)/sqrt(C(i,i)C(j,j));
2) S = corrcoef (,) f([ ]),
-;

cov(x) ,
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;
4) diag(cov(x)) ;
5) sqrt(diag(cov(x))) ;
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5oc[56-60, 467-491]
2 [135-144], 4 [3-8]
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1. MATLAB?
2.
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4. MATLAB?
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ann|

D 0, (1)
. :
x1= D1/D, x2= D2/D, ... , xn=Dn/D.
D = 0, (1) .

.
,
n ,

n+1. (2) , n!
, n .
n (n+1)n! n!-1 , ..
:
N=(n+1)(n*n!-1)+n .

, .

MATLAB .
MATLAB:
1) =/;
2) =*^(-1);
3) X=B*inv(A).
.
:
4 x1 + 5 x 2 + 6 x 3 = 31
4 x1 + 4 x 2 + 5 x3 = 37
3 x1 + 3 x 2 + 4 x3 = 41

A B:
A = [4 4 3; 5 4 3; 6 5 4];
B = [31 37 41];
1) 1=/; X1 = [2.0000 -59.0000 53.0000];
2) 2=*^(-1); X2 = [2.0000 -59.0000 53.0000];
3) X3=B*inv(A); X3 = [2.0000 -59.0000 53.0000].
MATLAB ,
, .
,
( , ,
), .
,
:
1) X =lscov(A,B,V) X *= + ,
, V;
;
, > ;
: (AX-B)'*inv(V)*(AX - B);
X=inv(A'* inv(V)*A)*A'*inv(V)*B, , ,
, V ;
2) [X, dX] = lscov(A,B,V) X,
dX;
3) X =isqnonneg(A,B) =
,
, .

,
.
,
.
, . . ,
,
.
MATLAB
:
1) lsqr(A, ) X *= ,
, ,
.
m n, -
m. m >= n
. lsqr ,
, .
,
, (
min(20, m, n) 20, ,
). ,
norm(B - AX)/norm(B) <= tol ( 1-6);
2) lsqr(A, B, tol) (
) tol.
3) lsqr(A, b, tol, maxit)
maxit , , ,
.
.
:
3 x1 + 4 x2 = 10
x1 + 2 x2 = 15
7 x1 + 5 x2 = 3

A = [3 4; 1 2; 7 5];
B = [10; 15; 3];
V = [0.4 0.1 0.5; 0.3 -0.2 0.5; 0.7 0.3 0.1];
X = lscov(A, B, V) X = [-3.3272 4.2531];
X1 = lsqnonneg(A, B) X1 = [0.0000 1.8889].
.
:
x3 + 2 x4 = 11
x1 + 3 x2 = 7
x2 + x4 = 6
x1 + x3 = 4

=[0 0 1 2; 1 3 0 0; 0 1 0 1; 1 0 1 0];
=[11; 7; 6; 4];
lsqr(A, B, le-6.5)
lsqr converged at iteration 5 to a solution with relative residual 1.9e-013
ans = 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000

big(a,b). :
x1 + 2 x2 + 3x3 + 4 x4 = 4

5 x1 + 2 x2 + x3 + 3x4 = 6
4 x1 + 5 x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 8
x1 + 9 x2 + 7 x3 + 3x4 = 5

:
a=[1 2 3 4; 5 2 1 3 ; 4 5 1 2; 1 9 7 3];
b=[4; 6; 8 ; 5];
bicg(a,b)
bicg converged at iteration 4 to a solution with relative residual 9.9e-015
ans = 0.1278
1.2026
-1.4846
1.4802
1oc[48-79,161-185,190-195], 2oc[92-161,169-185], 5 [366-378]
1 [18-42,74-78,106-116], 3 [5-66] , 4 [24-31]
:
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. MATLAB?
5. MATLAB ?
11


f(x) = 0 f1(x) = f2(x). f(x) =f1() f2() = 0. ,
f(x) ,
. ()
.
MATLAB .

, @,
: fe=@exp.

, , sin(x)
(), , , f(x), m-.
MATLAB, ,
:
- fzero(@fun, x) ,
fun, ,
, ,
, NaN, ;
- fzero(@fun,[xl
x2]) , fun(x)=0
x=[xl 2], ,
fun(x(1)) fun(x(2)); ,
; fzero , fzero
, , fun ;
- fzero(@fun,x, tol) tol.
fzero ,
fun , .
fzero
: ,
.
cos(x)=0:
= fzero(@cos, [1 3])
x = 1.5708
fun1.
m- fun1.m :
function f = funl(x)
f = 0.25*x + sin(x) - l;

( 10):
= 0 : 0.1 : 10;
plot(x, funl(x));
grid on;
, [0.5 1],
[2 3] [5 6]. , fzero:
xl = fzero(@funl, [0.5 1])
x1 = 0.8905
x2 = fzero(@funl, [2 3])
x2 = 2.8500
x3 = fzero(@funl,[5 6])
x3 = 5.8128
x3 = fzero(@funl, 5, 0.001)
x3 = 5.8111

10 funl
1oc[48-79,161-185,190-195], 2oc[92-161,169-185], 5 [366-378]
1 [18-42,74-78,106-116], 3 [5-66] , 4 [24-31]
:
1. ?
2. MATLAB
?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
12


f(x) 1 2.
: ,
, .

. .


,

, .
,
, ..
.

, ,

, a < x1 < x 2 < b . ,


11.

11


,
(). , ,
:
1
2.
, [a, b]

.
( , ,
).
. ,
:

. ,
[a, b].
, ,
.
, .. ,

. 12.

[a, b],
1
2.
(
1

2). , ,
, , ,
, .
,
.
.

12
fminbnd MATLAB

.
:
- fminbnd (@fun,xl,x2) ,
fun(x) xl < x < x2;
- fminbnd (@fun,xl,x2,options) ,
tolX (), maxfuneval , maxiter (
), display options,
optimset.
f(x).
m-:
function y = f(x)
y=x.^3 - 2*x - 5;
( 13):
= 0 : 0.2 : 2;
plot(x, f(x));
grid on;
x :
x = fminbnd(@fun, 0, 2)
x = 0.8165
y = f(x)
y = - 6.0887
1oc[48-79,161-185,190-195], 2oc[92-161,169-185], 5 [366-378]
1 [18-42,74-78,106-116], 3 [5-66] , 4 [24-31]
:
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?

4. MATLAB ?
5. MATLAB?

13 f(x)
13


b

I = f ( x )dx
a

f [a, b] .
:
,
,
.

. f C 2 [0, h]. .
h

f ( x)dx h
0

f 0 = f (0), f1 = f (h), ..

f ( x)dx

f 0 + f1
,
2

, 14.
:
b

f0

f ( x)dx h( 2
a

+ f1 + f 2 + K + f N -1 +

fN
) ,
2

h - , N [a, b], f i -
i- .

14 -
MATLAB
.
- trapz(Y) ,
. Y ,
trapz(Y) Y, Y ,
trapz(Y) -,
;
- trapz(X,Y) Y X,
(
X);
- trapz(...,dim)
dim;
- cumtrapz(Y)
, Y
, (
). , , ,
.
,
Y.
, Y,
Y;
- cumtrapz(X, Y) Y
X, . X Y
X -, a Y
;
- cumtrapz(...,dim)
, dim. X
size(Y.dim).
trapz:
trapz(cos(x), 2)
ans =
- 0.6410
0.4369

- 0.2241
quad:
F = inline('1./(x.^3 - 2*x - 5)');
Q = quad(F, 0, 2)
Q = - 0.4605
1oc[48-79,161-185,190-195], 2oc[92-161,169-185], 5 [366-378]
1 [18-42,74-78,106-116], 3 [5-66] , 4 [24-31]
:
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. MATLAB
?
5. MATLAB
?
14

()
,
y=y(x). :
F(x,y,y, ,y ( n) )=0,
(1)
x .
n
.
:
F(x, y, y) = 0,
F(x, y, y, y) = 0.
(1) y=(x),
.

:
y=(x, C).

: , ,

, , .

.


, .

, .


,
. (, )
, .
.

.
.
.
.
,
-, , .
MATLAB .
. solver
() :
ode45, ode23, ode113, ode15s, ode23s, ode23t , ode23tb, bvp4c pdepe.

:
- ode45 - 4- 5- .
, .
;
- ode23 - 2- 4- .

. ;
- ode113 --
,
;
- ode23tb - ,
2- .
.
-, :
y1=y 2 ,
y2 =1000(1-y 12 )y 2 -y 1 ,
y 1 (0)=0, y 2 (0)=1.
m-:
function dy = vdp1000(t,y)
dy = zeros(2,1);
dy(1) = y(2);
dy(2) = 1000*(1 - y(1)^2)*y(2) - y(1);
ode15s
( 15) MATLAB:

[T,Y] = ode15s(@vdp1000,[0 3000],[2 0]);


plot(T,Y(:,1),'-o')

15 --
:
dx
= 2y ;
dt

dy
= 2z ;
dt

dz
= 2x;
dt

m-:
function f = rrr(t,y)
f=zeros(3,1);
f(1)=2*y(2);
f(2)=2*y(3);
f(3)=2*y(1);
ode23t
( 16) MATLAB:
options = odeset('RelTol', 1e-4, 'AbsTol', [1e-4 1e-4 1e-5]);
[T,Y] = ode23t(@rrr, [0 12], [0 5 5], options);
plot(T, Y, '+')

16
1oc[214-235], 2oc[36-49,205-226], 5 [386-395]
1 [149-154], 3 [47-66]
:
1. ?

2.
3.
4.
5.

?
MATLAB?
MATLAB ?
MATLAB?

15

( ) n- x
:
a0xn + a1xn-1 + + an-1x + an,
,
a0, a1,, an-1, an - ,
, ,
a0 .
f(x) g(x) (
):
f(x) = g(x),
,
. , ,
, . ,
,
. , n-
,
a0, a1,, an-1, an, a0 0.
n- n
( , , .. ).
f(x) g(x) ,
x:
f(x) = a0+a1x++an-1xn-1+anxn, an0,
g(x) = b0+b1x++bs-1xs-1+bsxs, bs0,
, , n s,
f(x) + g(x) = c0+c1x ++ cn-1xn-1 + cnxn,
,
f(x) g(x), , ..
ci = ai + bi, i=0, 1,, n,
n>s bs+1, bs+2,,bn .
n, n , s, n=s
n, bn= an.
f(x) g(x)
f(x) * g(x) = d0 + d1x ++ dn+s-1xn+s-1 + dn+sxn+s,
, :
d i = a k bk , i=0, 1, , n+s-1, n+s,
k +i = i

.. di
f(x) g(x), i,
. :
d0 = a0b0,, d1 = a0b1 + a1b0,, , dn+s = anbs.
dn+s0,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
MATLAB :
() = ^n + x-1x^n -1+ ... + 2x^2 + 1^ + 0,
MATLAB :
- poly(A) x -

n+1,

det(A-sI), I , a s
;
- poly(r) r - r ,
,
. roots(r) ,
, , poly (r).
- roots () -,
.
- polyval (p,x) , ,
. ,
,
. polyval
.
:
x=7x3 + 45x2 + 12x + 23
MATLAB :
x=[7, 45, 12, 23];
d=roots(x)
d=
- 6.2382
- 0.0952 + 0.7195i
- 0.0952 - 0.7195i
:
B=Poly (d)
B=
1.0000 6.4286 1.7143 3.2857
,
7:

B*7
ans =
7.0000 45.0000 12.0000 23.0000
.
1oc[214-235], 2oc[36-49,205-226], 5 [386-395]
1 [149-154], 3 [47-66]
:
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. MATLAB?
5. MATLAB ?
2.3
1
: (2).
: MATLAB,

.
: .
MATLAB ,
, .
, ,
. , =1, , X
, 1.
, ,
.
:
V=[l 3 12 4 23]

, .
,
ENTER.
:
- ;
-
; ( );
- ,
MATLAB ans;
- = ();
- ,
;

- cl
.
- home .
.
2+3
ans = 5
sin(l)
ans = 0.8415
:
1) a+cos(x); 2) 2.301*sin(x);
3) 4+(3)/5; 4) sqrt(y)/2; 5) sin(pi/2) .

:
1) 0; 2) 2; 3) 3; 4) 2.301; 4) 0.00001; 5) 123.456-24; 6) -234.45610 .
.
,
. (, 1, -2 1.23)
. MATLAB
. ,
MATLAB, :
- i j ( -1);
- pi p 3.1415926...;
- eps ( 2 -52 );
- realmin ( 2 -1022 );
- realmax ( 21023 );
- inf ;
- ans , ;
- NaN (Not-a-Number).
,
, : 'Hello my friend!', '',
'2+3' .
, .

, .
:
_ =
.
, . ,
,
. ,
(workspace).
clear :
- clear ;
- clear x ;

- clear a, b, .

(). ,
+, -, * , /,
^. ,
. ,
, \ , .* ./

. ,
help ops.
:
Vl=[2 4 6 8];
V2=[l 2 3 4];
V1/V2
ans = 2
V1.*V2
ans = 2 8 18 32
V1./V2
ans = 2 2 2 2
: (),

:
_ : : _
,
,
. ,
1.
:
1: 5
ans =1 2 3 4 5
i=0 : 2 : 10
i = 0 2 4 6 8 10
j=10 : -2 : 2
j =10 8 6 4 2
V=0 : pi/2 : 2*pi;
.
; ( ).
:
=[1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9]
M= 1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9


, , :
V= [2+2/(3+4) exp(5) sqrt(l0)]
V = 2.2857 148.4132 3.1623

V(1) M(i, j). :
(2, 2) ans = 5
(2, 2) 10, :
(2,2)=10
(i) ,
. ,
.
:
X = [2 3 7 5; 8 1 9 2; -3 6 4 8; 1 5 6 3];
Z = [11 2 3 ; -4 5 10 3; 1 8 11 -9; 4 5 2 9];
X-Z
X.*Z
X .+ Z
Z.^3
.
, magic(n) x ,
,
:
M=magic(4) M = 16 2 3 13
5 11 10 8
9 7 6 12
4 14 15 1
sum(M) ,
diag(M) . :
sum(M) ans = 34 34 34 34
sum(diag(M)) ans = 34
' , . .
.
.
[ ].
, ,
:
(: , 2) = [ ]
(2 , :) = [ ]
MATLAB
, .
.mat.
save:

- save fname
fname.mat;
- save fname X X;
- save fname X Y Z X, Y Z.
exit,
quit (
finish.m)
Ctrl+Q. load
,
.
:
1) MATLAB ;
2)
;
3)
;
4) , ;
5) , ;
6) , ,
, ;
7) ,
;
8) .
5 [56-71]
2 [12-43], 4 [3-8]
:
1. MATLAB?
2. MATLAB?
3. MATLAB?
4. MATLAB?
5. MATLAB?
2
: (2.).
: MATLAB
, , .
: MATLAB.
MATLAB
. : ,
, , , , ,
, , .

1
.
.
1
MATLAB
-


plus
+
1+2
plus(M1,M2)
uplus
+
+
uplus(M1)
minus
-
1-2
minus(M1,M2)
uminus
-
-
uminus(M1)
mtimes
*
1*2
Uminus(M1)
times
.* 1*2
times(A1,A2)

mpower
^ 1^
mpower(M1,x)

power
.^
1^
power(A1,x)

mldivide
\ ( ) M1\M2
mldivide(M1,M2)

mrdivide
/ 1/2
mrdivide(M1,M2)

ldivide
. \
1.\2
ldivide(A1,A2)

rdivide
. /
1 . /2
rdivide(A1,A2)

: =[1 2 3]; =[2 4 9];
power(A,2) ans = 1 4 9
minus (,) ans = 1 2 6
rdivide (,) ans = 2 2 3
,
( 2).
1
(True), , 0 (False) .
,
- .

.
: =[1 2 3]; =[4 2 9];
eq(A,b) ans = 0 1 0
ge (,) ans = 1 1 1

2
MATLAB


eq
==

x==y
eq(x,y)
ne
~=
He
x~=y
ne(x,y)
lt
<

x<y
lt(x,y)
gt
>

x>y
gt(x,y)
le
<=

x<=y
le(x,y)
ge
>=

x>=y
ge(x,y)

( 3).
3
MATLAB

and
&

and(x,y)
or
|

or(x,y)
not
~

not(x)
x

xor(x,y)
any
,
any(x)

all
,
all(x)

.
M1=[1 0 1];
M2=[1 1 0];
and (M1, M2) [1 0 0]
or (M1, M2) [1 1 1]
not (M1) [0 1 0]
xor (M1, M2) [0 1 1]
any (M1) 1
all (M1) 0
MATLAB
( ) :
- abs(X)
X;
- () X;
- factor(n) -,
n ( );
- G=gcd(A, ) ,
;
- lcm(A,B)
,

(
).
- log (X), log2(X), log10(X) ,
2 10 X.
- mod(X, Y) X Y, X Y
(. ., X - Y.*floor(X./Y)) Y, X ;
- pow2(Y) X, 2Y;
- primes(n) - ,
n;
- sqrt(A) X.
: =[1 3 5 4]; =[2 4 6 2];
lcm(,) ans = 2 12 30 4
=mod(16,7) = 2
MATLAB
,
. :
- acos (X) X,
X [-1, 1] acos(X)
[0, p], X [-1,
1] acos(X) ;
- acot (X) X;
- acsc(X) X;
- asec(X) X;
- asin(X) X, X
[-1, 1] asin(X) [p/2, p/2], X [-1, 1] asin(X)
;
- atan(X) X,
X atan(X) [-p/2, p/2];
- cos(X) X;
- cot(X) X;
- csc(X) X;
- sec(X) X;
- sin(X) X;
- tan(X) X.

( 2).
:
=[1/3 2/3; 4.99 5.01];
B=fix(A) B=[0 0; 4 5]
MATLAB :

- calendar(d) , ,
d ( );
- calendar 6x7,
, ( )
;
- calendar(Y,M) , M,
, Y;
- clock 6 ,
[ ];
- str = date , --
(--).
- datenum ,
(01.01.00);
- datenum(str) , str,
, : 0, 1, 2, 6, 13, 14,
15 16, datestr;
- datenum(Y,M,D)
Y, D (, , ),
;
- datenum(Y,M,D,H,MI,S)
Y, , D, H, MI S (, , ,
, , );
- datestr(D, dateform)
D , dateform
4;
- datevec(A) n6,
[Y,M,D,H,MI,S],
,
, datestr,
, datenum now;
- [Y, M, D, H, MI, S] = datevec (A)
;
- eomday (Y, ) ,
Y (
);
- etime(t2,tl) ( ),
t1 t2. ,
clock: = [ ].
- now ,
rem(now, l) , a floor(now) ;
- tic ;

[N,S] = weekday(D) N
S D.
.
datestr(12034, 2) 12/11/32
datestr(12034, 8) sat
datestr(12034, 12) Dec32
4

Dateform Dateform ()

()
0
'dd-rmiM-yyyy HH:MM:SS'
1l-Mar-1995 03:45
1
'dd-mmM-yyyy'
Ol-Mar-1995
2
'mm/dd/yy'
03/01/95
3
' mmm '
Mar
4
'm'
M
5
'mm'
3
6
'mm/dd'
03/01
7
'dd'
1
8
'ddd'
Wed
9
'd'
W
10
''
1995
11
''
95
12
' mmmyy'
Mar95
13
'HH:MM:SS'
15:45:17

MATLAB ,
,
. ,
- =(:) =(:).
:
- intersect(A, B) (
A B), ;
- intersect(A, B, 'rows') , ;
- [c,ia,ib] = intersect(A, B) - ia
ib, , = (ia) = (ib);
- ismember(, S) , ,
,
S,
, S;
- ismember (, S, 'rows') ,
, S,

, S
;
- setdiff(A, B) , . ., ,
,
;
- setdiff(A, B, 'rows') ,
,
;
- setxor(A, B) ,
;
- setxor(A, B, 'rows') ,
,
;
- union(A, B)
,
;
- union(A, B, 'rows') ,
( );
- unique() ,
, ;
- unique(, 'rows') .
.
1) A=[1 2 3 4];
B=[2 5 7 3];
intersect(A, B) 2 3
2) setdiff(A, B) 1 4

, , . .
MATLAB :
- findstr(strl,str2)
,

;
- lower(str) str,
;
- upper(str) str,
;
- strcat(sl,s2,s3,...)

s1, s2, s3 . .
() ,
(
);
- strvcat(t1,t2,t3....) tl, t2, t3,..
S;

- strcmp( str1, str2) ,


str1 str2 ,
;
- strncmp(str1, str2, n) ,
strl str2 n ,
. strl str2
;
- strrep(strl,str2,str3) str2,
str1, str3;
- strtok(str, delimiter) str,
delimiter, -
, delimiter ;
- strtok(str) - (
), -
( 9), ( 13) (
32).
.
1) s1=;
s2=; findstr(sl, s2) 1 ;
2) lower(s1) ;
3) strrep(sl, s2, )
.
:
1) : , ,
, , , ,
, , ;
2) ,
, , ;
3) .
5 [245-276]
2 [56-78], 4 [8-15]
:
1)
MATLAB?
2)
MATLAB?
3)
MATLAB?
4)

MATLAB?
5)
MATLAB?
3
: (2 .).
:
MATLAB, .

:
MATLAB.
MATLAB
.

. ,

,
.
,
, :
- plot (X, Y) Y(X),
Y X; X Y ,
,
;
- plot(Y) , Y, a i
;
- plot(X,Y,S) plot(X,Y),
S,
5;
- loglogx(...) ,
plot(...);
- semilogx(...)
( 10) X Y;
- semilogy(...)
Y X.
1. X=[1 2 3 4 5 6]; Y=[10 3 7 18 4 20];
plot (X, Y)
2.
,
,
. :
- bar(x, Y) Y (
Y) ,
,
;
- bar(Y) Y ,
, = 1: m;
o bar(Y,WIDTH) ,
( WIDTH > 1
), WIDTH = 0.8.
2. bar ( rand (5, 7)) .
3.

5
S



Y-
. -
- ()
- 0 -
; ( )
-
X -
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R-
+ -
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H

Y
. :
- N=hist(Y) 10 ,
; Y ,
;
- N=hist(Y,M) ,
( );
- N=hist(Y,X) Y
, X;
- [N,X]=HIST(...)
.
3: 1000 ( 4):
=-3 : 0.2 : 3;
y=randn(1000,1);
hist(y, x)

, (). ,
, (),
.

. MATLAB
:
- stairs(Y) Y;
- stairs(X,Y) Y
,
X;

stairs(...,S) ,
, S.
4: ( 5):
=[0 : 0.2 : 12];
y=sin(x);
stairs(y)
:
- pie(X)
X/ SUM(X), SUM(X) , SUM(X)<=1.0,
X ;
- pie(X,EXPLODE) ,
EXPLODE,
, X.
5: ,
( 6):
=[1 9 3 4 8 12];
pie(X,[0 0 3 0 0 8])
:
, ,
, , ,
, .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
5 [157-165, 175-187]
2 [34-51, 116-134], 4 [15-24]
:
1. MATLAB?
2. MATLAB?
3. MATLAB?
4. MATLAB?
5. MATLAB?
-

4
: (2 .).
:
MATLAB,
.
:
MATLAB.

.
z(x,).
(
), X Y .
meshgrid,
.
meshgrid :
- [X,Y] = meshgrid(x) [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,x);
- [X,Y,Z] = meshgrid(x,y,z) ,

;
- [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y) , ,
X Y,
,
X , Y .
:
[X,Y] = meshgrid(l : 4, 13 : 17);
[X,Y] = meshgrid(-2 : .2 : 2, -2 : .2 : 2);
ndgrid meshgrid:
- [1,2,,...]=ndgrid(xl,x2,x3....)
,
x1, x2, x3... 1, 2, ...,

, i- i
xi;
- [XI,2....]=ndgrid(x) [XI,2....]=ndgrid(x,x,...).
ndgrid:
[1, 2] = ndgrid(-2 : .2 : 2, -2 : .2 : 2);
Z = XI .* (-1.^2 - 2.^2);
mesh(Z)
plot3(...) plot (...),
z(x, ).
:
- plot3(x,y,z) , , z,
;
- plot3(X,Y,Z) X(i,:), Y(i,:) Z(i,:)
, X, Y Z .
:
[X,Y]=meshgrid([-3 : 0.15 : 3]);
Z=X.^2+Y.^2;
plot3(X,Y,Z)

.
:

mesh(X,Y,Z,C) Z(X,Y)
, ;
- mesh(X,Y,Z) C=Z,
, .
mesh(x,y,Z), mesh(x,y,Z,C), mesh(Z)
mesh(Z,C).
( 7):
[X,Y]=meshgrid([-4:0,25:5]);
Z=X.^2 + Y.^2;
mesh(X,Y,Z)
, ,
fill3:
- fill3(X,Y,Z,C)
, X, Y Z, ,
;
- fill3(Xl,Yl,Zl,Cl,X2,Y2,Z2,C2,...)
.
( 8):
X=[6 5 7 3 5 4];
Y=[5 4 6 3 7 2];
Z=[4 3 2 1 6 8];
C=[1 2 3 4 5 6];
fill3(X,Y,Z,C)
pie3:
- pie3(...) ,
pie(...).

surf (X, Y, Z) surfl (X,Y,Z) :
- [X,Y,Z]=cylinder(R,N) X, Y Z,
R N
surf(X.Y.Z);
- [X,Y,Z]=cylinder(R) [X,Y,Z]=cylinder
N=20 R=[1 1];
- [X,Y,Z]=sphere(N) X, Y Z (N+l)x(N+l)
;
- [X,Y,Z]=sphere N=20.
( 9):
[X,Y,Z]=cylinder(15, 40);
surf(X,Y,Z,X)
:
[X,Y,Z]=sphere(30);
surfl(X,Y,Z)
-


.
( ) :
- trimesh(TRI,X,Y,Z,C)
, TRI,

,
X, Y, Z, ;
- trimesh(TRI,X,Y,Z) , C=Z,
. . , ;
,
:
= rand(1,40):
= rand(1,40):
z = sin(x.*y);
tri = delaunay(x,y);
trimesh(tri,x,y,z)

Edit Plot ( ) -.
,
. MATLAB
,
.
, , , . .

.
MATLAB.
: Figure
Properties ( ) Axis Properties ( )
.
MATLAB
,
.
. RGB MAP ,
(red), (green)
(blue) .
0.0 1.0. , [0 0 0] , [1 1 1] , [0 0 1]
.
. ,
RGB.
4.
:
[X,Y]=meshgrid([-3 : 0.1 : 3]);

Z=sin(X)./(X.^2+Y.^2+0.3);
surfl(X,Y,Z)
colorbar
colormap(gray)
shading interp
xlabel('Axis X')
ylabel('Axis Y')
zlabel('Axis Z')
title('My graphic')
(-4, 0.7):
=10 : 0.1 : 10;
plot(x,sin(x).^3)
text(-4,0.7,'Graphic sin(x)^3')
help graphSd
, MATLAB:
- hsv ;
- hot , , ;
- gray ;
- bone ;
- copper ;
- pink ;
- white ;
- flag , , ;
- lines ;
- colorcube RGB;
- jet HSV;
- prism ;
- cool ;
- autumn ;
- spring ;
- winter ;
- summer .

,
.
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
5 [157-165, 175-187]
2 [34-51, 116-134], 4 [15-24]
:

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

MATLAB?
MATLAB?
MATLAB?
MATLAB?
MATLAB?

5
: (2 .).
:
MATLAB.
:
MATLAB.

,

,
, .
MATLAB
():
- m() , ,
-, ,
;
- m(,) , ,
;
- max(A,[ ],dim)
dim: dim=1
, dim=2 ;
- [C,I] =max(A)
I ;
- min(A) , ,
-,
, ;
- min(A,B) , ,
;
- min(A,[ ],dim)
dim;
- [C,I] = min(A)
.

, ( )
:
- mean ()
, , -,

,
( ,
);
- mean(A,dim)
dim;
- median (A) , , -
, ;
- median(A,dim)
dim;
- std(X) , X
, -,
, X ;
- std(X,flag) , std(X), flag=0,
flag=l, (
);
- std(X,flag,dim)
dim.
: A=[1 50 100];
mean(A) = 50.3333;
median(A) = 50;
std(A) = 49.5008

, .
.
( 6).
,
.
.
.
MATLAB
:
- corrcoef(X)
, ,
, S=corrcoef(X)
C=cov(X) :
S(i,j)=C(i,j)/sqrt(C(i,i)C(j,j));
- S = corrcoef (,) f([ ]), ;
- cov(x) ,
, ,
;
- diag(cov(x)) ;

- sqrt(diag(cov(x))) ;
- = cov(x,y) cov([x ]), -
.
:
D=[2 -3 6;3 6 1; 9 8 5]; C=cov(D);
= 14.3333 16.3333 3.6667
16.3333 34.3333 -10.3333
3.6667 -10.3333 14.3333
std(D) ans = 3.7859 5.8595 3.7859
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
3 [142-157], 5oc[157-212, 245 -278]
2 [123-129], 4[24-25]
:
1)
MATLAB?
2)
MATLAB?
3) MATLAB?
4) MATLAB?
5) MATLAB?
6
: (3 .).
: ,
MATLAB.
: MATLAB.
()
.
:
11X1 + 12X2 + + 1nXn=b1
21X1 + 22X2 + + 2nXn=b2
. . .

n1X1 + n2X2 + + nnXn=bn


,
11, 12,..., , ,
, x1, 2,..., ,
X, b1, b2,..., b (
), .
=, ,
X .

MATLAB
.
3 :
1) =/;
2) =*^(-1);
3) X=B*inv(A).
:
A = [4 4 3; 5 4 3; 6 5 4];
B = [31 37 41];
1) 1=/; X1 = [2.0000 -59.0000 53.0000];
2) 2=*^(-1); X2 = [2.0000 -59.0000 53.0000];
3) X3=B*inv(A); X3 = [2.0000 -59.0000 53.0000].
.
1) =/
=, nxk.
2) =\
= , nxk.
, \ , inv(A)*B,
, .
3) , -
, =\
= ,
.
,
:
- X =lscov(A,B,V) X *=+,
, V;

; ,
>; : (AXB)'*inv(V)*(AX - B); X=inv(A'* inv(V)*A)*A'*inv(V)*B,
, , ,
V ;
- [X, dX] = lscov(A,B,V) X,
dX;
- X =isqnonneg(A,B) =
,
, .
:
A = [3 4; 1 2; 7 5]; B = [10; 15; 3];
V = [0.4 0.1 0.5; 0.3 -0.2 0.5; 0.7 0.3 0.1];
X = lscov(A, B, V) X = [-3.3272 4.2531];
X1 = lsqnonneg(A, B) X1 = [0.0000 1.8889];

,
.
,
.
, . . ,
,
.
MATLAB
.

lsqr(A, ) X *= ,
, ,
.
m n, -
m. m>=n
. lsqr ,
, .
,
, (
min(20, m, n) 20, ,
). ,
norm(B - AX)/norm(B) <= tol ( 1-6);
- lsqr(A,B,tol) (
) tol;
- lsqr(A,b,tol,maxit)
maxit , , ,
.
:
=[0 0 1 2; 1 3 0 0; 0 1 0 1; 1 0 1 0];
=[11; 7; 6; 4];
lsqr(A, B, le-6.5)
lsqr converged at iteration 5 to a solution with relative residual 1.9e-013
ans = 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) MATLAB;
4) ,
MATLAB;
5) .
1[48-69], 2[114-169], 3[125-146], 5[366-371]
1[18-42], 2[176-191], 3[5-46], 4[26-31]
:
1) ?

2)
3)
4)
5)

?
MATLAB?
MATLAB?
MATLAB?

7
: (3 .).
:
,
MATLAB.
:
MATLAB.
MATLAB .

, @,
: fe=@exp. ,
, sin(x) (), , , f(x),
m--.

f(x) = 0 f1(x) = f2(x). f(x) =f1() f2() = 0. ,
f(x) ,
. MATLAB, , :
- fzero(@fun, x) ,
fun, ,
, ,
, NaN, ;
- fzero(@fun,[xl x2]) , fun(x)=0
x=[xl 2], ,
fun(x(1)) fun(x(2)); ,
; fzero , fzero
, , fun ;
- fzero(@fun,x, tol) tol.
fzero ,
fun , .
fzero
: ,
.
cos(x)=0:
= fzero(@cos,[1 3])
x = 1.5708
f(x)
.

fun1.m, m-:
function f = funl(x)
f = 0.25*x + sin(x) - l;

( 10):
= 0 : 0.1 : 10;
plot(x, funl(x));
grid on;
,
[0.5 1], [2 3] [5 6]. , fzero:
xl = fzero(@funl, [0.5 1])
x1 = 0.8905
x2 = fzero(@funl, [2 3])
x2 = 2.8500
x3 = fzero(@funl,[5 6])
x3 = 5.8128
x3 = fzero(@funl, 5, 0.001)
x3 = 5.8111

tol =0.001.
, fzero .

f(x) 1 2.
,
. fminbnd

.
:
- fminbnd(@fun,xl,x2) ,
fun(x) xl < x < x2;
- fminbnd(@fun,xl,x2,options) ,
tolX, maxfuneval, maxiter, display
options,
optimset.
f(x), m:
function y = f(x)
y=x.^3 - 2*x - 5;
( 13):
= 0 : 0.2 : 2;
plot(x, f(x));
grid on;
x :

x = fminbnd(@fun, 0, 2)
x = 0.8165
y = f(x)
y = -6.0887
MATLAB :
; ;
; ,
.
:
1) MATLAB
, MATLAB;
2) MATLAB
, MATLAB;
3) ,
;
4) ,
;
5) .
1[48-69], 2[114-169], 3[125-146], 5[366-371]
1[18-42], 2[176-191], 3[5-46], 4[26-31]
:
1) ?
2) ?
3)
MATLAB?
4)
MATLAB?
5)
MATLAB?
2.5
()

1.
2.
3.
4.

1. (3 .)
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.

: (),
:
_ : : _
,
,
. ,
1.

V(1) M(i, j). :
(2, 2) ans = 5
(2, 2) 10, :
(2, 2)=10
(i) ,
. ,
.

.
[ ].
.
, magic(n) x ,
,
.
.
:
A = [1: 5]
A = [1 2 3 4 5 ]
V = [0 : 2 : 10 ]
V = [0 2 4 6 8 10 ]
:
A = [1: 5; 2 : 3 : 14]
A = [1 2 3 4 5; 2 5 8 11 14 ]
:
M=magic(4) M = 16 2 3 13
5 11 10 8
9 7 6 12
4 14 15 1
.
3x3:
A=magic(3) = 8 1 6
3 5 7
4 9 2
, :
= [ +16; +32 +16] = 8 1 6 24 17 22

3 5 7 19 21 23
4 9 2 20 25 18
40 33 38 24 17 22
35 37 39 19 21 23
36 41 34 20 25 18
:
(: , 2) = [ ]
- .
(2 , :) = [ ]
- .
1, 2, 4
2. : ,
, (3 .)
.
1. MATLAB
, .
2. MATLAB
, .
3. MATLAB
, .
.
.
MATLAB .
:
- calendar(d) , ,
d ( );
- clock 6 ,
[ ];
- datenum ,
(01.01.00);
- now ,
rem(now, l) , a floor(now) ;
- tic ;
- [N,S] = weekday(D) N
S D.
MATLAB ,
,
. ,
- = (:) = (:).
:
- intersect(A, B) (
A B), ;

- ismember(, S) , ,
,
S,
, S;
- setdiff(A, B) , . ., ,
,
;
- union(A, B)
,
;
- unique() ,
, .

, , . .
MATLAB :
- findstr(strl,str2)
,

;
- lower(str) str,
;
- upper(str) str,
;
- strrep(strl,str2,str3) str2,
str1, str3.
.
:
1) datestr(12034, 2) 12/11/32
2) datestr(12034, 8) sat
3) datestr(12034, 12) Dec32
.
1) A=[1 2 3 4];
B=[2 5 7 3];
intersect(A, B) 2 3
2) setdiff(A, B) 1 4
:
1) s1=;
s2=; findstr(sl, s2) 1 ;
2) lower(s1) ;
3) strrep(sl, s2, )
.
5, 2 , 4
3.
(3 .)
.

1. meshgrid ndgrid,
MATLAB.
2.
, MATLAB.
3. MATLAB.
4. ,
.
.
.

z(x,).
( ),
X Y .
meshgrid,
. meshgrid
:
- [X,Y] = meshgrid(x) [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,x);
- [X,Y,Z] = meshgrid(x,y,z) ,

;
- [X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y) , ,
X Y,
,
X , Y .

Edit Plot ( ) -.
:
- title('string')
, 'string';
- xlabel('String'), ylabel('String'), zlabel('String')
, z;
- text(X,Y, 'string') ,
'string',
(X, Y), X Y ,
[x(i) ,y(i)];
- legend(stringl, string2, strings,...)
, ;
- axis([XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX])
.
.


:
[X,Y] = meshgrid(l : 4, 13 : 17);

[X,Y] = meshgrid(-2 : .2 : 2, -2 : .2 : 2);


ndgrid:
[1, 2] = ndgrid(-2 : .2 : 2, -2 : .2 : 2);
Z = XI .* (-1.^2 - 2.^2);
mesh(Z)
:
[X,Y]=meshgrid([-3 : 0.1 : 3]);
Z=sin(X)./(X.^2+Y.^2+0.3);
surfl(X,Y,Z)
colorbar
colormap(gray)
shading interp
xlabel('Axis X')
ylabel('Axis Y')
zlabel('Axis Z')
title('My graphic')
(-4, 0.7):
=10 : 0.1 : 10;
plot(x,sin(x).^3)
text(-4,0.7,'Graphic sin(x)^3')
5, 2 , 4
4. (3 .)
.
1. S,
,

MATLAB.
2. ,
MATLAB.
3. colormap ,
MATLAB, shading,
.
4. ,
.
.
.

S,
5.
MATLAB
,
.
. RGB MAP ,

(red), (green)
(blue) .
0.0 1.0. , [0 0 0] , [1 1 1] , [0 0 1]
.
. ,
RGB.
:
- colormap(MAP) RGB, MAP;
- colormap('default') ,
;
- shading flat
;
- shading interp ;
- shading faceted (
).
help graphSd
, MATLAB.
.
:
plot (X, Y, g*)
:
colorbar
colormap(spring)
shading faceted
5, 2 , 4
5. (3 .)
.
1. MATLAB
Examples and demos Help .
2. MATLAB.
3. m- :
type _m-
4. MATLAB
m-.
.
.
m-,
6.
.
,
: kleinl :
type kleinl.m

6
MATLAB


Knot
Knot.m

Quiver
Quivdemo. m
Kleinl
Kleinl. m

Cruller
Cruller.m

Hoops
Tory4.m

,
Slosh
Spharm2.m

Modes
Modes. M

Logo
Logo.m
MATLAB
kleinl
. ,

, , .
1.

17

,
, ,
. m- :
%
ab = [0 2*pi];
rtr = [2 0.5 1];
pq = [40 40];
box = [-3 3 -3 3 -2 2];
vue = [55 60];
set(gcf,'color',[.7 .8 .9]);
%
tube('xyklein',ab,rtr,pq,box,vue);
%
shading interp
colormap(pink);
%
light
lighting phong
5, 2 , 4
6. ,
(3 .)
.
1.
MATLAB
.
2.
MATLAB .
,
.
.

5. MATLAB
():
- max(A,[ ],dim)
dim: dim=1
, dim=2 ;
- min(A,[ ],dim)
dim.

, .
.
:
- sort () - ,
, , ;

- sort(A,dim)
dim.
- sortrows(A) ;
- sortrows(A,column) , ,
column.
.
:
A=magic(7);
= max(A) [46 47 48 49 43 44 45 ]
:
A=magic(5) 17 24 1 8 15
23 5 7 14 16
4 6 13 20 22
10 12 19 21 3
11 18 25 2 9
[, INDEX] = sort(A);
5, 2 , 4
7. ,
(3 .)
.
1.

MATLAB

.
2. ,
.
,
.
.

, ( )
:
- mean ()
, , -,
,
( ,
);
- median (A) , , -
, ;
- std(X) , X
, -,
, X .
.

A=[1 50 100];
mean(A) = 50.3333;
median(A) = 50;
std(A) = 49.5008
5, 2 , 4
8.
(3 .)
.
1. .
2. lscov
MATLAB
.
3. lsqnonneg
MATLAB
.
,
.
.
,
:
- X =lscov(A,B,V) X *=+,
, V;
- [X, dX] = lscov(A,B,V) X,
dX;
- X =isqnonneg(A,B) =
,
, .
:
A = [3 4; 1 2; 7 5];
B = [10; 15; 3];
V = [0.4 0.1 0.5; 0.3 -0.2 0.5; 0.7 0.3 0.1];
X = lscov(A, B, V) X = [-3.3272 4.2531];
X1 = lsqnonneg(A, B) X1 = [0.0000 1.8889].
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
9.
(3 .)
.
1. .
2. lsqr
MATLAB
.

3.

(, big
).
,
.
.
,
.
.
, :
- lsqr(A, ) X *= ,
, ,
;
- lsqr(A,B,tol) (
) tol;
- lsqr(A,b,tol,maxit)
maxit , , ,
.

:
=[0 0 1 2; 1 3 0 0; 0 1 0 1; 1 0 1 0];
=[11; 7; 6; 4];
lsqr(A, B, le-6.5)
lsqr converged at iteration 5 to a solution with relative residual 1.9e-013
ans = 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
10.
(3 .)
.
1. fzero (@fun, x),
, fun, MATLAB.
2. ,
, sin(x), cos(x), exp(x) .
3. , fzero
.
,
.
.
MATLAB .
, , sin(x)
(), , , f(x), m-.


f(x) = 0 f1(x) = f2(x). f(x) =f1() f2() = 0. ,
f(x) ,
. MATLAB, , :
- fzero(@fun, x) ,
fun, ,
, ,
, NaN, ;
- fzero(@fun,[xl
x2]) , fun(x)=0
x=[xl 2], ,
fun(x(1)) fun(x(2));
- fzero(@fun,x, tol) tol.
fzero ,
fun , .
fzero
: ,
.
cos(x)=0:
= fzero(@cos,[1 3])
x = 1.5708
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
11.
(3 .)
.
1. fzero (@fun, x),
, fun, MATLAB.
2. ,
.
3. ,
, .
4. , fzero
.
,
.
.
MATLAB, ,
10.
fun1.
m- fun1.m :
function f = funl(x)
f = 0.25*x + sin(x) - l;

,
:
= 0 : 0.1 : 10;
plot(x, funl(x));
grid on;
xl = fzero(@funl, [0.5 1])
x1 = 0.8905
x2 = fzero(@funl, [2 3])
x2 = 2.8500
x3 = fzero(@funl,[5 6])
x3 = 5.8128
x3 = fzero(@funl, 5, 0.001)
x3 = 5.8111
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
12.
(3 .).
.
1. fminbnd(@fun,xl,x2),

, fun,
MATLAB.
2. ,
.
3.
,
MATLAB.
4. options .
5. , fzero
.
,
.
.

f(x) 1 2.
,
. fminbnd

.
:
- fminbnd(@fun,xl,x2) ,
fun(x) xl < x < x2;
- fminbnd(@fun,xl,x2,options) ,
tolX, maxfuneval, maxiter, display

options,
optimset.
: f(x).
m-:
function y = f(x)
y=x.^3 - 2*x - 5;
:
= 0 : 0.2 : 2;
plot(x, f(x));
grid on;
x = fminbnd(@fun, 0, 2)
x = 0.8165
y = f(x)
y = -6.0887
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
13. (3 .).
.
1. trapz,

, MATLAB.
2. ,
.
,
.
.
MATLAB
:
- trapz(Y) ,
. Y ,
trapz(Y) Y, Y ,
trapz(Y) -,
;
- trapz(X,Y) Y X,
(
X);
- trapz(...,dim)
dim.
trapz:
trapz(cos(x), 2)
ans =
- 0.6410
0.4369
- 0.2241

1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4

14.

(3 .).
.
1. MATLAB.
2. , .
3. , .
,
.
.
MATLAB .
. solver
() :
ode45, ode23, ode113, ode15s, ode23s, ode23t , ode23tb, bvp4c pdepe.
:
- ode45 - 4- 5- ;
, ,
;
- ode23 - 2- 4- ;

;
- ode113 --
; ,
;
- ode23tb - ,
2- .
.
:
y=2x 2 +2y ,
y 0 =1 x 0 =0.
MATLAB:
y=dsolve('Dy=2*x^2 + 2*y', 'y(0)=1', 'x')
y = - x^2 - x - 1/2 + 3/2*exp(2*x)

m- du1:
I=1
for x = 0 : 0.1: 1
u(I) = - x^2 - x - + 3/2*exp(2*x);
I = I+1;
end

MATLAB:

du1;
x = [0 : 0.1: 1];
plot(x,u)
, 18.

18
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5
15. (3 .).
.
1.
MATLAB.
2. ,
.
,
.
.
MATLAB [7-11]:
- poly(A) x -
n + 1,
det(A-sI), I , a s
;
- poly(r) r - r ,
,
r; roots(r) ,
, , poly (r).
- roots () -,
.
- polyval (p,x) , ,
; ,
,
; polyval
.

x=7x3 + 45x2 + 12x + 23


MATLAB :
x=[7, 45, 12, 23];
d=roots(x)
d=
- 6.2382
- 0.0952 + 0.7195i
- 0.0952 - 0.7195i
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5
2.6
()
1. MATLAB
. MATLAB (3 .).
.
:
1) MATLAB
help , , ;
2) ;
3) MATLAB Help Desk,
HTML-.
5, 2, 4
2. MATLAB
. MATLAB (3 .).
.
:
1) MATLAB,
help demos,
2) ;
3) .
5, 2, 4
3. m-
MATLAB
. m-
(3 .).
.
:
1) m-, :

3)

4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

2) / / -
m-, ,
:
a=[1 2 3 4]
b=[4 5 6 7]
c=a.*b
t = 0:pi/100:2*pi;
y = sin(t);
plot(t,y)
grid on
, , .m (m-
.m);
: / ;
;
MATLAB, m-
: .m
;
m- MATLAB : type .m ;
m- .
5, 2

4. m-
MATLAB
. m-
(3 .).
.
:
1) m-, :
2) / / -
3) m-, ,
:
M=magic(4)
sum(M)
sum(diag(M))
4) , , 1.m;
5) : / ;
6) ;
7) MATLAB, m-
: 1.m ;
8) m- MATLAB : type 1.m ;
9) m- .
5, 2

5. (
)
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(3 .).
.
:
1)
MATLAB
;
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5, 2, 4
6. (
)
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MATLAB ;
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;
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;
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5, 2, 4
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2) m- ;
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11. :

. MATLAB

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;
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(. 6);
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5, 2, 4
12.

. MATLAB
(3 .).
.
:
1) ,
MATLAB;
2) ,
MATLAB;
3) ;
4) MATLAB
.
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
13.
:

. MATLAB
:
(3 .).
.
:
1)
;
2)
diff
MATLAB
.
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
14.
:
. MATLAB
:
(3 .).
.
:
1)

;
2) MATLAB
;

3)
diff
MATLAB
.
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
15.

. MATLAB
(3 .).
.
:
1) ;
2) ,
,
;
3) MATLAB,


.
1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4
2.7

2 :
1 - m-;
2 - MATLAB ( ,

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. ,
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,
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( MATLAB)
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1 :
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2) m-, m-
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1) 2;
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;
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;
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MATLAB ;
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:
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MATLAB.
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;
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:


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MATLAB
MATLAB, MATLAB
, MATLAB
.
, MATLAB,
.
2.8

1 MATLAB?
A. .
B. .
C.
. *
D.
.
E. .
2 MATLAB?
A. .mat . *
B. .db .
C. .mdb .
D. .m .
E. .txt .
3 MATLAB?
A. , .
B. ,
.
C.
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D.
,
.
E. .
4 MATLAB?
A.
.
B. ,
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C. ,
.
D. ,
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5
MATLAB?
A. .
B. . *
C. .
D. n.
E. .
6
MATLAB?
A. . *
B. .
C. .
D. .
E. .
7 MATLAB?
A. .
B. .
C. . *
D. .
E. .
8 MATLAB?
A. plot.
B. stairs.
C. hist.
D. pie.
E. bar. *
9 MATLAB?
A. plot.
B. bar.
C. hist. *
D. pie.
E. bar.
10 MATLAB?
A. plot.
B. stairs.
C. hist.
D. pie. *
E. bar.

11 MATLAB?
A. , ,
, . *
B. .
C. .
D. .
E. .
12
MATLAB?
A. .
B. . *
C. .
D. .
E. .
13 MATLAB?
A. .
B. .
C.
.
D. , ,
.
E. , , ,
, . *
14 MATLAB
?
A. a.
B. pi.
C. ans. *
D. inf.
E. anser.
15 ^ MATLAB?
A. .
B. . *
C. .
D. .
E. .
16 n : k : m MATLAB?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
E. . *
17 MATLAB?

A. =. *
B. - .
C. = =.
D. > =.
E. < =.
18 MATLAB?
A. ,
..
B. , .
C. , .
D. ,
. *
E. ,
.
19 ?
A. C .
B. C ,
. *
C. C , .
D. C ,
.
E. C .
20 ?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
E. .
21 ?
A. .
B.
.
C.
.
D.
.
E. ,
. *
22 ?
A. ,
. *
B. .
C. .

23

24

25

26

27

D. .
E. .
?
A. .
B.
. *
C.
.
D.

.
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.
?
A. , .
B. , ,
. *
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.
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D. , .
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28 () ?
A. =. *
B. >.
C. <.
D. >=.
E. = =.
29 , , MATLAB?
A. : = - .
B. : = + .
C. : = /. *
D. : = / .
E. : = / - X.
30 fzero MATLAB?
A. .
B. .
C. .
D. .
E. . *
31 fminbnd MATLAB?
A. .
B. . *
C. .
D. .
E. .
*.
2.9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.

MATLAB.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB
.
.
.
.
.
.
MATLAB.
MATLAB
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
MATLAB.
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
MATLAB
.
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.
.
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.
.

.
75.
.
76.

MATLAB
77.
.
78.
.
79.
.
80.
MATLAB.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.



.
MATLAB
,

.
, .
,
, .
+, -, * , /,
^.
,
.
,
.
.
,
.

.

,
.
ans
MATLAB.
, , ,
, , .
.

Y
.

, ().

z(x, ).

.
RGB MAP ,
(red), (green)
(blue) .


.

.

.

,
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, .

, ( )
.

,
.
.
,
-

.

,
, .
,
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,
.
,
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.
-
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.
,

, .
, .

.


1 SYLLABUS
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2.5
()
2.6 ()
2.7
2.8

2.9

3
10
10
11
52
52
56
63
66
71
73
76
78
95
100
105
110
113


-
( 050704 -
)

__________________ 2010_.

__ _______________ 2010_.

___.___.2010___.
. . . . . 6084 1/16. 1
. . . . . . . . .


..
-
., ., 32

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