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6.

091900

2007 .

..

...,

..

..

..-.., . .. ,

..

..., ,

-
: , ,
.

,
.
,
, .
-

.

:
1. ,
,
, , ,
.
2. ,
.
.
3. ,

, .

4. ,
.
, .
5. 3
4 . .
6. .

,
.
7. (
, ),
.


.
8.
.
9. ,
.

I.1. .
.

y1 = f1 ( x, y1, y2 ,... yn )
y = f ( x, y , y ,... y
2
1 2
n)
2

.......... .......... .......... .........


y = f ( x, y , y ,... y )
n
n
1 2
n

f i (i = 1,...n)

x, y1 , y2 ,..., yn .

(I.1)

(n + 1)

y1 ( x), y2 ( x),..., yn ( x).


, (I.1), .
(I.1) (, b)

y1( x), y2 ( x),..., yn ( x) ,

(,b)

(I.1)
.

y1( x), y2 ( x),..., yn ( x).

, :

y1 ( x0 ) = y10 , y2 ( x0 ) = y20 ,..., yn ( x0 ) = yn 0 ,

y10 , y20 ,... yn0 ; x0 (a, b)


4

(I.2)

( ).

fi (i = 1,..., n) ( x0, y10, ,..., yn0 )D

f i
( j = 1,..., n) ,
y j

x0 ,

(I.1), .

(I.1)

yi = i ( x, C1, C2 ,..., Cn ) (i = 1,..n) , n


C1,C2 ,..., Cn :

1)

x, C1, C2 ,..., Cn
2)

i
;
x

(I.1)

Ci

.
3) (I.2) D ,
,

C10 , C20 ,..., Cn0 ,

yi 0 = ( x0 , C10 , C20 ,..., Cn0 )

(I.1) ,
.
(I.1)
(
).

y1 = a11 ( x) y1 + a12 ( x) y2 + ... + a1n ( x) yn + f1 ( x)


y2 = a21 ( x) y1 + a22 ( x) y2 + ... + a2 n ( x) yn + f 2 ( x)
.......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......
yn = an1 ( x) y1 + an 2 ( x) y2 + ... + ann ( x) yn + f n ( x)

f ( xi ), (i = 1,..., n)

(a; b).

f i ( x) = 0 ,

, .

(I.3)

aij ( x) = const,


. ,

a11
a21

a12

... a1n

a22 ... a2 n

.......... .......... .......... ........


an1
an 2
ann

= 0,

aij = const . ,
n

, ,
, n
.

.
1. .
1, 2 ,..., n. ,

i (i = 1,.., n)

y1(i ) = 1(i )e i x , y2(i ) = 2(i ) ei x ,..., yn(i ) = n(i )e i x ,

(I.4)

1(i ) , 2(i ) ,..., n(i )

(a ) (i ) + a (i ) + ... + a (i ) = 0
12 2
1n n
1
11
a (i ) + (a ) (i ) + ... + a (i ) = 0
21 1
22
2n n
2
.

.......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........

(i )
(i )
(i )
an11 + an 2 2 + ... + (ann ) n = 0

(I.5)

(I.4)
.
, (I.3)

aij ( x) = const , fi ( x) = 0 ,
, (I.4):

(i )
(1) x
( 2) x
( n) x
y
=
1 Ci y1 = C11 e 1 + C21 e 2 + ... + Cn1 e n

i =1

n
y2 = Ci y (i ) = C1 ( 2) e1 x + C2 ( 2) e2 x + ... + Cn ( n) en x
2
1
2
2

i =1

.......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ....
n

yn = Ci yn(i ) = C11( n) e1 x + C2 2(n) e2 x + ... + Cn n(n) e n x

i =1

Ci .

2. 1, 2 ,..., n ,
. ,

1,2 = i

y (j1) = (j1) e( + i ) x ,
y (j2) = (j2) e( i ) x .
7

(I.6)

j = 1,..., n ;

(j1) , (j2)

(j1) , (j2)

= 1 = + i

(I.5)

= 2 = i .

, ,

y (j1) , y (j2)

y (j1)

y (j2) ,

,
,
,
.

1, 2 ,..., n
.
k
. (I.2) ( aij = const ,
f i ( x) = 0 ( i, j = 1,..., n) ), k ,

3.

(
)
y2 = ( 20 + 21x + 22 x 2 + ... + 2, k 1x k 1 ) ex
y1 = 10 + 11x + 12 x 2 + ... + 1, k 1x k 1 e x

(I.7)

.......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........

yn = n0 + n1x + n 2 x 2 + ... + n, k 1x k 1 ex .

ij ( i = 1,..., n; j = 0,1,..., k 1)

yi

(I.7)

(3)
,

e x ,

aij

fi (x ) ,

.

.

ij k

()

,
, .. 1 2.

I.2.

, , (I.7)
,
.

C1, C2 ,..., Cn

(I.7).

(I.7),

C1( x), C2 ( x),..., Cn ( x)

C1, C2 ,..., Cn ).

y1 , y2 ,..., yn ,

C1 ( x), C2 ( x),..., Cn ( x) ,

C1, C2 ,..., Cn

y1, y2 ,..., yn

C1 ( x) = 1 ( x), C2 ( x) = 2 ( x),..., Cn ( x) = n ( x) ,

i ( x) (i = 1,..., n)

Ci ( x) = i ( x) dx = Ci ,

Ci

Ci = const

. (I.7)

Ci (x) ,

I.3.

, ,

y1 ,

y1 ( x)

( (I.3)

aij = const ) n . ,
y2 ( x),..., yn ( x)

. ,

(I.3)

aij = const ),

y1 , y2 ,..., yn

(I.3). :

y1 = a11 y1 + a12 y2 + ... + a1n yn + f1( x) = L2 ( y1,..., yn ) + F2 ( x) ,

L2 ( y1,..., yn )

(I.8)

y1, y2 ,..., yn , F2 ( x)
f1 ( x), f 2 ( x ),..., f n ( x) f1( x) .

(I.8)

x ,
y1 = L3 ( y1,..., yn ) + F3 ( x) .

y1( n) = Ln ( y1,..., yn ) + Fn ( x )

y1 = a11 y1 + a12 y2 + ... + a1n yn + f1 ( x)

y1 = L2 ( y1 , y2 ,... yn ) + F2 ( x)

.......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .


( n 1)
= Ln 1 ( y1 , y2 ,..., yn ) + Fn 1 ( x)
y1
y ( n ) = L ( y , y ,..., y ) + F ( x)
n
1
2
n
n
1

10

(I.9)

n 1

y2 ( x),..., yn ( x)

(I.9)

(, , ). ,

x, y1, y1 ,..., y1( n 1) :

(
= ( x, y , y ,..., y

y2 = 2 x, y1 , y1 ,..., y1( n 1)
y3

( n 1)
1

)
)

(I.10)

.......... .......... .......... .......... ...

yn = n x, y1 , y1 ,..., y1( n 1)

y2 ( x),..., yn ( x)

(I.10)

(I.9),

y1( n) = F x, y1, y1 ,..., y1(n 1)

, :

y1 = 1( x, C1,.., Cn ) .

y1 , y1,..., y1( n 1) ,

n 1

(I.11)

x,

(I.10)

(I.11) :

y 2 = 2 ( x, C1 ,.., C n )

y3 = 3 ( x, C1 ,..., C n )
.......... .......... .......... ...
y n = n ( x, C1 ,..., C n )

11

(I.12)

(I.11)(I.12)

C1,..., Cn

(I.11)( I.12).

II.


, .
,
-
, ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
, , ,
.

dyi
= i (t , y1 ,..., yn ), i = 1,..., n
dt

yi ( t 0 ) = yi 0 (i = 1,..., n) ,

(II.1)

, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
, .

12

II.1.

II.1.1.

(II.1)

R n+1 t , y1 ,..., yn ,


(II.1)

, .

Rn

y1 ,..., yn

, .

,
(II.1) :
1. , ;
2. ( );
3. .
:

dyi
= i ( y1 ,..., yn ), i = 1,..., n
dt

(II.2)

. ,
,
t .

13

II.2.

(II.2).
, ,
(II.1) . ,
,
, , 1
.

M ( y10 ,..., yn 0 )

(II.2), :

dyi
= i ( y10 ,..., yn 0 ) 0, i = 1,..., n .
dt

(II.3)

(II.3) ,
, (
) :

1 ( y1 ,..., yn ) = 0
( y ,..., y ) = 0
2 1
n

.......... .......... ........


n ( y1 ,..., yn ) = 0

(II.4)

, :

y 1 = a11 y1 + a12 y2 + ... + a1n yn


y = a y + a y + ... + a y
2
21 1
22 2
2n n

.......... .......... .......... .......... .........


y n = an1 y1 + an 2 y2 + ... + ann yn ,

14

(II.5)

, :

y i =

dyi
, i = 1,..., n .
dt

x =

P ( x, y )

y,

d
= P ( x, y ),
dt

Q ( x, y )

y =

dy
= Q( x, y ),
dt

Q( x* , y * ) = 0 .

M ( x* , y * ) ,

P( x* , y * ) = 0 ,


,
. ,

x = a11 x + a12 y,

y = a21 x + a22 y

a11
a21

a12
a22

= 0.

:
1. : 1 , 2 R , 1 2 1 2 > 0
( ), (

). 1 );

15

. 1.
.
2. : 1 , 2 R , 1 2 1 2 < 0
( ), (. 1 ));
3. ,
( ,
). 1 );
4.
( ),
(. 1 );
5.
,
(. 1 );
6. ,
= a11a22 a12 a21 = 0 ), xOy
(:
.
(,

xOy )

, , , ,
, (
).
,
.

: , (
) .

16

a11

a
A = 21
...

an1

a12
a22
...
an 2

... a1n

... a2 n
,
... ...

... ann

, ,
h ( )

. :

Ah = h .

(II.6)

. .
(II.6),

Ah = h Ah h = 0 .

( A E) h = 0 , ( E ),
,
.
:

det ( A E ) = 0

(II.7)

, .
(II.7) :

17

a11
a21
...
an1

a12
a22
...
an 2

...
a1n
...
a2 n
= 0.
...
...
... ann

(II.8)

, , (II.8), ,
, n
:

Pn ( ) = c0 n + c1n1 + ... + cn , ci = const (i = 0,..., n) .

(II.9)

, , , (II.9) n
, . ,
A n (
).
.
, ,
, (
,
), .

.
,
,
.

. ,
, , ,
.
-
.

II.1.3.

18

dx dy
,
dt dt

xi = 0 (i = 1,..., n)

dxi
= f i (t , xi , x2 ,..., xn ) (i = 1,2,..., n),
dt

fi

(II.10)

(II.10)

f i (t , x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) ,

xi = 0 (i = 1,..., n)

n
dxi
= aij (t ) x j + Ri (t , x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) (i = 1,2,..., n) ,
dt j =1

Ri

(II.11)

xi2 ,
i =1

xi = 0 (i = 1,..., n)

(II.10)

dxi
= aij (t )x j
dt

(i = 1,2,..., n) ,

(II.12)

(II.11).
,
, ,
.

1. (II.11) ,

Ri

t0

Ri N xi2
i =1
n

19

1
+
2

= const ,

T t

>0

Ri

(..,

x =

t,

xi2

i =1

a11
a21

a12

... a1n

a22 ... a2 n

.......... .......... .......... .......


an1
an 2 ... ann

= 0,

(II.13)

, ()

xi = 0 (i = 1,..., n)

(II.11) (II.12)

2. (II.11) ,

Ri

(II.13)

xi = 0 (i = 1,..., n)

(II.11)

(II.12) .

1.

x = 0, y = 0

dx
2
2
dt = x y + x + y sin t ,

dy = x + y y 2 .
dt

1 2.

x = 0, y = 0

20

dx
dt = x y

dy = x + y
dt

1 1
=0
1 1

1, 2 = 1 i .

, 2,

2.

x = 0, y = 0

dx
dt = 2 x + 8 sin y
.

dy
x
= 2 e 3 y cos y
dt

sin y, cos y

ex

dx
dt = 2 x + 8 y + R1
,

dy
= x 3 y + R2
dt

R1

R2

1 2.

21

2 8
= 0.
1 3


. ,
, ,

x = 0, y = 0

II.2.

, , ,
, .

,

V = V (t , x)

n
dV V
V

V (t , x) =
=
+
g i (t , x1 ,..., xn ) ,
dt
t i=1 xi

(II.1),
(

gi (t , x1 ,...,xn ) ).

, ..
.

(..
).

, , ,

V,

()
, .

22

V,

dV
dt

(II .1)

x < 0 , t > t0

dV
dt

W (x)

W ( x) < 0

(II .1)

x < 0 ,

0 < x < 0 , t > t0 ,

(II.1)

(.. ). (II.1) .


1.
2.

V =0

x=0

t > t0

x1 ,..., xn

V ( x1 ,..., xn ) , :

3.

x < 0 ;

V > 0,

dV
dt

;
W ( x) > 0 ,

W (x)

(II .1)

.
(II.1) .

V ,
(II.1) .

V ( x) = bij xi x j , bij = con st


i =1 j =1

,
.

23

II.3.

1).

a0 n + a1n 1 + ... + an 1 + an = 0, a0 > 0 ,

(II.14)

). :

ai > 0 . n 2

.
). : ,

a1

a3
a
5
...
0

a0
a2
a4
...
0

0
a1
a3
...
0

0
a0
a2
...
0

... 0

... 0
... 0 .

... ...
... an

0 0
0 0
a1 a0
... ...
0 0

ai

a1 , a2 ,..., an .

i>n

i<0

a
1 = a1 , 2 = 1
a3

a1
a0
, 3 = a3
a2
a5

a0
a2
a4

0
a1 ,...
a3

) -. ,
>0

n 1 >0, n 3 >0, n 5 >0,,

24

ai

-, , ..
.

3.

4 + 23 + 32 + 3 + 1 = 0 .
.
-:

2 1 0
3 = 3 3 2 = 18 4 9 >0, 1 = 2 >0
0 1 3

- , ,
. ,

, ()
, .
) .

f (i ) ,
f ( ) ,
0 +
,

n
2

() :
,

p ( ) = an an 2 + an 4 ...,
q( ) = an 1 an 3 + an 5 2 ...

25

, ,
1 , .. 0< 1 <1 < 2 < 2 <
,

4.

an 1 = 10 > 0 ,

= i

p ( 2 ) + iq ( 2 ) .

f ( ) = 5 + 24 + 73 + 82 + 10 + 6 .

p( ) = 6 8 + 2 2 ,

1 = 1, 2 = 3, 1 = 2, 2 = 5 .

an = 6 > 0 ,

q( ) = 10 7 + 2

0 < 1 < 1 < 2 < 2 .


f ( )

III.
III. 1.
,
.
1. :
2
2u
2 u
=a
, a = const .
t 2
x 2

.
, ,
..
2. , :
2
u
2 u
=a
, a = const .
t
x 2

26

(III.1)

.
,
, ..
3. :

2u 2u
+
= 0.
x 2 y 2

(III.2)

.
,
, ..
u
t , x x , y .
. ,

2
2u
2u
2 u

=
a
+
x 2 y 2 ,
t 2

(III.3)

2
u
2u
2 u

= a 2 + 2
t
y
x

(III.4)

2u 2u 2u
+
+
= 0.
x 2 y 2 z 2

(III.5)

III.2. . .

.
0 x l Ox .
, x = 0 x = l .
,
,

27

.

.
,
Ox
,

u ( x, t ) ,


x t .
,

u ( x, t )

. 2.

2
2u
2 u
.
=a
t 2
x 2

.
u ( x, t ) , ,
( x = 0 x = l ), ,
( t = 0 ).
.
, , x = 0 x = l . t

u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0 .
.
, f (x ) , ..

t =0

u ( x,0) = f ( x) .
,
(x ) , ..

u
= ( x) .
t t =0
.
III.3. .

28

,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
2
2u
2 u
=a
t 2
x 2

(III.6)

u
= g ( x) ,
t t =0

u ( x,0) = u t =0 = f ( x) ,

(III.7)

f (x ) g (x) .
.
,
.

dx 2 a 2 dt 2 = 0
:

dx adt = 0

dx + adt = 0 ,

x + at = C 2 .

x at = C1

.

= x at , = x + at

u x = u + u , ut = u ( a ) + u a ,
u xx = u + u + u + u = u + 2u + u ,

utt = ( au + au )( a) + ( au + au )a = a 2 (u 2u + u ) ,
, ,

u = 0 .

, u = 1 ( ) .

u ( , ) = 1 ( )d + ( ) = ( ) + ( ) ,

29

. ,

u = ( x at ) + ( x + at ) .

(III.8)

, :

u ( x,0) = ( x) + ( x) = f ( x) .
ut ( x, t ) = a ( x at ) + a ( x + at ) ,
ut ( x,0) = a ( x) + a ( x) = g ( x) .
, :
x

a ( x) + a ( x) = g ( z )dz + C ,
x0

x0

( x) + ( x) = f ( x),

x
( x) + ( x) = 1 g ( z )dz + C

ax
0

1
1 x
C

( x) = 2 f ( x) 2a g ( z )dz 2 ,

x
( x) = 1 f ( x) + 1 g ( z )dz + C .
2
2a x
2

, f g ,
. (III.8)
,

u ( x, t ) =

1
1 x at
C 1
1 x + at
C
f ( x at )
g
(
z
)
dz

+
f
(
x
+
at
)
+
g ( z ) dz +

2
2a x
2 2
2a x
2
0

f ( x at ) + f ( x + at ) 1 x + at
u ( x, t ) =
+
g ( z )dz .
2
2a x at

5.

u t =0 = x 2 + 1 ,

u
t

2
2u
2 u
=a
t 2
x 2

= cos x .
t =0

30

( x at ) 2 + 1 + ( x + at ) 2 + 1 1 x + at
u ( x, t ) =
+
cos zdz =
2
2a x at

= 1 + x 2 + a 2t 2 +

1
( sin( x + at ) sin( x at ) ) = 1 + x 2 + a 2 t 2 + 1 cos x sin at .
2a
a

III.4. (
)

.
2
2u
2 u
=a
t2
x2

(III.9)

u (0, t ) = 0 , u (l , t ) = 0 ,
u
= ( x) .
u ( x,0) = f ( x) ,
t t =0

(III.10), (III.11)
(III.12), (III.13)

(III.9), (III.10) (III.11),


:

u ( x, t ) = X ( x )T (t ) .

u ( x, t )

(III.9) ,

T
X
.
=
X
a 2T
, x , ,
t . ,
x , t , .. .

T
X
=
= ,
X
a 2T

>0.

(III.14)

X + X = 0 T + a 2 T = 0 .

31

(III.15)

X ( x) = A cos x + B sin x ,
T (t ) = C cos a t + D sin a t ,

A, B, C , D

.
A B , (III.10) (III.11),
, X (0) = X (l ) = 0 , T (t ) 0 ( u ( x, t ) = 0 ).
,

A = 0 B sin l = 0 .
B 0 (,

X =0

u = 0,

),

sin l = 0 ,
,

X = B sin

n
x.
l

(
) . X (x )
.
, , (III.14) > 0 ,
(III.15)

X = Ae

+ Be

x .

(III.10)
(III.11).
,

T (t ) = C cos

an
an
t + D sin
t,
l
l

nN .

(III.9)

u n ( x, t ) = sin

n
an
an
x C n cos
t + Dn sin
t.
l
l
l

(III.9) ,
,

an
an n

u ( x, t ) = C n cos
t + Dn sin
t sin x
l
l
l
n =1

32

(III.16)

(III.9),
(III.10) (III.11).
(III.12)
(III.13). (III.12)

f ( x) = C n sin
n =1

n
x.
l

t , (III.13)
an
n
( x ) = Dn
sin x .
l
l
n =1

, (III.16)

f (x)

(x) , ( 0, l ) .
2l
n
C n = f ( x) sin xdx,
l0
l

2 l
n
Dn =
( x) sin xdx

an 0
l

(III.17)

, (III.16), C n Dn
, ,
(III.9), .
6.

2u 9 2u
=
t 2 4 x2

0 < x < 1 , 0 < t < + ,

u ( x,0) = x( x 1) ,

u
=0
t t =0

u (0, t ) = 0 , u (1, t ) = 0 .

3
a = , l = 1,
2

(III.16)

3n
3n

u ( x, t ) = C n cos
t + Dn sin
t sin nx .
2
2
n =1

Cn

Dn

(III.17).

33

1
1
2

cos nx
cos nx
C n = 2 ( x x ) sin nxdx = 2( x x )

( 2 x 1) dx =
n
n
0
0

0
1

1
1

2 1
2
sin nx
sin nx
= ( 2 x 1) cos nxdx = ( 2 x 1)

2dx
n 0
n
n 0 0 n

4 cos nx
4
4 ( 1) 1
= 2 2
= 3 3 ( cos n 1) =
, n = 1,2,3,...
n 0 n
n
3n3
1

2 1
Dn = 0 sin nxdx = 0 .
n 0
,

4
u ( x, t ) = 3

(( 1)

n =1

) cos 3n t sin nx .

n3

III.5.
l . ,

,

. 3.
,
.
, . ,
,
t = 0 , .

Ox

u ( x, t )

x=l.

u ( x, t )

x = 0,

t.

34

2
u
2 u
=a
t
x2

( )
.
, u ( x, t )
, .
0 t + , 0 < x < l :

u ( x,0) = ( x) , u (0, t ) = 1 (t ) , u (l , t ) = 2 (t ) .

(III.18), (III.19), (III.20)

(III.18) ,

t=0

(x) . (III.19)
(III.20) , x = 0 x = l
, 1 (t ) 2 (t ) .
,

III.6.
.
, ..
.
. ,
2
u
2 u
=a
t
x2

u ( x,0) = ( x), u (0, t ) = u (l , t ) = 0 .



, ,

u ( x, t ) = An e
n =1

35

2a 2n2
t
l2

sin

n .
x
l

(III.21)

An , ,

An =

2l
n
( x) sin xdx .

l0
l

, (III.21) , t + u(x,t)0.
: ,
.
, , ,
.
. ,
u ( x, t )

u ( x,0) = ( x) ,

(III.22)

(x) .
(III.22) .

+

u ( x, t ) = e a t [ A( ) cos x + B( ) sin x] d .
2 2

A( ) B ( ) ,
(III.22). t = 0 ,

( x) =

[ A( ) cos x + B( ) sin x] d .

( x) =
=

1
2

1
2

(x) :

d ( ) cos ( x)d =

cos

)
cos

+
sin

( ) sin d d ,

1 +
A( ) =
( ) cos d ,
2
1 +
B ( ) =
( ) sin d .
2

A( )

B ( )

36

u ( x, t )

u ( x, t ) =

1
2

a t
d ( )e cos ( x)d .
2 2

III.7.
, ..
.

2u 2u 2u
+
+
= 0.
x2 y2 z 2
, , D ,
L , ,

2
u
2u
2 u
.
= a 2 +
t
y 2
x

, .. ,
,

u
=0
t

, ,

2u 2u
+
= 0.
x2 y2

(III.23)

, , .
, ,
,
. , ,
L . , u ( x, y ) ,
(23) D M L
:

u L = (M ) .

(III.24)

(III.23).
L ,

, u n , n
, , (III.24)

37

u
n

= (M ) .

(III.25)

(III.23), (III.25),
.
T , ,
u

2u 2u 2u
+
+
= 0.
x2 y2 z2
(III.24) (III.25) .
, , ..
u
.

u=

u = Ax + B .

ul u0
x + u 0 , u (0) = u 0 , u (l ) = ul .
l

d 2u
=0
dx 2

III.8. .

u ( x, y, z ) .

2u 2u 2u
+
+
=0
x2 y2 z2

u = 0 .

x = r cos , y = r sin , z = z ,

y
r = x 2 + y 2 , = arctg , z = z .
x
x, y , z r , z , u ( r , , z ) .
, ,
u ( r , , z )

38

2 u 1 u 1 2 u 2 u
+
+
+
= 0.
r 2 r r r 2 2 z 2
.
u z , x

y,

u ( r , )

2 u 1 u 1 2 u
+ +
= 0,
r 2 r r r 2 2

L1 : x + y = R
2

2
1

L2 : x + y = R
2

2
2

D,

(III.26)

u L = u1 , u L = u 2 ,
1

(III.27)

21

u1 , u 2 .
. ,
. (III.26)

2 u 1 u
+
= 0.
r 2 r r
, .
,

u = C1 ln r + C 2 .

C1

C2

(III.28)

(III.27)

C1 =

u ln R2 u 2 ln R1
u 2 u1
C2 = 1
R ,
R
ln 2
ln 2
R1
R1

C1

C2

(III.28),

39

u 2 ln
u=

r
r
u1 ln
R1
R2
R
ln 2
R1

. u ,
, ( ):
r = R1 , r = R2 , z = 0, z = H , :

u r = R = u1 ,
1

u
z

u r=R = u2 ,
2

= 0,
z =0

u
z

= 0.
z=H

( -).
III.9.

xOy

r = f ( ) ,

R .

u (r , ) ,
2 u 1 u 1 2 u
+ +
= 0,
r 2 r r r 2 2

(III.29)

u r = R = f ( ) .
,

u = ( ) R( r ) .
(III.29),

r 2 ( ) R ( r ) + r ( ) R (r ) + ( ) R (r ) = 0 ,

( )
r 2 R (r ) + rR (r )
=
= k 2 .
( )
R(r )
r , , ,
, k 2 . ,

( ) + k 2 ( ) = 0 ,
40

(III.30)

r 2 R (r ) + rR (r ) k 2 R (r ) = 0 .

(III.31)

= A cos k + B sin k .
.

R (r ) = r m .

(III.31),
r k r k . (III.31)

R = Cr k + Dr k .

u k = ( Ak cos k + Bk sin k ) ( C k r k + Dk r k ) .


. k = 0 , (III.30) (III.31)

(III.32)

k,

( ) = 0, rR (r ) + R (r ) = 0 .

u 0 = ( A0 + B0 )(C 0 + D0 ln r ) .


2 , u 0 B0 = 0 . u ( r , )

, D0 = 0 Dk = 0 .
(III.32).
. k . ,

A0
u (r , ) =
+ ( An cos n + Bn sin n ) r n .
2 n=1
An Bn
u ( r , )

, .

f ( ) =

r = R ,
A0
+ ( An cos n + Bn sin n ) R n .
2 n =1

A0 =

An

(III.33)

Bn

f ( )

(, ) .

1
1
f ( )d , An = n

f ( ) cos n d , Bn =

1
R n

f ( ) sin nd . (III.34)

, (III.33) , (III.34),
,
r .

41

7.

u r =2 = 2 + 1.

u = 0

0r 2,

A0
u (r , ) =
+ ( An cos n + Bn sin n ) r n .
2 n=1
(III.34).

1
1
A0 = ( 2 + 1) d = ( 2 + ) = 2 .

1
1
1
1
An =
(
2

+
1
)
cos
n

=
(
2

+
1
)
sin
n

2
sin
n

n
n
2 n
2 n

=
cos n = 0 .
n 2
2 n

1
1
1
1
Bn =
(
2

+
1
)
sin
n

=
(
2

+
1
)
cos
n

+
2
cos
n

=
n
n
2 n
2 n

( 1) n 4
2
(1) n+1

=
+
sin n = n2 .
2n n
2n n 2
2 n
(1) n+1

u (r , ) = 1 + n2 sin n r n .
n
n =1 2

IV. .


,
() , .. ,

.
,
.
, .
, (, )
,
, .
, ,
. ,
, .

42

,
:
;
,
.
IV. 1. .
.

, -
, .

- , ,
, . , , -
, ,
. ,
.
. ,
FX ( x) , ,

a ; b , FX (b) FX ( a ) .
,
, ,
.
,
n - A
A1 , A2 ,..., Am .
()

nk

n1 , n2 ,..., nm

nk = n
k =1

nk
= hk ,
n

hk = 1 .
k =1

, n ,
x1 , x2 ,..., xn (,
). , n

.
.

: ,
..

:
:

1 m
x B = xk ;
n k =1
:

43

S
,
n

D=
:
m

S = ( xk x B )
2

k =1

xB , S 2

xB =

m
1 m
n
a
=
k k hk ak
n k =1
k =1

S 2 = nk ( ak xB ) = nk ak2 n( xB )
2

k =1

k =1

D 2 = hk ak2 ( xB )

k =1

m , ak .

IV.2.

IV.2.1.
,
, .

h .
xi C
ui =
, C (
h


, :

); h ,
( ).


.

,
:

ui =

h , .
xm

xi xm x1 + (i 1)h [ x1 + (m 1)h]
=
= i m.
h
h
44

i, m Z ( , .

.
, .

IV.2.2. ,


,
.
.

1.

k - xi C

n (x C)
M =
i

xi ,

ni ,

n = ni ,
C ( ).

2.

nx
M =
i

45

C=0

M1 =

nx

i i

= x.

3.

C = x

n (x x )
m=
i

n (x x )
m=
i

= D.

(IV.1)

m2 = M 2 ( M1) ;
2

(IV.2)

m3 = M 3 3M 2 M1 + 2( M1) ;
3

m4 = M1 4M 3 M1 + 6M 2 ( M1) 3( M1) .
2

46

(IV.3)

4.

k ,

ni ui k

*
Mk =
=
n

n (
i

xi C k
h

*
1

nu
=

i i

ni
1 ni xi

=
=
C
h n
n
=

1
( x C) .
h i

x = M1* h + C.

1 ni ( xi C)
M k* = k
n
h

M k
.
hk

M k = M k* hk .

,
(IV.2) (IV.3),

m2 = M 2* ( M1* )
47

] h ;
2

(IV.4)

[
m =[ M

m3 = M 3* 3M 2* M1* + 2( M1* ) h3;


4

IV.3.

*
4

4M M + 6M ( M
*
3

*
1

*
2

* 2
1

3( M

* 4
1

] h .

(IV.5)



. ,
. ,
.
, :
()
, ;
;
( n ) ;

xi C
,
h

ui =

C
h ;

nu
i i

; ,

nu

i i

nu

2
i i

2
nu
i i

; ,

, ;

,
,

ni (ui + 1)2

; ,
.

n (u + 1)
i

*
1

nu ;
=
i

48

*
2

nu
=
i

2
i

, , :

x = M1* h + C;

D = M 2* ( M1* )

] h .
2

, .

7:
:

10,2

10,4

10,6

10,8

11,0

11,2

11,4

11,6

11,8

12,0

13

25

20

12

10

49

xi

ni

ui

nu
i i

2
nu
i i

ni (ui + 1)2

10,2

-4

-8

32

18

10,4

-3

-9

27

12

10,6

-2

-16

32

10,8

13

-1

-13

13

11,0

25

A1 = 46

11,2

20

20

20

80

11,4

12

24

48

108

11,6

10

30

90

160

11,8

24

96

150

12,0

25

36

25

A2 = 103

nu

n = 100

= 57

nu

2
i i

n (u + 1)

= 383

= 597

n u + 2 n u + n = 383+ 2 57 + 100 = 597.


n (u + 1) = 597.
i

2
i

, .
, :

M 1*

nu
= i i =

nu
57
383
= 0,57; M 2* = i i =
= 3,83.
100
n
100
2

h = 104
, 102
, = 02
, .
50

, , :

x = M1* h + C = 057
, 02
, + 110
, = 111
,;

D = M 2* ( M1* )

IV.4.

, ( 057
, ) ] (02
, )
] h = [ 383
2

014
, .

, ,
. :

? ,
( ),
. (
8-10 .)

.
( )
,
.
,
(
,
), ,
.

xi

ni

xi

ni

xi

ni

xi

ni

xi

ni

1,00

1,12

1,23

1,32

1,44

1,03

1,15

1,25

1,33

1,45

1,05

1,16

1,26

1,37

1,46

1,06

1,19

1,29

1,38

1,49

1,08

1,20

1,30

1,39

1,50

51

1,10

1,40

1,00 - 1,10

1,10 - 1,20

1,20 - 1,30

1,30 - 1,40

1,40 - 1,50

yi ,
y1 = 1,05; y2 = 1,15; y3 = 1,25; y4 = 1,35; y5 = 1,45.

y1:

n1 = 1+ 3+ 6 + 4 + 2 +

4
= 18 .
2

1,10
, 4
.)
. ,

:

yi

1,05

1,15

1,25

1,35

1,45

ni

18

20

25

22

15

IV.5.

IV.5.1. .
X ,
. n , X

n1

x1 , n2

x2 ,..., nk

xk ,

n = n.
i

5.

ni .

, ,
X . ,
, ,
,

52

X
, .

6.

(),

ni ,

().

ni = n Pi ,

n ;

Pi xi ,
, X .

IV.5.2. .
,
.

k
X i

Pi

, ,
, .
,
:

ni = n Pi ,

n ;

Pi xi ,
, X .

, ,

X ( ) ,

53

ni =
:

nh
(ui ),

(IV.6)

n ( );

h ;

;
ui =

xi x
(xi i ),

(u) =

1
2

u2
2

: , (
)

pX ( x) =
a = 0

=1

1
2

( x a )2
2 2

1
2

x2

e ,

(u) =

u=

(IV.7)

(x) =

, ,

x a
,

1 u22
e .
2

54

1 ( x2a2)
e
.
2

(u) =

(IV.8)

(IV.7) (IV.8), ,

pX ( x) = 1 (u).

a
,

pX ( x) =

xi

(u),

ui =

xi x
.

X ) h. X

pX ( x)

, ,

x = xi
Pi = hpX ( x) = h

1
(ui ).
d

ni = nPi =

nh
(ui ),

, (IV.5) .

55

ui =

xi x
.

IV.6.


( ) :

, , ;
*1 yi ( )
nh
(ui ), n , h
yi =

*0

x x
ui = i

(u) =

1 u22
e .
2

*2 ( xi , yi )
.

,
.
, .

8:

xi

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

ni

13

38

74

106

85

30

10

, :

x = 34,7; = 7,38.

56

xi x

(ui )

nh
(ui )

xi

ni

xi x

15

-19,7

-2,67

0,0113

20

13

-14,7

-1,99

0,0551

14

25

38

-9,7

-1,31

0,1691

42

30

74

-4,7

-0,63

0,3271

82

35

106

0,3

0,05

0,3984

99

40

85

5,3

0,73

0,3056

76

45

30

10,3

1,41

0,1476

37

50

10

15,3

2,09

0,0449

11

55

20,3

2,77

0,0086

ui =

yi =

y = 366

n = 366

.70
108
2
90.6

Y Axis (units)

. 4

()

(. . 4)

(
. 5).

5
54.4
7
36.3
8
18.2

0.2

0
11.0

19.0

27.0

35.0

43.0

51.0

43.0

51 .0

59.0

X Axis (units )

. 4.

116

Y Axis (units)

,
,

).

3
72.5

.20

96.9

77.6

58.3

39.0

19.7

0.40
11.0

1 9.0

27.0

35 .0

X Axis (units )

57
. 5.

5 9.0

58


. .

IV.7.


,
.
.

7.

As =

m3
3

m3

).

Ek =

m4
3 ( m4
4

).

9: :

xi

10,2 10,4 10,6

ni

10,8 11,0 11,2 11,4 11,6


13

25

20

12

10

11,8

12,0

, ,
:

n (u + 1)
i

= ni ui4 + 4 ni ui3 + 6 ni ui2 + 4 ni ui + n.

59

xi

ni

ui

nu
i i

2
nu
i i

ni ui3

ni ui4

ni (ui + 1) 4

10,2

-4

-8

32

-128

512

162

10,4

-3

-9

27

-81

243

48

10,6

-2

-16

32

-64

128

10,8

13

-1

-13

13

-13

13

11,0

25

A1 = 46

11,2

20

20

20

20

20

320

11,4

12

24

48

96

192

972

11,6

10

30

90

270

810

2560

11,8

24

96

384

1536

3750

12,0

25

125

625

1296

-286

A2 = 103

nu =

n = 100

= 57

25

895

nu

2
i

nu

= 383

3
i

= 609

nu
i

4
i

= 4079

n (u + 1)
i

= 9141

n (u + 1)
i

n (u + 1)
i

= 9141;

4
3
2
= nu
i i + 4 nu
i i + 6 nu
i i + 4 nu
i i + n=

= 4079 + 4 609 + 6 383+ 4 57 + 100 = 9141.

, .

M1* = 057
, ; M 2* = 383
, ; D = 014
, ,

= 014
, .

*
3

nu
=
i

3
i

609
= 609
, ;
100

n
ni ui4 4079

*
M4 =
=
= 4079
, .
n
100
60

m3 = M 3* 3M1* M 2* + 2( M1* )

] h =
3

= [ 609
, 3 057
, 383
, + 2 (057
, )3 ] (02
, )3 =
= 00007
,
;

m4 = M 4* 4 M1* M 3* + 6 ( M1* ) M 2* 3 ( M1* )


2

] h =
4

= [ 4079
, 4 057
, 609
, + 6 (057
, )2 383
, 3 (057
, )4 ] (02
, )4 =
= 0054
, .
As =

, , :

Ek =

m4
3=
4

0054
,

014
,

m3
00007
,
=

,
3 = 001
3
014
,

3 = 024
, .

:
.

IV.8.

( ) .

,
.
, ,

.
, ,
. ,

0 ,

= 0.

,
.

61

:
, .

,
.

, :
;
.
,

. , ,
.
.

()
()

Ho .

H A , .

, ,
a 10,

, , ,

a 10. : H o : a = 10; H A : a 10.

. ,

H o : = 5 .

,
. ,
:
5.

IV.9.

62

Ho: = bi ,

Ho : > 5

bi


, .
, ()
.
. ,
.

, .
, .

, .

1.
:

, ;
, .

2. ;
.
0,05 0,01. , ,
0,05, ,
( ).

IV.10. .

IV.10.1. .


,
. : F
-, t ,

2 .


K.

( )

63

K , .

,
, K
:

s12
F= 2.
s2

, ,
,
-.

,
() .

()

, .

, ,
,

s12 = 20,

s22 = 5, F

s12 20
F = 2 =
= 4.
5
s2

. .
.

,
:
, ,
.

64

,
.
( )
,
.

,

.

K ,
.
. ,
, , .

k .

(
.

K > k , k .

65

K < k , k .

K < k1, K > k2 , k1 < k2 .

k > 0 ):
K < k , K > k ,

K > k .

IV.10.2. .


.

,

k ,

k ,

P K > k = .

(IV.9)

,
, .

66

1. ,
, ,
;

K < k

K > k ,

( ,
() ).

2.

, , (
, ). ,
, .
. ,
(IV.9),
.
, ,
,
.

3. , ; ,
. , , ,

.
, ,
.
,
, , .
, . ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, ,
.

IV.10.3.
.

,

.
:

67

K < k (k < 0).

, ,
, , ,

k ,

P K < k = .

K < k1, K > k2 .


, , ,
, ,
,

k1

k2 ,

P{ K < k1} + P{ K > k2} = .

(IV.10)

, .

(, 2)

k ( k > 0 ),

P K < k = P K > k .

(IV.10), :

. .

68

P{ K > k2} =

.
2

IV.10.4.
. .

, ,
, ,
.
,
, .

8:

, ,
, .

,
.
. ,
, .
, ,
( )
,

1 .

, ,
,
,

1 .

; ,

, , , .

69

1.

1 ,

, ,
.

2. , ,
, . ,

. ,

= 0,

, ,

( ).
:
?
. ,
, , , ,
.

, ,

, , .

3.
.

IV.11.
.
.

,
, (

),

70

9. 3
.

.
(
,
). ()
( )
.
,
,
(. ).
:

13

38

74

106

85

30

10

14

42

82

99

76

37

11

, , :
*3 ()
, , ;
*4 () ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.

xi

n :

x1

x2

...

xm

n1

n2

...

nm

ni

2 ( - ) . , , .
71

,
,

.

ni .

=
2

( ni ni ) 2
ni

(IV.11)

, ,
(IV.11) , ,
.
,
(IV.11),

n
,

. (IV.11)

2 ,

-.

k = s 1 r ,

s ( ) ;
r

, ,
(
), r = 2

k = s 1 r = s 1 2 = s 3.

, , ,
, ,
,
:

72

P 2 > 2 ( ;k) = .

2 > 2 ( ;k),

2 < 2 ( ;k).

, ,

, ,

Ho :

, ,

=
2

( ni ni ) 2

(IV.12)

ni

2 ,
k = s 3,




*5

2 ( ;k) .

2 < 2 ( ;k) ,

;
*6

2 > 2 ( ;k) , .

73

1. ,
, 50. 8-10 ;
, .

2. ,
,
, . ,
, ,
, ,
.

3. (IV.12)

2 =

ni2
ni

n.

10: 0,05,
.
, .

13

38

74

106

85

30

14

14

42

82

99

76

37

13

2 ,

ni

ni

ni ni

(ni ni)2

(ni ni)2
ni

36

12

13

14

-1

0,07

169

12,07

38

42

-4

16

0,38

1444

34,38

74

ni2

ni2
ni

74

82

-8

64

0,78

5476

66,78

106

99

49

0,49

11236

113,49

85

76

81

1,07

7225

95,07

30

37

-7

49

1,32

900

24,32

14

13

0,08

196

15,08

366

366

2 = 719
, :

373,19

2 = 719
,

ni2
ni

n = 37319
, 366 = 719
, .

, ,
( )

s = 8; k = 8 3= 5.

2 (0,05;5) = 11,1 .

= 0,05

, ,

k = 5,

2 < 2

. ,
. ,
.

75

1.


,
:

1.1.

x = x + y + 1

y = y + 1 + 2 x 2

1.2.

x = x 2 y

y = ln 1 x + x 2 ln 3

1.4.

x = ( 2 x y )( x 2 )

y = xy 2

x = x 2 y + 2 2

y = arctg x 2 + xy

1.6.

x = x 2 y

y = x 2 ( y 2 ) 2

1.7.

y2 y +1

x = ln
3

2
2
y = x y

1.8.

x = ln 1 y + y 2

y = 3 x 2 + 8 y

1.9.

x = ( x y ) 2 + 3 2

2
y = e y x e

1.10.

x = ( x + y ) 2 1

y = y 2 x + 1

1.3.

x = ln 2 y 2

y = e x e y

1.5.

2.

,
, , -,
:
2.1.

y V + 2 y IV + 14 y + 36 y + 23 y + 68 y = 0

2.2.

y V + 5 y IV + 15 y + 48 y + 44 y + 74 y = 0

2.3.

y V + 3 y IV + 10 y + 22 y + 23 y + 12 y = 0

2.4.

y V + 4 y IV + 16 y + 25 y + 13 y + 9 y = 0

2.5.

y V + 4 y IV + 9 y + 16 y + 19 y + 13 y = 0
76

3.

2.6.

y V + 3 y IV + 6 y + 7 y + 4 y + 4 y = 0

2.7.

y V + 2 y IV + 5 y + 6 y + 5 y + 2 y = 0

2.8.

y V + 2 y IV + 4 y + 6 y + 5 y + 4 y = 0

2.9.

y IV + 3 y + 26 y + 74 y + 85 y = 0

2.10.

y IV + 13 y + 16 y + 55 y + 76 y = 0

.
) ).

0 < x < l, t > 0

2
2U
2 U
=a
t2
x2

U ( x, 0 )
2
= sin
x.
t
l

3.1.1.

U ( 0, t ) = U ( l , t ) = 0 ;

3.1.2.

U ( 0, t ) =

U ( l, t )
5
U ( x, 0 )
= 0 ; U ( x, 0) = sin
x;
= 0.
x
2l
t

3.1.3.

U ( 0, t ) =

U ( l, t )
= 0;
x

U ( x, 0 ) = 0 ;

U ( x, 0 )

= cos x .
t
2l

3.1.4.

U ( 0, t ) =

U ( l, t )
= 0;
x

U ( x, 0 ) = 0 ;

U ( x, 0)
= A( l x ) .
t

3.1.5.

U ( 0, t )
= U ( l, t ) = 0 ;
x

0 < x < l, t > 0

U ( x, 0 ) = 0 ;

U ( x, 0) = cos

x;
l

U ( x, 0 )
= 0.
t

77

2
U
2 U
=a
t
x2

3.2.1.

U ( 0, t ) = U ( l , t ) = 0 ;

3.2.2.

U ( 0, t ) =

U ( l, t )
= 0;
x

U ( x, 0) = sin

3.2.3.

U ( 0, t ) =

U ( l, t )
= 0;
x

U ( x, 0) = A( l x ) .

3.2.4.

U ( 0, t ) =

U ( l, t )
= 0;
x

U ( x, 0 ) = Ae t .

3.2.5.

U ( 0, t )
= U ( l, t ) = 0 ;
x

U ( x, 0 ) = A x ,

A = const .

5
x.
2l

U ( x, 0) = cos

x.
l

4. 100 -10.
, ,
1 (. ):
1). ;
2).
;
3). ,

;
4).

;
5). = 0,05
.

1.
1.

2.13

5.09

3.02

8.81

8.34

78

9.56

9.34

9.89

11.03 11.06

2.

3.12

8.13

6.43

8.72

8.73

9.45

9.46

9.98

10.32

9.28

8.22

2.43

11.51

8.56

4.96

6.04

10.57

4.94

3.28

8.34

7.21

2.51

9.86

10.34

5.55

9.13

6.67

9.86

4.34

5.37

5.17

3.08

7.94

7.29

6.47

8.87

5.36

6.82

4.37

6.87

7.34

8.17

8.78

10.78

9.55

5.78

2.57

10.54

3.41

4.39

7.56

6.94

5.77

11.76

3.87

3.74

6.64

5.78

4.27

5.84

7.74

5.35

8.13

2.54

2.91

6.63

7.67

4.87

5.48

7.07

7.85

4.56

2.55

7.36

10.76

9.66

10.78

3.95

2.32

11.98

8.51

3.45

10.33

8.15

9.35

9.18

10.99

2.98

8.22

5.99

4.02

6.81

4.34

6.56

7.34

7.89

8.03

8.06

2.42

6.13

4.43

5.72

5.73

6.45

2.46

3.98

2.32

5.28

4.34

2.73

5.54

4.56

5.96

6.04

3.57

7.94

8.28

8.34

3.24

5.57

6.86

5.34

5.55

6.13

5.67

4.86

4.34

4.37

2.11

7.28

5.94

4.29

7.47

6.87

7.36

6.82

5.56

7.56

6.31

5.17

4.34

4.17

5.78

6.78

4.55

8.78

6.57

8.54

7.54

7.36

6.56

4.94

4.77

6.76

4.87

8.74

8.64

7.78

3.67

4.34

4.74

5.35

6.13

6.54

3.91

6.63

7.67

6.87

4.28

6.67

5.85

4.56

5.55

6.36

2.76

5.66

5.78

3.95

7.32

2.98

4.51

6.45

6.33

6.15

5.35

8.18

8.99

4.98

79

10.56 11.56

3.

4.

5.

7.12

8.99

5.02

5.81

5.34

7.56

8.34

5.89

5.03

8.06

9.12

6.13

4.43

4.72

4.73

5.45

5.46

7.98

6.32

4.28

5.22

5.73

3.54

7.56

6.96

9.04

8.57

5.94

9.28

5.34

5.24

4.57

4.86

4.34

7.55

6.13

7.67

7.86

5.34

6.37

4.11

7.28

5.94

6.29

8.47

3.87

7.36

8.82

6.56

8.56

4.31

4.17

6.34

5.17

7.78

7.78

4.55

7.78

5.57

7.54

6.44

3.36

3.56

6.94

5.77

7.76

8.87

5.74

7.64

8.78

6.57

6.34

4.74

7.35

5.13

5.54

5.91

6.63

5.67

9.87

5.28

7.67

5.85

5.56

6.55

4.36

7.76

5.66

7.78

8.95

4.32

5.98

7.51

4.45

4.33

8.15

6.35

8.18

8.99

9.98

2.52

3.99

4.56

4.81

5.44

6.56

6.34

6.89

7.03

7.06

3.42

4.13

3.43

3.72

5.73

6.45

6.46

6.98

7.32

7.28

2.22

2.73

5.54

4.56

4.96

7.04

5.57

6.94

6.28

8.34

4.24

4.57

5.86

5.34

4.55

5.13

5.67

6.86

5.34

8.37

3.11

4.28

4.94

4.29

5.47

6.87

4.36

5.82

6.56

8.56

3.31

3.17

5.34

5.17

5.78

6.78

6.55

5.78

5.57

8.54

2.44

2.36

2.56

4.94

4.77

5.76

5.87

5.74

5.64

8.78

4.57

5.34

5.74

4.35

5.13

6.54

6.91

6.63

7.67

8.87

3.28

3.67

4.85

5.56

4.55

5.36

5.76

6.66

7.78

8.95

4.52

4.98

4.51

6.45

5.33

5.15

4.35

7.18

7.99

8.98

2.52

3.99

4.56

4.81

5.44

6.56

6.34

6.89

7.03

7.06

3.42

4.13

3.43

3.72

5.73

6.45

6.46

6.98

7.32

7.28

2.22

2.73

5.54

4.56

4.96

7.04

5.57

6.94

6.28

8.34

4.24

4.57

5.86

5.34

4.55

5.13

5.67

6.86

5.34

8.37

3.11

4.28

4.94

4.29

5.47

6.87

4.36

5.82

6.56

8.56

3.31

3.17

5.34

5.17

5.78

6.78

6.55

5.78

5.57

8.54

2.44

2.36

2.56

4.94

4.77

5.76

5.87

5.74

5.64

8.78

4.57

5.34

5.74

4.35

5.13

6.54

6.91

6.63

7.67

8.87

3.28

3.67

4.85

5.56

4.55

5.36

5.76

6.66

7.78

8.95

4.52

4.98

4.51

6.45

5.33

5.15

4.35

7.18

7.99

8.98

80

6.

9.52

7.99

6.56

7.81

5.44

4.56

5.34

6.89

8.03

4.06

5.42

3.13

3.43

5.72

6.73

6.45

6.46

6.98

9.32

9.28

6.22

4.73

9.54

5.56

9.96

3.04

7.57

6.94

7.28

4.34

2.24

2.57

1.86

7.34

7.55

9.13

3.67

6.86

6.34

6.37

4.11

3.28

2.94

8.29

3.47

8.87

6.36

4.82

3.56

3.56

9.31

3.17

4.34

4.17

7.78

6.78

3.55

5.78

4.57

8.54

2.04

8.36

5.56

6.94

1.77

8.76

5.87

7.74

6.64

9.78

2.59

3.34

6.74

9.35

5.13

4.54

4.91

5.63

5.67

5.87

1.28

7.07

4.85

6.56

2.55

6.36

6.76

7.66

8.78

9.95

4.57

6.98

5.51

7.45

8.33

5.15

4.35

8.18

4.99

4.98

81

7.

8.

9.

3.52

5.99

5.56

3.81

1.44

2.56

2.34

6.89

2.03

3.06

5.42

4.13

4.43

2.72

3.73

4.45

1.46

6.98

7.32

2.28

2.22

3.73

1.54

3.56

2.96

3.04

4.57

6.94

5.28

3.34

1.24

4.57

4.86

2.34

5.55

5.13

4.67

6.86

4.34

5.37

1.11

1.28

5.94

4.29

3.47

3.87

5.36

5.82

0.56

7.56

2.31

4.17

4.34

6.17

4.78

4.78

3.55

1.78

6.57

5.54

5.04

3.56

3.56

0.94

3.77

4.76

4.87

2.74

3.64

6.78

2.59

2.34

4.74

3.35

4.13

5.54

4.91

5.63

7.67

8.87

6.28

1.07

2.85

1.56

4.55

4.36

5.76

6.66

6.78

3.95

3.57

3.98

1.51

7.45

5.33

3.15

2.35

8.18

4.99

0.98

2.52

5.99

2.56

1.81

1.44

2.56

2.34

1.89

7.03

3.06

1.42

3.13

3.43

2.72

5.73

4.45

1.46

1.98

1.32

2.28

0.22

4.73

1.54

3.56

2.96

3.04

4.57

6.94

5.28

3.34

1.24

2.57

4.86

2.34

5.55

5.13

1.67

1.86

4.34

5.37

6.11

1.28

1.94

4.29

3.47

3.87

5.36

5.82

1.56

7.56

2.31

5.17

4.34

6.17

2.78

4.78

3.55

1.78

6.57

4.54

1.04

3.56

3.56

3.94

3.77

1.76

4.87

1.74

3.64

6.78

2.59

2.34

3.74

3.35

4.13

5.54

1.91

5.63

1.67

1.87

4.28

2.07

2.85

1.56

5.55

4.36

5.76

6.66

2.78

3.95

3.57

3.98

1.51

7.45

1.33

3.15

2.35

1.18

4.99

1.98

2.52

2.99

1.56

1.81

0.44

2.56

1.34

1.89

7.03

3.06

1.42

2.13

3.43

1.72

5.73

4.45

1.46

6.98

7.32

1.28

2.22

3.73

1.54

3.56

2.96

3.04

4.57

1.94

5.28

3.34

1.24

2.57

4.86

2.34

1.55

5.13

4.67

6.86

4.34

5.37

8.11

5.28

1.94

6.29

3.47

1.87

1.36

5.82

6.56

7.56

6.31

6.17

4.34

6.17

1.78

4.78

3.55

1.78

6.57

4.54

2.04

9.56

3.56

7.94

3.77

1.76

1.87

1.74

3.64

6.78

8.59

1.34

2.74

3.35

4.13

5.54

4.91

5.63

1.67

8.87

2.28

1.07

2.85

9.56

1.55

4.36

5.76

6.66

1.78

3.95

3.57

8.98

1.51

7.45

1.33

3.15

2.35

1.18

4.99

8.98

82

10.

6.52

5.99

3.56

1.81

0.44

2.56

2.34

6.89

7.03

3.06

3.42

3.13

2.43

2.72

5.73

4.45

7.46

6.98

7.32

2.28

1.22

3.73

3.54

3.56

2.96

3.04

4.57

6.94

5.28

3.34

3.24

2.57

1.86

2.34

5.55

5.13

4.67

6.86

4.34

5.37

5.11

4.28

4.94

6.29

3.47

3.87

5.36

5.82

6.56

7.56

6.31

6.17

5.34

6.17

2.78

4.78

3.55

0.78

6.57

4.54

4.04

7.56

3.56

7.94

3.77

8.76

4.87

1.74

3.64

6.78

7.59

3.34

2.74

3.35

4.13

5.54

3.91

5.63

1.67

8.87

3.28

4.07

6.85

9.56

5.55

4.36

7.76

6.66

2.78

3.95

1.57

1.98

5.51

4.45

1.33

3.15

2.35

8.18

4.99

8.98

83

.3
3
I.
5
I.1.
. 5
I.2. 9
I.3. ..9
II. ...11
II.1. 11
II.1.1...12
II.1.2. ..12
II.1.3. .16
II.2. .18
II.3. 19
III. ...21
III.1. ..21
III.2. . .22
III.3. . .23
III.4.
( )26
III.5. .29
III.6. 30
III.7. ...31
III.8. .

84

..33
III.9. ..34
IV. . 37
IV.1.
. ..37
IV.2. .39
IV.2.1. 39
IV.2.2. ,
..39
IV.2.3. .
..41
IV.3.
.....41
IV.4. .43
IV.5. .44
IV.5.1. .44
IV.5.2. ..45
IV.6.
..47
IV.7.
. ..49
IV.8. . ( ) ...50
IV.9. ...51
IV.10. .52
IV.10.1. .52
IV.10.2. .54
IV.10.3.

85

55
IV.10.4. . ...56
IV.11. . ...57

.62
.67
.68

86