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. ..


-

:


()
() , .
, -
. , .



,
.
, :

r
r
r
r
E (t ) = Re( E e i t ), H (t ) = Re( H e i t ).
r
r
E (t ) H (t ) - r
r
, E H - -

, -
, t - . ,
.

(
). ,

.
r
r
E H .

Im
,
k2
,
:

r
r
E k 2 E = 0,
r
r
H k 2 H = 0,

k - ,

k = (i + 2 ) ,

Re

Re(k 1 ) > 0
Re(k 2 ) < 0

k1

. 1. k .

- , - , - .

, , , - , .
,

0 = 4 107 / . - , , k ,
. ,
(. 1).

.
:
r r
r
r
j = E , j = i E .



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:
r r
j / j
= /( ) .
, .. ( ) .

k = 2 0 . ,
v = 1 / 0

= 2 v / = 2 / 2 0 .

k = 2 /
.
, ..
( )

k = i 0 .
(
, ) .
. ,
, = 2 / Im(k ) = 2 2 / k . h = 1 / Re(k ) =


(. 2)
() 1 , r ( 5 - 500 ) .
(),
, - (), . , (
r )
. ,
r . ( ) (
).

( . 2). , ,
.
( . 2),
, r . ,
,

2 / k = /( 2 ) -

. -
( )
, e .

kr , r . , kr >> 1 ( , )
, kr << 1 - .

. 2. .



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H z , - H r ( , z , r - ).
, , .
.
( ) .
.
,
. ( ),

M
Hz =
hz ,
4 r 3

M
Hr =
hr ,
4 r 3

h z hr - ,

2 2
3 3
kr ,
h z = 2 2 9 (9 + 9kr + 4k r + k r )e
(1)
k r

h = k 2 r 2 ( I K I K ).
1 1
2
2
r
M - ( M = S N I , S , N - , I ), k - , I 1 , I 2 , K 1 K 2 - kr / 2 .
, h z hr kr . (1)
. 3.
( kr << 1 )
-

. h z
hr . (1)
:

h z 1,

k 2 r 2 (2)

.
h
r
4

,

h z

k , .

( kr >> 1 ) hr

h z .
(1)

18

,
z

k 2r 2
(3)

6
h .
r kr

1000.000

hz
hr

100.000

hz / h r
10.000
1.000
0.100
0.010
0.001

0.1

|kr|

1.0
10.0 100.0
. 3. h z , hr , h z / hr kr .

k
.
r , , ( -



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,
,
k ) - .
H r H z
. , , ,
kr = 0.1 ,

Hz

kr = 100 , (. . 3)

Hr

H z H r ,

. 4. H z H r , (. 4).
.

H r H z ,

H r
kr (. 3), H z kr (. 3). H z / H r = h z / hr , kr (. 3).
~ . , (. 3)

H z / H r -

kr , -

~ = r 2 / kr 2 .
0
, . ,
~
.
, r
. r ( r / 2 )
( h ). , ( r / 2 h ).
- (), :
1.
, .

,
.
2. , ,
. ,
( , ).



. , ,
r ,
, r z . -



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.
t H r (t ) H z (t ) H r H z
:

H r (t ) = H r cos( t + r ) = H r cos( + r ),

H z (t ) = H z cos( t + z ) = H z cos( + z ),
= t - , r z -
r z .


,
. (4) (
)
, .

t ,
= t = const ,

(4)

Hz
Hb

Ha

H (t)

Hr

. 5. .

H r (t ) H z (t ) r
H (t) , (. 5):

r
r
r
H (t) = H r (t ) 1r + H z (t ) 1z ,

1r 1z - , ().


H r , H z rz = z r (

), H a ,

( ),

(. 5).
:

H = ( H 2 + H 2 + 2 H H sin +
z
r
r z
rz
a

2
2
+ H r + H z 2 H r H z sin rz ) / 2,

2
2
H b = ( H r + H z + 2 H r H z sin rz

H r 2 + H z 2 2 H r H z sin rz ) / 2,

2
Hr

Hz
),
tg 2 = 2 H cos rz /(1
2
Hr
z

2
2
2
2
2
H r = H a cos + H b sin ,
2
2
2
2
2
H z = H a sin + H b cos ,

2
H
H

b
b
(tg + ctg ) /(1
).
tg rz =
2
Ha

Ha
, H a , H

, -

, , z r , .
, .



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100
80
60

( ) = 0 0 ,

H r << H z ( ) = 90 0 .

20
(. 6). 0
,
|kr|

,
0.1
1.0
10.0 100.0
-
. 6. kr .
.

40

H z / H r . ,

~.

H z H r .
,
( ), , . ,
.


,
. , H r >> H z


( ), ( ) .
(0.15 - 40 ),

.
.
, . , - . (100
- 10000 *),
.
, ,
( ).
(. 7)
,
- . , ,
, , .
. 1
. 2

1
(1 2 . 7).

(. 8)
-
2

,
. 2

, H a .
900 H .

. 7. .



____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

. 1

,

, .


( ),
( ) . , ,


.
, . 8.
, (,
.
, ) .
, ,
.
, , , . , , ,
.

, X,
.. YZ (. 9), H x , X, :

. 2

Hx =

M
h , h x = (1 + kr )e kr .
3 x
2 r

( kr << 1 )
,

h x = 1.

,
( kr >> 1 )

h x = kr e

kr


h x . 10.

Y
Z
. 9.
.

h x , . h x ,
-, , , , .
hx
1.00000
50 - 800 , , 0.10000
, , . 0.01000
, h x ,
H x ,
0.00100
kr (. 10),

0.00010
, kr , - 0.00001
H x .

(. 7, 8).

|kr|
0.1

1.0

10.0

. 10. h x kr .



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,
,
.
,
.
, ,
.

1
160

80
40
20

320
640
1280

.
.

20
.

320
640
1280

1 20

160

-
20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 1280 .
160 .
- (. 11) 5 : , ,
, . 2560 .
, , .
, . . -
- 1 20 .
- (. 12) , ,
.
6 :
, , , , . , , . ( 19.84375, 39.6875, 79.375,
158.75, 317.5, 635 1270 ) -

80
40
20

.
.

20

. 11. -.

, -.
() . ,
.



, -.

.
-

10

MN
.

10

10 30 100

80

300

1000

0.3

3000

0.1

10000

160

320

40

640

20

1280

. 12. -.



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H z H r .
,
, ,
.
:
1. , , - 160 .
, - ,
.
2. H z - .
3.
.
4. H r .
5. .
6. H z H r .
( )
. , . (), ,
. , .. . :
1. , , -
160 .
, - ,
.

2. H x , .
3. .
4.
H x .
( ,
) , ..
. ,
, ,
.

.
1. ( , , ,
,
, -, ).
2. ( , , , , , ).
3. ( , , ,
).
4. - ( ).
5. .

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