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Basics of Panchanga

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Basics of Panchanga
S. Narasimha Rao, Chartered Engineer, 23, Perumal Koil Street, Chennai ,India 600 033.
Ph: 2485 1192 Email : snrao@globoteg.com Panchanga
All instances of time have five characteristics viz. Vaara, Thithi, Nakshatra, Yoga and Karana. These five characteristics are detailed for all the days of the year in an almanac which is called Panchanga. (Pancha + anga). These characteristics are derived from the positions of Sun and Moon. Positions of other planets is also required for determining Muhurthas and preparation of horoscopes Panchanga is used for knowing the five basic characteristics of time for sankalpa, locating dates of vratas, locating dates of shraddhas, locating muhurthas and look for auspicious / inauspicious times by the common user. It is used for preparation of horoscopes, fixing muhurths and predictions by Astrologers.

By

Planets (Grahas)
The nine planets are-: 1. Surya or Ravi Sun, 2. Soma or Chandra - Moon, 3. Kuja or Mangala - Mars, 4. Budha or Soumya Mercury, 5. Guru or Brihaspati 6. Sukra or Bhargava Venus, 7. Sani or Manda Saturn, 8. Rahu or Thama - Dragon's head, 9. Kethu or Sikhi - Dragons Tail. Jupiter,

From Sun to Saturn are planets and Rahu and Kethu are imaginary planets. They are actually the nodes (points) of intersection of the imaginary paths of Sun and Moon, located at diametrically opposite points. Rahu and Kethu (Dragons' head and tail) are also known as shadowy planets. In the Indian system of Astronomy, Sun is considered a planet, eventhough it is the source of light and heat unlike the western system where by definition, planets are not the source of light and heat.

Time taken by the Planets to move in the Orbit


All the planets move clockwise (referred to as forward), except the shadow planets Rahu and Kethu which move anti-clockwise (referred to as backward or Vakra or Retrogression). The Sun moves round the Earth completing one full revolution in 365.256374 days. Moon completes one revolution of Earth in 27.32966 days. Duration of other planets for one revolution is: Budha 87.969 days, Shukra 224.7 days, Bhouma 686.98 days, Guru 4332.585 days, Shani 10759.22 days. Rahu and Kethu move backwards at the rate of one revolution in 6793.394774 days. Shani is the slowest of the planets and has acquired the name Manda (very slow) and Sthira (permanent). The concept of all planets moving round the Earth referred above is called Geo-centric model. The modern concept is the Earth and all other planets are moving round the Sun which is called Helio-centric model.

Positions of Planets
Paths of all these planets are different from each other and are eliptical (say oval for simplicity) and therefore their angular speeds vary from day to day. Calculations involved in determining the positions of these planets with respect to Earth are complex. For the purpose of Panchanga, the angular positions of all planets with respect to Earth are calculated for each day. The positions are expressed in Degrees, Minutes and Seconds. Degrees are also expressed as Rashis and Bhagas (each rashi being wqual to 30 degrees).

Zodiac and Rashi


A band of sky divided into twelve equal parts is referred to as Zodiac. One full revolution is also represented as 360 degrees. The 360 degrees is divided into 12 parts. Each part is called a Rashi or sign. Each sign contains 30 degrees. A degree is also called an Amsa. Each, amsa is divided into 60 kalas (minutes), and each kala into 60 vikalas (seconds). In the texts, the planetary positions are referred by units; Rashi - Bhaga - Kala - Vikala - Tarpara.

Bhaga is equal to a degree, Kala is equal to a minute, Vikala to a second and Tarpara is one sixtieth of a second. The 12 Rashis in the Zodiac are

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Basics of Panchanga

Sl
1 2 3 4 5 6

Rashi
Mesha Vrushabha Mithuna Karkataka Simha Kanya

English Name
Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo

Symbol
Ram Bull Twins Crab Lion Virgin

Sl
7 8 9 10 11 12

Rashi
Thula Vruschika Dhanus Makara Kumbha Meena

English Name
Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces

Symbol
Balance Scorpion Centaur Crocodile Water Bearer Fishes

Kundali
Kundali is a pictorial representation of the planetory positions. Kundali is a square grid of 16 squares (4 rows of 4 columns) and the central 4 are ignored. The second square from the left in the top line is called the first rashi and the count is clockwise. Meena Mesha Vrushabha Mithuna 12 1 2 3

Kumbha 11

Karkataka 4

Makara 10

Simha 5

Dhanus 9

Vrushchika 8

Thula 7

Kanya 6

Two systems of dates


Souramana and Chandramana are two systems of dates which are in use.

Sankranti [Sankramana]
The point of time when the sun leaves one sign of zodiac (or House / Rashi) and enters another is called Sankranti or Sankramana. In other words, Sankramana is said to occur everytime sun enters the next rashi. This event is a milestone for Souramana (measure based on Sun).

Soura Masa [Solar Month]


The period between two successive sankrantis, or the time taken by the sun to pass completely through one sign of the zodiac is called a Soura masa or Solar month. A sankranti on which a solar month commences takes its name from the sign-name of that month. The Mesha Sankranti marks vernal equinox, the moment of the sun's passing the first point of Aries (Mesha). Sankranti marks the beginning of a Soura month. There are 12 solar months in a year. The soura months have the same names as that of Rashis. They also have Tamil equivalent names. They are: 1. Thai, 11. Masi and 12. Panguni. Chittirai, 2. Vaikasi, 3. Aani, 4. Aadi, 5. Aavani, 6. Purattasi, 7. Aipasi, 8. Karthikai, 9. Margali, 10.

Length of Months
Since the apparent motion of the sun and moon is not always the same, the lengths of the lunar and solar months vary. The lengths of the solar months are givenbelow:Name of the Month Duration of each month Rashi Tamil Days Hours Mins. Secs.
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Basics of Panchanga

Name Mesha Vrishabha Mithuna Karka Simha Kanya Tula Vrischika Dhanus Makara Kumbha Meena

Name Chittirai Vaikasi Aani Aadi Ayani Purattasi Aipasi Kartigai Margali Tai Masi Panguni Total

30 31 31 31 31 30 29 29 29 29 29 30 365

22 9 14 11 0 10 21 12 8 10 19 8

12 37 34 13 50 57 40 12 24 57 24 7 6 12

0 36 24 36 0 36 48 24 48 36 0 42 30

The average (mean) length in days of solar and lunar months, and of a lunar year is as follows:Surya Siddhantha Solar month (1/12 of a sidereal year) Lunar month Lunar year (12 months) 30.438229707 29.530587946 354.36705535 Modern Science 30.438030 29.530588 354.367056

Souramana dates [Solar Dates]


The souramana dates are dates of a Soura Masa. These are counted serially from 1 beginning with a Sankramana day till the next sankramana (similar to the English calendar dates)

Dakshinayana and Uttarayana Punya kalas


The Karka Sankranti, three solar months after Mesha sankranti is called Dakshinayana (South-ward-going) Sankranti. It is the point of the summer soltice, and marks the moment when the sun turns southward. The Tula Sankranti, 3 solar months later, marks the autumnal equinox, or the moment of the sun's passing the first point of Libra. The Makara Sankranti, 3 solar months after Tula sankranti, is called Uttarayana (Northward going) Sankranti the point or moment when the sun turns northward. It is the point of the winter soltice Karkataka Sankramana and Makara Sankramana are called Dakshinayana and Uttarayana Punya kalas respectively, as the two Ayanas begin on these days. One year consists of two ayanas. Each ayana is spread over six soura masas. Each ayana signifies the suns direction. Thus during Dakshinayana, Sun is facing southern hemisphere of earth and during the Uttarayana, Sun is facing Northern hemisphere.

Vishuvath Punya kalas Mesha Sankramana and Thula Sankramana are known as Vishuvath Punya kalas.
Vishnu Pada Punya kalas Vrushabha, Simha, Vrushchika and Kumbha Sankramanas are known as Vishnu Pada Punya kalas. Shadashiti Punya kalas Mithuna, Kanya, Dhanus and Meena Sankramanas are known as Shadashiti Punya kalas. Punya kalas Generally, all auspicious events are not to be celebrated during 16 ghatis before the Punya kala and 16 ghatis thereafter (1 ghati = 24 minutes, roughly 6 hours on either side). However, for the Dakshinayana / Utharayana and Vishuvath Punya kalas, Pakshini should be observed. Pakshini means, two nights and a day or two days and a night depending on whether the Punya kala is during day or night (middle of the Pakshini period). Entire Pakshini should be avoided for auspicious events.

Chandramana Masas (Lunar Months)


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The period of time between two successive Amavasya or Pournami is a Chandra masa. It is the time of the moon's synodic revolution. Krishna month [Amantha masas] ends with the moment of Amavasyas end. Sukla month [Pournamntha masas] ends with the moment of Pournamis end. Chandra masas derive their name based on the nakshatra occuring during the Pournami thithi of the month. There are 12 lunar months. The months with the nakshatras referred above given in brackets are: 1. Chaitra [Chitta], 2. Vaishakha [Vishakha], 3.Jyeshta [Jyeshta], 4. Aashada [Poorvashada/ Uttarashada], 5. Shravana [Shravana], 6. Bhadrapada [Poorvabhadra/ Uttarabhadra], 7. Aashwayuja [Ashwini], 8. Karthika [Kruttika], 9. Marghashira [Mrugashira], 10. Pushya [Pushya], 11. Magha [Makha] and 12. Phalguna [Pubba(Poorvaphalguni)/ Uttara(Uttaraphalguni)]. In all parts of India luni-solar calculations (Chandramana) are used for most religious purposes, but solar calculations (souramana) are used where it is prescribed by-the religious authorities.

Paksha
The paksha is the moon's fortnight. The fortnight during which the moon is waxing is called Shukla or Shuddha. The fortnight during which the moon is waning is called Krishna or Bahula. The first fortnight begins with the end of Amavasya and lasts upto the end of Pournami; the second fortnight lasts from the end of Pournami to end of Amavasya. Each chandramana masa consists of both the pakshas (halves), Shukla paksha (Bright half) and Krishna Paksha (Dark half). Shukla paksha (Shuddha) ends with the end of Pournami when the angular distance between Sun and Moon will be 180 degrees. Krishna Paksha (Bahula) ends at the end of Amavasya when the angular distance between Sun and Moon will be 0 degrees.

Thithi
The moment of new moon, or that point of time when the longitudes of the sun and the moon are equal is called Amavasya (means dwelling together of the sun and the moon). A thithi is the time occupied by the moon in increasing her distance from the sun by 12 degrees. In other words, at the exact point of time when the moon moving eastwards from the sun after the Amavasya, leaves the sun behind by 12 degrees, the first thithi, Pratipad (Prathama), ends. [Each thithi is said to span an angular distance of 12 degrees.] One complete synodic revolution of the moon occupies 30 thithis for the 360 degrees. Since the motions of the sun and the moon are always varying in speed the length of a thithi constantly alters. The variations in the length of a thithi are as follows :Thithis Ghati Pala Vipala Hours Minutes Seconds Average or mean length Greatest length Least length 59 65 53 3 16 56 40.23 0 0 23 26 21 37 6 34 28.092 24 24

The moment of full moon, or that point of time when the moon is farthest from the sun when the longitudes differ by 180 degrees is called Pournami (Pournami).

Each paksha consists of 15 thithis. They are: 1. Prathama, 2. Dwitheeya, 3. Thrutheeya, 4. Chathurthy, 5. Panchami, 6. Shashti, 7. Sapthami, 8. Ashtami, 9. Navami, 10. Dashami, 11. Ekadashi, 12. Dwadashi, 13.Thrayodashi, 14. Chathurdashi & 15. Pournami (during Shukla Paksha) or 30. Amavasya (during Krishna Paksha).
The thithi ruling at the time of sunrise of the day is reckoned as the thithi of the day for all date referrals. However, for the purpose of vratas, each vrata has a specific rule to be followed. For some special religious purposes the thithi current at the required specific time of a solar day or week-day is considered. Nirnaya sindhu is the authoritative work in general use as the guiding principle for performing special religious events.

Thithis and Solar Days


Solar days are named after the week-days. For lunar days the names of thithis are given. But as the thithis begin at any time during the day, they do not exactly coincide with solar days. So, the general rule for ordinary religious purposes for which no particular time of the day has been prescribed, the thithi current at sunrise of the solar day gives its name to that day, and is coupled with its week day. Thithi classification Thithis are classified into five groups Group Thithis Nanda Bhadra Jaya Riktha Poorna Types of thithis Prathama, Shasti, Ekadashi Dwitheeya, Sapthami, Dwadashi Thrutheeya, Ashtami, Thrayodashi Chathurthy, Navami, Chathurdashi Phala Ananda Arogya - Mangala Jaya (victory) Nashta (loss)

Panchami, Dashami, Pournami/Amavasya Sampoorna

There are two types of thithis viz. Poorna and Sakhanda. Those extendending for 60 ghatis from sunrise are called Poorna thithis and others Sakhanda. Varieties of sakhanda thithis Sakhanda thithis are of two varieties. Thithis extending from sunrise to sunset (and on days like Shivarathris upto midnight) are called Shuddha while others are referred as Viddha. Vedhas of thithis

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Viddha means one with vedha ie., One thithi attached to another thithi. Vedha is again of two types - Pratharvedha and Sayamvedha. Thithis starting from about 6 ghatis after Suryodaya are said to have Pratharvedha with the previous thithi extending upto 6 ghatis from sunrise. Thithis starting from about 6 ghatis before Sunset are said to have Sayamvedha with the previous thithi extending upto 6 ghatis before sunset.

These vedhas are important for deciding Ekadashi and other Vratas. Adhika and Kshaya Thithis
Twelve lunar months are equal to 354 solar days, but there are 360 thithis during that time. So, six thithis must be expunged in solar reckoning. Ordinarily a thithi begins on one day and ends on the following day that is, it touches two successive solar days. It is observed, that a thithi may sometimes begin and end within the limits of the same week-day and while sometime's it touches three solar days, occupying the whole of one and parts of the two on each side of it. A thithi on which the sun does not rise is expunged. It has sustained a diminition or loss (Kshaya) and is called Kshaya thithi. A thithi on which the sunrises twice is repeated. It has sustained an increase (Vriddhl), and is called an adhika, or added thithi. Generally, there are thirteen expunctions (Kshayas) and seven repetitions (Vriddhis) of thithis in twelve lunar months. The day on which no thithi ends, or on which two tithis end, is regarded as inauspicious.

Ghati - Vighati Unit of measure for time used in panchangas is Ghatis - Vighatis (Ghalige - Vighalige). They are known as Naligai and Vinaligai in Tamil. One day of 24 hours consists of 60 ghatis, each ghati has 60 vighatis.
In panchangas, the time shown in ghatis-vighatis is the Time counted from Sunrise. These are shown as Prathama 23-18, Ashwini 58-6. etc. This indicates Prathama thithi ends at 23 ghatis and 18 vighatis from sunrise. Similarly the Nakshatra Ashwini at 58 Ghatis and 6 vighatis from sunrise.

Muhurtha
Muhurtha is a unit of measure of time equal to 2 ghatis (2 x 24 = 48 minutes).

Upari
A thithi commencing after a sunrise and ending before the next sunrise is referred with a prefix Upari. These Upari cases are reported in Panchanga with the exception: the ghatis - vighatis mentioned are the duration from the end point of the previous thithi and not from sunrise. Similar is the case with Nakshatra / Yoga in case of Upari. Upari thithi days are referred to as Avamaha and are not suited for Shubha Muhurthas. eg: View of Panchanga of 20th Dec 1999 Bhanu, Ekadashi 5-21 {8-39 am}, Indu, Dwadashi 0-34 {6-45 am} Upari Thrayodashi 54-49 {4-41 am}, (Note: 0-34 plus 54-49 gives 55 ghatis and 23 vighatis which is less than 60 ghatis (one day) It can be worked out that the balance time till the next sunrise has Chathurdashi 4-37 {6-31 am}) 21-Dec 6 28-28 Bhouma, Chathurdashi 49-33 {2-21 am}, In the example, it will be seen that the next day has Chathurdashi at sunrise, thus Thrayodashi does not witness a sunrise. By looking at sunrise points of successive days, we feel one thithi got skipped. 19-Dec 4 28-28 20-Dec 5 28-28

Thridinasprukh
On some occasions, a thithi commences just before a sunrise and ends after the next days sunrise. Its total duration will be greater than 60 ghatis. This thithi which has witnessed two sunrises and touched three days (day before sunrise, the whole day and the next day) is referred to as Thridinasprukh. [One day is the period from one sunrise to the next sunrise.] Such thithi is also not suited for Shubha Muhurthas. eg: View of Panchanga of 9th Dec 1999 8-Dec 23 28-32 Soumya Prathama 55-59 {4-54 am}, 9-Dec 24 28-30 Guru Dwitheeya 60-00 {6-31 am}, 10-Dec 25 28-30 Bharga Dwitheeya 1-20 {7-03 am}, In this case, Dwitheeya has commenced 4 ghati 11 vighati before sunrise of 9th and ended on 10th. It has touched 8th (Soumya vaara), 9th (Guru vaara) and 10th (Bharga vaara). Total duration is 65 ghatis and 31 vighatis. If same thithi is present on two successive days, the second day is referred as Puccha. In the above example, 10th December has Puccha.

Nakshatra Thyajya
Each Nakshatra has a specific period ranging from 3 ghatis and 45 vighatis to 4 ghatis and 30 vighatis (maximum of 1 Hour and 48 minutes) of NOT SO GOOD period. The start point of this period has been shown as Rathri ghati-vighati or Dina ghati-vighati or Paradina ghati-vighati against each day. Paradina is also referred as Sesha (remainder). This is of use for fixing Muhurthas.

Karana
A Karana is half a thithi, or the time during which the difference of the longitudes of the sun and moon is increased by 6 degrees. In simpler terms, each thithi is divided into
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two equal parts, each being a Karana known by a specific name. There are 11 Karanas. They are: 1. Kimstugna, 2. Bhava, 3. Balava, 4. Kaulava, 5. Theithula, 6. Garaja, 7. Vanik, 8. Bhadra (Vishti), 9. Shakuni, 10. Chathushpada and 11. Nagava. Four of them appear once in a Chandramana masa on specific thithis only. They are: (Sl.1) Kimstugna - 1st half of Shukla Prathama, (Sl.9) Shakuni - 2nd half of Krishna Chathurdashi, (Sl.10) Chathushpada - 1st half of Amavasya and (Sl.11) Nagava - 2nd half of Amavasya. The remaining seven karanas (Sl. 2) Bhava to (Sl. 8) Bhadra follow the cyclic order from 2nd half of Shukla Prathama to 1st half of Krishna Chathurdashi, each karana appearing 8 times in a month.

Dinamana
Day timess duration (from sunrise to sunset) is called Dinamana. This is also referred as Ahahpramana or Ahahs. On any day, this is different from place to place depending on the longitude of the place. This is used for Vratas and Shraddhas decisions. The mid point of Dinamana coincides with the midday (12 noon, local time and NOT IST). Local noon itself is different from place to place depending on the latitude and longitude of the place.

Terminology for different time slots of the Day


Dinamana is commonly divided into five equal time slots called Prathah, Sangava, Madhyahna, Aparahna and Sayahna in the same order from sunrise. Sometimes, three equal time slots called Prathah, Madhyahna and Aparahna is also used. The Aparahna referred as the one fifth part of Dinamana is also referred as Shraddha Aparahna to make it specific. Further, it is used for all Shraddha related nirnayas. Rathri mana is the time from sunset to the next sunrise. Pradosha is a period of 4 ghatis spread from 2 ghatis before sunset (end of dinamana) to 2 ghatis after sunset (48 minutes before and 48 minutes after sunset) Nisheetha is the mid point of Rathri mana. Arunodaya is the period of 2 ghatis before sunrise. Poorva viddha means associated with the previous thithi during dinamana. Para viddha means associated with the next thithi during dinamana. Puccha refers to the balance of thithi after sunrise on the second day, whenever the same thithi is present at sunrise on two successive days. For each of the Vratas a specific rule quoting one or many of the above nomenclatures is prescribed.

Shraddha Thithi For the purpose of shraddha, the thithi ruling at shraddha aparahna has to be considered. If one thithi ends during aparahna and another begins, whichever is present for longer time is considered. If the same thithi is present in two successive days shraggha aparahnas, the day when it is present for a longer shraddha aparahna is considered.
On some days, two shraddha thithis occur on a single day. On some days there will be no shraddha thithi, which would be indicated as Shoonya.

Yoga
The period of time during which the joint motion in longitude, or the sum of the motions of the sun and moon is increased by 13 20', is called a Yoga, meaning addition. Yoga is a benefic state that is said to exist at any instance of time. There are 27 yogas. They are: 1. Vishkambha, 2. Preethi, 3. Aayushman, 4. Soubhagya, 5. Shobhana, 6. Athiganda, 7. Sukarman, 8. Dhruthi, 9. Shoola, 10. Ganda, 11. Vruddhi, 12. Dhurva, 13. Vyaghatha,14. Harshana, 15. Vajra, 16. Siddhi, 17. Vyathipatha, 18. Variyan, 19. Parigha, 20. Shiva, 21. Siddha, 22. Sadhya, 23. Shubha, 24. Shukla, 25. Brahma, 26. Aindra and 27. Vydhruthi. Yoga at any instance of time is determined by the sum total of the positions of Sun and Moon. The sum total of the positions of Moon and Sun is counted in intervals 13 20' degrees (360 degrees divided by 13 20' degrees gives 27 units). Whenever the total exceeds 360 degrees, 360 is subtracted from the total for the calculation purpose. Some of the Yogas are said to be Not so benefic ones. They are: Vishkambha, Athiganda, Shoola, Ganda, Vyaghatha, Vajra, Vyathipatha, Parigha and Vydhruthi.

Constellation / Nakshatra
The 27th part of the ecliptic is called a Constellation or Nakshatra. Each constellation / nakshatra occupies 360/27 = 1320' of the ecliptic or zodiac. The Constellations / Nakshatras are - tabulated below: Constellations 1 Ashwini 3 stars resembling a horse's face. 2 Bharani 3 stars resembling pot 3 Krittika 6 stars resembling a razor 4 Rohini 5 stars resembling a chariot 5 Mrigasira 3 stars resembling a head of a deer 6 Ardra 1 star resembling a bead 7 Punarvasu 5 stars resembling a bow 8 Pushya 3 stars resembling a flower 9 Aslesha 6 stars resembling a serpent
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Basics of Panchanga

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Makha Pubba Uttara Hasta Chitta Swati Visakha Anuradha Jyeshta Mula Purvashadha Uttarashadha Sravana Dhanishta Satabhisa Purvabhadra Uttarabhadra Revati

5 stars resembling a palanquin 4 stars resembling the legs of a cot 4 stars resembling the legs of a cot 5 stars resembling a palm 1 star resembling a pearl 1 star resembling a sapphire 3 stars resembling a potter's wheel 3 stars resembling an umbrella 3 stars resembling an umbrella 6 stars resembling a cronching line 4 stars resembling a square 4 stars resembling a square 3 stars resembling an arrow 4 stars resembling a drum 100 stars resembling a flower 4 stars resembling the legs of a cot 4 stars resembling the legs of a cot 3 stars resembling a fish

Nakshatra (Star) Moons location The position of moon in the zodiac is indicated by the name of the constellation / nakshatra it occupies. The word Nakshatra/Star is used as though it is a separate object. The time which the moon (whose motion continuously varies in speed) requires to travel over the 27th part of the eclilptic is also called the duration of the nakshatra. The length of the moon's travel through nakshatra is Ghati Pala Vipala Hours Minutes Seconds Mean 60 42 53.4 24 17 9.36 Greatest 66 21 0 26 32 24 Least 55 56 0 22 22 24 The moon travels nearly one nakshatra daily. There are 27 nakshatras. They are: 1. Ashwini, 2. Bharani, 3. Krutthika, 4. Rohini, 5. Mrigashira, 6. Aarudra, 7. Punarvasu, 8. Pushya, 9. Aashlesha, 10. Makha, 11. Pubba (Poorvaphalguni), 12. Uttara (Uttaraphalguni), 13. Hasta, 14. Chitta, 15. Swathi, 16. Vishakha, 17. Anuradha, 18.
Jyeshta, 19. Moola, 20. Purvashada, 21. Uttarashada, 22. Shravana, 23. Dhanishta, 24. Shathabhisha, 25. Purvabhadra, 26. Uttarabhadra & 27. Revathi. The position of Moon is counted in intervals of 1320' degrees to arrive at the Nakshatra. The nakshatra of the day is said to be located at the 12, O clock position in the sky at midnight.

Pada (Charana)
Each Nakshatra is divided into four equal parts and each of them is called a Pada or Charana. Padas do not have any specific names and are referred as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th pada of the concerned Nakshatra. The 3rd and 4th padas of Uttarashada and the 1st and 2nd padas of Shravana are also referred as Abhijit Nakshatra.

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Basics of Panchanga

Nakshatra Rashi Chart


The chart indicates the angular positions of all Nakshatras and Rashis. It also indicates the Nakshatra Rashi relationship. One revolution of any planet covers all the 12 Rashis or all the 27 Nakshatras or all the 108 padas (27 x 4 = 108). Therefore, any position of a planet during its revolution can also be expressed as a Nakshatra and its pada. The movement of planets is indicated in Panchanga along with Dina Visheshas by recording the time when each of the planets enters a pada. Whenever, an entry into a Rashi is indicated, Rashis name alone or Rashis and the Nakshatras names are mentioned.

Adhika Masa (Chandramana Masa and No Sankramana)


Normally one sankramana occurs in every Chandramana masa. However, once in about two and a half years, no sankramana occurs in any one chandramana masa of the year. Such a chandramana masa is reckoned as Adhika masa (extra month) and the immediate next month as Nija masa (normal month). Such years will have 13 Chandramana masas. A simplistic explanation would be: A period of 12 lunar months (Chandramana Masas) falls short of the solar year by eleven days. To bring the lunar year as nearly as possible to the solar year a lunar month is added to the lunar year at certain intervals. Such a month is called an adhika or intercalated month. The Indian year is thus solar or luni-solar. The lunar month in which there is no sankranthi is called adhika masa.

Kshaya Masa (Chandramana Masa and 2 Sankramanas)


Whenever, two sankramanas occur in a chandramana masa, that masa is called a Kshaya masa (suppressed month). This can occur in the months of Kartheeka, Pushya and Magha only. During such a kshaya masa, two successive months are reckoned as being together, the first half of each thithi (equal to a Karana) is considered to belong to the first of the two months and the second half of the thithi as that of the second month. Such a year will thus consist of 11 chandramana masas. However, all such years will also have an adhikamasa, making it a 12 month year.
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Basics of Panchanga

Kshaya masa occurs in intervals of 19 years, 141 years, 19 years, 141 years,

Vaara
Each day consists of 24 Horas counted from one sunrise to the next. Each hora is governed by a planetary lord. There are seven planetary lords who take turns in the order Ravi (Bhanu), Shukra, Budha, Soma, Shani, Guru, Mangala (Bhouma), Ravi .. Each day gets the name of the hora lord at the time of sunrise. For understanding, let us examine the hora lords of Sunday. They are Ravi, Shukra, Budha, Soma, Shani, Guru, Mangala, Ravi ... and the 25th hora lord happens to be Soma. This is the 1st hora of next day which is called Soma Vaara. Similarly it can be seen the first hora lords of successive days are in the order Ravi, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Shukra and Shani which are the seven week days or Vaaras. Any seven consecutive days together is also called a Vaara meaning a week. Weekdays Ravi (Adithya/Bhanu) Indu (Soma) Bhouma (Mangala) Soumya (Budha) Guru (Bruhaspathi) Bharga (Shukra) Manda (Sthira/Shani) Tamil Equivalents Nayaru Thingal Chevvay Budhan Vyalan Velli Shani English Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednessday Thursday Friday Saturday Planet (Hora lord at Sunrise) Soorya (Sun) Chandra (Moon) Bhouma (Mars) Soumya (Mercury) Guru (Jupiter) Shukra (Venus) Shani (Saturn)

Ruthus (Seasons)
There are six ruthus. Each ruthu corresponds to two successive months. Even though the Souramana masa and chandramana masa refer to different periods, the same ruthus are referred by both the systems. The ruthus are: Ruthu Chandramana masas Souramana masas Tamil masas Vasantha Greeshma Varsha Sharat Hemantha Shishira Chaitra - Vaishakha Jyeshta - Ashada Shravana - Bhadrapada Ashwayuja - Kartheeka Margashina - Pushya Magha - Phalguna Meena - Mesha Vrishaba - Mithuna Kataka - Simha Kanya - Thula Vruschika - Dhanus Makara - Kumbha Chittirai-Vaikasi Aani-Aadi Aavani-Purattasi Aipasi-Karthikai Margali-Thai Masi-Panguni

Chandra Darshana The first Chandra darshana in each chandramana masa occurs during the Dwitheeya thithi day, provided the thithi has started before sunset. First Chandra darshana of the month is an important event as Chandra will be visible for a very short period of time and also very faintly (almost like a line). This is of great significance for all Muslim feasts. Mohammedan Year
The Mohammadan year or the Hijra is purely lunar. Its starting date goes backwards by about eleven days in each English year. -

Muslim (Mohammedan) masas


Each Muslim masa begins from the day next to the chandra darshana day. Dates are counted serially from 1 till the next Chandra darshana. The masas are: 1. Muharram, 2. Saffar, 3. Rabbi-ul-avval, 4. Rabbi-ul-akhar (Rabbi-us-sani),, 5. Jamadi-ul-avval, 6. Jamadi-ul-akhar (Jamadi-us-sani), 7. Rajab, 8. Shaban, 9. Ramzan, 10. Shavval, 11. Jilkhayad and 12. Jelhaj. A Muslim masa is almost identical to a Chandramana masa, the difference being the starting day. However, the concept of Adhika masa and Kshaya masa is not used and a Muslim year has 12 months beginning with the month of Muharram. Thus, the Muslim year shifts backwards by a month in comparison with Hindu calendar everytime an Adhika masa occurs. This is in addition to the 11 days shift backwards with respect to English or Solar year referred earlier. Grahana Grahanas of Surya and Chandra occur each year. The process of Moon coming in-between Sun and Earth in case of Surya Grahana and Earth coming in-between Sun and Moon in case of Chandra Grahana is well known. There are three types of Grahanas reported in Panchanga. Poorna Grahana is one where the Sparsha and Moksha are visible. Grasthodaya Grahana is one where the Sparsha is not visible and Moksha alone is visible.
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Grasthastha Grahana is one where the Sparsha is visible and Moksha is not visible. Surya Grahana on a Sunday and Chandra Grahana on a Monday is referred as Choodamani Grahana. In case of Grasthodya and Grasthastha grahanas, the calculated times of Sparsha and Moksha should be used for Karmanushtanas. In case of Surya grahana, karmanushtana should begin from the Sparsha (as the period between Sparsha & Mid point (or climax) is greater than the period between the mid point & Moksha), while in case of Chandra Grahana, Karmanushtana is to begin from the mid point (as the above referred periods are equal). Karmanushtanas are Sachela snana, Deva pooja at the time of Sparsha kala, Homa/Japa at Poorna grahana kala, Dana at Moksha kala, Shuddha snana after Moksha. On all Grahana days, Sanyasis, Shraddha Karthrus and Widows should not take Bhojana. Persons with Janana/Marana Shoucha and Rajaswala shoucha are said to be pure for the purposes of the Karmanushtana during grahana. In case of Surya Grahana, 4 yamas (30 ghatis or 12 hours) before the grahana yama is vedhakala. In case of chandra grahana it is 3 yamas (22 ghatis or 9 hours). Grahana kalas and Vedha kalas are not suitable for Shubha karyas. Mahapathas Vyathipatha Parva kala and Vydhruthi Parva kala are the Mahapathas. Vyathipatha Parva kala can occur during second half of Ganda Yoga, Vruddhi Yoga and first half of Dhurva yogas. Vydhruthi Parvakala can occur during Shukla and Brahma yogas. These parvakalas extend over a period of time, the beginning of which is indicated as Vyapra /Vaipra followed by time in Panchangas. End is indicated with the word Nirgama. The parvakalas are obtained by a series of complex calculations based on positions of Sun, Moon and Rahu. Each Mahapatha Parvakala is said to be equal to 1 crore Surya Grahanans. Suitable Anushtanas have to be made to obtain the benefits. These parvakalas do not occur during Mithunayana, Karka (taka) yana, Dhanurayana and Makarayana months. Mahapatha kalas are also not suitable for shubha karyas. Meshayana Meshayana, Vrushabhayana, etc. are month beginnings. Meshayana months beginning corresponds to Sun crossing the position equal to the sum of Mesha rashi beginning and the Ayanamsha. Similarly for the others viz., Vrushabhayana, Mithunayana, etc. Currently Ayanamsha is about 23o. Ekadashi Vaishnavas observe Ekadashi based on Aryamana calculations. Shri Vidhyadheesha Theertha has given a formula for converting the Surya Siddhantha calculations to Aryamana as a short cut to detailed Aryamana calculations. After the conversion, if Dashami thithi is less than about 55 ghatis (different Mutts follow different figures ranging from 55 ghatis to 55 ghatis and 45 vighatis), the next day is Ekadashi. However, if Dashami is greater than about 55 ghatis, the next day is also Dashami (referred as Viddha Dashami) and the day after is taken as Ekadashi. Harivasara The first quarter of Dwadashi thithi is also part of Ekadashi fasting. This period is referred as Harivasara. Athiriktha Ekadashi If Dwadashi (according to Aryamana - after conversion from the Surya Siddhantha) is extending for a period greater than 60 ghatis, that day is called Athiriktha Ekadashi and is a second fasting day. However, if Viddha Dashami also exists in the same period, there will be no Athiriktha Ekadashi as Dwadashi itself will be treated as a normal Ekadashi. Shravana Dwadashi If Shravana/Dhanishta Nakshatras and Dwadashi/Thrayodashi occur at the noon time, that day is called Shravana Dwadashi and is a fasting day. However if Abhijit Nakshatra is present at Arunodaya (2 ghatis before Sunrise) that day is not a Shravana Dwadashi.

Samvathsara [Lunar Year]


Samvathsara means a year. Each year has a name. There are 60 names which keep occuring in a cyclic order. The first year of the cycle Prabhava denotes the evolution of a new creative force which apparently is supposed to end in the last or 60th year after getting fully matured, when the New Year gives rise to a new force. In Vibhava the force is expanded, Shukla (denotes vitality and similarly the names are given for all the 60 years indicative of the function that the force is supposed to do, till the year Kshaya or destruction sets in which means that the force generated in Prabhava has been destroyed. The names of Samvatsaras are: 1. Prabhava, 2. Vibhava, 3. Shukla, 4. Pramoda, 5. Prajothpatthi, 6. Aangeerasa, 7. Shrimukha, 8. Bhaava, 9. Yuva, 10. Dhaathu, 11. Easwara, 12. Bahudhanya, 13. Pramaathi, 14. Vikrama, 15. Vrusha(Vishu), 16. Chitrabhaanu, 17. Swabhaanu, 18. Thaarana, 19. Paarthiva, 20. Vyaya, 21. Sarvajithu, 22. Sarvadhaari, 23. Virodhi, 24. Vikruthi, 25. Khara, 26. Nandana, 27. Vijaya, 28. Jaya, 29. Manmatha, 30. Durmukhi, 31. Hevilambi, 32. Vilambi, 33. Vikaari, 34. Shaarvari, 35. Plava, 36. Shubhakruthu, 37. Shobhakruthu, 38. Krodhi, 39. Vishvavasu, 40. Paraabhava, 41. Plavanga, 42. Keelaka, 43. Soumya, 44. Saadhaarana, 45. Virodhikruthu, 46. Pareedhaavi, 47. Pramadheecha, 48. Aananda, 49. Raakshasa, 50. Nala, 51. Paingala, 52. Kaalayukthi, 53. Siddharthi, 54. Roudri, 55. Durmathi, 56. Dundubhi, 57. Rudirodgaari, 58. Rakthakshi, 59. Krodhana & 60. Kshaya. There are five varieties of Samvatsaras. Soura Varsha: Time taken by Sun to make one complete cycle from the beginning of Mesha. This is about 365 days 15 ghatis and 31 vighatis.
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Basics of Panchanga

Chandra Varsha: Time between the end of one Amavasya and the end of the next Amavasya is called a Chandra Masa (This varies from month to month due to the variation in speed of Chandra). Such 12 Chandramasas make a Chandra varsha. This would be 354/355 days. During years with Adhika masas it would be 384/385 days. Thus, the year beginning shifts backwards by about 11 days each year with respect to the English year. During years with Adhika masas it would be 384/385 days when the year beginning moves forward by about 20 days with respect to the English year.. Savana Varsha : Time from one sunrise to the next sunrise is called a Savana day. 360 Savana days make a Savana varsha. Nakshatra Varsha: Time taken by Moon to make one complete cycle from the beginning of Ashwini is referred as a Nakshatra masa and 12 such Nakshatra masas constitute a Nakshatra varsha. Barhaspathya Varsha: The average time taken by Guru (Jupiter) to traverse one rashi is referred as Barhaspathya varsha.

Saka
Saka is a series of years named after some person or event. We are using Shalivahana Saka. The year Pramathi (1999 2000 AD) is the 1921 in the saka. Generally year in AD less 78 will give the Saka year.
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Surya Siddhantha
All the above descriptions in the Panchanga are based on the system called Surya Siddhantha.

Drigganitha
Drigganitha is another system of calculations. This is said to be finer in calculations as a number of minute corrections (or refinements) called Samskaras is done to arrive at the results. This is generally used for casting of horoscopes and fixing of muhurthas. The anchanga movements reported in Panchanga is based on Drigganitha.

Vakra (Backward movement) or Retrogression [Conjunctional Peculiarities]


Planets in the course of their journey in the zodiac are said to be obstructed by certain invisible forces called mandochcha, seegrochcha and patha, as a result of which they become stationary for a while (appear to be stationary), move anti clockwise, i.e., move backward or vakra (while their normal movement is clockwise) and again, after sometime, regain their natural course. This phenomenon of going backward is called Retrogression or Vakra. Panchangas mention the date and time when Vakra starts (as Vakra Aarambha). The time and day when the backward movement stops is mentioned as Vakra Thyaga (end of vakra). The date and time when the original position from where backward movement started is reached is reported as Vakra Rizvi.

Astha and Udaya of Planets


Planets are always in motion according to their own paths. The shape of the path which is anchangas (in common language oval). In this dynamic environment, at times some planets go behind Sun (as viewed from earth). Such planets are said to be in Astha or Asthamana (i.e., they have set similar to sun setting) and when they come out, are said to Udaya (similar to Suryodaya). During the Astha period, they are said to be powerless (astrologically) or have attained combustion, having handed over all their powers to the Sun. Such Astha and Udaya are applicable to following planets when they are closer to Sun by specified degrees: Guru 9 , Shukra 6 36, Budha 11 , Mangala 15 , and Shani 13 .
0 0 0 0 0

Astha and / or Udaya of these planets may occur during their backward movement also. It is common to specify the direction of Udaya as East or West meaning Udaya during normal movement or during Vakra or backward movement.

Ayanamsha
Nirayana and Sayana are two systems of representation of anchanga positions. Panchangas give anchanga positions based on Nirayana system which is used in Hindu predictive astrology. However, Dinamana an essential ingredient of Panchanga is derived from Sayana position of Sun. Ayanamsha at any time is the difference between Sayana and Nirayana values of any planets position at that time. Ayanamsha has been increasing at the rate of 54 seconds per year. Lagna The Earth spins around an axis, completing one revolution in a day causing day and night. The apparent movement of Sun with respect to Earth is represented as traversing once through the zodiac, i.e., covering the twelve rashis. The time spent in each rashi is referred as one lagna. This is a very simplistic explanation of Lagna. In this method of explanation, each lagna should be of 2 hours duration. But in practice, the duration of lagna varies from month to month (solar months) and place to place depending on the latitude. The variation is quite large and the extreme example is: At the poles, there are only two lagans per day. On the first day of Mesha masa (Soura masa), the Mesha lagna starts at Sun rise and lasts for 2 hours followed by Vrushabha lagna for 2 hours, . . . , Meena lagna for 2 hours ending at next Sun rise ( 12 lagnas of each duration 2 hours completing a day). This is for a place on the Equator. Similarly, during Vrushabha masa, day begins with Vrushabha lagna, . . . , during Meena masa, with Meena lagna. During the course of each masa, the duration of the first lagna keeps reducing at the rate of 4 minutes per day, i.e., from 120 minutes on 1st day to 116 minutes on 2nd day, 112 minutes on 3rd day, . . . , 4 minutes on the last day of the month.

Muhurthas Lagnas
Muhurthas are time intervals chosen for events. These are chosen by the learned, considering various factors. These Muhurthas are given names like Mesha lagna, Vrushabha lagna etc.. Further, the time specified by astrologers as muhurtha will be shorter than the lagna based on other astrological factors.

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Basics of Panchanga

Variation on account of Longitude


The moment of time when the distance between the sun and, moon amounts to 12 degrees, or the moment of time when a thithi ends, is the same for all the places of the earths surface. This also applies to nakshatras, yogas, and karanas. But the moment of sunrise varies with the locality and therefore the ending moments of divisions of time such as thithis, etc., when referred to sunrise, differ at different places.-

Chandra Soura & English Months


Chandra Chaitra Vaisakha Jyeshta Ashadha Sravana Bhadrapada Aswayuja Kartika Margasira Pushya Magha Phalguna Soura Mesha Vrishabha Mithuna Kataka Simha Kanya Thula Vrischika Dhanus Makara Kumbha Meena English March- April April- May May June June July July August August September September October October November November December Deember January January- February February March

Gurubala
When you count from the birth rashi upto the rashi where the Jupiter (Guru) is visibly present, if the Jupiter is in 2nd, 5th, 7th, 9th or 11th position one will have Gurubala. If the Jupiter is in own (Swa) house, exaltation house or friends house even if he is not in 2nd, 5th, 7th, 9th or 11th position one will still have Gurubala. [For the latter part, one needs to know astrology.]

Dasas and Bhukthis


The Dasa system helps In studying the timing of events. The basis for the Dasa system is not clearly known, or can be scientifically established, Practical experience, has shown that the calculations are quite satisfactory and more or less the predictions under the system have come true. The position of the Moon at birth is important in the calculation of the Dasas. Every constellation covers 13 1/3 degrees of the zodiacal space. Each nakshatra has a planet assigned as its lord and the dasa at birth is indicated by the constellation occupied by the Moon at the time of birth.

Table of Dasas
Nakshatra Krittika, Uttar and Uttarashadha Rohini, HastaandSravana Mrigasira, Chitta and Dhanishta Ardra, Swati and Satabhlsha Punarvasu, Vlsakha and Purvabhadra Pushya, Anuradha and Uttarabhadra Aslesha, Jyeshta and Revathi Makha, Mula and Aswini Pubba, Poorvashadha and Bharani Dasa Sun Moon Mars Rahu Jupiter Saturn Mercury Kethu Venus 20 Years 6 10 7 18 16 19 17 7

The total of the different Periods is 120 years which is considered to be the natural life period of a human being. The position of the Moon at birth, determines the ruling period And the, next dasas succeed in the order given above. If, at the time of birth, the Moon is in the first degree of the nakshatra (constellation), the full period assigned to

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Basics of Panchanga

the planet will run. If the Moon occupies some intermediate degrees, accordingly the period must be reduced. There are different systems of Dasa calculations. Vimsottari calculation is practiced more. After finding the Dasa, the sub-periods (Bhukti) in each of the particular Dasa must be determined.

Calculation of Bhukthis
Multiply the number of years of Dasa period of the planet by the number of years of the dasa period of the planet whose sub period is desired. Then take the last digit of the product, multiply it by 3 and keep that figure as days. The other figures in the product will be months. Example: Sub-period of Jupiter in the major period of Sun: Dasa period of sun = 6 years Dasa period of Jupiter = 16 years. 16 x 6 = 96 Last digit 6 x 3 = 18 =-18 days After taking 6 away from 96 remaining figure is 9 i.e., 9 months. Sub period of Jupiter in the major period of Sun is 0 years 9 months 18 days.

Usage of Panchanga
The details in a Panchanga is anchanga so as to facilitate easy reference and understanding. Panchanga is generally an annual publication covering one specific year. Each page of Panchanga will give detailed information of one paksha of a chandramana masa. The title portion of the page gives information common to the whole page. The first column of the page indicates the English date (Julien calendar date). For this date, the Souramana date (also called Tamil date) and Dinamana (Duration between Sunrise and Sunset) in Ghatis-Vighatis are given in the next two columns. Immediate next information is the Vaara or Week day. This arrangement is to facilitate reading with respect to either an English date or a Week day (The English date and the Week day are always in a sequence). The next set of information given following Vaara is Thithi, Nakshatra, Yoga, Karana, Nakshatra Thyajya, Dina Visheshas, Rashi / Nakshatra Praveshas of Planets and Shraddha Thithi. Thithi, Nakshatra, Yoga and Karana present at the time of sunrise is reported in the Panchanga. Different publications follow different patterns to present the set of information. Ghatis-Vighatis shown against Thithi / Nakshatra / Yoga / Karana represent the duration in number of ghatis and vighatis from sunrise, in other words end point of Thithi / Nakshatra / Yoga / Karana. Immediately after the ghatis-vighatis, the end point time in IST has also been given with am/pm indication. In order to know the name of next Thithi beginning at the end point indicated, the immediate next days line has to be read. Similarly reading has to be done for Nakshatra and Yoga. Two or more Karanas can appear in a day as each thithi consists of 2 Karanas. The second and subsequent Karanas will have to be worked out by the user. #4 All these details are based on a system of calculation called Surya Siddhantha. Various Vratas and other Dina Visheshas are listed against each date. Important anchanga movements Rashi/Nakshatra praveshas, Asthas/Udayas and Vakra (retrogression or backward movements) are also detailed alongwith Dina visheshas. The positions of all planets have been calculated using Drigganitha (a more refined system of calculation) also. The anchanga positions as on the first day of the paksha is shown pictorially in a kundali found at the right bottom corner of each page. The anchanga movements referred earlier are so based on Drigganitha. Shraddha Thithi of any given date is also indicated in the line of information. This thithi may be different from the days thithi given in the beginning of the line. More than one Thithi can be Shraddha Thihthi for a day. Sometimes Shoonya would have been mentioned meaning no shraddha day. An example Panchanga of 3 consecutive days from 31st December to 2nd January is given below for illustration. Shri Shalivahana Saka: 1921 Pramathi Samvathsara Kaliyear 5100 1999 December 2000 January Dakshinayana, Hemantha Ruthu, Margashira Masa, Krishna Paksha Soura Masa: Margali Masa Niyamaka: Keshava 31-Dec 16 28-28 Bharga, Navami 14-49 {12-27 am}, Chitta 31-59 {7-19pm}, Athiganda 23-17 {3-50 pm}, Garaja 14-49 {12-27am}, Rathri 18-13 {1-12 am}, Thule Chandra 0-39 {6-47 am}, Dhanishta Chathurthe Bhouma 26-56 {5-17 pm}, Moola Thrutheeye Budha 23-15 {3-49 pm}, Anuradha Dwitheeye Shukra 31-35 {7-09 pm} [Dashami] 1-Jan 17 28-28 Manda, Dashami 16-59 {1-19 pm},Swathi 35-44 {8-49 pm}, Sukarman 22-05 {3-21 pm}, Bhadra 16-59 {1-19 pm}, Rathri 22-12 {2-47 am}, Poorvashada Dwitheeye Ravi 35-49 {8-51pm} [Ekadashi] 2-Jan 18 28-28 Bhanu, Ekadashi 20-22 {2-40 pm}, Vishaka 40-41 {10-08 pm}, Dhrithi 21-49 {3-15 pm}, Balava 20-22 {2-40 pm}, Rathri 23-04 {3-08 am}, Sarvathra Ekaadashi, Vrishchike Chandra 24-27 {4-18 pm}, Moola Chathurthe Budha 31-35 {7-09 pm} [Shoonya]

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Basics of Panchanga

The title is self explanatory as each item has its own explanatory prefix or suffix. If the desired date is 1 January, we locate it from the Julien date column. Having located it, the details for the day in the order of presentation of data are: Julien Date Tamil Date Dinamana Week Day Thithi Nakshatra Yoga Karana Nakshatra Thyajya Dina Vishesha Rashi/Nakshatra Pravesha of Planets Shraddha Thithi Note: #1. 1 day = 60 ghatis, 1 ghati = 60 vighatis ( 1 ghati = 24 minutes, 1 vighati = 0.4 minutes, 1 hour = 2.5 ghatis) #2. Dashami started from 12-27 pm of previous day. Duration of Dashami is from 12-27 pm of previous day to 1-19 pm i.e., 24 hours 52 minutes. Ekaadashi starts at 119 pm and extends upto 2-40 pm of next day. The concept is applicable to Nakshatra and Yoga also. #3. Nakshatra Swathis total duration is (from 7-19 pm of previous day to 8-19 pm) 25 hours. Each pada of the Nakshatra has 6 hours and 15 minutes. 1 pada ends nd rd at 1-34 am, 2 at 7-49 am, 3 at 2-04 pm. #4. Karana after 1-19 pm is Bhava. This is arrived from the knowledge of order of Karanas which is: Bhava, Balava, Kaulava, Theithula, Garaja, Vanik, Bhadra and again Bhava,.Bhadra. However, the four Karanas Kimstugna, Shakuni, Chathushpada, and Nagava appear once in a Chandramana masa on specific Thithis only st nd st and do not follow the cycle/order: Kimstugna 1 half of Shukla Prathama, Shakuni 2 half of Krishna Chathurdashi, Chathushpada 1 half of Amavasya and nd Nagava 2 half of Amavasya. Karana Bhava ends at 1-51 am (arrived figure) which is midway of Ekaadashi thithti which ends at 2-40 pm of next day. #5. Thyajya (To be left out) period is a 1 hour and 54 from the indicated time. Para dina is sometimes mentioned against Nakshatra Thyajya instead of Dina or Rathri. Para dina means next day. Same is expressed as Sesha also. #6. Among the Dina Visheshas, Anadhyayana indicates No new lessons to be studied, especially Veda. Sopapada is a defined thithi not suited for Shubha Muhurtha. Shadashi Mukha is a defined position of Sun also not suited for Shubha Muhurtha.
st st

: : : : : : : : : : : :

1 January Margazhi 17 28 ghatis 28 vighatis ( 11 hours and 23 minutes) #1 Manda Vaara (Saturday) Dashami upto 1-19 pm #2 Swathi upto 8-19 pm #3 Sukarman upto 3-21 pm Bhadra upto 1-19 pm #4 Rathri 2-47 am #5 Poorvashada Dwitheeye Ravi 8-51 pm nd means Ravi enters Poorvashada 2 pada at 8-51 pm Ekaadashi

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Sunrise time Corrections in Panchanga Usage


In general, the timings in IST (not local time) given for the end points of Thithi, Nakshatra, Yoga and Karana are universal. (If the IST timings are not given in any Panchanga, one has to calculate for the place of Panchanga and use it.) Sunrise timings given in any Panchanga is calculated for the longitude and latitude of a chosen place. For using the same in other places, the timings have to be corrected using the time correction factor (at + or 4 minutes per degree longitude this is assuming, same or near about latitude in the required place) with respect to the place of the Panchanga. With the variation of Sunrise and Sunset time depending on the place, some vratas can be on two different successive days in different places.

Rahukala / Gulika Kala / Yamaganda Kala etc


The popularly known timings for these, for the different days of the week are indicative times for a notional sun rise at 6.00 am and a anchang of 12 hours (notional sun set at 6.00 pm). Based on the actual sun rise and sun set time of the day, the Rahukala / Gulika Kala / Yamaganada kala timings have to be suitably corrected. (Sun rise and sun set times are not same for all days of the year even in the same place).

Amrutha, Siddha & Marana as Yogas In many anchangas, the names Amrutha, Siddha & Marana are written under the column Yoga. They actually mean the phala (result) of the combination of the week day and the nakshatra of the day. The word Yoga is used to mean Phala as Yoga itself is different as already explained. There are 28 different phalas named Ananda, Kaladanda,Varthamana. Each of them are referred as Yogas meaning Phalas. The Phalas (referred as Yogas) and their meaning is tabulated below. The same table also gives the meaning in a simpler way as used in many Panchangas using the three
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words Amrutha, Siddha and Marana. It would be noticed that Amrutha and Siddha stands for Good and Marana stands for Not Good. In this table, the same phalas have been represented by an abbreviation P1, P2,.P28. The Good and Evil meanings have been denoted by adding a + or sign to the abbreviation making it P1+, P2-,.P28+.
Phalas of Weekday and Nakshatra combination Phala Yoga Artha (Meaning) Simply P 1+ P 2 P 3 P 4+ P 5+ P 6 P 7+ P 8+ P 9 P 10 P 11+ P 12+ P 13+ P 14+ P 15 P 16 P 17 P 18 P 19+ P 20+ P 21+ P 22 P 23 P 24+ P 25 P 26 P 27+ P 28 + Ananda Kaladanda Thumra Prajapathi Soumya Thulanksha Dhwaja Srivatsa Vajra Mudkara Chathra Mithra Manasa Padma Lambaka Uthpatha Mruthyu Kana Siddhi Shubham Amrutha Musala Kada Mathanga Rakshasa Chara Sthira Varthamana Karyasiddhi Marana Ashubha Soubaghya Soukhya Dhana Nasha Shubha Dhana Labha Kalaha Dhana Nasha Raja Sanmana Deha Pushti Pushti Dhana Prapthi Dhana Nashta Prana Nasha Marana Karya Nasha Karya Siddhi Shubha Labha Dhana Nasha Bhaya Kula Vruddhi Yochane Karya Nasha Karya Labha Athishaya Labha Siddha Marana Marana Siddha Siddha Marana Siddha Siddha Marana Marana Siddha Amrutha Amrutha Siddha Marana Marana Marana Marana Amrutha Siddha Amrutha Marana Marana Amrutha Marana Marana Amrutha Siddha

The phala referred above is obtained by a table of Weekday and Nakshatra combination shown below. This table has been given different headings Anandadi Yogas, Muhurtha Raja, Yogas convenient for Travel in different Panchangas. As the table is a simplistic way of looking for simple muhurthas, the title Muhurtha Raja is given. As the results are a series from Ananda, the title Anandadi Yogas is used. As the table is commonly used for travel purposes, the title Yogas convenient for Travel is used.

Muhurtha Raja or Anandadi Yogas or Yogas convenient for Travel Week Days Nakshatra Ashwini Sun P1+ Mon P5+ Tue P9 Wed Thu P13+ P17 Fri P21+ Sat P25

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Bharani P2 Krittika P3 Rohini P4+ Mrigasira P5+ Ardra P6 Punarvasu P7+ Pushya P8+ Aslesha P9 Makha P10 Pubba P11+ Uttara P12+ Hasta P13+ Chitta P14+ Swati P15 Visakha P16 Anuradha P17 Jyeshta P18 Moola P19+ Purvashadha P20+ Uttarashadha P21+ Abhijith* P22 Sravana P23 Dhanishta P24+ Satabhisa P25 Purvabhadra P26 Uttarabhadra P27+ Revati P28+

P6 P7+ P8+ P9 P10 P11+ P12+ P13+ P14+ P15 P16 P17 P18 P19+ P20+ P21+ P22 P23 P24+ P25 P26 P27+ P28+ P1+ P2 P3 P4+

P10 P14+ P11+ P15 P12+ P16 P13+ P17 P14+ P18 P15 P19+ P16 P20+ P17 P21+ P18 P22 P19+ P23 P20+ P24+ P21+ P25 P22 P26 P23 P27+ P24+ P28+ P25 P1+ P26 P2 P27+ P3 P28+ P4+ P1+ P5+ P2 P6 P3 P7+ P4+ P8+ P5+ P9 P6 P10 P7+ P11+ P8+ P12+

P18 P22 P19+ P23 P20+ P24+ P21+ P25 P22 P26 P23 P27+ P24+ P28+ P25 P1+ P26 P2 P27+ P3 P28+ P4+ P1+ P5+ P2 P6 P3 P7+ P4+ P8+ P5+ P9 P6 P10 P7+ P11+ P8+ P12+ P9 P13+ P10 P14+ P11+ P15 P12+ P16 P13+ P17 P14+ P18 P15 P19+ P16 P20+

P26 P27+ P28+ P1+ P2 P3 P4+ P5+ P6 P7+ P8+ P9 P10 P11+ P12+ P13+ P14+ P15 P16 P17 P18 P19+ P20+ P21+ P22 P23 P24+

*Abhijith is in between Uttarashada and Sravana. Last two Padas of Uttrashada and first two Padas of Sravana are considered to be Abhijith.

Usage of Yogas convenient for Travel From the Panchanga locate the Nakshatra for the required time. For that Nakshatra and the week day locate the Phala given in code as P1+, P2 -, etc. The code itself indicates whether it is a good time or not so good time by the (+) or (-) sign. For the actual meaning use the table giving meanings. If the Artha (meaning) indicates positive meanings it means a good time. The above method is a thumb rule method and an accurate method would involve examining the concerned persons correct horoscope vis a vis the required time which are best done by experienced astrologers. There are other thumb rule methods as well, described in Panchangas for travel related purposes. These are (a) Dik Shoola directions to be avoided on certain weekdays and thithis, (b) Yogini directions favourable on certain thithis (paksha wise), (c) Vara Shoola directions favourable on certain week days with pariharas for taking other directions. Simple Astrological Information Anadhyana indicates No new lessons are to be studied, especially Veda. Ayushkarma Haircut in an auspicious time is said to increase the longevity; Haircut in other times is said to decrease the longevity of the person and his family members; hence the name Ayushkarma for the process. The auspicious times are combination of: Dwitheeya, Thrutheeya, Panchami, Dashami and Thrayodashi thithis; Soma, Budha and Guru varas; Ashwini, Mrugashira, Punarvasu, Pushya, Hastha, Chitta, Swathi, Jyeshta, Shravana, Shathabhisha, Dhanishta and Revathi nakshatras; Poorvahnas (well before noon) are the best. Brothers should not have it on the same day. So also Father and Son. Janma nakshatra is to be avoided. If for any unavoidable reason, a non auspicious time is used, the Dosha is said to be nullified by having it in an auspicious time the next time. Parva Kalas are important mile stones in Suns movement. At Grahana kalas and Parva kalas Snana, Japa, Tarpana and Dana should be performed. Observing Vaidhruti and Vyatipata Parvakalas are said to be equal to observing one crore Surya grahana prescriptions. Sankalpa describes the place, time, person and purpose (what is being performed). The time has to be described using the parameters; Thithi, Vara, Nakshatra, Yoga and Karana, as it showers blessings knowledge of Thithi bestows Wealth, Vaara increases Longevity, Nakshatra erases sins, Yoga cures Diseases and Karana ensures Success in work. The short cut Shubha nakshatra, Shubha yoga, Shubha karana will deprive this. Shubha Nakshatras: Dhruva (Best) Rohini, Uttara, Uttarashada and Uttarabhadra; Laghu (Lighter) Hastha, Ashwini, Pushya and Abhijit; Mrudu (Soft) Mrugashira, Chitta, Anuradha and Revathi; Chara (Moving) Swathi, Punarvasu, Shravana, Dhanishta and Shatabhisha; Madhyama (Neutral)
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Makha, Moola and Vishaka. Shubha Thithis: 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13 and 15 i.e., Dwitheeya, Thrutheeya, Panchami, Sapthami, Dashami, Thrayodashi and Pournami. Shubha Varas: Soma, Budha, Guru and Shukra. Shubha Yogas: Preethi, Aayushman, Soubhagya, Shobhana, Sukarman, Dhruthi, Vruddhi, Dhurva, Harshana, Siddhi, Variyan, Shiva, Siddha, Sadhya, Shubha, Shukla, Brahma and Aindra. Disclaimer All the above are given as information. The author disowns responsibility for the consequences of any person using it. Benefits from use of Panchanga Thithyeshcha Shreeyamapnothi Vaaraath Aayushyavardhanam Nakshathraath Harathepaapam Yogaath Roganivaranam Karanaath Karyasiddhishchaath Panchanga dashamephalam Knowledge of Panchanga showers several benefits; Knowledge of Thithi bestows Wealth Knowledge of Vaara increases Longevity Knowledge of Nakshatra erases Sins Knowledge of Yoga cures Diseases Knowledge of Karana ensures Success in work
November 2004

Do You Know? If your birthday or wedding day or any other event is on 15th of August this year, you can predict this to occur on 4th or 5th August next year [11 or 10 days before] (as per Hindu calendar, subject to this year or next year not having an Adhika masa). If there is an intervening Adhika masa, it would be on 3rd or 4th of September [19 or 20 days after]. Mesha sankramana of this year is on say Monday at 10-25 g-v., i.e., 10-10 am (assumed sunrise 6.00 am). Mesha sankramana next year will be on a Tuesday at 26-00 g-v., i.e., 16-24 [6hrs 14 mins later on the next week day]. This is true for all sankramanas.

Useful Astrological information Astrology Astrology is the science which comprises the foretelling of the regular movements of the planets, the fortunes and misfortunes of men, fates of nations, inundations, earthquakes, plagues, volcanic eruptions and other incidents relating to terrestrial phenomena. In Sanskrit it is called Hora Sastra which means science that treats time. It is also called Jyotisha (Knowledge of Light). In Western Countries it is derived from the words Aster - a star, Logos reason or logic. Siddhanta, Hora, Samhita Indian astrology is divided into three parts- Siddhanta, Hora and Samhita. Hora tells us information about individuals, Samhita tells us about happenings in the world and Siddhailta about the basic information on which, Hora and Samhita are based RAHUKALAM- A NOTE The Rahukalam Table that is generally given is only general and based on the premise of Sunrise at 6 a.m. however the exact Sunrise timings vary depending on season / part of the year. In such circumstances the Rahukalam timings also vary accordingly. In this Darshini, we have endeavored to provide the exact timings based on Sunrise at, Bangalore every day. However to obtain these things for other parts of Karnataka please apply corrections as below Mysore +4 m Chitradurga +4 m. Gulbarga +2 m
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Shimoga Dharwad Kolar

+8 m +10 m -2 m

Mangalore Madikeri +8 m. Raichur' -1 m,

+11 m. Karwar p; Bidar

Belgaum +13 m. -6 m

+12 m

Time Divisions The sub-divisions of a solar day are as follows: 0 prativipala = 0.006 of a second 60 prativipalas = 1 vipala = 0.4 second 60 vipalas = 1 pala (1 vighati) = 24 seconds 60 palas = 1 ghatika (1 ghati) = 24 min. 60 ghatis = 1 solar day Relationship between Planets and Rasis According to Surya siddhanta, Saturn is the most distant planet from the earth. Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon come next in the order of their distance. Based on such an arrangement, the rulerships are allotted. Rasis Rulers Aries and Scorpio Mars Taurus and Libra Venus Gemini and Virgo Mercury Cancer Moon Leo Sun Pisces and Sagittarius Jupiter Capricorn and Aquarius Saturn Exaltations -The Sun is exalted in the 10th degree of Aries; the Moon in the 3rd degree of Taurus; Mars in the 28th degree of Capricorn; Mercury in the 15th degree of Virgo; Jupiter in
the 5th degree of Cancer; Venus in the 27th degree of Pisces; and Saturn in the 20th degree of Libra; Rahu in 20th degree of Taurus and Kethu in 20th degree of Scorpio. Debilitations-The 7th house or the 180th degree from the place of exaltation is the place of debilitation or fall. The Sun is debilitated in the 10th degree of Libra, the Moon in the 3rd degree of Scorpio, etc. Beneficial and Malefic - Planets are beneficial or malefic accoording to their inherent nature. They tend to, do good or evil. Jupiter, Venus, Full Moon, well-associated Mercury - are held to be good planets. New Moon, badly associated Mercury, Sun, Saturn, Mars, Rahu and Kethu are evil or malefic. The following quarters (Padas) of the Constellations Comprise the twelve zodiacal signs:

Rasi (Sign) Mesha (Aries) Vrishabha (Taurus) Mithuna (Gemini) 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. 5. 5. 6. 7.

Nakshatra (Constellations) Ashwini Bharani Krittika Krittika Rohini Mrigasira Mrigasira Aridra Punarvasu

Padas Space on the (Quarters) ecliptic- from 0 Aries 4 13 20' 4 26 40' 1 30 0' 3 40 0' 4 5320' 2 60 0' 2 66 40' 4 80 0' 3 90 0'

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Kataka (Cancer) Simha (Leo) Kanya (Virgo) Thula (Libra) Vrischika (Scoio) Dhanus (Sagittarius) Makara (Capricorn) Kumbha (Aquarius) Meena (Pisces)

7. Punarvasu 8. Pushva 9. Aslesha 10. ,Makha 11. Pubba 12. Uttara 12. Uttara 13. Hasta 14. Chitta 14. Chitta 15. Swati 16. Visakha 16. Visakha 17. Anuradha 18. Jyeshta 19. Mula 20.Poorvashadha 21.Uttarashadha 21. Uttarashadha 22. Sravana 23. Dhanishta 23. Dhanishta 24. Satabhisha 25. Purvabhadra 25. Purvabhadra 26. Uttarabhadra 27. Revathi

1 4 4 4 4 1 3 4 2 2 4 3 1 4 4 4 4 1 3 4 2 2 4 3 1 4 4

93 20 106 40 120 0 133 20' 146 40' 150 0' 1600' 173 20' 180 0' 186 40' 200 0' 210 0' 213 20' 226 40' 2400' 253 20' 266 40' 270 0' 280 0' 293 20' 3006' 306 20' 320 0' 330 0' 333 20' 346 40' 360 0'

Peculiarities of Zodaical Signs Each zodiacal sign has certain peculiarities attributed to it. Each sign represents some element in nature, such as fire, air, earth and water. Peculiarities 1. Movable signs (charas rasis) 2. Fixed signs (stitra rasis) 3. Common signs (Dwiswabhava) 4. Odd signs 5. Even signs 6. Fiery signs (Agnitatwa rasis) 7. Earthy signs (Bhutatwa rasis) 8. Air signs (Vayutatwa rasis) 9. Water signs (Jalatatwa rasis) Further classifications are also made. These details will be useful in the delineation of character and mental disposition. Signs Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius and Aquarius Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn and Pisces Aries, Leo and Sagittarius Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn Gemini, Libra and Aquarius Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces

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Colours Each planet represents a certain colour Planet Sun Mars Moon Saturn Mercury Jupiter Venus Colour copper blood-red white black green bright yellow mixture of all colours

Planetary Natures:- The Sun, the Moon and the Jupiter are divine in nature and indicate Satvikaguna or philosophical dispositions. The Venus and the Mercury represent rajasa or imperious dispositions. Mars and Saturn denote Thamasa or dull nature. The Sun and Moon are fiery planets. The Mercury is earthy. The Saturn is airy. The Jupiter is ethereal. The Venus and the Moon are watery. The Sun represents ego or alma. The Moon represents mind or manas. The Mars represents martial power. The Mercury represents good and eloquent speech. The Jupiter represents wisdom. The Venus represents voluptuousness and gross sensual pleasures. The Saturn represents sorrows and miseries.

Planetary relations: The term friendship and enmity among planets means the rays of one planet will be intensified or counteracted by those of the other planet declared to be its friend or enemy. Friendship is both permanent and temporary. Permanent Relationship Planet Sun Moon Friends Moon, Mars, Jupiter Sun, Mercury Neutrals Mercury Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn Enemies Saturn, Venus None

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Mars Mercury

Sun, Moon, Jupiter Sun, Venus

Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn

Mercury Moon

Jupiter Venus Saturn Tarabala

Sun, Moon, Mars, Saturn Mercury, Saturn Mercury, Venus

Mercury, Venus Mars, Jupiter Jupiter

None Sun, Moon Sun, Moon, Mars

From birth star to the desired star (both included) total number of stars to be divided by nine. If, the reminder is One Two Three Four Five Six Eight Nine it is birth star it is wealth star it is evil star it is safe star it is pratyaruk star it is achievement star it is friendly star or zero it is very-friendly star

Seven it is Vadha star

If a star is to be pleased to remove evil effects for birth star donate vegetables, for 3rd star use jaggery, 5th star salt, 7th star gingelly, gold or cloth. Chandrabala In the required time from the birth rasis to the rasi where the chandra is (both included) the total to be made. If the total is 1 denotes health, 2 denotes in fighting, 3 denotes material benefit, 4 denotes ill health, 5 denotes obstacles, 6 denotes destruction of enemy, 7 denotes increased happiness, 8 denotes increased health; 9 denotes slowness of work, 10 denotes improved working conditions, 11 denotes fulfillment of desires, 12 denotes spending of money.

In Sukla Paksha 2, 5, 6 and 9, and, in Krishna Paksha 4 8 and 12 are supposed to be good, Moon is to be pleased to ward off evil effects, it is suggested to perform pooja for Moon, recite mantras related to Moon and donate rice.

In Sukla Paksha tarabala is seen and in Krishna Paksha chandrabala is to be checked. Gurubala

When you count from the birth rasi upto the rasi where the Jupiter (Guru) is visibly present, if the Jupiter is in 2nd, 5th, 7th, 9th or 11th position one will have Gurubala. If the Jupiter is in own (Swa) house, exaltation house or friend's house even if he is not in 2nd, 5th, 7th, 9th or 11th position one will still have Gurubala.
Dasas and Bhukthis
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The Dasa system helps In studying the timing of events. The basis for the Dasa system is not clearly known, or can be scientifically established, Practical experience, has shown that the calculations are quite satisfactory and more or less the predictions under the system have come true. The position of the Moon at birth is important in the calculation of the Dasas. Every constellation covers 13 1/3 degrees of the zodiacal space. Each nakshatra has a planet assigned as its lord and the dasa at birth is indicated by the constellation occupied by the Moon at the time of birth.
Table of Dasas

Nakshatra Krittika, Uttar and Uttarashadha Rohini, HastaandSravana Mrigasira, Chitta and Dhanishta Ardra, Swati and Satabhlsha Punarvasu, Vlsakha and Purvabhadra Pushya, Anuradha and Uttarabhadra Aslesha, Jyeshta and Revathi Makha, Mula and Aswini Pubba, Poorvashadha and Bharani

Dasa Sun Moon Mars Rahu Jupiter Saturn Mercury Kethu Venus

Years 6 10 7 18 16 19 17 7 20

The total of the different Periods is 120 years which is considered to be the natural life period of a human being. The position of the Moon at birth, determines the ruling period And the, next dasas succeed in the order given above. If, at the time of birth, the Moon is in the first degree of the nakshatra (constellation), the full period assigned to the planet will run. If the Moon occupies some intermediate degrees, accordingly the period must be reduced. There are different systems of Dasa calculations. Vimsottari calculation is practiced more. After finding the Dasa, the sub-periods (Bhukti) in each of the particular Dasa must be determined.

Calculation of Bhukthis

Multiply the number of years of Dasa period of the planet by the number of years of the dasa period of the planet whose sub period is desired. Then take the last digit of the product, multiply it by 3 and keep that figure as days. The other figures in the product will be months. Example: Sub-period of Jupiter in the major period of Sun: Dasa period of sun = 6 years Dasa period of Jupiter = 16 years. 16 x 6 = 96 Last digit 6 x 3 = 18 =-18 days After taking 6 away from 96 remaining figure is 9 i.e., 9 months. Sub period of Jupiter in the major period of Sun is 0 years 9 months 18 days.
Aspects The power of a planet to produce good or inflict evil on an individual is modified to a great extent by the natural sympathies or antipathies of the aspecting and aspected planets. An aspect is good or bad according to the relation between the aspecting and aspected p1anet. All the planets aspect the 3rd and 10th houses from their location with a quarter sight; the 5th and 9th houses with a half sight; the 4th and the 8th houses with a three_quarter of a sight and the 7th house with a full sight. Saturn, Jupiter and Mars have special aspects. Saturn powerfully

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aspects 3rd and 10th houses, Jupiter aspects 5th and 9th houses and Mars aspects 4th and 8th houses.

Ekadashis: Ekadasi is observed in 3 different ways by (i)Smartas, (ii)Vaishnavas and (iii) Sri Vaishnavas Smarta and Sri Vaishnava groups follow Siddhant and Vakya system for determining Ekadasi. Vaishnavas follow the Arya system for deciding the Ekadashi.

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