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) (

)(-

)STEEL (III
. /

) (

. .

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DESIGN OF STEEL
STRUCTURES
CHAPTER(1)
INTRODUCTION

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..

Types Of Steel Structures:-

Beams

Trusses
Frames

Trussed -Frames

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..

Types Of Steel Structures:-

Bridges
Tall Buildings

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..

Towers

Advantages And Disadvantages Of


Steel Structures:Advantages:1-High carrying capacity.
2-Lighter In Weight.
3-Small Sections.
4-High Ductile Material.
5-No need Formwork.
6-Faster Construction.
7-Ability Of changing And Adding To Sections.
8-Weldability.
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..

Disadvantages : 1-Cost Of Maintenance.


2-Tendency To Buckling.
3-Less Resistance To Fires.
4-Problems Of Instability.

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..

Stress-Strain Curve For Steel:-

ST 52

STRESS

ST 44

Fu
ST 37

Fy

Elastic Plastic

Pages

Strain Hardening

failure

..

STRAIN
STRAIN

Mechanical Properties Of Steel:1-Mass density = 7.85 t/m3.


2-Modulus of elasticity E = 2100 t/cm2.
3-Shear Modulus G = 810 t/cm2.
4-Poisson's ratio = 0.3
5-Coefficient of thermal expansion =
1.2x10-5 co.

Pages

..

Grades Of Steel:1- Steel 37.


2- Steel 44.
3- Steel 52.
t > 40mm

T < 40mm

Grade of
steel

FY

FU

FY

FU

St 37

2.4

3.6

2.15

3.4

St 44

2.8

4.4

2.55

4.1

St 52

3.6

5.2

3.35

4.9

Pages

..

Design Procedure:12- Determination of service Load.


3- Determination of internal forces in the
Structural components.
4- Design of section.
5- Drawing and Detailing

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..

Codes and specification:1- BSS 436,449 (British Standard Specifications).


2- Euro-Code 1, 2, 3 & 4.
3- AISC (American Institute Of Steel Construction).
4- AISI (American Iron Of Steel Institute).
5- AASHJ
6- ECP. (Egyptian Cod Of Practice for Steel
Construction and Bridges)

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..

The Aim Of Structural Designer Is


To Produce:1-Asafe And Economical Structural To
Achieve A certain Function.
2-A Structure That Is Aesthetically Pleasing.
3-A Structure That is Easy To Build And
Maintain.

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..

The Structural Systems:-

Trusses
OR
Frames

. .

Pages

General Layout of project:General Layout of project

Cross Section of Structura System (Truss).

Elevation (Transverse W.Br.)

Scale(1:50)

Scale(1:100)

Isometric
Plane (Upper&Lower W.Br.)

Scale(1:500)

Scale(1:100)

Mansoura Uni.
Faculty of Eng
Steel Project
Students NameData

Pages

..

The Given Area:-

. .

Pages

General Layout.
Elements Of Structure (Isometric):-

Pages

..

Main System Arrangement:-

. .

Pages

Main System (Elevation):-

. .

Pages

Plane & (S.V):-

. .

Pages

)Cont. CH(1

Loads on
Trusses

. .

Pages

*Types

of loads:-

1-Primary Loads:
(Dead Load - Live Load - superimposed Load
Dynamic effects centrifugal forces).
2-Secondary Load:
(Wind Loads Earth quake Loads Braking
forces lateral chock effect changing of
temperature frictional Resistance of bearing
settlement of support) .
Pages

..

1-Primary Loads:a-) Dead Loads:

-Weight of steel Structure (Wst).

[Truss members Purlins Connections Wind bracing


members ]
Assumed Wst [20 - 40] kg/m2.

-Weight of covering material (Wc).


*Flexible Roof:
Corrugated steel sheets. Wc= [5
Sandwich panel
= [10 - 15]
Asbestos
Wc = [15 - 25]
Tiels
Wc = [30 - 50]
Glass
Wc = [20 - 40]

*Rigid Roof:

Concrete
Pages

Wc = . ts

- 8] kg/m2.
kg/m2.
kg/m2.
kg/m2.
kg/m2.

= 2.5 t/m2.
..

Calculating of Dead loads:PD . L = Pst + PC .


x S
W st a

P st
x S
W C . a
Pc

Ps = W st x a x S
PC . = W C . x a x S
PD . L = W st x a x S + W C . x a x S
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..

Dead loads distribution:-

. .

Pages

b-) Live Loads:


From Curve get WL.L.according
To Roof type
**(Inaccessible Roof Flexible)

40
WL.L = 20+ (0.6 tan )
0.6
**(Inaccessible Roof Rigid)
WLL = 50 + (0.6 tan) (50/0.6)

WL.L Kg/m

200
190
180
170
160
150

Accessible Roof

140
130
120
110

100

InAccessible Roof (Rigid Roof)

90

**(Accessible Roof Rigid)


WL.L. =50+ (0.6-tan )(150/0.6)

Then,

80
70

60

50 kg/m2

50
40

InAccessible Roof (Flexible Roof)

30

20 kg/m2

20
10

PL.L. =WL.L *a*S = .....Kg


Pages

tan

0.60.7 0.8 0.9


Live Load on Inclined Roof

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

..

Live loads distribution:-

. .

Pages

1-Secondary Loads:Wind Loads:


The external pressure or suction of wind
forces is calculated using the following
equation: W w = c e x k x q

Pages

..

Equations parameters:C
K
q

. .

Pages

Value Of Coefficient (C):-

. .

Pages

Wind Loads curve:-

. .

Pages

Some special cases:-

. .

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Some special cases:-

. .

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Value Of Coefficient (K):-

Pages

Height "m"

Coefficient "K"

0 to 10

1.0

10 to 20

1.1

20 to 30

1.3

30 to 50

1.5

50 to 80

1.7

80 to 120

1.9

120 to 160

2.1

More than 160

2.3

..

Basic Wind Pressure at Different


Location in Egypt:

Pages

Location

q
"Kg/m2"

Marsa Matrouh,El-Dabaa,RasSedr

90

Alexandria,El-saloum,Abu
Sower, Hurghda and all
costal Area

80

Cairo , Asyot , Belbis

70

Fayoum , Menya , Aswan ,


Modereyat ElTahrir

60

Tanta , Mansoura
, Damanhour

..

50

Wind loads distribution:-

. .

Pages

Wind loads distribution:-

. .

Pages

Wind loads calculation:W

(t / m

x S
) = c . k . q a
P w ( ton )

(t / m

) = c . k . q S w

(t / m )

w1

= + 0 . 8 x 1 . 0 x 0 . 05 xS

= ....... t / m

w2

= + 0 . 8 x 1 . 1 x 0 . 05 xS = ....... t / m

W w 3 = 0 . 5 x 1 . 0 x 0 . 05 xS = ....... t / m
W

w 4

= 0 . 5 x 1 . 1 x 0 . 05 xS = ....... t / m

Pw 1 = 0 . 8 x 1 . 1 x 0 . 05 x a xS = ....... t
Pw 2 = 0 . 5 x 1 . 1 x 0 . 05 x a xS = ....... t
Pages

..

Structural analysis:1-Method of sections.


2-Method of joints.
3-Stress diagram Method.
OR
Using Computer Programs (Sap2000,
Broeken, Ansys, Abakus, Staad III
Provion).

Pages

..

)Ch(2
Design of Tension
"and Compression

. .

Pages

The Type of loading which


acts on structural member classified
the steel members into four categories:
1-Tension Members:

+N
f =
f T all
A

2-Compression Members:

N
f =
f c all
A

3-Flexural Members:

My
Mx
f =
+
fb
Zx
Zy

4-Combined Members:

N
Mx My
f =
+
+
f all
A
Zx
Zy
Pages

..

Sections Used in truss members:

b:a=2:1 iv =0.1xb
b:a=1.5:1 iv =0.14xb

u
t

iv =0.2xa

1 one equal angle

1 one unequal angle

Pages

..

Cont. Sections Used in truss members:

v
a

b:a=1:1 ix =0.3xb
b:a=1.5:1 ix =0.28xb
ix =0.26xb
b:a=2:1
t

Two angle back to back

i v =0.385xa

Star shape

Pages

..

Cont. Sections Used in truss members:


Y

X
e

X
ex
X

ix

2<

= ix

Y
(From table)

ix

1<
2

= 2 [I y 1< + A1<.X ]
2<
t
(From table)
X=e + 2
Iy

G.Pl

iy

2<

Iy
2<
A
2<

Pages

..

2<

= iy

1<

(From table)
2

2 [I X + A .X ]
=
1<
1<
2<
t
(From table)
X=e + 2
iy
Iy
=
2<
2<
A
Iy

G.Pl

2<

Allowable stresses in tension:

2.6.2(p.13)

Ft = 0.58 Fy }

t 40 mm Fy

40 mm < t 100 mm Fy

Ft(t/cm2)

Grade of
Steel

Pages

From clause 1.4 , get Fy

T<40mm

100mm>t > 40mm

St 37

1.4

1.3

St 44

1.6

1.5

St 52

2.1

2.0

..

Before designing of any member you have to ask


about:
1-Type of force:

Case ( A ) F t = 1 . 4 t / cm 2

Case ( B ) F t = 1 . 4 x 1 . 2 t / cm

2-Position of Member:

Outer (U & L ) 2 < b.b

Inner ( D & V ) 2 < b.b or 1 < or star shape


3-Type of connection:

Bolted Connection (Use Net Area in tension member)

Welded Connection (Use gross Area in tension member)


Pages

..

Design of
Tension
Members

B-Unsymmetrical
Sections

A-Symmetrical
Sections
.

Pages

..

Design Procedure :
A-Symmetrical Sections
Step (1): Choose of Cross Section:a) Stiffness condition:

L
ix

300

i x = 0 .3a b : a = 1 : 1
i x = 0 .28 b b : a = 1 .5 : 1
i x = 0 .26 b b : a = 2 : 1

Pages

..

Cont. A-Symmetrical Sections


b) Construction condition:
(In Case of bolted
connection only)

a 3 + t
M

12

4 cm

16

5 . 5 cm

c) Stress condition

F
A=
0 .58 F y (1 .2 x 0 .85 )
F
A=
0 . 58 F y

For Bolted case (B)


For Welded case (A)

A
A1< =
2

Choose The Section witch satisfy The above


Three conditions.
Pages

..

Cont. A-Symmetrical Sections


Step (2): Check of the Chosen Member:-

a)Check of Actual Stress:

f act =

A = 2 [ A 1 < ] Welded

0 .58 FY ( A)
Force

Net Area 0 .58 FY x1 .2 ( B )

A net = 2 [ A1< d h xt ] Bolted

d h = + clearance
Clearance : p95
1mm M 12 & M 14

2 mm M 16 M 24
3mm M 27 & L arg er

Pages

..

b) Check of Stiffness:
60

. .

L
d

Pages

B-Unsymmetrical Sections (one angle)


Step (1): Choose of Cross Section:a) Stiffness condition:

L
iv

300

iv = 0 . 2 a b : a = 1 : 1
i v = 0 . 14 b b : a = 1 . 5 : 1
iv = 0 . 1b b : a = 2 : 1

Pages

..

Cont. B-Unsymmetrical Sections (one angle)

a 3 + t

b) Construction condition:
(In Case of bolted
connection only)

12

4 cm

16

5 . 5 cm

c) Stress condition

F
A =
0 . 58 F y (1 . 2 x 0 . 85 x 0 . 6 )
A=
Pages

F
0 . 58 F y ( 0 . 6 )

For Bolted case (B)

For Welded case (A)


..

Cont. B-Unsymmetrical Sections (one angle)


Step (2): Check of the Chosen Member:-

a)Check of Actual Stress:


f act =

0 . 58 FY ( A )
Force

Reduced Area 0 . 58 FY x1 . 2 ( B )

A1 = ( a d h ). t Bolted
A1 = ( a ). t Welded
A 2 = ( a t ). t
A red

Pages

3 A1
= A1 + A 2
3 A1 + A 2

A1

p . 141

..

A2

b) Check of Stiffness:

L
60
d

. .

Pages

Example 1:
Design the lower chord tension member A shown in
the Figure. The force in the member is 30t (Case II)
and the bolts used in the connections are 16 nonpretensioned bolts.

Pages

..

Solution:
Data: Force = 30 t (Case II ) Length = 3.00 m
Lx= 3.0 m and Ly = 9.0 m

Step (1): Estimation of the cross section:


Stiffness condition:
L
iv

req.

300

Stress condition:

A
A

Force

0.58fy

req. = 30 / ( 0.85 x 1.4 x 1.20 ) = 21.0 cm2.

Choose 2 angles back-to-back for the lower chord. A of 1L


= 21.0/2= 10.50 cm2

Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
Knowing that for 2 angles back-to-back with
equal legs:
rx=0.3 a and ry = 0.45 a
x= Lx / (rx =0.3a)=300/0.3 a= 300
a req.=3.33 cm
y= Ly / (ry=0.45 a)= 900/(0.45x300) = 6.67 cm.
Construction Condition :
a-t > 3d = 4.8 cm.

From the tables choose 2Ls 80x80x8

Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
Check:
1. Strength:
A net. = A gross A Holes
A net. = 2 ( 12.3 - (1.6+0.2) * 0.8 ) = 21.72 cm2.
F act. = 30 / 21.72 = 1.38 t/cm2 < 1.4x1.2
( case II ) =1.68 t/cm2 Safe
2. Stiffness:
l/d = 300 / 8 = 37.5 < 60 OK
Step (2):

Pages

..

Example 2:
Design the same member of Example 1 with
welded connections.

Solution:
Step (1): Estimation of the cross section:
Stiffness Condition:

L
300
iv

Stress condition:
A req. = 30 / (1.4 x 1.2) = 17.86 cm2
Choose 2 angles back-to-back for the lower chord.

A of 1L = 17.86/2 = 8.92 cm2

Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
For 2 angles back-to-back with equal legs:
rx=0.3 a and ry=0.45 a
rx = Lx / (rx=0.3 a)=300/(0.3x300) = 3.33 cm
ry = Ly / (ry=0.45 a) = 900/(0.45x300) = 6.67 cm

From the tables choose 2Ls 70x70x7

Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
Step (2): Check:
1. Strength:
A net = Agross = 2 x 9.4= 18.8 cm2.
f ca = 30 / 18.8 = 1.595 t/cm2< 1.4x1.2
( case II ) =1.68 t/cm2. Safe

2. Stiffness:
l/d = 300/7 = 42.85 < 60 O.K. Safe

Pages

..

)Cont. Ch.(2
Design of Compression Member

. .

Pages

Buckling Lenghts of Compression


Members
{
{
{

Lbx = Buckling Length in-plane of Truss


Lby = Buckling Length in-out-of-plane of Truss
Buckling Lengths depend on selenderness
ratio()
L

Pages

See Code table(4-4) p.56&57


..

Euler Column Formula


Maximum Srtrenght of Axially Loaded MemberEuler
Column Formula = Fall.c *Area
Strength is determined by Euler Formula (Pin-ended
Column)
-Using Euler Formula = Pe = (TEI/L2)
FCritical = Pe/Area = (TEI/L2*A)= (TE/L2)(I/A)= TE/L2*(r2)

= slendernes
F cr . =

Pages

* E

ratio

where

L
r

..

= (

L 2
)
r

Lb
r

Relation between and Ultimate


Stress Fu.
Fu

Euler Curve

Pages

<100

>100

..

Allowable stresses in Compresion:

2.6.4(p15) Axial compression

For

l b x or

l by

t 40 mm

40 mm < t 100 mm

St 37

1.4-0.0000652

1.3-0.0000552

St 44

1.6-0.0000852

1.5-0.0000752

St 52

2.1-0.0001352

2.0-0.0001252

l bx orl by
r x or r y

r x or r y =
Pages

< 100

Fc t/cm2

Grade of Steel

For =

Kl
r

kl
=
100
r

F c = 7500 / 2

I x or I y
A

..

Design of
Compression
Members

A-Symmetrical
Sections
.

Pages

B-Unsymmetrical
Sections
.

..

Design Procedure :
A-Symmetrical Sections (Two angle)
Data Given : Lbx, Lby, Fdesign

Step (1) : Choose of Cross Section:a) Stiffness Condition:

x =

l
lbx
= ...180 y = by =.....180
rx
ry

rx = 0.3a twoangles , rx = 0.2a oneangle

b) Stress Condition

Areq =

( ) = .....cm
FDesign
Fall .C

Assume Fall.C = 0.7 1.3 t cm2


c) Construction Design

a 3 + t

(In Case of bolted connection only)


From three Conditions choose the greatest two angles

Pages

..

Step (2): Checks the Satisfy of the


Chosen Section:
1. Check of Stresses:

x = l bx r =
x
if max 100

y =

ry

take max

f all . c = 1 . 4 0 . 000065 2 max

if max 100
f act

l by

f all . c

F Design
=
A
2

7500
= 2

max

= ...... f all . c

2. Check The class of section (compact ,non-compact


&Slender)
23
b
= ......
t

fy

17
b+h

= .....
fy
2t
Pages

Noncompact for equal angles

Noncompact for Unequal angles

..

Step 3 :Design of Tie Plates:


Tie plate is used to prevent the occurrence of local
buckling and to prevent any of the two angles
forming the cross section to buckle individually.

max = 1<
L L*
=
r2< rv

rv min or axis of one angle

L* = ...... 1.5m

Pages

..

Design Procedure :
B-Unsymmetrical Sections (one angle)
Data Given : Lbx, Lby, Fdesign

Step (1) : Choose of Cross Section:l


a) Stiffness Condition: = lbx = = by = take
greater
x
y
rx
ry
b) Stress Condition

Areq =

( ) = .....cm
FDesign
Fall .C

Assume Fall.C = 0.4 0.9 t cm2


c) Construction Design

a 3 +t

(In Case of bolted connection only)


From three Conditions choose the greatest two angles

Pages

..

Step (2): Checks the Satisfy of the


Chosen Section:
1. Check of Stresses:
x = l bx r =

y =

if max 100

if max 100

F Design
f act =
A
1

f all

.c

f all

l by
ry

take

= 1 . 4 0 . 000065
.c

max
2 max

7500
= 2

max

= ...... 0 . 6 * f all

.c

2. Check The class of section (compact ,non-compact


&Slender)
23
b
= ......
fy
t

Noncompact for equal angles

17
b+h

= .....
fy
2t

Pages

..

Noncompact for Unequal angles

Example 1:
Design Force = -18 t (A), length of member =
160 cm (Upper member), the steel used (37),
use bolts M16 in the connections.

Solution:
Step (1): Choose of Cross Section:1- Stress Condition:Assume Fc=1.0t/cm2.

A=

FDesign
Fall .c

18 .0
A2<
2
=
= 18 .0cm A1< =
= 9.0cm 2
1 .0
2

From table choose two equal angle (70*70*7)

Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
2- Stiffness condition:L bx
L bx
160
180 i x
ix
= 0 . 89
ix
180
180
L by
L by
160
180 i y
iy
= 0 . 89
iy
180
180

3- construction condition:a

+ t

M 16

a 3 * 1 . 6 + 0 . 7 5 . 5 cm

From the above conditions choose the


greatest two equal angle (70*70*7)
Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
Step (2): Check the satisfy of the chosen
section:1- Check the class of section
(compact, non-compact, slender):b
100
=
t
10
section

= 10

23
= 14 . 8 e qual
Fy

angle

is non - compact.

2- Check of Stress:-

i x 2<

Pages

Lbx 160
= i y1< (table ) = 2.12cm x =
=
= (75.5) 180 ok
ix
2.12

..

Cont. Solution:
I y 2< = 2[ I y1< (table) + A1< * (e y +

I y 2<
Lby
tGP 2
) ] i y 2< =
y =
180
2
A2<
iy

1.0 2
) ] = 199.5cm4
2
199.5
160
=
= 3.26 y =
= (49.0) 180 ok
18.8
3.26

I y 2< = 2[42.4 + 9.4 * (1.97 +


i y 2<

cr = 75.5 < 100


Fc = (1.4 0.0000652 ) =
(1.4 0.000065(75.5) 2 ) = 1.03t / cm 2

Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
cr = 75.5 < 100
Fc = (1.4 0.0000652 ) = (1.4 0.000065(75.5) 2 ) = 1.03t / cm 2

f act =

FDesign
A 2

18.0
= 0.96t / cm2 1.03t / cm2
2 * 9.4

OK. Safe.
3- Design of Tie Plate:-

L b -greater / rv max

l = 1.37 * 75 .5 = 103 .4 > L / 2;


Use one tie plate in the middle.

Pages

..

Example 2:
Design Force = -3 t (A), length of member = 200
cm (Vertical member), the steel used (37), use
bolts M16 in the connections.(one angle)

Solution:
Step (1): Choose of Cross Section:1- Stress requirement:Assume Fc=0.5t/cm2.
FDesign 3.0
A=
=
= 6.0cm 2
Fall .c. 0.5
From table choose two equal angle 60*60*6
Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
2- Stiffness Condition:L bx
L bx
200
180 i x
ix
= 1 . 11
ix
180
180
L by
iy

180 i y

L by
180

iy

200
= 1 . 11
180

3- construction requirement:a

+ t

M 16

a 3 * 1 . 6 + 0 . 7 5 . 5 cm

From the above conditions choose the


greatest angles (60*60*6)
Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
Step (2): Check the satisfy of the chosen
section:1- Check the class of section
(compact, non-compact, slender):-

b 60
23
=
= 10
= 14 .8
t
6
Fy
section is non - compact.
2- Check of Stresses:-

L 200
Lbx = Lby = 200cm x = =
= (170.9 ) 180 ok
iv 1.17
Pages

..

Cont. Solution:
cr = 170.9 > 100
Fc = 0.6 * (7500 / 2 ) = 0.6(7500 /(170.9) 2 ) = 0.154t / cm 2
FDesign

3.0
= 0.43t / cm2 > 0.154t / cm2
A1
6.91
The section is unsafe try another angle
(80*80*8)
L
200
Lbx = Lby = 200 cm x = =
= (129 ) 180 ok
iv 1 . 55
cr = 129 > 100
f act =

Fc = 0 . 6 * ( 7500 / 2 ) = 0 . 6 ( 7500 /(129 ) 2 ) = 0 . 27 t / cm 2


f act =
Pages

Force
A

3 .0
= 0 . 244 t / cm 2 < 0 . 27 t / cm 2
12 . 3
..

OK Safe

)Ch(3
"Design of Steel
Connections

. .

pages

Types of steel Connection:


(I) Riveted Connections
(II) - Bolted connections.
a) Ordinary Bolted Connections
b) High Strength Bolted Connections
Two Classes of Bolts used in Structures
1 - Pretensioned Bolts,
2 - Non-pretensioned Bolts.
(III) - Welded Connections.
pages

..

Ordinary Bolted Connections:Diameter of Bolts:M12, M16, M20, M22, M24, M27, M30, M36.
Grade of Bolts:Bolt grade

Fyb
Fub

t/cm2
t/cm2

pages

4.6

4.8

5.6

5.8

6.8

8.8

10.9

4*0.6=
2.4

4*0.8=
3.2

3.0

4.0

4.8

6.4

9.0

10

Ordinary Bolts
Mild Steel

..

High Strength Bolts


Heat-treated Steel

Modes of Failure in Bolted Connections Subjected


to Shear :Failure Occures Either in Bolts or in Connected Plated
(1) Single Shear Failure
Resistance of Bolt (Rs.sh.)

R s . sh = q b . A s .

(2) -Double Shear ailure


Resistance of Bolt (Rd.sh.)

Rd . sh = 2 * Rs .sh .

q b = 0 . 25 F ub for bolt grades (4 . 6 ), (5 . 6 ), (8 . 8 )


q b = 0 . 2 F ub for bolt grades (4 . 8 ), (5 . 8 ), (6 . 8 ), (10 . 9 )
A s stress area of bolt (Table 6.3) P.106
pages

..

(3) - Bearing Failure, Resistance of Plate


Connected, (Rb.):

Rb = Fb . . min t
Where:

steel 37 3.6t / cm2

Fb = Allowable bearing stress = * FU FU = steel 44 4.4t / cm2

steel
52
5
.
2
t
/
cm

..

pages

= factor depends on end distance


(e)(P102).
End
distance

e 1.5 e 2.0 e 2.5


0.6

0.8

1.0

e 3.0

1.2

= diameter of bolt
mint =

pages

..

Required Number of Bolts:RLeast = Smallerof Rs.sh or Rb SingleShearFailure


RLeast = Smallerof Rd.sh or Rb DoubleShearFailure

FD.
N =
Rleast*1.2 case(B)

pages

..

(II) Resistance of Bolts in Bolted


Connection Subjected to Tension:
Tensile Resistance of a Single Bolt is given
by:

RTension = 0.7 * Abolt * Fall.t .bolt


RTension = 0.7 *

pages

(0.33FU .bolt )

..

(III) Resistance of Bolts in Bolted


Connection Subjected to Tension
and Shear:
Bolts subjected to Combined action of Shear
and Tension should Satisfy the interaction
Equation : Q
T

n
R
Least

Where
Q
( ) =
n
T
( ) =
n

pages


n
+ R
tension

= ..... 1 . 0

Actual

Shear

one bolt

Actual

Tension

oneBolt

..

Positioning Holes for Bolts:

e1
e2

Spacing in Tension and


Compression Member

T or C

Min.Edge distance = e1 & e2 > 1.5 diameter


Max.Edge distance = e1 & e2 < 12t

Staggered Spacing in
Compression Member

Spacing Bet. Bolts = Pitch =S


Smin= gmin = 3 diameter
Smax= gmax = 14t or 20cm (Least)

s 14t and 200 mm

s
Staggered Spacing
in Tension Member
pages

Outer row

2s

Inner row
..

Design Procedure of Bolted Connections:


1) - Data given.
Diameter of Bolts, Thickness of Guesst plate,
Sections of members & Design forces

2- Resistance of Bolts.:
R s . sh = q b . A s .
R d . sh = 2 * R s . sh .

Rb = Fb . . min

for each Member

R Least = Smaller

of R s . sh or R b Single Shear Failure

R Least = Smaller

of R d . sh or R b Double Shear Failure

3- Required Number of Bolts.


4- Drawing.
pages

FD.
N =
Rleast *1.2 case( B)

..

Solved Example.:

. .

pages

Solved Example:Design the connection shown in figure using non-pretension


bolts grade (4.6) M16, Gusset plate thickness is 10 mm.
<60x6
2
&
0m
L=1.6
&
)
B
2t(
F= -1

N5
N4

+ 1 2 .0

N1

&
L=
2.5
m
&

m&
L=2.0
5
1<55x

F=
-2.
5t(
B)

F=
-2.0
t(B
)

&
.5t(B)
F= +4

1<
80x
8

<55x5
2
&
0m
L=1.6
&
)
2t(B
F= +1

pages

-1 2 .0

N2

t
- 2 .0 t

- 2 .5 t

&L
=2.
5m

+ 4 .5 t

&1
<80
x8

N3

..

Solution:1) Data given.


Diameter of Bolts (M16),Grade of Bolts (4.6),Thickness of Gusset plate (10mm),
Sections of members & Design forces (as in fig.)

2) Resistance for bolts:


(Rleast): Rleast*1.2 Case (B)

R sh = q b . A s .n = 0 . 25 * 4 * 1 . 57 * n = 1 . 57 n
R S . S = 1 . 57 t
R D . S = 3 . 14 t

Rb = .Fu . . t min = 0 .8 * 3 .6 * 1 .6 * t min = 4 .6 t min

pages

..

Cont. Solution:-

+12.

3- Required Number of Bolts.

N1 =
N2 =
N3 =
N4 =
N5 =
pages

F1
Rleast bolt
F2
Rleast bolt
F3
Rleast bolt
F4
Rleast bolt
F5
Rleast bolt

-1 2 .

0 t

- 2 .0

0 t

- 2 .5

t
+ 4 .5

2 .5
2 .5
=
= 1 .33 2 M 16
(R S .S )or (Rb & t = 0.8 ) 1 .57 * 1 .2

4 .5
4 .5
=
= 2 .4 3 M 16
(RS .S )or (Rb & t = 0.5 ) 1 .57 * 1 .2

2 .0
2 .0
=
= 1 .1 2 M 16
(R S .S )or (Rb & t = 0.8 ) 1 .57 * 1 .2

12 .0
12 .0
=
= 3 .2 4 M 16
(R D .S )or (Rb & t =1.0 ) 3 .14 * 1 .2

12 .0
12 .0
=
= 3 .2 4 M 16
(R D .S )or (Rb & t =1.0 ) 3 .14 * 1 .2
..

**
- )) (CL(S
- ) (Cords
) (Cords
.
- ) ( Bolts ) (Cord
Smin Smin
) ( G.P
- ) ( Bolts )
(
pitch

) 3 S 14 t min & (200 mm

. .

pages

Drawing (Connection):x6
0
6
<2
x5
5
5
<2

G . P lm
10m

x8

x8

80

<1

1<55x5

80
<1

S c a le 1 :1 0

. .

pages

Drawing (Gusset Plate):-

11,68
2

7 ,5 8

5 ,5 7

5 ,5 7

7 ,5

3 ,7

5 ,5 7

2 ,7 9

4 ,9

5,15

2 ,7 5

5 ,5 7

5 ,5 7

5 ,5

2 ,9 7

5 ,5 7

4 6 ,7

2,58 5,15

2 ,4

1 6 ,0

2,75

7 ,2

,1 6

22

5,5

. .

pages

Cont. Ch.3
"Design of steel
connections
III- Welded Connections
Pages

/..

Types of Weld:
(1) - Butt Weld (Groove weld):

Square Butt Weld

Single "V" Butt weld

Double "V" Butt weld

Single "U" Butt Weld

Allowable Stress:-

Type

Butt Weld

Pages

Kind of Stress

Good Weld

Excellent Weld

Compression

1.0 Fc

1.1 Fc

Tension

0.7 Ft

1.0 Ft

Shear

1.0 qall

1.1 qall

/..

(2) - Fillet Weld:


L

F1

S
S

F2

Pages

/..

Notes on Fillet Weld:


(1) - Min. and Max. Thickness and Lengths of Welds
S Size of weld (S)
L Length of weld (L)

Smin= 4mm & Smax tmin


Lmin.=4S or 5 cm & Lmax 70S

Area of Weld = L * S
(2) - Allowable stress:All Kind of stresses Fw 0.2 Fu
>2X

>2X

Fu =3.6 t/cm2 (St.37)


L1

L2

Pages

/..

(3) - Welding Symbols :-

Purlin

S = 4 mm
S = 4 mm

S = 4 mm

S = 4 mm

S = 4 mm

Pages

/..

(4) - Distribution of Forces in Fillet WeldF (a e )


F (e )
F1 =
& F2 =
a
a
S

F
S

F1 = m (S * L1 )* (0 . 2 FU

F1

Force = Aweld * Fall . weld

L1

F2

L2

L1 =

F1
+ 2S (4S or 5 cm L 70S)
m * S * 0.2Fu

L2 =

F2
+ 2S (4S or 5 cm L 70S)
m * S * 0.2Fu

m = 1.0 (one angle) &


m = 2.0 (two angle)
Pages

/..

**Steps of Design:
1- Data Given:
Design force. , Section of members. , Allowable Stress
& Assume Size of Weld (S=4mm).
e

F
S

F (a e )
F (e )
F1 =
& F2 =
a
a

F1

2- Design Procedure:
a)- Determine F1&F2 In fillet weld.

L1

F2

L2

b)- Determine The lengths of weld L1&L2.

L1Pr actice =

F1
+ 2 S = ....cm (4S or 5 cm L 70S )
m * S * 0 .2 Fu

L 2 Pr actice =

F2
+ 2 S = ..... cm (4S or 5 cm L 70S )
m * S * 0 .2 Fu

c)- Draw the connection.


Pages

/..

Solved Example:
Design the connection shown in figure as Welded Connection,
Gusset plate thickness is 10 mm.

&
L=
2.5
m

-12.0 t
U1

t
+12.0
U2
&L
=2
.5m

&1
<8
0x8

& L=

D2

-2.5 t D1

-2.0 t

+4.5t
V1

2.0m

&

5t(B)
5x5
& 1<5

F=
-2.
5t(
B)

.
F= +4

Pages

x6
2<60

F=
-2.
0t(
B)

1<
80x
8

&
2t(B)
1
+
=
F

0m
L=1.6

t(B) &
= -12
F
55x5
& 2<

0m &
L=1.6

/..

Cont. Solution:1- Data Given:


Design forces, Section of members, Allowable Stress (0.2Fu)
& Assume Size of Weld (S=5mm).

2- Design Procedure:

a)- Determine F1&F2 In fillet weld.


b)- Determine The lengths of weld L1&L2.

For Diagonal and Vertical: m=1.0 one angle 1<


Case(B) Fweld=0.2Fu*1.2
member

Section

Fm

e (table)

a-e

F1=Fm*(a*(a-e)/a

F2=Fm*e/a

Size of
weld (S)

L1(cm)

L2(cm)

D1

1<80*8

-2.5(B)

2.26

5.74

1.79

0.71

0.5

5.14

2.64

D2

1<80*8

-2.0(B)

2.26

5.74

1.44

0.56

0.5

4.33

2.29

V1

1<55*5

+4.50(B)

1.52

3.98

3.26

1.23

0.5

8.55

3.85

Pages

/..

Cont. Solution:For Upper Members: m=2.0 one angle 2<


Case(B) Fweld=0.2Fu*1.2
member

Section

Fm

e (table)

a-e

F1

F2

Size of
weld (S)

L1(cm)

L2(cm)

U1

2<60*6

-12.0(B)

1.69

4.31

8.62

3.38

0.5

11.0

4.91

U2

2<55*5

-12.0(B)

1.52

3.98

8.68

3.32

0.5

11.05

4.84

Hint:
Any Length 5cm Take it = 5cm

Pages

/..

Cont. Solution:c)- Draw the connection.


240x5
240x5
240x5
167x5
240x5
167x5

68x5

S c a le 1 :1 0
Pages

/..

Cont. Solution:-

c)- Draw the connection.


5 0 ,2 1

90

90

22,96

90

22,96

90

5 0 ,2 1

Scale 1:10

Pages

/..