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5pa ., ouc 4.

6pecc. Teop, ccneqosau, uqs.






















C.: PA|V-E8P08lAK,
2003. 352 c. (poert cuxonoru-Best).

Kuura 1. ouc u . 6pauta sauunaet sMroquoe ronoeuue cpequ nuoectsa rorynpuMx u araqenu+ecrux usqauuu ua
aty artyaneuyk teny, snce oquospeneuuo y+euMn rocouen qn ctyqeuta, ronuoeuuMn uay+uMn osopon ro
ctpeccy qn cepeesuoro uccneqosaten u qoctyruMn ucto+uuron uuopnauu o ctpecce qn pqosoro nkosuateneuoro
+utaten. 8 ueu coqepatc rocnequue uay+uMe qauuMe ro atou rponene, paccnatpusaktc tarue sauMe tenM, rar
ctpecc u usu+ecrue u rcuxu+ecrue saonesauu, ctpecc ua pao+en necte, s cenee u s nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuux,
uuqusuqyaneua +ysctsuteneuocte r ctpeccy, ctpateruu cuueuu u cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. peqnaraena ruura ctauet
otrpasuou to+rou suaronctsa c tenou, sonuykaeu raqoro cospeneuuoro +enosera.
u 5pa, 4oua ouc
6TPE66. TE0Phh, h66E0AhhP, Hh4b
PE|C08|E:............................................................................................10
+A6Tb 1. +T0 TAK0E CTPECC?......................................................................... 12
lA8A 1. CTPECC: 0lFT|E......................................................................... 13
lA8A 2. 0X0b K |8/+El|k CTPECCA................................................30
lA8A 3. 1|8|00l|F CTPECCA................................................................to
+ACTb 2. 808V0XlbE 311EKTb CTPECCA...............................................qo
lA8A 4. CTPECC: 80P08bE | 60E8lb .................................................91
lA8A 5. K0ll|T|8lbE XAPAKTEP|CT|K|, CTPECC | TPE80lA.............122
+A6Tb 2. 808V0XlbE 311EKTb CTPECCA..................................................qo
lA8A 4. CTPECC: 80P08bE | 60E8lb ..................................................91
lA8A 5. K0ll|T|8lbE XAPAKTEP|CT|K|, CTPECC | TPE80lA.............122
+A6Tb 3. 0+EV/ k| 0-PA8l0V/ PEAl|P/kT lA CTPECC0Pb?..........149
lA8A 6. |l|8|/AblbE PA8|+|F 8 PEAK|FX lA CTPECC..........150
lA8A 7. PE00El|E CTPECCA.............................................................179
lA8A 8. C0|AblAF 0EPXKA..........................................................210
+A6Tb 4. 8 ElTPE 8l|VAl|F CTPECC lA PA60+EV VECTE ................240
lA8A 9. P01ECC|0lAblb| CTPECC..................................................241
lA8A 10. 88A|Vl0E 8|Fl|E CEVb| | PA60Tb ..................................274
lA8A 11. 8VELATEbCT8A 0 PE00El|k CTPECCA......................307
+A6Tb 5. CTPATEl|| Cl|XEl|F CTPECCA...................................................338
lA8A 12. 8b80b: V|1b, TE0P|| | |CCE08Al|F .........................339
l0CCAP|| .................................................................................................349
Coepxanwe
PEh60hE ...............................................................................10
+A6Tb 1. +T0 TAK0E 6TPE66?...........................................................12
|AA 1. 6TPE66: 0hPThE .............................................................13
Xuteucroe rouunauue ctpecca 13
Araqenu+ecroe ucronesosauue routu ctpecc 15
|ctopu sorpoca 15
CospeneuuMe orpeqeneuu 17
Karosa pacrpoctpaueuuocte ctpecca
9

Ctauosutc nu ou onee +actMn sneuuen
7
19
Fsnetc nu ctpecc rpoqyrton rynetypuMx ouqauuu? 23
onesuoe nu ato routue
9
Cneqyet nu ot uero otrasatec
9
26
cuxonoru+ecrue uccneqosauu ctpecca 27
Poct uccneqosatenecroro uutepeca 27
8seqeuue s rcuxonoru+ecrue roqxoqM 27
|AA 2. 0X0b K h3Y+EhhK 6TPE66A.......................................30
Kara teopu
9
Karue usnepeuu
9
32
0aee rpeqctasneuue o ctpeccopax u ux usnepeuue 36
oqxoq ua ocuose usueuuMx coMtuu 36
oscequesuMe uerputuoctu tpausaruouaneuMu roqxoq 40
Xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM 43
0aee rpeqctasneuue o uarpeuux u ux usnepeuue 44
1usu+ecrue cunrtonM 44
oseqeu+ecrue rposneuu 46
CunrtonM rcuxu+ecroro uenarorony+u 47
8ocrpuuunaenMu ctpecc 50
pyrue rcuxonoru+ecrue uarpeuu 51
0aee rpeqctasneuue o repeneuuMx,
cssauuMx c uuqusuqyaneuMnu pasnu+unu, u ux usnepeuue 51
Knk+esMe netoqonoruu s uccneqosauux ctpecca 53
Konu+ectseuuMe netoqM 54
Ka+ectseuuMe netoqM 60
KonuuuposauuMe netoqM 61
0sopM u netaauanus 61
Vetoqonoru+ecrue rponenM s nutepatype ro ctpeccy 62
Voen nu nM ronaratec ua qauuMe canoot+etos
7
62
Karue uutepsanM speneuu sauM
7
67
Fsnetc nu rynuryena nutepatypa opason uccneqosatenecrou rpeqsstoctu
7
68
8arnk+euue 69
|AA 3. 4h3h00|hP 6TPE66A......................................................70
Ctpoeuue uepsuou cuctenM r 72
Cunrato-aqpeuanosa (SAM) cuctena pearuu 74
CuctenM SNS / SAM u rapquosacrynpua qeteneuocte 76
Cepqe+uo-cocyquctMe onesuu 77
Cuctena pearuu rurotanano-rurousapuo-uaqro+e+uurosou ocu (lPA) 78
Perynu cerpeuu roptusona 80
Koptuson sMcsooqeuue auepruu u cepqe+uo-cocyqucta cuctena 81
CtpeccosMe pearuu u unnyuua yuru 82
TurM unnyuuou yuruu 82
Xpouu+ecrue u octpMe pearuu 84
Cerpetopua unnyuua cuctena 84
CtpeccosMe pearuu u qerpeccu 85
1usuonoru+ecrue usnepeuu . 86
8arnk+euue 89
+A6Tb 2. 03H0AhbE 344EKTb 6TPE66A......................................90
|AA 4. 6TPE66: 30P0bE h 50E3hb .........................................91
Karue tpyquoctu sosuurakt rpu sMsneuuu csseu neqy
rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u onesuek
9
93
Ctpecc u usu+ecra onesue 94
XusueuuMe coMtu u par 94
Xpouu+ecrue rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM u cepqe+uo cocyquctMe saonesauu 98
cuxocouaneuMe artopM u rpoctyqa 102
8osnouMe nexauusnM neaaue s ocuose cssu neqy ctpeccopanu
u usu+ecrun sqoposeen u onesuek 107
auuMe o ton +to ctpeccopM seqyt r usneueuun s rpusM+rax,
snukaux ua sqoposee 108
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
8nuuue ctpeccopos ua unnyuuyk cucteny 112
o+eny uerotopMe nkqu onee socrpuun+usM r sosqeuctsuk ctpeccopos +en qpyrue
7
115
8MsoqM 116
Ctpecc u rcuxu+ecrue onesuu 117
erpeccu 119
pyrue rcuxu+ecrue pacctpouctsa 120
8arnk+euue 121
|AA 5. K0|hhThhbE XAPAKTEPh6ThKh, 6TPE66 h TPE0|A.........122
Koruutusua rcuxonoru 123
Teopuu cssu roruutusuou qeteneuoctu, tpesoru u qerpeccuu 124
Teopu cxen 6era (scema theory) 125
Teopu accouatusuou cetu 6ayapa (associative network theory) 127
Teopu rpoqyrtusuoctu opaotru uuopnauu Auseura (processing efficiency theory) 127
3rcrepuneutaneuMe uccneqosauu roruutusuMx xapartepuctur u tpesoru 130
8uunauue 130
|uteprpetau u rante 136
Cyqeuu orepatusua rante u sMronueuue saqauuu 140
8arnk+euue 146
+A6Tb 3. 0+EHY Kh 0-PA3h0HY PEA|hPYKT hA 6TPE660Pb?.. 149
|AA 6. hhhhYAbhbE PA3h+hP PEAKhPX hA 6TPE66.......150
8orpocM netoqonoruu 151
pnoe sosqeuctsue 153
1artopM-rocpequuru (nequatopM) 154
Perynupykaue artopM (noqepatopM) 155
8nuuue uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu 156
Teuqep 156
8ospact/sqoposee 158
0pasosauue u couaneuMu ctatyc 159
ucrosuuouuMe artopM 160
TurAu spaqeuocte 160
leratusua aertusuocte 164
Kar ueratusua aertusuocte cootuocutc
c qpyrunu nu+uoctuMnu artopanu
9
164
|snepeuue ueratusuou aertusuoctu 167
Kar ueratusua aertusuocte snuet
ua canoot+etM o ctpeccopax u uarpeuuu 167
euctsuteneuo nu sMcoruu yposeue ueratusuou aertusuoctu rpeqpacronaraet r tony
+to nkqu ucrMtMsakt onee cuneuoe uarpeuue
7
169
Voqene ronexu 170
Voqene yssunoctu 175
pyrue roqxoqM s uccneqosauuu ueratusuou aertusuoctu 177
8arnk+euue 178
|AA 7. PE00EhhE 6TPE66A ...................................................179
Pauuue roqxoqM r uccneqosauuk cosnaqeuu co ctpeccon 180
ucrosuuouuMu roqxoq r rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca 182
oqasnkauu u ceucutusupykauu ctunu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca 183
VouutopuurosMu u nautepuMu ctunu cosnaqeuu co ctpeccon 186
+eptM nu+uoctu u rpeoqoneuue ctpecca 189
CutyauouuMu roqxoq r rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca 191
oseqeuue unu ctune
9
195
C0PE roqxoq 198
Ka+ectseuuMe roqxoqM rusnepeuuk cosnaqeuu co ctpeccon 202
KarosM rocneqctsu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca
9
205
peoqoneuue ctpecca ryte srepeq 206
|AA 8. 60hAbhAP 0EPAKA................................................210
+to uneetc s suqy roq couaneuou roqqeprou
9
211
Couaneua uuterpau u srnk+euuocte 212
Ka+ectseuuMu acrert couaneuou roqqepru 213
8ocrpuuunaena couaneua roqqepra 216
peqoctasnena couaneua roqqepra 217
|snepeuu u cssu neqy pasnu+uMnu rorasatennu 219
Kar couaneua roqqepra snuet ua sqoposee
7
222
Voqepupykaue unu rpnMe aertM
9
222
Cootsetctsue roqqepru 225
8nuuue couaneuou roqqepru ua usuonoru+ecroe yuruouuposauue 225
Cepqe+uo-cocyqucta cuctena 226
|nnyuua cuctena 228
8qoposeeceperakaue crocoM roseqeuu rar nequatopM 230
8nuuue uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu 230
8cerqa nu couaneua roqqepra xopoaa u ronesua
9
233
Couaneua roqqepra s peaneuon nupe raueutos,
ctpaqakaux parosMnu saonesauunu - 234
8arnk+euue 238
+A6Tb 4. EhTPE hhHAhhP - 6TPE66 hA PA50+EH HE6TE...........240
|AA 9. P04E66h0hAbhbh 6TPE66..........................................241
poeccuouaneuMu ctpecc poct uutepeca r rponene 241
poeccuouaneuMu ctpecc teopetu+ecrue roqxoqM r rponene 244
poctMe noqenu cpeqosMx xapartepuctursutanuuua noqene 8oppa 245
|uteparuouaneuMe noqenu 247
TpausaruouaneuMu roqxoq 253
0eura rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca 260
|snepeuue sue panor orpeqeneuuoro roqxoqa|uquratop rpoeccuouaneuoroctpecca (OSI) 261
Cosqauue uuctpyneuta usnepeuu ctpecca ua ocuosauuu cyaectsykaux aran
usneputeneuMe uuctpyneutM tura sMupau u ronrouyu
|utepsek
|snepeuue ctpecca ua rparture uuterpuposauuMu roqxoq
VetoqM usnepeuu peskne
8arnk+euue
264 268 269 272 272
|AA 10. 3AhHh0E hPhhE 6EHbh h PA50Tb ............................274
Ctpecc s pasnu+uMx cepax usuu
Teopetu+ecrue roqxoqM r usy+euuk ssaunocssu neqy ceneeu u paotou
Pacrpoctpaueuue ronreucau u cerneutau
Ponesou rounurt
|sy+euue cssu neqy ceneeu u paotou
8auunaktc nu nkqu cxoquMnu suqanu qeteneuoctu qona u ua paote
9

Cyaectsyet nu csse neqy oeuranu rotopMe qaktc nkqenu s otuoaeuuu
yqosnetsopeuuoctu pasuMnu acrertanu csoeu usuu
9

+to +aae ctauosutc ucto+uuron ctpecca paota unu ceneuua usue
9

Kar paota u qon snukt qpyr ua qpyra
9

0t rarux xapartepuctur paotM sasucut ee snuuue ua cenek
9

0t rarux xapartepuctur ceneu sasucut ee snuuue ua paoty
9

Cene u paota rposneuu ponesoro rounurta
8nuuue paotM ua cenek
Kar paota snuet ua otuoaeuu neqy cyrpyranu
Kar paota snuet ua otuoaeuu poquteneu u qeteu
9

8nuuue paotM ua qpyrux +neuos ceneu tpaucnuccu,
unu repexoq uarpeuu
8nuuue paotM ny+uu ua ux raptueposeuauu
syctopouu tpaucnuccu s cenex s rotopMx paotakt oa cyrpyra
Tpaucnuccu s otuoaeuuu qpyrux +neuos ceneu
8osnouMe nexauusnM tpaucnuccuu
8arnk+euue
|AA 11. HEUATEb6TA 0 PE00EhhK 6TPE66A...............
8neaatenectsa ua yposue oprauusauu u onee auporux oauocteu
epsu+ua rpounartura
8topu+ua rpounartura
pounartura tpeteero ropqraroucynetuposauue
8neaatenectsa ua yposue oprauusauu u onee auporux oauocteurarosM repcrertusM
9

8neaatenectsa ro rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca s xoqe nequuucroro ne+euu
8neaatenectsa ro rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca y oneuMx paron
8neaatenectsa ro rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca y oneuMxc ropouapuou onesuek
CtpeccopM s oneuueorepauu u rpoeqypM
Koruutusuo-roseqeu+ecrue roqxoqM
8arnk+euue
+A6Tb 5. 6TPATE|hh 6hhAEhhP 6TPE66A......................................
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
|AA 12. b0b: Hh4b, TE0Phh h h66E0AhhP..................
+to nM roqpasynesaen roq nuanu
9

KarosM nuM o ctpecce
9

A terepe o teopuu
A terepe o uccneqosauuu
8arnk+euue
FHOCCAPHH....................................................................
+o akoe cpecc?

3ta +acte ruuru suaronut co nuorunu routunu u netoqonorunu, rotopMe snktc ocuosou qn rouunauu roueruu
ctpecca. 0ua tare qonua ctate roqcropeen qn ctyqeutos u scex tex, rto rMtaetc ocunute nutepatypy o ctpecce u,
sosnouo, xo+et srepsMe rposectu coctseuuoe uccneqosauue s atou onactu.
8 repsou rnase paccnatpusaetc routue ctpecca u to, rarue eny qaktc orpeqeneuu. 0ua ocseaaet pactyayk
rorynpuocte atoro routu u ctasut roq sorpoc uerotopMe us uaaux qoryaeuuu s otuoaeuuu pacrpoctpaueuuoctu
ctpecca s cospeneuuou usuu. Tare paccnatpusaetc roteuuaneuoe snuuue, rotopoe poct canux uccneqosauuu
ctpecca orasMsaet ua socrputue nkqenu csoero orMta.
8 rnase 2 ocyqaktc uerotopMe us rorynpuMx teopetu+ecrux roqxoqos r ctpeccy u netoqonoruu, cssauuMe c atunu
roqxoqanu. K uun otuocutc usy+euue sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu u roscequesuMx uerputuocteu.
lnasa 3, rocnequ s atou +actu, rpussaua qate asosoe rouunauue rpoeccos, rotopMe usy+aktc uccneqosatennu. 8
ueu paccnatpusaetc usuonoru+ecra pearu ua ctpecc, rotopa o+eue saua qn rnyororo rouunauu csseu neqy
ctpeccon u saonesauunu. 8 enon atu rnasM qakt rnasuMe cseqeuu o teopetu+ecrux u rpartu+ecrux sorpocax, opu-
cosMsa rponenM, rotopMe ocyqaktc s rocneqykaux pasqenax.



6pecc:noue
3ta rnasa ssoqut routue ctpecca c to+ru speuu uctopuu u crocoos ero orpeqeneuu. 8 rnase ocyqaetc, ro+eny rpu
rosMaeuuu ra+ectsa usuu u yneueaeuuu cneptuoctu nM socrpuuunaen usue ctone ctpeccosou. laroue, ocseaaktc
rcuxonoru+ecrue uccneqosauu s atou onactu u paccnatpusaetc ux pone s rorynpusauu qauuoro routu.
Aeckoe nouuaue cpecca
peqctasete, rarue +ysctsa sM nornu M ucrMtate s cneqykaux cutyaux:
8M orasMsaetece s qopouou rpore, orasqMsa ua sauyk sctpe+y.
8an rpeqctout sMutu ua tpuyuy u rpousuectu pe+e repeq ayqutopueu, uac+utMsakaeu 200 +enoser.
8M paotaete ua copo+uou nuuuu ua aynuon sasoqe, sMronu oquy u ty e cry+uyk, pytuuuyk orepauk raqMe qse
nuuytM.
8ac rpoct rono+e rony-to c rcuxonoru+ecrun uccneqosauuen, o rotopon sM ue uneete uuraroro rpeqctasneuu, u rpu
aton sac rpoct peaute s yne apunetu+ecrue saqa+u.
8M qonuM ne+e s oneuuy u roqsepruytec cepeesuou u oracuou xupypru+ecrou orepauu.
K san ua Poqectso rpuexanu sce saau poqctseuuuru.

8aaa cyrpyra, c rotopou sM rpounu 20 net, tonero +to osuna, +to oua octasnet sac u yxoqut r saaeny ny+aeny
qpyry.
8an rpuxoqutc raqMu qeue saotutec o ctapon u uenoauon poqctseuuure.
erro rpeqctasute enMu pq pearuu ua sce atu cutyauu. 0quaro usy+euue rorynpuou nutepatypM scrope roraet,
+to sce atu coMtu unu repeusauu (u nuorue qpyrue) nouo oxapartepusosate oquun cnoson ctpecc. 8qoasor
yqet sMcrasaua nMcne, +to ecnu sM otuocutece r nkqn, rotopMe roctouuo ouqakt canoro xyqaero unu oM+uo
tpeykt ot ce o+eue nuororo u unekt sasMaeuuMe ouqauu, to sM noete ucrMtMsate ctpecc rpu o+eue
uesua+uteneuMx sueauux sosqeuctsux. 8 aton sarnk+aetc oqua us ocuosuMx rponen c routuen ctpecc. Ero noet
sMssate ro+tu nkoe coMtue, a tare octotenectsa, uocaue xpouu+ecruu xapartep, tarue rar rnoxue
rpoussoqctseuuMe unu unuauMe ycnosu. o-suqunony, uuorqa ctpecc snetc ro+tu ueuseuMn cneqctsuen
rpartu+ecru scex acrertos cospeneuuou usuu, oquaro rpu aton unekt necto orponuMe u, rar rpasuno, ueocueuuMe
uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u s socrpuun+usoctu nkqeu. Kpone toro, ytsepqaetc, +to ctpecc noet rposntec s opne
uesepotuo aupororo crertpa ueratusuMx +yscts u sMsMsate eae onee auporuu crertp rocneqctsuu. larpunep, s oq-
uon ypuane qn euauu rosoputc, +to ctpecc seqet r:
...rpusM+re rpMste uortu, pasqpauteneuoctu, ytpate nuuqo, ot+yqeuuk ot qpyseu u ceneu, roctouuony +ysctsy
ronoqa. A saten u r onee cepeesuMn cunrtonan sMropauu (burnout): tpesore u qerpeccuu, rpuctyran rauuru,
uctoaeuuk, sMcorony rposuony qasneuuk, rouMn saonesauun, eccouuue, cercyaneuou qucyuruu, nurpeuu,
rponenan c ruae+uuron u pacctpouctsy neuctpyaneuoro urna. 8 roue+uon utore ou noet rpusectu r roteuuaneuo
netaneuMn coctouun, tarun rar onesue cepqa (Marie Claire, October, 1994).
3ta utata unnkctpupyet rorynpuoe socrputue ctpecca rar ratonoruu, rotopyk uyuo ne+ute. Kar pearu ua
o+esuquyk aruqenuk ctpecca s rocnequue 20 net otne+anc poct oaectseuuoro uutepeca r atony euoneuy, a tare
passutue uuqyctpuu, creuanusupykaeuc ua nruoseuuMx (unu ue ctone MctpMx) cpeqctsax usasneuu ot ctpecca
cospeneuuou usuu. K uun otuoctc nequuucrue rperapatM (tarue rar Prozac), netoqM rcuxoteparuu, anetepuatusuMe

n
roqxoqM, uarpunep apono- u cnexoteparu, u onee paquraneuMe roqxoqM, tarue rar yxoq us oaectsa u seqeuue
anetepuatusuoro opasa usuu. Kpone toro, ua pMuor sMpoaeu auporuu rpyr rotpeutenecrux rpoqyrtos,
crococtsykaux cutuk ctpecca, srnk+a reuuctMe sauuM, anertponaccaepM u pasnu+uMe ruaesMe rpoqyrtM.
onuno atoro uneetc oneaoe ronu+ectso ruur ro canoronoau, rotopMe ctpentc rono+e nkqn canoctoteneuo
ucenute ce. Xot oneauuctso atux ruur tpartykt ctpecc rar ue+to qn sac spequoe, nouo tare sctpetute uuou
roqxoq, rpeqronarakauu, +to ctpecc crocoeu Mte rosutusuMn artopon u ucronesosatec qn rosMaeuu paotocro-
couoctu.
1yuqaneutaneuou rponenou snetc to, +to ctpecc ueorpasqauuo otqenkt ot tarux routuu, rar uarpeuue,
qasneuue, tpeosauu u ctpeccopM. |uorqa ato routue ucronesykt qn orucauu +ero-to rpucytctsykaero so
sueaueu cpeqe (ctunyna unu ctpeccopa), uarpunep: / uee ctpeccosa paota. 8 qpyrux cny+ax ero ucronesykt qn
orucauu suytpeuuero +ysctsa (pearuu unu uarpeuu): Ero sany+un ctpecc. +acto roqpasynesakt ronuuauk
ctunyna u pearuu, uarpunep: Vue uyuo cnuaron nuoro cqenate sa cnuaron ropotroe spen, u ato sMsMsaet y neu
+ysctso uarpeuu (unu no uarpeuua paota sMsMsaet y neu ctpecc). 0quaro speneuanu ato routue noryt
ucronesosate rar cuuouun ocooro poqa qasneuu, uarpunep: 0rpeqeneuuMu yposeue ctpecca rossonet nue ny+ae
paotate, +to seqet r sMaeyrasauuou to+re speuu, cornacuo rotopou ctpecc noet Mte rosutusuMn. Tepnuu
ayctpecc, usopeteuuMu Cenee (Selye, 1956), tare uuorqa rosnetc s rorynpuou nutepatype, orucMsa atot suq
ctpecca. 8 enon roqoua rytauua s oaectseuuon socrputuu otpaaet otcytctsue cuoctu s orpeqeneuux,
xapartepuoe qn araqenu+ecrou nutepatypM.
Akaqeuueckoe cnonsiosaue nou cpecc
hcmopu eonpoca
8repsMe tepnuu ctpecc rosunc s ypuane Psychological Abstracts s 1944 roqy (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). lerotopMe
astopM (uarpunep Pollock, 1988) ytsepqakt, +to yrotpente tepnuu, rarun nM ero suaen, ua+anu otuocuteneuo
ueqasuo. onnor ronaraet, +to xot qauuMu tepnuu ucronesosanu ua rpoteuuu scero XIX sera u cssMsanu s enon c
rnoxun sqoposeen, ou rpespatunc s ouuane-
uMu tonero s rocnequue uecronero qectunetuu. 0quaro lektou (Newton, 1995) ue cornaaaetc c ten, +to tepnuu uneet
ueqasuee rpoucxoqeuue, ouapyus orpeqeneuu ctpecca, rotopMe o+eue nusru uaaeny ceroquaueny rouunauuk, s
0rcopqcron cnosape aurnuucroro sMra (Oxford English Dictionary), usqauuon s XVI u XVII serax. Ten ue neuee, ro-
suqunony, sce cornacuM, +to rorynpuocte ato routue rpuopeno ua+uua co 8topou nuposou souuM (Kugelmann, 1992;
Newton, 1995).
6oneauuctso rpurucMsakt rorynpusauk routu ctpecc laucy Cenee, rotopMu s rocnequue 50 net nuoro rucan ua
teny ctpecca (ocyqeuue uctopu+ecroro passutu atoro routu cn. Newton, 1995). 6yqy+u uonoron, Cenee
paccnatpusan ctpecc c usuonoru+ecrux rosuuu, rar uecreuu+ecryk pearuk oprauusna ua nkoe rpeqsnenoe r
ueny tpeosauue (Selye, 1993). oq atun ou rouunan to, +to cyaectsyet turosa pearu ua pasnu+uMe suqM
ctpeccopos, u ou uassan atot uaop pearuu oaun aqartauouuMn cuuqponon (general adaptation syndrome, GAS).
Tepnuu uecreuu+ecra otuocutc r tony arty, +to turosyk pearuk sMsMsaet auporuu crertp sosqeuctsuu unu
ctpeccopos, srnk+a tarue rosutusuMe artopM, rar rpocto uosMe coMtu. Cenee uqeutuuuposan tpu ctaquu GAS,
raqa us rotopMx cssaua c usneueuunu s uepsuon u auqorpuuuon yuruouuposauuu: pearuk tpesoru, ctaquk
corpotusnenoctu u ctaquk uctoaeuu.
Cenee uassan sosqeuctsu, rotopMe sMsMsakt ctpeccosyk pearuk, ctpeccopanu, roqpasynesa, +to ue+to snetc
ctpeccopon, ecnu ouo sMsMsaet pearuk ctpecca (Selye, 1993). oqouMe orpeqeneuu rputurykt rar tastonoru+ecrue
(sanruytMe) (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). |qek uecreuu+uoctu tare roqsepranu conueuuk (Hinkle, 1973; Mason, 1975).
Xuurne ronaraet, +to s csoux qetanx pearuu noryt Mte sMcoro creuu+uMnu. +to racaetc cyaectsosauu oaeu
aqartauouuou pearuu, to ou ronaraet, +to tpyquo rpeqctasute cee coctouue ctpecca, rotopoe tar y otnu+aetc ot
nkoro qpyroro usuecrocouoro coctouu, rocronery scra uopnaneua qeteneuocte tpeyet netaonu+ecrou
artusuoctu u aqartauu.
8uoc eae oneayk rytauuy, can Cenee srocneqctsuu sasnn, +to ucronesosauue un tepnuua ctpecc
rpuneuuteneuo tonero r pearuu osauo tony arty, +to ero aurnuucruu Mn ue uactonero xopoaun, +toM rposectu
pasrpauu+euue neqy cnosanu ctpecc (stress) u uarpeuue (strain) (Selye, 1976). Xot ceu+ac c+utakt, +to rcu-
xonoru+ecrue pearuu ua ctpecc otnu+aktc sua+uteneuo oneaeu
cnouoctek, +en rpeqronaran Cenee, ero paota orasana orponuoe snuuue ua to, +to ato routue ctano terepe tarun
rorynpuMn.
Cospexennme onpeerenxz
octereuuoe pacaupeuue rcuxonoru+ecrux uccneqosauuu rpuseno r ounuk orpeqeneuuu, rotopMe qanero ue scerqa
ronoranu rpocuute cnMcn tepnuua. 6onee 20 net uasaq Kacn (Kasl, 1978) coctasun repe+eue roueruu, ot o+eue
creuu+uMx qo rpauue ooaeuuMx, rotopMe oxsatMsakt u ctunyn, u pearuk. larpunep, ctpecc uuorqa orucMsanu s
tepnuuax ycnosuu cpeqM, rotopMe paccnatpusanuce rar ctpeccosMe (Landy & Trumbo, 1976), nuo s tepnuuax
pyctpauu unu yrposM (Bonner, 1967), nuo rpeqnaranuce ycosepaeuctsosauuMe roueruu, srnk+asaue ctunyn,
pearuk u cssu neqy uunu. Kacn utupyet rorynpuoe orpeqeneuue Var-lpata (McGrath, 1976), rotopMu ronaraet, +to
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ctpecc ato (socrpuuunaenMu) cyaectseuuMu qucanauc neqy tpeosauuen u sosnouoctek rpopearuposate, s
ycnosux, rorqa uecrocouocte sMronuute tpeosauue seqet r sauMn (socrpuuunaenMn) rocneqctsun (c. 20). 3to
pasuoopasue roueruu coxpaunoce ua rpoteuuu nuorux net. |erc, 6eep u Poepte (Jex, Beehr & Roberts, 1992)
rpocnotpenu uonepa aectu rpyruMx ypuanos ro oprauusauouuou qeteneuoctu c 1985 ro 1989 roq. Kaqa ctate, s
rotopou rosnnuce cnosa ctpecc unu ctpeccosMu, Mna otueceua r oquou us +etMpex rate-I ropuu. /rotpenenMe
s 51 ctatee, atu cnosa s 41% cny+aes otuocunuce r xapartepucturan ctunyna, s 22% r pearun, s 25% cny+aes I
roqpasynesanuce xapartepucturu rar ctunyna, tar u pearuu, a s octasauxc 14% cnMcn Mn ueceu.
lesasucuno ot toro, otuocutc nu orpeqeneuue ctpecca r ctunyny unu r pearuu, s uccneqosauux ctpecca, srnk+a
uccneqosauu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, qonuuupyet roqxoq ctunyn-pearu (S-R). |ccneqosauu s onactx
rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu nkqeu, rar rpasuno, ctpentc cootuectu artopM sueaueu cpeqM (tarue rar pao+a
uarpysra) c roue+uMn pesynetaton (tarun rar tpesora). +acto ato rpeqronaraet, s ny+aen cny+ae, uesua+uteneuMu y+et
rarux-nuo qetaneu atoro rpoecca, ue c+uta srnk+euu (tarux repeneuuMx, rar qoctyruocte couaneuou roqqepru,
rotopMe noryt ocnante csse ctpeccop uarpeuue (cn. rnasy 2). 0quaro s rocnequue roqM qenaktc aaru s
ctopouy onee roqpouoro paccnotpeuu xapartepa rpoucxoqaero rpoecca. larpunep, asapyc u 1onrnau (Lazarus &
Folkman, 1984) orpeqenkt ctpecc
:soux ropueu u tpaquuouuMx ucto+uuros ceneuuou roqqepru, a tare ctpenuteneuocte repeneu. ae te, rto rpusuaet
eccropuMn uanu+ue ctpeccopos s rpeqaectsykaue speneua, ueusneuuo roq+eprusakt ueratusuMe acrertM
cospeneuuou usuu (Jones, 1997). Pacrpoctpaueuue ctpecca, rar rpasuno, c+utakt atpuyton tenra cospeneuuou usuu
(cn., uarpunep, Pollock, 1988).
0quaro y+utMsa sMcorue yposuu cneptuoctu u saonesaenoctu so nuorux ueuuqyctpuaneuMx oaectsax, o+eue tpyquo
ouapyute raryk-to ro+sy qn ytsepqeuu, +to roqouMu opas usuu snetc xote s +en-to neuee ctpeccosMn
(Pollock, 1988). 3uspunn (Averill, 1989) yrasMsaet ua yny+aeuue usueuuMx repcrertus s rocnequue uecronero ctonetuu.
0u ronaraet, +to paccnatpusa tarue artopM, rar yrposa usuu, MctpMe couaneuMe usneueuu u roneauu
arouonuru, tpyquo ouapyute uctopu+ecrue repuoqM, neuee ctpeccosMe, +en uactoauu. Kyrep (Cooper), s csok
o+epeqe, cosqaet opas sonotoro sera, rorqa usue Mna rpoctou u usasneuuou ot ctpecca. 1artu+ecru, atu rou-
nurtykaue ssrnqM uesosnouo rpunupute. 0eura ctpecca o+eue cnoua, u rorMtra to+uoro cpasueuu pasnu+uMx
uctopu+ecrux arox ato, sepotuo, saqa+a, nuaeuua raroro M to uu Mno cnMcna.
onnor (Pollock, 1988) orucMsaet oquo ueoM+uoe uccneqosauue, s rotopon Mna rpeqrpuuta rorMtra usy+ute
socrputue ctpecca. 8 uutepsek c nkqenu, rotopMe repeesanu us equMx u repeuaceneuuMx rsaptanos s cospeneuuMe
rpoctopuMe ocouru, orpoaeuuMe qeuctsuteneuo scronuuanu o rpeueu usuu c uoctanerueu u, rar rpasuno, c+utanu,
+to s cospeneuuon nupe oneae ctpecca.
Xusue rasanace nkqn onee ctpenuteneuou, aynuou, uarpeuuou, +en paueae... 0M+uo rosopunoce, +to s uMueauue
quu uu y roro uet speneuu qn qpyrux nkqeu (c. 383).
/+actuuru uccneqosauu +acto cssMsanu rosMaeuue usueuuoro yposu c parneutaueu couaneuMx csseu u
ytpatou +ysctsa oauoctu (c. 383). 0quaro onnor cooaaet o cneqykaux otsetax nkqeu ua sorpoc, +to M ouu
rpeqro+nu uMueauuu opas usuu unu rpeukk usue s equMx rsaptanax:
o+tu sce rosopunu, +to rpeqro+utakt ocouru u uMueauee ronoeuue seaeu rpoanony. Auanoru+uMn opason,
nkqu peqro coxpaunu tecuMe ceneuuMe cssu, rotopMe, o+esuquo, Mnu xapartepuou ocoeuuoctek ux nonoqoctu.
0quaro, orte e, oneauuctso rpeqro+utano csoe uMueauee coctouue, rar yqto, rony+us aauc Mte uesasucunMnu
ot ceneu u coceqeu, oneaa +acte nkqeu Mna paqa un socronesosatec (c. 383).
ocronery ocosuauue ctpecca otuocuteneuo ueqasuee sneuue, ueyqusuteneuo, +to nM ue noen yequteneuo
rpoqenouctpuposate, rpusoqut nu repeesq us naneuerux crno+euuMx oauu u ocnaneuue snuuu pacaupeuuou ceneu
r rarony-nuo ysenu+euuk ctpecca. 8osnouo, ner+e rpoqenouctpuposate teuqeuuu s pacrpoctpaueuuoctu ctpecca sa
rocnequue 20 net unu orono toro, oquaro ato tare rponenatu+uo. 0euru pacrpoctpaueuuoctu ctpecca +acto
orycupyktc ua rpoussoqctseuuon ctpecce, u s CV| u uay+uMx ctatex +acto nouo uautu cooaeuu o ero snuuuu
ua rpoqyrtusuocte tpyqa u uesMxoqM ua paoty. 0quaro, y+utMsa, +to tepnuu ctpecc uneet ctone nuoro ucrone-
syenMx sua+euuu, nM ue noen ocoo qosepte ytsepqeuun o y+aaeuuu ctpecca, rora ue yqoctosepunc, +to
ucronesosanuce creuu+ecrue u usnepenMe repeneuuMe. larpunep, rar uan uuteprpetuposate roqouoe sasneuue:
KaqMu roq tepetc, ro neueaeu nepe, 40 nunnuouos pao+ux queu us-sa uepsuMx unu uuMx saonesauuu, cssauuMx
co ctpeccon unu ooctpeuuMx un (Lee & Reason, 1988)?
CepeesuMe rorMtru oeuute saonesaenocte, cssauuyk c paotou, rorasMsakt tonero to, uacronero tpyquou noet
Mte oeura ctereuu onesuu, cssauuou co ctpeccon. larpunep, s ueqasuen uccneqosauuu cssauuMx co ctpeccon
onesueu, o rotopMx cooaanu canu nkqu (Health, Safety & Environment, HSE, 1998), oneaoe +ucno pecrouqeutos
crasanu, +to y uux Mnu onesuu, sMssauuMe unu ooctpeuuMe ctpeccon. Vouo, oquaro, rpeqronoute, +to ueqasuee
y+aaeuue onesueu, rpurucMsaenMx snuuuk ctpecca, noet Mte +actu+uo oycnosneuo rosMaeuuMn ocosuauuen
ctpecca sa rocnequue uecronero net. oatony s ot+ete HSE ctpecc c+utanc nerutunuou rpu+uuou, tonero ecnu unenuce
oocuosauuMe uay+uMe qorasatenectsa, +to ctpecc nor sMssate onesue, o rotopou cooaanoce, u ecnu rourpetuMu
oneuou unen sosnouocte ysuate, Mna nu ero orpeqeneuua onesue sMssaua ctpeccon. 8 pesynetate canoot+etM o
cepqe+uMx saonesauux, sMssauuMx ctpeccon, ue rpuuunanuce s ra+ectse uaqeuoro uuquratopa tou ctereuu qauuoro
tura saonesauuu, rotopa cssanace co ctpeccon. +toM rpasuneuo oeuute y+actue rpoussoqctseuuMx artopos s
tarux ueqyrax, rar cepqe+uMe saonesauu, ueoxoqunM auporonacatauMe nourutkquMe uccneqosauu, uc-
ronesykaue u to+uo orpeqeneuuMe rapanetpM (uarpunep, cuo orosopeuuMe rorasatenu pao+eu uarpysru), u qauuMe
ro rocneqctsun, cssauuMn c onesuek. 8osnouo, eae cnouee oeuute to, s rarou ctereuu ctpecc ua paote cssau c
nerrunu saonesauunu, tarunu rar rpoctyqa unu rpurr. auuMe o uesMxoqax ua paoty noryt Mte ueto+uMnu unu
sMnManeuuMnu, a rpu+uuM rpatrospeneuuoro otcytctsu (rorqa ue tpeyetc nequuucrux sarnk+euuu) ueuseuo
sasuct ot canoot+etos nkqeu. la sce ato noryt snute neukauec rpeqctasneuu o rpu+uuax onesueu, ocseaeuue
CV| tarux sorpocos, rar rpoussoqctseuuMu ctpecc, unu qae neukauec ssrnqM ua to, +to snetc qoryctunMn
orpasqauuen otcytctsu ua paote. Ten canMn, o+eue tpyquo oeuute aertM ctpecca ua paote. Ecnu nM rMtaenc
crnauuposate uccneqosauue, rotopoe norno M sMpasute s ronu+ectseuuou opne yposeue ctpecca sue pao+ero necta,
rponena eae onee ycnouutc. 8 aton cny+ae ronu+ectso u pasuoopasue roteuuaneuMx ctpeccopos uanuoro
oneae, u y uac uet qae tarux ueuaqeuMx uuquratopos, rar rporynM.
0quaro unektc orpeqeneuuMe qauuMe, cornacuo rotopMn nkqn raetc, +to s rocnequue roqM ouu ucrMtMsakt sce
onee sMcorue yposuu ctpecca, ocoeuuo ua pao+en necte. Kar rpasuno, orpocM ua pao+en necte rpuuoct
cooaeuu o sospactakaen socrputuu ctpecca. larpunep, neueqepM cooaunu o ysenu+euuu pao+eu uarpysru sa
roqu+uMu repuoq (Charlesworth, 1996), a rpeqctasutenu rpeqrputuu ytsepqanu, +to ux paotuuru ucrMtMsakt
rosMaeuuMu ctpecc ro cpasueuuk c repuoqon rtunetueu qasuoctu (MSF, 1997). LuporonacatauMu orpoc s
8enuroputauuu (Buck et al., 1994) sMsun cuueuue rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u (oeuusasaeroc c ronoaek
aranM canoot+etos) sa roqu+uMu repuoq 1991-1992 roqos. 6ecrorouctso ro rosoqy uusroro yposu narorony+u tare
sMpaaetc s rpoeccuouaneuMx sMoprax, ecnu cpasuusate ux c oM+uMnu sMopranu (Jenkins, 1985), xot rostopuoe
uccneqosauue s cepe rpaqaucrou cnyM rorasano, +to s te+euue cenunetuero repuoqa yposuu usuu s atou sMopre
octasanuce roctouuMnu (Jenkins et al., 1996). |ccneqosauu, ucronesykaue rorynpuMu rorasatene rcuxu+ecroro
narorony+u (0rpocuur oaero coctouu sqopose, General Health Questionnaire, cn. rnasy 2) s pasnu+uMe repuoqM
speneuu s cxoux rpoeccuouaneuMx rpyrrax, rar rpasuno, csuqetenectsykt o rosMaeuuMx yposux cunrtonaturu s
rocnequux uccneqosauux. |nektc tare qauuMe, +to pactet ronu+ectso uesMxoqos ua paoty, sMssauuMx cepqe+uo-
cocyquctMnu saonesauunu u rcuxu+ecrunu pacctpouctsanu (Cox, 1993), uo, rar ronaraet Ctaucunq c ronneranu
(Stansfield et al., 1995), sqece noet Mte pq ocueuuu. 8 cny+ae rcuxu+ecrux pacctpoucts noet unete necto nuo
roqnuuuMu poct, nuo rpocto oneaee rpusuauue atux pacctpoucts unu rotosuocte cooaate o uux, nuo, sosnouo,
rpu+uua scero nuae s ton, +to ceu+ac nkqu c rcuxu+ecrunu pacctpouctsanu unekt oneae sosnouocteu rony+ute
paoty. Eae oquu artop, rotopMu noet urpate sqece pone, ato rosMaeuue to+uoctu ot+etos o rorasatenx uesMxo-
qos ua paoty so nuorux otpacnx.
Tarun opason, xot oaerpusuauo, +to yposuu ctpecca sospactakt, u nouo uautu qauuMe, coqepaaue pq
octoteneuMx roqtsepqeuuu atoro (ro rpauueu nepe, sa rocnequue uecronero net), secrue qorasatenectsa uautu ua
yqusneuue cnouo. KynetypuMe usneueuu, a ue roqnuuuoe sospactauue tpyquocteu usuu, noryt sectu r tony, +to nM
sane+aen y ce onee uuteucusuMe rpusuaru ctpecca u cooaaen o uux. Pactyaa rorynpuocte euoneua ctpecca
osua+aet, sepotuo, ue tonero to, +to rpusuauue +yscts coctseuuoro eccunu repeq tpyquoctnu terepe c+utaetc
neuee roctMquMn. lo, rar rpeqronaraetc, ato noet sce oneae royqate uac paccnatpusate u uuteprpetuposate
coMtu u anouu c to+ru speuu sospactakaero oayaeuu toro, +to usue ronua ctpeccos (Pollock, 1988). |qe, +to
canu uccneqosauu ctpecca +actu+uo otsetctseuuM sa opnuposauue euoneua, rotopMu ouu ctpentc usy+ute,
paccnatpusaetc onee roqpouo s cneqykaen pasqene.
Psnec n cpecc npoqykou kynsypusx oqau?
onnor (Pollock, 1988) ytsepqaet, +to pacrpoctpaueuuoe uMu+e cpequ nkqeu socrputue ctpecca rar ueotennenou
+actu ux roscequesuou usuu oycnosneuo ycununu couonoros, rotopMe qounuce rpocto ropasuteneuoro ycrexa s
rorynpusauu teopuu ctpecca. 0ua ronaraet, +to:
Xom+ pasnuv+ee eude ducmpecca, onpedene++o, +en+smc+ +eomsevnevou vacmes venoeevec|oco c,(ecmeoea+u+, novev, eco
+enpeve++o cned,em cvumame namoce++ev, a +e, | npuvep,, |a| amo eno npu++mo pa+eae, de++uev 5oca, no,de+uev |
u+me+cue+ou meopvec|ou a|mue+ocmu, +eoxoduvou npoeep|ou vopane+ex cun unu xom+ e npocmo +opvou? (c. 381).
Astop sasnet qae:
...cmpecc amo +e vmo-mo npoucxod+(ee e vupe ecmecmee++ev opasov, a capu|oea++oe no++mue, |omopoe menepe cmano
co(uane+ev a|mov (c. 390).
8epotuo, ato rpauu to+ra speuu. Tpyquo rosepute, +to ato routue uactonero saxsatuno M soopaeuue oaectsa,
ue yqe ouo +en-to nerro ysuasaenMn, c +en nkqu noryt cootuocute csou orMt. lektou (Newton, 1995) sauunaet onee
ynepeuuyk rosuuk, ue cornaaace c uqeeu, +to ctpecc ato usopeteuue couonoros, u rpeqronaraet, +to, cropee,
couonoru rony+akt roqrutry ot cyaectsykaero couaneuoro nauqaata, u canu roqrutMsakt ero (c. 50). 3to Mno
orucauo rar qsouua repneuestura, coctoaa s ton, +to, rynury paotM ro ctpeccy, couonoru crococtsykt
rpusuauuk oaectson atoro routu u, rar pesynetat, usneukt euoneu, rotopMu ouu coupanuce usy+ute (Barley &
Knight, 1992: Giddens, 1984). 3uspunn (Averill, 1989) rosoput o uecronero uuMx rynetypuMx snuuux. 0u ytsepqaet, +to
cpeqy, s rotopou noet sce ycunusatec uutepec r ctpeccy, cosqana rpoeccuouanusau netoqos ne+euu ctpecca
snecte c oaerpuutMn ssrnqon ua ctpecc rar ua onaropausakauu. Astop sasnet cneqykaee: Ctpecc Mn
ysaroueu. n nuorux nkqeu terepe onee rpuenneno qorycrate, +to ouu ucrMtMsakt ctpecc, +en otpuate ato (c. 30).
Xot uccneqosatenu-rcuxonoru +acto ocosuakt atu rynetypuMe euoneuM, uo paotakt sce e suytpu teopetu+ecrux
cxen u ucronesykt netoqonoruu, rotopMe ue crocouM c nerroctek y+utMsate rynetypuMu routerct. 8 pacrnMs+atou
onactu uccneqosauuu sa+actyk ueoxoquno orpauu+ute oryc usMcrauuu u rpuute uerotopMe qoryaeuu s otuoaeuuu
teopetu+ecrux sorpocos. 0quaro tare ueoxoquno otctyrate uasaq spen ot speneuu u repeoeuusate roqouMe
qoryaeuu. Kar roqnetunu 6apnu u laut (Barley and Knight), oneauuctso auanuturos, ruayaux o ctpecce, ronarakt,
+to uan uyuM onee ctporue orpeqeneuu, ny+ae creuuuposauuMe noqenu, onee to+uMe usnepeuu u onee
cosepaeuuMe rnauM uccneqosauuu. 6apnu u laut rpusuakt, +to sce atu rpeqnoeuu noryt Mte pasynuMnu, uo canu
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
atu astopM roqqepusakt qoryaeuue, +to ctpecc ato rpeqe scero rcuxousu+ecruu euoneu, atuonoruk rotoporo
nouo aqersatuo ocuute teopunu, unrnuutuo cnoqenuposauuMnu ucxoq us routu o yuruouaneuon
pacctpouctse (c. 6). oqouMe noqenu noryt Mte ronesuM ua uuqusuqyaneuon yposue, uo 6apnu u laut qorasMsakt,
+to atu roctpoeuu ue crocouM ocuute uu to, ro+eny ctpecc ctan ctone sanetuMn sneuuen s cospeneuuon
oaectse, uu to, ro+eny cooaeuu o repeusauuu ctpecca ue scerqa cosraqakt c uanu+uen rcuxousuonoru+ecroro
rpoecca. 3tu astopM yrasMsakt, +to apryneutM s ronesy rynetypuMx snuuuu ua socrputue ctpecca rpussauM ue
roqopsate rcuxousu+ecrue teopuu, a, cropee, qoronuute ux.
0quaro rynetypM (u cyrynetypM) suytpu oaectsa o+eue nuoroopasuM u, ecnu rpuute, +to socrputue ctpecca noet
Mte rynetypuo oycnosneuo, ouu, sepotuo, seqyt r auporony crertpy pasnu+uMx tu ros socrputu rpupoqM ctpecca.
larpunep, pasuMn rpoeccuouane- uMn rpyrran noryt Mte rpucyau pasnu+uMe rynetypuMe ouqauu. 8au Vaaueu u
6apnu (Van Maanen & Barley, 1984) ronarakt, +to. uero- topMe rpoeccuu, sepotuo, rpuuunakt putopury o ctpecce s
one- aeu ctereuu, +en qpyrue. 0uu c+utakt, +to ctpateru rpusuauu paotM ctpeccosou, cropee scero, ronesua qn
oecre+euu conuqapuoctu s rpoeccuouaneuou rpyrre, u +to oua noet ctate uaqeuou ocuosou qn uctpeosauu
rpusuneruu, tarux rar ysenu+euue saprnatM. 0uu ronarakt, +to ata ctpateru, sepotuo, ocoeuuo ronesua qn ronyrpo-
eccuouaneuMx otpacneu, rotopMe rpeteuqykt ua onee sMcoruu ctatyc. 3to rpeqronoeuue, orpeqeneuuo, cornacyetc
c pesynetatanu oaupuoro orpoca, rposeqeuuoro s 8enuroputauuu, rotopMu csuqetenectsyet o pacrpoctpaueuuu
cooaaenMx pecrouqeutanu cny+aes ctpecca, tpesoru u qerpeccuu so nuorux rpoeccux (HSE, 1998), rpu+en y+uten u
neqcectpM cooaakt o canMx sMcorux yposux.
6pauuep (Briner, 1996) ronaraet, +to rynetypuMe snuuu noryt qeuctsosate ua uecronerux yposux, srnk+akaux:
oaue rpeqctasneuu s oaectse o rpupoqe ctpecca;
rpeqctasneuu o ctpecce, rotopMe creuu+uM qn orpeqeneuuMx sautuu unu rpoeccuu;
rpeqctasneuu o ctpecce, rotopMe creuu+uM qn orpeqeneuuou oprauusauu.
|qe, +to nkqn s pasuMx rpoeccux unu qae oprauusaux rpucyau pasnu+uMe rynetypuMe rpeqctasneuu,
uccneqyetc peqro. 0quaro Veuepcou (Meyerson, 1994) s csoen uccneqosauuu couaneuMx paotuuros rpeqrpuuunaet
uutepecuyk rorMtry usy+ute ocoeuuoctu socrputu ctpecca y cotpyquuros pasuMx oprauusauu. 3to uccneqosauue
Mno corycuposauo ua ueorpeqeneuuoctu (pacrpoctpaueuuMu ctpeccop) u sMropauuu (oquo us rposneuuu ctpecca).
Astop ouapyuna, +to couaneuMe paotuuru, sautMe s oneuuax, rqe qonuuupyet nequuucra uqeonoru, c+utanu
ueorpeqeneuuocte ueenateneuou, a sMropauue ratonoru+ecrun coctouuen, cssauuMn c routponuposauuen
onesuu, rotopyk +enoser roqxsatun u rMtanc sMne+ute (c. 17). Te, rto paotan s y+peqeuux, rqe rpesanuposana
couaneua uqeonoru, c+utanu ueorpeqeneuuocte uopnaneuMn, a uuorqa u sronue rosutusuMn artopon, a sMropauue
s pasuou nepe uopnaneuou, ueuseuou u qae sqoposou pearueu. Veuepcou ronaraet, +to atu pasnu+u otpaakt
qsa pasuMx rynetypuMx rpeqctasneuu o routpone u xapartepuoe qn couaneuou paotM oneaee ctpenneuue
ocsooqutec ot routpon.
cuxonoru, s cuny csoero rpeunyaectseuuo uuqusuqyaneuoro roqxoqa, rar rpasuno, uruopupykt sorpocM rynetypM,
rotopMe tpaquuouuo snktc cepou couonoros u autporonoros. Vouo ytsepqate, oquaro, +to rcuxonoru
qousaktc uanuoro oneaero ycrexa, +en couonoru, s pacrpoctpaueuuu csoux ssrnqos +epes CV| u repesoqe csoero
rpoeccuouaneuoro aproua ua sMr, qoctyruMu nkqn. 3to rpusoqut r tony, +to qoryaeuu, neaaue s ocuose ux
paotM, peqro roqsepraktc conueuuk.
oneiuoe n so noue? 6neqye n o uero okaiasc?
lecnotp ua to, +to routue ctpecc ctano o+eue noquMn, uerotopMe roqseprakt conueuuk ronesuocte atoro
rouctpyrta. K rpunepy:
o++mue cmpecca eno aepucmuvec|u (e++ev e npoanov, +o onee e +ev +em +eoxoduvocmu, u menepe o+o e +e|omopex
om+oae+u+x +en+emc+ novexou (Hinkle, 1973, c. 31). ...amom ome|aeveu +pne|, cmpecc, vano cnococme,em a+anus,
vexa+usvoe, |omopee voc,m neame e oc+oee pea|(uu opca+usva unu onpeden+me ee. 1a|muvec|u, nodo+oe +aeeauea+ue +pne|oe,
|omopee, c|opee, +aseeasm, vev os+c++sm, voem e deucmeumene+ocmu veaame |o+(enm,ane+ov, u avnupuvec|ov, npocpecc,
ceouv esocoeopov+ev don,(e+uev a|eueane+m+ocmu cmuv,noe, cnococme,+ ped,|(uo+ucmc|ov, nouc|, npocmoco od+onpuvu+-
+oco os+c+e+u+ (Ader, 1981, c. 312). F nonacas, vmo cav mepvu+ cman +acmone|o eccodepamene+ev, vmo +en+emc+, c|opee,
npen+mcmeuev, vev nodcnopeev uccnedoea+us, u dane+euaee us,ve+ue ce+seu, |omopee meopu+ cmpecca cmapaemc+ npo+c+ume,
es +eco mone|o eeucpaem (Pollock, 1988, c. 390).
0quaro eccoqepateneuoe unu uet, uo routue ctpecca qeput uaae oaectso rperrou xsatrou, u, sepotuo, yqet
octasatec c uanu eae raroe-to spen. +actu+uo ero rpusnerateneuocte nouo ocuute ero yuusepcaneuoctek,
coctoaeu s ton, +to pasuoopasuMe orpeqeneuu u roqxoqM noryt Mte ucronesosauM qn noranusauu ucto+uura
usu+ecrux u rcuxonoru+ecrux rponen s uauonee yqouon necte. pocoksM noryt osuute rpoussoqctseuuMe
ycnosu, paotoqatenu noryt rosopute o uuqusuqyaneuou uecrocouoctu crpasntec c tpyquoctnu. pasM nu
rputuru, u routue ua canon qene yctapeno, u nouo nu rpeqnoute raryk-to anetepuatusuyk, onee ronesuyk
roueruk ato sorpoc, r rotopony nM sepuenc rose. 0eura netoqonoru+ecrux roqxoqos u rporpecca s
uccneqosauux, ucronesykaux artyaneuMe roueruu u teopuu, rpeqoctasut +utatenk uauny+ayk sosnouocte canony
cyqute o ton, ronorano unu neaano ato routue rporpeccupykaeny suauuk unu e, qeuctsuteneuo, uneno r ueny
otqaneuuoe otuoaeuue.
cxonoruecke ccneqosau cpecca
Pocm uccnedoeamensckoeo unmepeca
8 cornacuu c rosMaeuuMn uutepecon oaectsa r ctpeccy, unen necto MctpMu poct uccneqosatenecrou artusuoctu.
Pucyuor 1.1 qenouctpupyet, rar s te+euue rocnequux 25 net usneunoce ronu+ectso ctateu ro qauuou tene s ypuane
Psychological Abstracts. 3tu qauuMe ocuosMsaktc tonero ua ctatex, rotopMe rosnktc s araqenu+ecrux ypuanax ro
rcuxonoruu u ucronesykt cnoso ctpecc s peskne. 8epotuo, ato nuae ueoneaa +acte scex rynurauu ua yrasauuyk
teny. 3tu qauuMe csuqetenectsykt, +to uccneqosauu ctpecca, sosnouo, u nuuosanu csou rur, uo ux ronu+ectso ro-
rpeueny senuro.
8eedenue e ncuxonoeuveckue nodxodm
Kar nouo ouqate, ucxoq us pasuoopasu roteuuaneuo ctpeccosMx coMtuu u pearuu, uccneqosatenu ctpecca
sauunaktc atunu sorpocanu, ucronesy auporuu crertp roqxoqos, ua+uua c usy+euu qeuctsu uauonee
uesua+uteneuMx us rpatrospeneuuMx ctpeccopos u sarau+usa rocneqctsunu sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu, tarux rar
tena ytpata. 8auMn acrerton uccneqosauuu qn rponManeuuMx rcuxonoros snetc ctpecc ua pao+en necte, u
to, rarun opason ocnaute ero, torqa rar uccneqosatenu s nequuucrou cepe rpuuunakt routue ctpecc s ra+ectse
asuca qn usy+euu ponu rcuxonoru+ecrux artopos s sosuuruoseuuu u passutuu onesueu. 8 atou ruure ctpecc
paccnatpusaetc rar sceoennkauu tepnuu unu rateropu (rar rpeqnarakt Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), rotopa
oxsatMsaet auporuu rpyr uccneqosauuu snuuu pasnu+uMx rcuxocouaneuMx u cpeqosMx artopos ua usu+ecroe u
qyaesuoe narorony+ue. 3to osua+aet, +to ucronesyenMu tepnuu ctpecc srnk+aet s ce uaop cpeqosMx ctunynos,
unu ctpeccopos, pearuu ua ctpecc u uuMe artopM, rotopMe snukt ua cssu neqy u tenu, u qpyrunu (s +actuoctu
artopM nu+uoctu). Cano routue ctpecc ue snetc qoctato+uo to+uou repeneuuou, rotopa oecre+usana M
uaqeuMe usnepeuu. oatony uccneqosauu, ocseaeuuMe s atou ruure, ucronesykt oneaoe ronu+ectso pasnu+uMx
repeneuuMx, rotopMe nouo rouertyanusuposate u usnepute onee to+uo, +en ctpecc. lerotopMe uauonee sauMe
us atux repeneuuMx rorasauM so spesre 1.1.
Pq uccneqosauuu, orucauuMx s atou ruure, ueconueuuo, rposoqunc nkqenu, rotopMe ue c+utakt ce uccneqosate-
nnu ctpecca u ue ucronesosanu tepnuu ctpecc s xoqe csoeu paotM. Ten ue neuee, ux paoty nouo paccnatpusate
rar otuocaykc r cepe qeuctsu atoro routu.
6oneauuctso paot, rpeqctasneuuMx s atou ruure, otuoctc r rcuxonoru+ecrou (u uuorqa nequuucrou) tpaquuu
anrupu+ecrux uccneqosauuu. 3to rpeqronaraet rpeunyaectseuuo rosutusuctcruu roqxoq, orycupykauuc ua
otuocuteneuo orpauu+euuon uaope artopos s uerocpeqctseuuou cpeqe +enosera u uuorqa rpuuunakauu so suunauue
uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, r rpunepy, s nu+uoctu unu rpeoqoneuuu ctpecca. 6oneaa +acte uccneqosauuu ctpecca
cocpeqoto+eua ua uqeutuurauu turos euoneuos, rotopMe cssauM c pqon usu+ecrux u
rcuxonoru+ecrux rocneqctsuu. 3tu euoneuM noryt Mte sauMnu unu uesua+uteneuMnu, a tare rpatrospeneuuMnu
unu qonrospeneuuMnu (xpouu+ecrunu). aneueuaue ycunu uarpasnktc ua orpeqeneuue rponeyto+uMx repeneuuMx,
rotopMe rpusoqt r tony, +to oquu nkqu pearupykt ua roqouMe ctpeccopM onee ueratusuo, +en qpyrue. Tur
usy+aenMx ctpeccopos u ucronesyenMe netoqM tecuo cssauM c rourpetuMnu teopunu, rpeqro+utaenMnu
uccneqosatenen. 6oneauuctso atux roqxoqos ue rpuuunakt so suunauue nuo rynetypuMe sorpocM, nuo qsouuou
repneuestu+ecruu aert, ocyqasauuc sMae. +utatenk ueoxoquno ronuute o sorpocax, ocseaeuuMx s atou rnase,
u oeuusate to, s rarou ctereuu ouu nornu rosnute ua pesynetatM, rony+euuMe s ton unu uuon uccneqosauuu.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )


8pesra 1.1. lerotopMe turosMe repeneuuMe, paccnatpusaenMe rar otuocauec r rateropuu ctpecc.

|AA 2
oqxoqs k iyueu cpecca
4uona aonc u len kunvan (Fiona Jones and Gail Kinman)
3ta rnasa suaronut c uerotopMnu us uauonee rorynpuMx teopetu+ecrux roqxoqos u netoqonoruu, ucronesyenMx s uccneqosauux
ctpecca. Ckqa otuocutc paccnotpeuue sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu unu roscequesuMx uerputuocteu, usy+euue ctpecca c ronoaek
petpocrertusuMx orpocuuros unu e arcrepuneutaneuMnu netoqanu. 0cyqaktc uerotopMe us rouertyaneuMx u netoqonoru-
+ecrux rponen, cssauuMx c atunu roqxoqanu. 8 rnase qaktc oaue cxenM, rpussauuMe rono+e +utatenk coctasute coctseuuoe
nueuue s otuoaeuuu tex nutepatypuMx qauuMx o ctpecce, rotopMe ou sctpetut s qauuou ruure u rpu opaaeuuu r repsoucto+uuran.
losu+or s uccneqosauux ctpecca sronue noet roqynate, +to usnepeuue ctpecca ue rpeqctasnet ocoMx cnouocteu.
K creuanuctan +acto opaaaktc ctyqeutM u rparturykaue rcuxonoru, uyqakauec s rpocton usneputene ctpecca
ua pao+en necte unu s cenee u ouqakaue rony+ute rpatruu orpocuur, rotopMu paspeaut ux rponeny. 3ta rnasa
rpocuut, ro+eny taroe nerroe peaeuue uesosnouo, u rosuaronut sac c uerotopMnu us qoctyruMx sapuautos paotM.
8 rnase 1 Mn opucosau auporuu rpyr repeneuuMx, rotopMe otuoctc r routuk ctpecc. 6Mna rpoqenouctpuposaua
ueoxoqunocte usnepeuu cpeqosMx artopos (ctpeccopos), rponeyto+uMx repeneuuMx u rocneqctsuu (uarpeuuu).
0quaro sce qanero ue tar rpocto. pu paccnotpeuuu cnouoro sorpoca, rarun opason usnepute ctpeccopM, r rpunepy,
noet rorasatec sronue pasynuMn rorpocute nkqeu oeuute to, uacronero ctpeccosMnu un rpeqctasnktc
orpeqeneuuMe coMtu unu cutyauu unu uacronero cuneuMu ctpecc ouu ucrMtMsakt. 8o spesre 2.1 ocyqaetc,
ro+eny ata uqe ue ctone yqa+ua, rarou oua raetc ua repsMu ssrnq.
3osvo+o, caveu oveeud+eu cnoco usvepume cmpecc npocmo onpocume nsdeu, sadae uv ma|ue eonpoce: lac|one|o
cmpeccoeou +en+emc+ u eaaa paoma? unu lac|one|o cune+ee cmpecce eeseeaem , eac eaaa us+e e+e paome? Dd+a|o
nodo+o mov,, |a| c,(ecme,em v+oecmeo pasnuv+ex onpedene+uu cmpecca, ma| u nsdu c|no++e omeevame +a nodo+ee eonpoce
cavev pas+ev opasov. lanpuvep, vmo |acaemc+ paome, odu+ venoee| voem o(e+ume ee |a| cmpeccoe,s, uve+ e eud, ececo
nuae mo, vmo +a +eco o|aseeasm onpedene++oe daene+ue, mocda |a| dp,cou venoee| paccvampueaem nodo+oe daene+ue |a|
cmpecc +e pa+eae, vev o+o +av+em cosdaeame dn+ +eco mp,d+ocmu. Pae+ev opasov, +e|omopee voc,m o(e+ueame paom, |a|
cmpeccoe,s +a oc+oea+uu moco, |a| o+u eocnpu+uvasm ose|mue+eu xapa|mep paome (cmuv,n), dp,cux ,dem ecno|oume
mone|o mo, |a|ue v,ecmea o+a , +ux eeseeaem (pea|(u+). oamov, uccnedoeamens mp,d+o npou+mepnpemupoeame cvecn
nodo+ex o(e+o| (Jex, Beehr & Roberts, 1992)
|pove eedene+u+ amux mp,d+ocmeu npu usvepe+uu cmpecca, ne|c c |onnecavu (Jex et al , 1992) nonacasm, vmo c,(ecme,sm
dp,cue mp,d+ocmu, +oc+(ue onee mex+uvec|uu xapa|mep 3 uccnedoea+uu, us,vaeaev s+ave+ue moco, |a| uve++o nocmaeume
eonpoc, aemope ucnonesoeanu pas+ee eapua+me onpoca. sdeu npocunu o(e+ume pasnuv+ee cmpeccope (+anpuvep, paov,s
+acp,s|, unu |o+nu|m), eepae++ocme no|asameneu ncuxonocuvec|oco +anp+e+u+ (+anpuvep, mpeeocu unu denpeccuu); u
omeemume +a eonpoce, nodo+ee npueede++ev eeae, |omopee codepanu cnoeo cmpecc. 3mo uccnedoea+ue ee+euno |oppen+(us
omeemoe +a eonpoce o cmpecce u omeemoe no noeod, |a| cmpeccopoe, ma| u +anp+e+uu. pu amov +auonee cune+o |oppenupoeanu
o(e+|u cmpecca u ma|oco no|asamen+ ncuxonocuvec|oco +anp+e+u+, |a| mpeeoca. 3mo os+avaem, vmo |pumepuu, no |omopev nsdu
o(e+ueanu cmpecc, uvesm oneae o(eco c |pumepu+vu o(e+|u uvu mpeeocu, vev c mev, |a| o+u o(e+ueanu onee ose|mue+ee
no|asamenu ocoe++ocmeu paome. n, eepo+m+o, vmo o(e+|a paome |a| cmpeccoeou voem eme ,+|(ueu eaaeu cocmee++ou
mpeeocu, no |pau+eu vepe, e ma|ou e cmene+u, ecnu +e e oneaeu, |a| u eaaeco eocnpu+mu+ ose|mue+ex ocoe++ocmeu paome.
p,cuvu cnoeavu, ucnonesoea+ue nodo+ex eonpocoe npueodum | cveae+us no|asameneu. mo e(e x,e , +eped|o uccnedoeamene
usvep+em cmpeccope, ucnones,+ eonpoce, e |omopex nsdeu npoc+m o(e+ume ocoe++ocmu paome no cmene+u cmpeccoeocmu, a
samev npuecaem | vepav +anp+e+u+, e|nsvas(uv n,+|me, e |omopex cnpaaueaemc+, +ac|one|o cune+eu cmpecc nsdu
ucnemeeasm. |a| ,|aseeaem ne|c c |onnecavu, amo eedem | cavov, x,daev, us cveae+uu.
8pesra 2.1. |neet nu cnMcn crpaausate nkqeu, uacronero ctpeccosMn snetc qn uux rarou-nuo orMt?

1artu+ecru, s cuny coopaeuuu, usnoeuuMx so spesre 2.1, |erc, 6eep u Poepte (Jex, Beehr & Roberts, 1992)
peroneuqykt userate ucronesosauu cnosa ctpecc rpu nkMx usnepeuux ctpecca! 0quaro ato ctasut uccneqosaten
repeq cnouou rponenou, rarun uuMn crocoon usnepute ctpeccopM. Kar paspeaute qauuMu sorpoc u to, rarou tur
usnepeuuu u netoqonoruu ucronesosate, snetc ocuosuMn rpeqneton ocyqeuu s atou rnase. puctyra r
ocseaeuuk sorpoca, ueoxoquno paccnotpete uerotopMe us oaux teopetu+ecrux cxen u qoryaeuuu, rotopMe neat s
ocuose usnepeuu ctpecca.
Kaka eop? Kake iuepeu?
/+euMe ctpentc paspaatMsate teopuu, rotopMe rpoctM, cootsetctsykt qeuctsuteneuoctu u onaqakt oneaou
ocuuteneuou crocouoctek (Popper, 1959). puuur paspaotru u rposepru teopuu snetc ocuosoronarakaun qn
uay+uoro netoqa. 0quaro uccneqosauu ctpecca ato cepa, rqe otcytctsue xopoaeu teopuu royqaet nuae uenuorux
ynepute csou autysuasn s otuoaeuuu copa qauuMx! Ten ue neuee, +acto Msaet tar, +to xot teopetu+ecrue ocuosM
uccneqosauu ue ctone roqpouo paspaotauM, orpeqeneuuMe teopetu+ecrue qoryaeuu nouo uqeutuuuposate rar
yuqaneut uccneqosauu.
Pauuue roqxoqM ucronesosanu rpoctyk roueruk ssoqa-sMsoqa (unu ctunyna-pearuu), rorqa uccneqosatenu
paccnatpusanu to, s rarou ctereuu sauMe usueuuMe coMtu unu ocoeuuoctu paotM oycnosnusakt rocneqctsue,
uarpunep, par unu cepqe+uo-cocyquctoe saonesauue. Xot roqouMu roqxoq snetc yrpoaeuuen u uruopupyet
uuqusuqyaneuMe sapuauu pearuposauu, ou noet Mte orpasqau tan, rqe, uarpunep, uccneqosatenu paccnatpusakt
oaue teuqeuuu, tarue rar snuuue nuoro+acosou paotM ua sqoposee. 0quaro s enon tarue uccneqosauu qakt
ueyequteneuMe pesynetatM, u roatony uccneqosatenu sce oneae uutepecyktc usy+euuen creuu+ecrux ycnosuu,
rpu rotopMx ctpeccopM sMsMsakt uarpeuue. oqouMe roqxoqM srnk+akt usy+euue toro, rar artopM, otuocauec
r uuqusuqyyny (uarpunep, nu+uocte, cn. rnasy 6), unu r cpeqe (uarpunep, qoctyruocte couaneuou roqqepru, cn. rnasy
8), ssaunoqeuctsykt, orpeqen yposeue oayaaenMx spequMx aertos. 6Mno paspaotauo nuoectso teopetu+ecrux
roxoqos, paccnatpusakaux pasnu+uMe crocoM ssaunoqeuctsu tarux artopos co ctpeccopanu. punepon atoro suqa
uutepar-uouaneuoro roqxoqa snetc rurotesa yepusauu ctpecca Koaua u /unnca (Cohen & Wills, 1985), cornacuo
rotopou couaneua roqqepra urpaet pone yepa rpu sosqeuctsuu ctpeccopos.
Kar rpasuno, uccneqosauu, rpuerakaue r tarun uuteparuo-uaneuMn roqxoqan, ucronesykt tpu tura usnepeuuu.
|snepeuu coMtuu unu cutyauu s cpeqe, +acto uasMsaenMx ctpeccopanu (unu uuorqa auteeqeutanu), uarpunep,
usnepeuue ronu+ectsa coMtuu s usuu +enosera unu ctereuu ero pao+eu uarpysru.
|snepeuu rponeyto+uMx repeneuuMx, tarux rar uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, uarpunep, +ept nu+uoctu unu pasnu+uMx
ctpateruu rpeoqoneuu (copying strategies), r rotopMn rpuerakt nkqu, +toM crpasutec co ctpeccon.
|snepeuu utorosMx uarpeuuu, tarux rar tpesora unu usu+ecrue cunrtonM.
8 enon peroneuqyetc (uarpunep, Kasl, 1978) oeuusate sce tpu tura repeneuuMx netoqanu, rotopMe ue sasuct qpyr
ot qpyra. 3to osua+aet, +to qonuo Mte rar nouo neueae uanoeuuu s coqepauuu ryurtos, rotopMe rossonkt
usnepte pasnu+uMe repeneuuMe (u torqa ue sosuurakt rponenM, orucauuMe so spesre 2.1). anee Kacn rosoput, +to
usnepeuu qonuM Mte rar nouo onee oertusuMnu, qae tan, rqe, rar ato +acto Msaet, ucronesyktc usnepeuu
ctpeccopos ua ocuosauuu canoot+etos. 3to osua+aet, +to nkqeu rpoct cooaute, roqsepranuce nu ouu sosqeuctsuk
orpeqeneuuMx usueuuMx ctpeccopos, tarux, uarpunep, rar passoq, unu ucrMtMsakt nu ouu reperpysry ua paote. |x ue
rpoct qate raryk-nuo roruutusuyk oeury ctpeccopa (uarpunep, uacronero uuteucusuMn unu ctpeccosMn Mn ux
orMt). 1artu+ecru, uerotopMe uccneqosatenu, uarpunep 1net+ep (Fletcher, 1991), c+utakt, +to nkqu qanero ue scerqa
socrpuuunakt ctpeccop, orasMsakauu ueratusuoe sosqeuctsue, rar uerputuMu unu ctpeccoreuuMu.
asapyc c ronneranu rputuryet atot roqxoq u qorasMsaet, +to yrasMsaenMe s ryurtax orpocuura coMtu uenes
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
paccnatpusate rar ctpeccopM s otpMse ot pearuu +enosera ua uux (Lazarus et al, 1985). Tar, repeesq ua qpyroe necto
utenectsa noet Mte ctpeccopon qn oquux nkqeu, uo ue qn qpyrux. Cneqosateneuo, to snetc rourpetuoe
coMtue ctpeccopon unu uet, ocoeuuocte cpeqM ue rar tarosou, a rar oua oeuusaetc uuqusuqyynon oatony
asapyc rosoput, +to uenes otqenute cpeqy ot uuqusuqyaneuMx xapartepuctur +enosera, roqseprakaeroc sosqeuctsuk
atou cpeqM, es toro +toM ue roctpaqan cnMcn routu ctpecc. 0u rpeqnoun tpausaruouaneuyk teopuk, rotopa
orucMsaet roqxoq r usnepeuuk, otnu+akauuc ot usnoeuuoro sMae uuteparuouaneuoro. Kar nM suqenu s rnase 1, a-
sapyc u 1onrnau (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) orpeqenkt ctpecc rar csse neqy +enoseron u cpeqou, rotopa
oeuusaetc +enoseron rar openeukaa unu rpesMaakaa ero pecypcM u roqseprakaa oracuoctu ero
narorony+ue. Areut sqece repeuocutc co cssu neqy oertusuMnu ctpeccopanu u sosuurakaunu uarpeuunu
(cssu, sosnouo, orocpeqyenou qpyrunu repeneuuMnu) ua tot rpoecc, ryten rotoporo uuqusuqyyn oeuusaet
cutyauk rar ctpeccosyk:
|a| mone|o venoee| o(e+un mpa+sa|(us |a| cmpeccoe,s, npueod+mc+ e deucmeue npo(ecce npeodone+u+, c mev vmoe noenu+me
+a npuvu++s(,s ecno|oucmeo ce+se venoee|cpeda, u amu npo(ecce c|aseeasmc+ +a nocned,s(eu o(e+|e cum,a(uu
venoee|ov u, cnedoeamene+o, +a eude u u+me+cue+ocmu cmpeccoeou pea|(uu (Lazarus, 1990, c. 3).
Tarun opason, asapyc paccnatpusaet ctpecc rar cnouMu rpoecc co nuoectson repeneuuMx. 3to rpusoqut r
cepeesuMn tpyquoctn, tar rar uan terepe rpuxoqutc rpuuunate so suunauue eae oneaee +ucno roteuuaneuMx
snuuuu, srnk+a cpeqy, artopM nu+uoctu, oeury nkqenu cpeqM, ux ctpateruk rpeoqoneuu u to, rar sce atu artopM
usneuktc so speneuu. Xot atot roqxoq snetc-o+eue rorynpuMn u uutyutusuo rpusnerateneuMn, ou sce e o+eue
cnoeu. Ero rpeunyaectsa u ueqoctatru ocyqaktc s uuecneqykaen pasqene, rocsaeuuon roscequesuMn
uerputuoctn, u s rnase 7, racakaeuc ctpateruu rpeoqoneuu.
Karou us atux roqxoqos ucronesykt uccneqosatenu, noet s roue+uon c+ete sasucete ot ux teopetu+ecrux rpeqro+teuuu
unu ot rpurnaquou enu uccneqosauu. Ctunyneuo-peartusuMu u uutepar-uouaneuMu roqxoqM, opaaace r ssoqy
(ctpeccopy) u sMsoqy (uarpeuuk), s cyauoctu, usy+akt ctpyrtypy csseu (rpuuuna unu ue rpuuuna so suunauue
uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u). Tar, c to+ru speuu sMpaotru rpoussoqctseuuou ronuturu sorpoc, sne+et nu sa coou
repequcnorau paotuuros ua uosMu y+actor rarue-nuo rocneqctsu, spequMe qn sqopose oneaoro +ucna nkqeu,
noet Mte sauMn, uesasucuno ot toro, rar nkqu oeuusakt ctpeccop. Paccnotpeuue rponeyto+uMx repeneuuMx,
tarux rar couaneua roqqepra, u toro, ny+ae nu crpasnktc c tpyquoctnu nkqu, rony+akaue onee sMpaeuuyk
roqqepry, noet uatonruyte ua nuoectso uqeu, racakauxc uarpasneuuoctu sneaatenects. larpotus, tpausaru-
ouaneuMu roqxoq asapyca suqut s ctpecce rpoecc, rotopMu neuetc co speneuen u sasucut ot oeuru
uuqusuqyynanu ctpeccopos u ucronesyenMx unu ctpateruu rpeoqoneuu (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Ten canMn atot
roqxoq uspan M uuou suq ctpateruu uccneqosauu, rotopMu nor M srnk+ate rostopuMe usnepeuu c enek
sMsneuu rattepuos ctpecca u rpeoqoneuu, neukauxc so speneuu ro nepe toro, rar nkqu rpucrocanusaktc r
repequcnorauu. oqouMe pesynetatM noryt sectu r onee qetaneuony rouunauuk uuqusuqyaneuoro rcuxonoru+ecroro
yuruouuposauu, unekaeny neueaee rpartu+ecroe sua+euue qn sMpaotru ronuturu paotoqaten, uo secena
ronesuony qn roucynetauta, rpeqnarakaero uuqusuqyaneuyk ronoae u roqqepry ten, roro repenectunu ua uosoe
necto.
Kpone sMopa teopetu+ecrou to+ru speuu rpu usnepeuuu ctpecca ueoxoquno y+ecte pq qpyrux sorpocos. Karou suq
cpeqosMx artopos rpeqctasnet uutepec? Fsnktc nu ouu sauMnu unu stopoctereuuMnu, uuteucusuMnu,
xpouu+ecrunu unu repuoqu+ecrunu? Karoro poqa snuuue ouu noryt orasMsate? Fsnktc nu cssu Mctpo
uapyaakaunuc unu qonrospeneuuMnu? Konu+ectso roteuuaneuMx ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu, a tare ux speneuuMx
csseu orponuo. Vetoqonoruu, ucronesyenMe qn usnepeuu toro, sMsMsakt nu uesua+uteneuMe ctpeccopM, tarue rar
peaeuue s yne apunetu+ecrux saqa+, MctpMe usneueuu rposuoro qasneuu, yqyt otnu+atec ot tex, rotopMe
ucronesyktc qn usy+euu sosnouou cssu oneaou pao+eu uarpysru c rosMaeuuMnu yposunu aceuteusna
(uesMxoqos ua paoty). 0rte e, uuMnu yqyt netoqonoruu, rpuneuenMe qn sMcueuu toro, paota raroro poqa
crococtsyet passutuk ropouapuou onesuu cepqa. 8 cneqykaen pasqene yqyt paccnotpeuM uerotopMe us ocuosuMx
roqxoqos r usnepeuuk ctpeccopos, uarpeuuu u rponeyto+uMx repeneuuMx.

06mee npeqcasneue o cpeccopax x iuepeue

0odxod na ocnoee auanennmx commu
3tot roqxoq oquu us repsMx xopoao oocuosauuMx roqxoqos r rouunauuk ctpeccopos. eutpaneuou qn uero
snetc uqe, cornacuo rotopou nkoe usneueuue snetc ctpeccosMn u tpeykaun aqartauu. oatony rouctpyrt
usueuuoro coMtu orucMsakt rar:
...duc|pem+oe usve+e+ue e co(uane+ou u nuv+ou cpede c,se|ma. 0oemue don+o npedcmaen+me coou usve+e+ue, a +e
,cmouvueoe cocmo++ue, u eme e+ea+uv, eepuu(up,evev, a +e mone|o e+,mpe++uv, ncuxonocuvec|uv usve+e+uev (Paykel & Rao,
1984, c 73)
8 atou onactu ocoMn snuuuen ronesyetc paota Xonnca u Pae (Holmes & Rahe). 8 1967 roqy ouu orynurosanu
sauyk ctatek, rpeqctasnsayk ux Lrany oeuru couaneuou aqartauu (Social Readjustment Rating Scale, SRRS),
rotopa nerna s ocuosy usnepeuu usueuuMx coMtuu ro qauuMn canoot+etos. |cxoq us rnuuu+ecroro orMta, astopM
coctasunu repe+eue us 43 coMtuu, a saten 394 +enosera oeuusanu atu coMtu ro ctereuu couaneuou aqartauu,
rotopou ouu (coMtu) tpeykt. 3to rpeqronarano rpuutue so suunauue uuteucusuoctu rpoeccos aqartauu u
rpoqonuteneuoctu, tpeykauxc cpequeny +enosery, uesasucuno ot enateneuoctu coMtu. /+actuuran crasanu, +to
sctyrneuue s par oeuusaetc rpoussoneuo s 500 annos, u rorpocunu ux sMctasute annM, ocuosauuMe ua cpasueuuu
ctereuu aqartauu, tpeyenou qn raqoro usueuuoro coMtu, c aqartaueu rpu sctyrneuuu s par. 8aten cpequee
sua+euue ro sMopre qenunoce ua 10, +toM rony+ute rorasatene s equuuax usueuuoro usneueuu (life change unit,
LCU). Cn spesry 2.2
pu paote co Lranou, qn toro +toM rony+ute oauu rorasatene, ucrMtyenMe rpocto otne+akt rano+rou te coMtu
us uuecneqykaero crucra, rotopMe un rpuanoce repeute sa rocnequuu roq, u crnaqMsakt snecte ronu+ectso equuu
usueuuMx usneueuuu, cssauuMx c raqMn coMtuen.
LCU, rpesMaasauu 150 sa oquu roq, orpeqennc rar usueuuMu rpusuc (Holmes & Masuda, 1974), rpu aton LCU s
rpeqenax ot 159 qo 199 c+utanc nerrun rpusucon, ot 200 qo 299 ynepeuuMn rpusucon, a csMae 300 cepeesuMn
rpusucon. Pauuee petpocrertusuoe uccneqo-

X|8lEllbE C06bT|F orasatenu LCU
Cnepte cyrpyra 100
Passoq 73
PaspMs ceneuuMx otuoaeuuu 65
Tkpenuoe sarnk+euue 63
Cnepte nusroro poqctseuuura 63
Coctseuua onesue unu tpasna 53
8ctyrneuue s par 50
/soneueuue c paotM 47
punupeuue c cyrpyron 45
8Mxoq ua reucuk 45
|sneueuue s coctouuu sqopose +neua ceneu 44
6epeneuuocte 40
CercyaneuMe rponenM 39
osneuue uosoro +neua ceneu 39
epeneuM s usuece 39
|sneueuue s uuaucoson ronoeuuu 38
Cnepte nusroro qpyra 37
epeneuM s xapartepe paotM 36
|sneueuue s ronu+ectse rounurtos c cyrpyron 35
8arnaqua ua cynny csMae $10000 31
uaeuue sosnouoctu sMryrute sarnaquyk
unu roracute ccyqy 30
|sneueuue s cnyeuMx osauuoctx 29
CMu unu qo+e roruqakt qon 29
lerputuoctu c poqctseuuuranu cyrpyra 29
8Mqakaeec nu+uoe qoctueuue 28
Cyrpyra ua+uuaet unu repectaet paotate 26
la+ano unu sasepaeuue y+eM 26
|sneueuu s ycnosux usuu 25
epecnotp nu+uMx rpusM+er 24
ponenM c ua+anectson 23
|sneueuue s rpaure unu ycnosux paotM 20
epeneua necta utenectsa 20
Cneua necta y+eM 20
|sneueuue s rposeqeuuu qocyra 19
|sneueuue s penuruosuou Artusuoctu 19
|sneueuue s couaneuou Artusuoctu 18
8arnaqua unu ccyqa ua cynny neuee $10000 17
|sneueuu s peune cua u oqpctsosauu 16
|sneueuue s ronu+ectse oaux sctpe+ ceneu 15
|sneueuu s rpusM+rax, cssauuMx c rpuutuen ruau 15
0trycr (rauurynM) 13
Poqectso 12
Venrue uapyaeuu saroua 11
|cto+uur; Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol II, p 216, Holmes et at, Social readjustment rating scale, 1967.
8pesra 2.2. Lrana oeuru couaneuou aqartauu (Holmes & Rahe, 1967).

sauue, o rotopon cooaakt Xonnc u Vacyqa (1974), sMsuno, +to nerruu rpusuc Mn cssau c usneueuuen sqopose y
37% orpoaeuuMx, ynepeuuMu rpusuc co+etanc c usneueuuen sqopose y 51% orpoaeuuMx, a qn cepeesuoro rpusuca
upa coctasuna 79%. PetpocrertusuMe uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe s 1970-x roqax Pae c ronneranu, ouapyunu suo
sMpaeuuyk ssaunocsse: usueuuMe usneueuu suesarua cnepte ot cepqe+uoro rpuctyra (Rahe & Lind, 1971);
usueuuMe usneueuu uuaprt nuorapqa (Rahe & Paasikivi, 1971; Theorell & Rahe, 1971). 0quaro qaneueuaue
uccneqosauu rpuuecnu onee pasuopoquMe pesynetatM. pyrue uccneqosauu, ucronesosasaue atu usnepeuu,
ocyqaktc s rnase 4.
3tot roqxoq rpusen r oneaony ronu+ectsy usMcrauuu u rynurauu s te+euue rocnequux 30 net. 0rpocuMu nuct unu
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ero noquurauu nouo ro-rpeueny uautu so nuorux rynuraux u ypuanax ro canoronoau. oqxoq otpaaet
sanetuMu rporpecc s sosnouoctx uccneqosateneu usnepte usueuuMe coMtu u oeuusate ux snuuue. 0quaro ou
ue nor ue sMssate nuoectsa rputu+ecrux sane+auuu.
larpunep:
0u ue qenaet pasnu+uu neqy rosutusuMnu u ueratusuMnu coMtunu. auua teopu rnacut, +to nkoe usneueuue
crocouo uauectu speq sqoposek, rocronery ouo rpeqronaraet aqartauk (uesasucuno ot toro, rosutusuoe ouo unu
ueratusuoe). 0quaro ceu+ac nuorue sasnkt, +to peaakaee sua+euue uneet ra+ectso coMtu u +to uauonee oracuM
ueenateneuMe, uesarnauuposauuMe, ueuopnatusuMe u ueroutponupyenMe usneueuu (Pearlin, 1989).
0u uruopupyet roctouuMe unu rostopkauec ycnosu. asapyc (1990) yrasMsaet, +to sa+actyk ctpecc noet Mte
cssau c neuee sua+uteneuMnu ctpeccopanu (unu c roscequesuMnu uerputuoctnu), a ue c sauMnu coMtunu.
0u uruopupyet uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u. 0u uruopupyet pasnu+uyk sua+unocte usueuuMx coMtuu qn nkqeu c
pasuMnu rpuoputetanu, notusaunu u ctunnu rpeoqoneuu (Lazarus, 1990). Kpone toro, coMtu, rotopMe tpeykt s
routponeuon repe+ue cxoeu pearuu, noryt cuneuo sapeuposate. larpunep, cnepte nusroro qpyra noet otuocutec
r rony-to, roro suqt raqMu qeue, unu r qpyry qetctsa, rotoporo ue suqenu 20 net (Dohrenwend et al., 1990).
CoMtu noryt Mte cunrtonanu, a ue rpu+uuanu onesuu. opeu-seuq c ronneranu (Dohrenwend et al., 1990) ronarakt,
+to nuorue ryurtM s repe+ue usueuuMx coMtuu, tarue rar usneueuu s peune cua u oqpctsosauu, noryt Mte
cunrtonanu onesuu, a ue auteeqeutanu.
laqeuocte u sanuquocte cooaeuuu. Korqa nkqeu crpaausakt o coMtux, unesaux necto s rpoanon roqy, ouu noryt
rpocto ue ronuute ux s to+uoctu. oatony ueyqusuteneuo, +to uaqeuocte u sanuquocte petpocrertusuMx cooaeuuu o
usueuuMx coMtux ctasutc uoq sorpoc (to ecte yqyt nu cornacosMsatec pesynetatM, ecnu rostopute orpoc +epes
orpeqeneuuMu uutepsan speneuu, u qeuctsuteneuo nu orpocuuru usnepkt to, +to qonuM usnepte?). 0euru
petectosou uaqeuoctu (test-retest reliability) qeuctsuteneuo auporo sapeupykt s sasucunoctu ot speneuuoro uutepsana
neqy saronueuunu orpocuura (Rahe, 1974). K rpunepy, 6payu (Brown, 1974) c+utaet, +to nkqn noet rasatec, yqto
ouu qonuM uautu ocueuue csoeu onesuu, u ato sactasnet ux cooaate o oneaen ronu+ectse usueuuMx coMtuu,
+en tex, y roro uet onesueu. 0u utupyet oquo pauuee uccneqosauue (Polani et al., 1960), yrasMsakaee ua sauocte
rcuxonoru+ecrux artopos s sosuuruoseuuu cuuqpona ayua (rurotesa, rotopa qasuo otsepruyta). 8 aton uccneqosauuu
poqutenu qeteu c cuuqponon ayua cooaanu o oneaen ronu+ectse rotpceuuu s repuoq epeneuuoctu, +en
routponeua rpyrra (22% rpotus 6%), rpu+en atu usMto+uMe rotpceuu unenu necto ua pauuen atare epeneuuoctu.
Astop ronaraet, +to pasqytMe upM atux cooaeuuu snnuce cneqctsuen toro, +to nkqu rMtanuce ocuute
pacctpouctso.
Cssu noryt Mte nouMnu. 6payu (Brown, 1974) ronaraet, +to csse neqy usueuuMnu coMtunu u onesuek noet
Mte cneqctsuen rarou-to tpeteeu repeneuuou, uarpunep tpesoru. Ten canMn nkqu c sMcorunu yposunu tpesoru noryt
Mte ocoeuuo crnouuM cooaate o usueuuMx coMtux u Mte ocoeuuo socrpuun+usMnu r onesuu (cn. rnasy 4).
8auMu ronenu+ecruu sorpoc racaetc toro, cneqyet nu roueutpuposate suunauue ua oertusuon uanu+uu usueuuMx
coMtuu unu e ua oeure +enoseron ux rar ctpeccosMx. Xot s rocnequue roqM asapyc (cn. sMae) snetc uauonee
rponornacuMn rputuron netoqonoruu, rotopMe ctpentc ucrnk+ute aert oeuru, pauuue uccneqosatenu usueuuMx
coMtuu tare qucrytuposanu ro rosoqy atux sorpocos. 8 pesynetate Mnu rpeqnoeuM tarue crocoM qn usnepeuu
aqartauu r usueuuMn coMtun, rpu rotopMx ucrMtyenMx rpoct oeuute atu coMtu c to+ru speuu cunM sosqeu-
ctsu (Sarason, Johnson & Siegel, 1978). 0quaro opeuseuq u opeuseuq (Dohrenwend & Dohrenwend, 1974) ronarakt, +to
xot rpuutue so suunauue toro, s rarou ctereuu uuqusuqyynM socrpuuunakt coMtu rar uauocaue yaep, noet
rono+e rpeqcrasate ctereue snuuu atux coMtuu ua sosuuruoseuue saonesauuu.
8 rocnequue roqM qucryccuu rpoqonaktc (Lazarus, 1990; Brown, 1990). 6payu c+utaet, +to uutepsek, ucronesykaue
ero epe+eue usueuuMx coMtuu u tpyquocteu (Life Events and Difficulties schedule, LEDS), rpeqnarakt ortunaneuMu
roqxoq. osuu 6payua uaxoqutc rocepequue neqy rpusMson asapyca c ronneranu (1985) r srnk+euuk oeuru
coMtu +enoseron u tpeosauuen opeuseuqa c ronneranu (1984), +toM usnepeuu Mnu uesasucunM ot rcuxonoru+e-
crou pearuu u ue ucraanuce ek. oqxoq 6payua qousaetc atoro ucronesosauuen ue ronuoctek ctpyrtypuposauuMx
uutepsek, royqakaux uuqusuqyynos orucMsate usueuuMe coMtu. 8aten raqoe coMtue oeuusakt, rpuuuna so
suunauue cutyauk u rpeqMctopuk +enosera, uo ucronesy uopnatusuMe rorasatenu sepotuou oeuru turu+uoro
+enosera s atux octotenectsax, a ue artu+ecryk oeury qauuoro uuqusuqyyna. |ccneqosauu, ucronesykaue atot
roqxoq, qenouctpupykt tecuMe cssu neqy pqon rcuxu+ecrux u usu+ecrux coctouuu (Brown & Harris, 1989). o-
suqunony, atot uuctpyneut usnepeuu snetc ycosepaeuctsosauuen roqxoqos, ucronesykaux routponeuMe repe+uu.
0quaro, xot u srnk+a routerctyaneuMe artopM, ou ro-rpeueny onaqaet ueqoctatron, sMpaakaunc s ton, +to
tpyquo pasrpauu+ute aertM artu+ecroro coMtu u pasuMx nu+uoctuMx repeneuuMx (Dohrenwend etal, 1993).

0oecedneenme nenpumnocmu: mpanaakquonansnm nodxod
8 enon asapyc c ronneranu rputuryet roqxoq, ocuosMsakauuc ua usueuuMx coMtux, us-sa orpauu+euuou
crocouoctu taroro roqxoqa rporuosuposate onesue, a tare, rocronery ou uu+ero ue rpocuet o rpoeccax,
rocpeqctson rotopMx usueuuMe coMtu noryt snute ua sqoposee. orMtra opatutec r atun sorpocan, snecte c
to+rou speuu, cornacuo rotopou cpasuuteneuo uesua+uteneuMe ctpeccM u sosqeuctsu roscequesuou usuu sauM qn
sqopose, rpusena r paspaotre roqxoqa, ocuosMsakaeroc ua roscequesuMx uerputuoctx u toqenax.
lerputuoctu ato pasqpaakaue, pyctpupykaue, sMsMsakaue ecrorouctso tpeosauu, rotopMe s orpeqeneu-
uou ctereuu xapartepusykt roscequesuMe tpausaruu co cpeqou (Kanner et 1,1981, c. 3). Tar, r uun noet otuocutec
roraqauue s qopouyk rpory unu y+actue s crope. oqenM ato ue+to rpotusoronouoe, t. e. ue cnuaron sua+unMe
rosutusuMe noneutM roscequesuou usuu. Xot rputuoctu suo otnu+aktc ot sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu, ue
sMsMsaet conueuuu, +to raroe-to sauoe usueuuoe coMtue, taroe rar passoq, noet rosMcute sepotuocte nenrux
uerputuocteu. oatony Kauuep c+utaet, +to rocnequue noryt orocpeqosate cssu neqy usueuuMn coMtuen u
sqoposeen (t. e. usueuuMe coMtu noryt sectu r uesua+uteneuMn uapyaeuun s rpusM+rax u rpoeccax rpeoqoneuu,
rotopMe saten seqyt r ocnaneuuk sqopose) (Kanner et al.).
0quaro qpyrue uerputuoctu noryt Mte yurueu nu+uoro ctun usuu unu cpeqM uuqusuqyyna u roatony cyaectso-
sate uesasucuno ot sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu. Cosqauuoe Kauuepon cpeqctso usnepeuu sMxo-r sa panru rpoctMx
sorpocos o uanu+uu roqouMx uerputuocteu tkqeu rpoct oeuute tecte u +actoty raqou. 6onee cospeneuuMu u
rpatruu usneputeneuMu uuctpyneut, Lrana uerputuocteu u roqenos (The hassles and uplifts scale, DeLongis et al.,
1982), repe+ucnet tarue repeneuuMe, rar saau qetu, saau ronneru ro paote, saae sqoposee, u rpocut nkqeu
oeuute u tecte, u +actoty ctpeccopos, cssauuMx c raqou. 3tu qse peutuurosMe oeuru noryt co+etatec, qasa
xapartepuctury uuteucusuoctu qeuctsu ctpeccopos.
peqronaraetc, +to uerputuoctu ato onee rpoqyrtusuMu rorasatene, +en usueuuMe coMtu, u ou tecuee cssau
c sosuuruoseuuen onesueu (cn. spesry 2.3).
e ouruc c ronneranu (DeLongis et al., 1982) ytsepqanu, +to uerputuoctu onee ectro cssauM c rocneqctsunu qn
sqopose, +en sauMe usueuuMe coMtu, rocronery ouu snktc rporcunaneuMnu rorasatennu, torqa rar
usueuuMe coMtu quctaneuMnu. apanetp rporcunaneuMu quctaneuMu uneet otuoaeuue r tony, s rarou
ctereuu pasuou cpeqe rpucyaa rouertyaneua nusocte c orMton u rcuxonoru+ecrou pearueu +enosera. Ctpaua, s
rotopou sM usete, ato quctaneua cpeqa, a roneaeuue, s rotopon sM uaxoqutece, rporcunaneua. e ouruc c
ronneranu (1982) ronaranu, +to c
3 p+de uccnedoea+uu us,vanoce, e oneaeu nu cmene+u +anuvue noeced+ee+ex +enpu+m+ocmeu noseon+em npedc|aseeame ones+e,
vev +anuvue ea+ex coemuu. |a| npaeuno, o+ap,ueaemc+, vmo +enpu+m+ocmu va(e npedonpeden+sm eos+u|+oee+ue
ones+e++ex cuvnmovoe (+anpuvep, Kanneretal 1981, DeLongisetal , 1982) | npuvep,, e o+cuc c |onnecavu paccvampuean ce+se
noeced+ee+ex +enpu+m+ocmeu, nodsevoe u ea+ex us+e++ex coemuu c o(uv cmam,cov sdopoee+ u ones+e++evu cuvnmovavu
{usvepe+u+ npoeodunuce e +avane uccnedoea+u+ u cod cn,cm+). /emope o+ap,unu, vmo xom+ us+e++ee coemu+, uveeaue vecmo
sa 10-36 vec+(ee do uccnedoea+u+, noseon+nu npoc+osupoeame umocoeeu cmam,c sdopoee+, +o uve++o no|asamenu vacmome u
u+me+cue+ocmu +enpu+m+ocmeu os+c++nu onea,s vacme pasnuvuu. n+mepec+o, vmo e amov uccnedoea+uu eno o+ap,e+o +e
mone|o mo, vmo ved, nodsevavu u xopoauv cocmo++uev sdopoee+ omc,mcme,em mec+a+ ce+se (a|muvec|u, vacmoma nodsevoe
ena ce+sa+a c ,eenuve+uev |onuvecmea covamuvec|ux cuvnmovoe), +o ma|e mo, vmo vacmoma nodsevoe ove+e eeco|o
|oppenup,em c vacmomou +enpu+m+ocmeu (n = 0,66) ea no|asamen+ u+me+cue+ocmu moe cune+o |oppenupoeanu ved, coou,
noseon++ npednonoume, vmo, nsdeu, |omopee cman|ueasmc+ co v+oecmeov +enpu+m+ocmeu, ma|e eeaem v+oco nodsevoe.
/emope npednonounu, vmo od+uv us eosvo+ex os+c+e+uu amoco voem eme me+de+(uos+ocme pea|(uu, e pes,nemame veco
+e|omopee nsdu omvevasm |a| npaeuno, v+oco n,+|moe no amov, usvepe+us, mocda |a| dp,cue mone|o +ec|one|o 3mo
uc+opup,em m, eosvo+ocme, vmo mp,d+ee nepuode e us+u venoee|a voc,m eme e deucmeumene+ocmu vacmo ce+sa+e u c
eecovevu eos+acpade+u+vu, u c +enpu+m+ocm+vu, mocda |a| e onee cno|ou+ee nepuode u TPX u dp,cux voem eme ve+eae.
nccnedoea+ue e o+cuca u eco |onnec eno noemope+o u pacaupe+o F+dopov c |onnecavu (Jandoif et al , 1986), |omopee
ucnonesoeanu ADE 0mo,+a u luna (Stone & Neale, 1982) u usvepe+u+ cuvnmovoe, npoeodueauec+ eed+ee+o. Pes,nemame enu
cxou noeced+ee+ee coemu+ noseon+nu npedc|aseeame onea,s vacme pasnuvuu e cuvnmovax, vev ea+ee us+e++ee coemu+.
Dd+a|o no|asamenu +eenamene+ex noeced+ee+ex coemuu cune+o |oppenupoeanu eo epeve+u (0,92), +aeod+ +a vecne, vmo o+u
voc,m usvep+me nepeve++,s, xapa|mepus,s(,s +e|omopee cmaune+ee u+dueud,ane+ee pasnuvu+.
8pesra 2.3. +to s oneaeu ctereuu rossonet rporuosuposate onesue roscequesuMe uerputuoctu unu sauMe usueuuMe coMtu?

to+ru speuu ctpecca rporcunaneua cpeqa coctout us tpausaruu +enoser cpeqa, rotopMe +enoser oeuusaet rar
spequMe, yrpoakaue unu ucrMtMsakaue ero crocouoctu (c. 121). Ten canMn rorasatenu usueuuMx coMtuu, rar
rpasuno, onee quctaneuM, rocronery ouu sa+actyk otne+akt tonero uanu+ue coMtu, a ue ero sua+unocte, torqa rar
uerputuoctu usnepktc crocoanu, rotopMe srnk+akt socrputue ctereuu cootsetctsykaero quctpecca.
Kar ato uu ctpauuo, s cny+ae usnepeuu, oM+uo orpeqenenoro rar oeura roscequesuMx uerputuocteu, nkqeu +acto
rpoct oeuute uerputuoctu petpocrertusuo sa rpoanMu nec. asapyc (1990) ronaraet, +to roqouMe cosoryruMe
aranM orpasqauM, rorqa paccnatpusaktc qonrospeneuuMe rocneqctsu qn sqopose. Korqa s oryce uaxoqtc onee
rpatrospeneuuMe rocneqctsu, ucronesyktc crocoM usnepeuu, oeuusakaue ctpeccopM s ux roscequesuon sMpae-
uuu (DeLongis, Folkman & Lazarus, 1988).
AnetepuatusuMn roqxoqon, rotopMu usnepet uneuuo eequesuMe ctpeccopM, snetc oeura roscequesuoro orMta
(assessment of daily experience, ADE; Stone & Neale, 1984). 8 aton cny+ae nkqu oeuusakt coMtu, rotopMe cny+unuce s
qauuMu qeue, ro tarun rapanetpan, rar enateneuocte, usneueuuectauneuocte u sua+unocte. 3ta netoqura
oeuusauu tare rossonet nkqn srucate nkMe qpyrue ctpeccopM, c rotopMnu ouu noryt ctanrusatec; ten canMn
noryt Mte tare y+teuM peqrue, uo sauMe coMtu. oqouMe usnepeuu ucronesyktc rpu usy+euuu toro, rar
nyrtyauu s ctpeccopax noryt rpeqaectsosate, uarpunep, rpoctyqe.
Kar rpasuno, ouapyusakt, +to rorasatene roscequesuMx uerputuocteu onee tecuo cssau c utorosMnu
uarpeuunu u onesunu, +en sauMe usueuuMe coMtu (cn. rnasy 4). 0quaro rorasatene uerputuocteu tare
rputurykt s cssu c sosnouoctek ero cneaeuu c rapanetpanu rcuxonoru+ecroro quctpecca, ucronesyenMnu s
canoot+etax.

Xponuveckue cmpeccopm
Areut s uccneqosauux usueuuMx coMtuu u roscequesuMx uerputuocteu cneaeu s ctopouy coMtuu (rar sauoro,
tar u stopoctereuuoro xapartepa), rotopMe snktc s uerotopou ctereuu ueopquuapuMnu. otony tarue uccneqosauu
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
noryt ue ynasnusate cyauocte nuorux acrertos opasa usuu, rotopMe noryt socrpuuunatec rar ctpeccosMe, uarpunep
xpouu+ecruu ctpecc ueoxoqunoctu yxoqa sa rpectapenMn poqctseuuuron. Ckqa noryt otuocutec ctpeccopM, rotopMe
roctouuo rpucytctsykt, uo noryt ue rasatec ocoou uerputuoctek, qocaqakaeu uso qu s qeue, uarpunep uusruu
qoxoq unu uesosnouocte otqoxuyte. |ccneqosauu noryt tare ue ynasnusate xpouu+ecruu xapartep nuorux
rpoussoqctseuuMx ctpeccopos, tarux rar oneaa pao+a uarpysra unu paota, rotopa octasnet nano sosnouocteu
qn routpon (canoctoteneuMx qeuctsuu). Xot seqetc nuoro cropos o usnepeuux usueuuMx coMtuu u
uerputuocteu, otuocuteneuo nano ocyqaetc to, rar coctasute oaee rpeqctasneuue o roqouMx xpouu+ecrux
artopax u usnepute ux. pu+uua atoro noet Mte s ton, +to uerotopMe xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM ato oertusuo
sepuuupyenMe coctouu, tarue rar otcytctsue paotM, uusruu qoxoq u rnoxue unuauMe ycnosu. 0quaro roqouMe
usnepeuu noryt Mte rpyMnu uuquratopanu artu+ecru oayaaenMx ctpeccopos. 6oneae suunauu usnepeuuk
xpouu+ecrux ctpeccopos yqenetc s nutepatype ro rpoeccuouaneuony ctpeccy, s rotopou oocuosauuo
paccnatpusaktc xpouu+ecrue rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM, tarue rar ponesou rounurt (Rizzo, House & Lirtzman,
1970) unu ueqoctato+ua sosnouocte routponuposate csok paoty (Jackson et al., 1993) (cn. rnasy 9).
Cneqyet otnetute, +to pasnu+u neqy uerputuoctnu, usueuuMnu coMtunu u xpouu+ecrunu ctpeccopanu
o+esuquM qanero ue scerqa. larpunep, Xau u Cnut (Hahn & Smith, 1999) yrasMsakt, +to uepeqro oqua u ta e
repeneuua (uarpunep, onesue +neua ceneu) sMctyraet s oquon uccneqosauuu rar uerputuocte, a s qpyron rar
xpouu+ecruu ctpeccop.

06mee npeqcasneue o uanpeux x iuepeue
0cuosuou areut s sMaeorucauuMx roqxoqax qenaetc ua rouertyanusauk u usnepeuue ctpeccopos. peqctasnetc,
+to oaa roueru rocneqctsuu (oM+uo uasMsaenMx uarpeuunu) peqro otrpMto ocyqaetc s
uccneqosatenecrou nutepatype. 0quaro, rar rpasuno, rpeqronaraetc, +to uarpeuu noryt srnk+ate s ce sce turM
usu+ecrux u rcuxu+ecrux pacctpoucts, rpoctupakauxc ot nerrux onesueu qo cepeesuMx saonesauuu u cneptu, u ot
uesua+uteneuMx repeneu uactpoeuu qo cepeesuMx rcuxu+ecrux pacctpoucts. Ckqa noet tare otuocutec pq
roseqeu+ecrux rorasateneu, tarux rar paotocrocouocte unu cssauuMe co sqoposeen rpusM+ru, uarpunep sMrusra u
rypeuue. lerotopMe rpunepM ocyqaktc uue, a s nutepatype nouo uautu nuoectso qpyrux.
4uauveckue cuvnmovm
oryaeuue, neaaee s ocuose nuorux uccneqosauuu ctpecca u auporo pasqenenoe oaectseuuMn nueuuen, coctout s
ton, +to ctpecc sMsMsaet onesue. 0 cssu neqy ctpeccon u onesuek c ronuou orpeqeneuuoctek rosoputc so
nuorux oaux cxenax csseu ctpecc/uarpeuue, rpeqctasneuuMx s nutepatype (Cooper & Marshall, 1976; cn. tare rnasy
9). |cronesyktc pasnu+uMe uuquratopM, cssauuMe c onesuek, srnk+a rorasatenu s canoot+etax, usuonoru+ecrue
uuquratopM unu nequuucruu quaruos.
|snepeuu ro canoot+etan noryt srnk+ate rpoctMe uesanuqusu-posauuMe rorasatenu ronosuMx oneu unu qpyrux
cunrtonos unu e onee cnouMe sanuqusuposauuMe aranM, tarue rar Kopuennecruu nequuucruu uuqerc (Cornell
Medical Index, Brodman et al., 1949). 0quaro uerotopMe uccneqosatenu roqseprakt conueuuk to+uocte roqouMx
canoot+etos, tar rar nkqn c sMcorun yposuen uespotusauu (unu crnouuMn r otpuateneuMn anoun) csouctseuuo
cooaate o oneaen ronu+ectse cunrtonos (Costa & McRae, 1987, cn. tare rnasy 6), a ortunuctM noryt cooaate o
neueaen ux ronu+ectse (O'Brien, Vanegeren & Mumby, 1995). Kocta u Var-Peu cosetykt uccneqosatenn ucronesosate
oertusuMe nepM unu usnepte u routponuposate sosqeuctsu uespotusauu. (aneueuaee ocyqeuue aertos
uespotusauu cn. s rnase 6.)
Kar rpasuno, oertusuMe usuonoru+ecrue usnepeuu paccnatpusakt rar onee sua+unMe, +en te, rotopMe Mnu
orucauM sMae (Jex & Beehr, 1991). 0uu srnk+akt s ce usnepeuu usuonoru+ecrux usneueuuu, rotopMe c+utakt
rpeqsectuuranu onesueuuMx coctouuu, uarpunep: cepqe+uo-cocyquctMe cunrtonM (rposuoe qasneuue, yposeue
xonectepuua s cMsopotre rposu) u uoxunu+ecrue cunrtonM (ratexonanuuM, roptuson u no+esa rucnota) (Fried,
Rowland & Ferris, 1984, cn. tare rnasy 3). Xot roqouMe usnepeuu sMrnqt onee oertusuMnu u ctporunu, +en
orpocuuru qn canoot+etos, ten ue neuee ouu ro-rpeueny noryt Mte cssauM co nuoectson rponen. |erc u 6eep
(Jex & Beehr, 1991) yrasMsakt, +to qosoneuo tpyquo rporoutponuposate pq artopos, rotopMe snukt ua roqouMe
usnepeuu. Ckqa otuoctc yctou+usMe artopM, uarpunep: sospact u reuetu+ecrue teuqeuuu, u repeneuuMe artopM,
tarue rar tenrepatypa s roneaeuuu unu ctereue usu+ecrou uarpysru qo rposeqeuu usnepeuu. Kpone toro,
usuonoru+ecrue usnepeuu +acto ue cornacyktc c canoot+etanu nkqeu, uarpunep qauuMe o tpesore, coupaenMe s
oquo u to e spen. Var-lpat u 6eep (McGrath & Beehr, 1990) ronarakt, +to rpu+uua atoro noet Mte s pasnu+uMx
speneuuMx csouctsax usnepeuuu, s pesynetate +ero auanusM rposu noryt otpaate pearuu ua ctpeccop, unesaue necto
uarauyue, torqa rar canoot+etM noryt Mte ocuosauM ua ouqauux yqyaero ctpeccopa.
8 to spen rar sMaeorucauuMe usnepeuu oeuusakt repeneuuMe, cssauuMe c onesuek, nuorue uccneqosauu
(uarpunep: te, rotopMe usy+akt sauMe usueuuMe coMtu) tare rMtaktc oeuute cssu c artu+ecrunu
nequuucrunu rocneqctsunu, ua+uua ot rpoctyqM u sarau+usa paron u cneptek. 3tu rocneqctsu paccnatpusaktc
roqpouee s rnase 4.
0oeedenveckue npoenenu
oseqeu+ecrun rocneqctsun tare yqenetc sauoe suunauue rpu uccneqosauux ctpecca. n uccneqosateneu,
uutepecykauxc saonesauunu, sauM tarue snukaue ua sqoposee rpusM+ru, rar rypeuue, sMrusra u usu+ecrue
yrpaueuu. +acto uccneqosatenu unekt uenuoro uuMx sosnouocteu, rpone rar ronoutec ua qauuMe canoot+etos,
uaqeuocte rotopMx noet Mte roq sorpocon. Xot astopM cooaakt o qoctato+uou uaqeuoctu u sanuquoctu
canoot+etos ro yrotpeneuuk anroron u uaproturos (Brown, Kranzler & Delboca, 1992) u uerotopMx nep oeuru
uuteucusuoctu rypeuu (Kozlowski & Heatherton, 1990), uneetc pq rpu+uu, ro+eny uerotopMe nkqu noryt Mte crnouuM
qasate uerpasuneuMe qauuMe o rpusM+rax, snukaux ua sqoposee. 0uu noryt cosuateneuo nrate unu, ro rpauueu nepe,
crnoutec r arouonuony opaaeuuk c uctuuou, c ten +toM rpoqenouctpuposate onee couaneuo enateneuyk
pearuk. 0uu noryt tare qenouctpuposate xopoao ussectuMu euoneu ortunuctu+ecrou yctauosru (Weinstein, 1983),
rotopa sactasnet nkqeu socrpuuunate ce rar roqseprakauxc otuocuteneuo neueaeny pucry, +en qpyrue, u noet
royqate ux cooaate rpeysenu+euuMe qauuMe o csoux ronesuMx qn sqopose rpusM+rax (O'Brien et al., 1995).
n uccneqosateneu, uutepecykauxc rpoussoqctseuuMn ctpeccon, saueuaeu snetc csse neqy ctpeccopanu u
paotocrocouoctek, xot qpyrue roseqeu+ecrue xapartepucturu tare sauM (uarpunep, tery+ecte raqpos, aceuteusn
u uec+actuMe cny+au). oatony yqusuteneuo cooaeuue |erca u 6eepa (Jex & Beehr, 1991) o ton, +to roseqeu+ecrue
pearuu ua cssauuMe c paotou ctpeccopM snktc, esycnosuo, uauneuee usy+euuMnu uso scex rocneqctsuu (c.
337). Kpone toro, sa sosnouMn ucrnk+euuen uerotopMx creuanusuposauuMx onacteu, tarux rar uccneqosauu
ctpecca cpequ runotos u asuaqucret+epos (uarpunep, Caldwell, 1995; Raymond & Moser, 1995; Tattersall & Farmer, 1995),
uneetc uenuoro csuqetenects, +to s rocnequue roqM ata cutyau usneuunace. 0qua us rpu+uu coctout s ton, +to
canoot+etM o tarux repeneuuMx, rar paotocrocouocte u uesMxoqM ua paoty, cropee scero, ueto+uM. 0quaro
rony+euue onee oertusuMx qauuMx ot oprauusauu rpeqctasnet tpyquoctu. 8o nuorux cny+ax, sosnouo,
otcytctsykt to+uMe nepM paotocrocouoctu unu qae qauuMe ro aceuteusny, racakauec otqeneuMx paotuuros.
Tan e, rqe tarue qauuMe unektc, ux ucronesosauue rponenatu+uo. 6oneauuctso uccneqosauuu, rposoqunMx s
ronrauux, ronaraetc ua ucronesosauue auouunuo saronuenMx orpocuuros ro atu+ecrun rpu+uuan u +toM
royqute pecrouqeutos Mte +ectuMnu. 0quaro roqoua auouunuocte rpusoqut r tony, +to tepetc sosnouocte
rposepru, snktc nu te, rto ucrMtMsaet cuneuoe sosqeuctsue ctpeccopos, roctouuMnu rporyneauranu unu rnoxunu
paotuuranu.
lecnotp ua atu tpyquoctu, uerotopMe uccneqosatenu ycreauo ucronesykt peutuurosMe oeuru paotM, sMctasnenMe
ua+aneuuranu (uarpunep, Motowidlo, Packard & Manning, 1986; Guppy & Marsden, 1997), u ouapyusakt, +to ouu
cssauM c qpyrunu uuquratopanu, ta-, runu rar rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM. 0quaro |erc u 6eep (Jex & Beehr, 1991)
yrasMsakt, +to paotoqatenu noryt qenouctpuposate ueratusuyk teuqeuuosuocte rpu oeure qeteneuoctu,
sMronuenou cotpyquuranu, rotopMe, ua ux ssrnq, rposnkt rarue-nuo otpuateneuMe pearuu ro rosoqy paotM.
Ten ue neuee so nuorux rpoeccux peutuurosMe oeuru, sMctasnenMe ua+aneuuranu, noryt sntec uauny+aun us
qoctyruMx usnepeuuu paotocrocouoctu. |s-sa roqouMx tpyquocteu ucronesosauue noqeneu u naopatopuMx
uccneqosauuu s atou onactu noet Mte ocoeuuo rpoqyrtusuo (Parkes, Styles & Broadbent, 1990; Searle, Bright &
Bochner, 1999; cn. tare rnasy 5).
Cuvnmovm ncuxuveckoeo nenaeononyvu
pu otcytctsuu uaqeuMx roseqeu+ecrux u usuonoru+ecrux rorasateneu uccneqosatenu +acto rpuerakt r uanuoro
onee rpoctony sapuauty, ucronesy usnepeuu cunrtonos rcuxu+ecroro uenarorony+u ro canoot+etan. 1artu+ecru,
usnepeuue cunrtonos tpesoru u qerpeccuu ucronesyetc uactonero auporo, +to, rpeqronouteneuo, sMcorue
rorasatenu s tarux usnepeuux ...ctanu paccnatpusatec uccneqosatennu s atou onactu rar qoctosepuoe
qorasatenectso uanu+u ctpecca (Derogatis & Coons, 1993, c. 207).
8 to spen rar atu repeneuuMe uutepecuM canu ro cee, ouu noryt tare ucronesosatec us-sa (rora ueqorasauuoro)
qoryaeuu, +to roqouMe repeneuuMe cssauM c rouueuuou paotocrocouoctek u usu+ecrunu onesunu u
snktc ux rpeqsectuuranu. Xot uerotopMe uccneqosauu paccnatpusakt cepeesuMe rcuxu+ecrue pacctpouctsa, quar-
uoctupyenMe spa+anu, oneauuctso ronaraktc ua pq ucronesyenMx s canoot+etax rorasateneu, rotopMe, rar
rpasuno, rpequasua+euM qn rnuuu+ecrou rparturu s ra+ectse uuctpyneutos crpuuuura. oqouMe rorasatenu
sanuqusupyktc ryten ucronesosauu rnuuu+ecrux sMopor, u qauuMe pecrouqeutos nouo cpasuute c roqouMnu
sMopranu, +toM orpeqenute +ucno tex, +eu rorasatenu uaxoqtc ua cpasuunon yposue. punepanu tarux cpeqcts
usnepeuu snktc 0rpocuur oaero coctouu sqopose (General Health Questionnaire, GHOj Goldberg, 1972), |uqerc
nu+uoro orMta KpayuaKpucra ( Crown- Crisp Experiential Index, CCEI; Crown & Crisp, 1979) u 0rpocuur qerpeccuu 6era
(Beck's Depression Inventory, BDI; Becketal., 1961). 0quu us uauonee +acto ucronesyenMx n orpocuuros, GHO,
ocyqaetc uue so spesre 2.4.
GHQ en nepeo+avane+o paspaoma+ dn+ cavocmo+mene+oco c|pu+u+ca nec|ux ncuxuvec|ux paccmpouc ce e ,cnoeu+x oev+ou us+u
u e vedu(u+c|ou ocma+oe|e Dnpoc+u| cvumaemc+ +ade+ev, u non,ve++ee da++ee xopoao |oppenup,sm c |nu+uvec|uvu o(e+|avu
(Goldberg & Williams, 1988). D+ o(e+ueaem eocnpu+mue venoee|ov o(eco +anp+e+u+, denpeccuu, mpeeocu, covamuvec|ux
cuvnmovoe, ecco++u(e, cnoco+ocmu cnpaen+mec+ c nponevavu u co(uane+ex samp,d+e+uu. Dnpoc+u| e|nsvaem cepuu
,meepde+uu, nocne |adoco us |omopex npednacaemc+ a|ana omeemoe, cocmo+(a+ us vemepex m pada(uu lanpuvep, +a eonpoc
acmo nu ee +edocenanu e nocned+ee epev+ us-sa eon+e+uu?, pecno+de+m done+ omvemume odu+ us cned,s(ux omeemoe:
ma|oco +e cn,vanoce, +e va(e, vev oev+o, noan,u, va(e, vev oev+o unu +av+oco va(e, vev oev+o 3eco|ue
no|asamenu ceudemenecme,sm o noeeae++ou eepo+m+ocmu |nu+uvec|oco paccmpoucmea, a no|asamenu eeae onpedene++oco
nopocoeoco ,poe++ vacmo ee+en+sm |nu+uvec|uu cn,vau. nvesmc+ +ec|one|o eepcuu GHQ (cocmo+(ux us 60, 30, 28 unu 12 n,+-
|moe). Xom+ va(e ececo onpoc+u| ucnones,sm dn+ non,ve+u+ edu+uv+oco no|asamen+, paseep+,mee eepcuu vo+o npuve++me dn+
usvepe+u+ p+da pasnuv+ex napavempoe, e|nsva+ mpeeoc, u denpeccus. 0 +avana 1980-x codoe 12-n,+|m+a+ eepcu+ (GHQ-12) aupo|o
ucnones,emc+ +a npouseodcmee e |avecmee cpedcmea usvepe+u+ +anp+e+u+ npu pea|(uu +a npoeccuo+ane+ee cmpeccope (Banks
et al., 1980), u +a|onne+a s+avumene+a+ u+opva(u+ o +opvamueax dn+ npedcmaeumeneu pasnuv+ex npoeccuu (Mullarkey et al ,
1999), puvepe uccnedoea+uu, |omopee ucnonesoeanu GHQ dn+ usvepe+u+ npouseodcmee++oco cmpecca, vo+o +aumu e cnaee 9.
GHQ ma|e aupo|o npuve++emc+ e ma+ex anudevuonocuvec|ux uccnedoea+u+x, ma|ux |a| Yaumxonncs uccnedoea+u+ (Whitehall
Studies; +anpuvep, Stansfeld & Marmot, 199< u e novcumsd+ex onpocax, ma|ux |a| 5puma+c|uu onpoc dovoenaden
Xom+ GHQ +en+emc+ non,n+p+ev cpedcmeov usvepe+u+ ncuxonocuvec|oco +esdopoee+, eanud+ocme amoco u+cmp,ve+ma npu o(e+|e
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
pea|(uu +a cmpeccope nome+(uane+o nponevamuv+a e +ec|one|ux om+oae+u+x. 3 vacm+ocmu, +e+c+o, v,ecmeumene+ nu onpoc+u|
| xpo+uvec|uv u/unu u+me+cue+ev ncuxoco(uane+ev cmpeccopav. lanpuvep, +a oc+oea+uu eonpoca, v,ecmeoean nu e nocned+ue
+ec|one|o +edene venoee| ce+ onee unu ve+ee +ecvacm+ev, vev oev+o, onpoc+u|, no-euduvov,, o(e+ueaem om+ocumene+o
c|opomev+oe cocmo++ue Ecnu u+dueud,,v v,ecmeoean ce+ +ecvacm+ev e meve+ue +ec|one|ux vec+(ee unu nem, mocda o+ enon+e
voem coo(ume, vmo o+ +ecvacmnue +e oneae, vev oev+o ma e pea|(u+, vmo u , coeepae++o cvacmnueoco venoee|a. 3
pes,nemame GHQ voem ,n,cmume cn,vau xpo+uvec|oco xapa|mepa, |omopee vocnu, a|muvec|u, cmame +opvane+ev
cocmo++uev u+dueud,,va. Dd+a|o, |a| amo +u napado|cane+o, uvesmc+ ma|e da++ee, vmo onpoc+u| voem peane+o o(e+ueame
vepm, (om+ocumene+o cmaune+,s xapa|mepucmu|, nuv+ocmu). lanpuvep, upu c |onnecavu (Deary et al, 1996) coo(aem o
eeco|ou |oppen+(uu ved, no|asamen+vu nuv+ocm+ou mpeeo+ocmu u no|asamen+vu GHQ Xom+ p+d uccnedoea+uu ce+seeaem ce-
pees+ee opca+usa(uo++ee usve+e+u+ +a npouseodcmee c noeeae+uev ,poe++ ncuxonocuvec|oco +esdopoee+ (+anpuvep, Feme et al ,
1998), Voun (Moyle, 1995a) ,cma+oeun, vmo no|asamenu GHQ-12 enu om+ocumene+o cmaune+evu e meve+ue 12-vec+v+oco
nepuoda, u +e c,ven sapecucmpupoeame avo(uo+ane+ee pea|(uu +a peopca+usa(us npouseodcmee++oco npo(ecca. Xom+ paom+u|u
vocnu ucnemeeame u xpo+uvec|oe daene+ue, e ,cnoeu+x peopca+usa(uu vo+o eno e oudame onpedene++oco usve+e+u+ e
ncuxonocuvec|ov sdopoeee. 3mu pes,nemame no|aseeasm, vmo da++eu u+cmp,ve+m voem usvep+me nuae me+de+(us | +e-
camue+ev nepeuea+u+v, vmo cmaeum nod eonpoc eco nones+ocme |a| ucmu++oco cpedcmea usvepe+u+ |pam|oepeve++oco
+anp+e+u+ lecvomp+ +a amu +edocmam|u, GHQ ove+e non,n+pe+ ocoe++o npu uccnedoea+u+x npoeccuo+ane+oco cmpecca
nccnedoea+u+ e pasnuv+ex npoeccuo+ane+ex onacm+x, |omopee ucnones,sm Dnpoc+u| o(eco cocmo++u+ sdopoee+ e |avecmee
cpedcmea usvepe+u+ +anp+e+u+, eesea++oco ce+sa++evu c paomou cmpeccopavu, vacmo coo(asm o s+avumene+o onee eeco|ov
,poe+e |nu+uvec|ux +ap,ae+uu (caseness), vev uccnedoea+u+ oev+ex co(uane+ex eeopo| (+anpuvep, Jenkins et al , 1996). 5eno
,cma+oene+o, vmo vucno ma|ux |n vec|ux cn,vaee ocoe++o eeco|o cpedu cne(uanucmoe, paomasu : nsdevu, amo cped+uu
vedu(u+c|uu nepco+an u paom+u|u cc| co(uane+ex ,cn,c (Tyler & Cushway, 1995; Caughey, 1996).
8pesra 2.4. 0rpocuur oaero coctouu sqopose (GHQ).

0quu us ueqoctatros roqouMx cpeqcts usnepeuu, ucronesykaux canoot+etM, coctout s ton, +to ouu, rar rpasuno,
o+eue rpospa+uM qn pecrouqeuta, u otsetM nerro canecuuuposate. larpunep, 1ypuan u Xeuqepcou (Furnham &
Henderson, 1983) cny+auuMn opason pacrpeqenunu y+actuuros orpoca s 3 rpyrrM c pasuMnu ycnosunu. epsMe qse
rpyrrM rorpocunu saronuute GHQ tarun opason, +toM cosqanoce sre+atneuue, +to y+actuuru: (a) rcuxonoru+ecru
uesqoposM u () cosepaeuuo sqoposM. Tpetee ycnosue otuocunoce r routponeuou rpyrre, +neuos rotopou rpocunu Mte
rar nouo onee +ectuMnu rpu saronueuuu orpocuura. /+actuuru ue ucrMtanu tpyquocteu c anecuuraueu sqopo-
sou u uesqoposou pearuu. 3to noet unete sua+euue qn tex cny+aes, rorqa roqouMe cpeqctsa ucronesyk-tc s
octotenectsax, rqe y y+actuuros cuneua notusau sMrnqete sqoposMnu (uarpunep s uccneqosauux rpoussoq-
ctseuuoro ctpecca).
Pucr rposneuu orpeqeneuuoro uaopa pearuu rpu saronueuuu orpocuuros rcuxonoru+ecroro sqopose rpusuasanc u
lonqepron (Goldberg, 1972), snsaunc paspaot+uron GHQ. C ten +toM cuusute sepotuocte teuqeuuosuoctu
pearuu, roqouMe uuctpyneutM repsoua+aneuo cosqasanuce qn ucronesosauu snecte c rnuuu+ecrun uutepsek.
lacyauo ueoxoqunMnu qn usy+euu ctpecca snktc uccneqosauu, yctauasnusakaue rosutusuMe cssu neqy
pesynetatanu usnepeuuu cunrtonaturu u pasnu+uMnu cpeqosMnu ctpeccopanu, ocoeuuo ua rpoussoqctse.
8ua+uteneuyk +acte qauuMx, neaaux s ocuose pacxoero rpeqctasneuu, +to rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM spequM,
rpuuoct, ro-suqunony, uccneqosauu uneuuo atoro tura (cn., uarpunep, rnasy 9). Xot o+eue tpyquo oxsatute sece
crertp uccneqosauuu, nuorue us uux snktc rorepe+uo-cpesosMnu co scenu rponenanu, rotopMe sne+et sa coou
ata netoqonoru.
8ocnpunuvaevm cmpecc
8o spesre 2.1 nM suqenu, +to rpeqnoeuue nkqn sorpocos o ux socrputuu ctpecca cssauo c rponenanu. 0quaro
uneetc usneputeneuoe cpeqctso, uassauuoe aranou socrpuuunaenoro ctpecca (Cohen, Kamarck & Mermelstem, 1983),
rotopoe +acto ucronesyetc s uccneqosauux, usy+akaux snuuue rcuxonoru+ecrux artopos ua usu+ecroe sqoposee
(cn. rnasy 4). K rpunepy, ata arana noet ucronesosatec qn toro, +toM otqenute ot cyertusuoro oayaeuu
quctpecca aertM artu+ecroro uanu+u oertusuoro ctpeccopa, taroro rar yxoq sa +enoseron c onesuek Anereu-
nepa (Esterling et al., 1994). 0quaro, uecnotp ua uassauue atou aranM, s ee ryurtax, rar rpasuno, crpaausaetc o
+ysctse roqasneuuoctu, ecronoauoctu u oayaeuuu uanu+u ueroutponupyenMx tpyquocteu, a tare o rpotusorono-
uMx +ysctsax routpon sa rpoucxoqaun u ronuoro rpeycresauu. lerotopMe us atux ryurtos roxou ua te, rotopMe
srnk+akt s aranM cunrtonos, orucauuMe sMae.
pyeue ncuxonoeuveckue nanpaenu
Xot oneaa +acte uccneqosauuu ctpecca corycuposaua ua qerpeccuu u tpesore, ua+uuaet rpusnerate r cee
suunauue onee auporuu crertp uactpoeuuu u anouu (rar rosutusuMx, tar u ueratusuMx). Cpeqctsa qn usnepeuu
uactpoeuu u anouu oM+uo rpeqctasnkt coou uaopM rpunarateneuMx, rpeqnaraenMx s opnate routponeuoro
repe+u qn oeuru teryaux unu ueqasuux coctouuu. 0quu us rpunepos xapartepuctura uactpoeuu (profile of mood
states, POMS), oeuusakaa aecte pasnu+uMx suqos uactpoeuu, ocyqaetc so spesre 2.5.
Xot, sosnouo, rorasatenu yqosnetsopeuuoctu u ue snktc ocuosuMnu s usy+euuu ctpecca, ouu tare +acto
rosnktc s uccneqosauux, rposoqunMx s atou onactu. |ccneqosauu rpoussoqctseuuoro ctpecca oM+uo
ucronesykt cpeqctsa qn usnepeuu yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou. |uorqa paccnatpusaetc yqosnetsopeuuocte qpyrunu
ctopouanu usuu (Judge & Watanabe, 1994; cn. tare rnasy 9). Ctpecc u yqosnetsopeuuocte paotou ue noryt, oquaro,
paccnatpusatec rar rpocto uaxoqauec ua rpotusoronouMx rouax routuuyyna. apanetpM rpoussoqctseuuoro
quctpecca u yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou, rar rpeqctasnetc, noryt orasatec cssauuMnu cosepaeuuo ueouqauuMn
opason (Barling, 1990). Tar, paotuuru noryt cooaate, +to paota sMsMsaet y uux +ysctso tpesoru, uo ro-rpeueny
sMpaate yqosnetsopeuuocte ek.

06mee npeqcasneue o nepeueuusx, csiauusx c uqsqyansusu
painuu, x iuepeue
Xot uactpoeuue ocyqanoce sMae rar rorasatene rcuxonoru+ecroro uarpeuu, uerotopMe cpeqctsa usnepeuu
uactpoeuu, tarue rar arana rpsutusuoro u ueratusuoro aerta (positive and negative affect scale, PANAS, Watson, Clark
& Tellegen, 1988), rpequasua+euM qn usy+euu rar pearuu, tar u +ept ryten sapeuposauu uuctpyr-

POMS (VcNair, Lorr & Droppieman, 1981) amo |o+mpone+eu nepeve+e dn+ cavoomvema, e|nsvas(uu 65 npunacamene+ex, |omopee
ompaasm aecme o(ux avo(uo+ane+ex cocmo++uu.
lanp+e+ue-mpeeoca.
enpeccu+-nodaene++ocme.
l+ee-epade+ocme.
3+epcuv+ocme-a|mue+ocme.
Ycmanocme-anamu+.
Pacmep+++ocme-osadave++ocme.
Pecno+de+moe npoc+m o(e+ume mo, e |a|ou cmene+u o+u o(,(anu |adoe +acmpoe+ue e meve+ue npoanou +edenu, e|nsva+
cecod++a+uu de+e, c novo(es a|ane pea|(uu, uves(eu 5 cpada(uu om +u e vaneuaeu cmene+u do e va|cuvane+ou cmene+u.
Voc,m ma|e ucnonesoeamec+ a|ane dn+ o(e+|u +acmpoe+u+ e dp,cue ompes|u epeve+u, +anpuvep, cecod++ unu e da++eu
vove+m. POMS vacmo npuve++sm e cepe sdpaeooxpa+e+u+ u e cnopmue+ou ncuxonocuu, | npuvep, e uccnedoea+u+x eosdeucmeu+
usuvec|ux +acp,so| (+anpuvep, Berger et al., 1998). u|ana POMS ma|e no|asana ce+ v,ecmeumene+ev usvepumene+ev
cpedcmeov npu us,ve+uu ncuxonocuvec|ou adanma(uu | a|cmpevane+ev cpedoeev cmpeccopav: +anpuvep, anu+|ac, 3sdened u
0mun (Palinkas, Suedfeld & Steel, 1995) o(e+unu enu++ue nammep+oe npeodone+u+ cmpecca +a ncuxonocuvec|,s adanma(us , cevu
,vacm+u|oe ap|muvec|ou a|cnedu(uu. |adeu ,vacm+u| sanon++n eonpoc+u| POMS neped +avanov a|cnedu(uu u nocne npuemu+ +a
vecmo. Xopoaa+ ncuxonocuvec|a+ adanma(u+ ena ce+sa+a co c+ue+uev a|mop+ex o(e+o| +anp+e+u+-mpeeocu, ,cmanocmu u
pacmep+++ocmu, u c ucnones,evou cmpamecueu peae+u+ nponev. Xom+ POMS +en+emc+, no-euduvov,, eanud+ev u
npedocmaen+s(uv docmamov+o non+,s u+opva(us usvepumene+ev u+cmp,ve+mov +acmpoe+u+ u avo(uu, dnu+a a|ane (65
n,+|moe) voem ocpa+uvume ee ucnonesoea+ue, ocoe++o |ocda: (a) dp,cue ucnones,evee eonpoc+u|u ,e docmamov+o dnu++ee u
{) +eoxoduve v+oecmee++ee o(e+|u +acmpoe+u+, ma|ue |a| e uccnedoea+u+x, ucnones,s(ux d+ee+u|u eed+ee+ex sanuceu.
8pesra 2.5. Xapartepuctura uactpoeuu (POMS).

uu. Ten canMn ouu oeuusakt u uarpeuu, u uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, a tare rossonkt uccneqosatenk usy+ute snuuue
ctpeccopos ua rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue, routponupy rpu aton ctauneuMe qucrosuuouuMe teuqeuuu, tarue rar teuqeuu
ucrMtMsate ueratusuMe repeusauu. oqpouoctu usnoeuM s rnase 6.
8 nutepatype ro ctpeccy rpusoqutc tare auporuu crertp qpyrux repeneuuMx, cssauuMx c uuqusuqyaneuMnu pasnu+unu. 0uu
srnk+akt reuetu+ecru oycnosneuuMe repeneuuMe (tarue rar ron) u qucrosuuouuMe repeneuuMe (tarue rar artopM nu+uoctu). 0uu
ocyqaktc onee roqpouo s rnase 6. 0+esuquo, +to roqxoqM r usnepeuuk yqyt sasucete ot tura repeneuuou. lerotopMe, tarue
rar ron, s oneauuctse cny+aes oeuute uetpyquo. pyrue, tarue rar xapartepucturu nu+uoctu, otnu+aktc cnouoctek, xot unektc
sanuqusu-posauuMe cpeqctsa qn oeuru nu+uoctu.
Cyaectsyet tare pq repeneuuMx, cssauuMx c rpuopeteuuMnu uuqusuqyaneuMnu pasnu+unu, srnk+a pq ocoeuuocteu cpeqM,
rotopMe, rar c+utaetc, sneausaktc s csse neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu. VexauusnM rpeoqoneuu, couaneua roqqepra,
rounurt neqy paotou u ceneeu sce ato repeneuuMe, rotopMe roraqakt s uassauuyk rateropuk. To, rar atu repeneuuMe
ocnMcnusaktc u usnepktc, a tare ux rurotetu+ecrue cssu co ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu, ocyqaetc s qpyrux +actx ruuru
(cn., uarpunep, rnasM 8,9 u 10). 8 oaen, y uccneqosaten ctpecca uneetc auporuu sMop repeneuuMx u cpeqcts usnepeuu.
Peaeuue, r rarun us uux rpueruyte, yqet orpeqentec uccneqyenMn sorpocon u ucronesyenou teopueu, uo rpu aton ueoxoquno
ucronesosate aqersatuyk netoqonoruk uccneqosauu.

Knuesse ueoqonor s ccneqosaux cpecca
3tot pasqen suaronut s oaux +eptax c uerotopMnu us uauonee rorynpuMx netoqonoruu, ucronesyenMx s
uccneqosauux ctpecca. Ero ene rono+e +utatenk oeuute natepuanM ro ctpeccy, rynuryenMe s araqenu+ecrux
ypuanax. 6onee octoteneuoe ocseaeuue netoqos rcuxonoru+ecroro uccneqosauu, aqpecosauuoe roteuuaneuony
uccneqosatenk, nouo uautu s qpyrux ucto+uurax (cn., uarpunep, Robson, 1993). 0aun aneneuton s oneauuctse
uccneqosauuu ctpecca, orucauuMx s atou ruure, snetc ucronesosauue netoqonoruu ronu+ectseuuMx usnepeuuu. Tarue
netoqonoruu unekt pq rpeunyaects. 0uu onee oertusuM, +en netoqonoruu, rotopMe sasuct ot cyertusuMx
uuteprpetauu uccneqosaten (uarpunep, uutepsek unu uankqeuu). 0uu tare rossonkt coupate qauuMe, paota
c perpeseutatusuMnu sMopranu oneaoro oena. 3to qaet eae oquo rpeunyaectso, coctoaee s ton, +to nouo
rposectu cnouMu ctatuctu+ecruu auanus, crocouMu orpeqenute teuqeuuu u cssu, rotopMe uua+e ue yqanoce M
sMsute. 0quaro nuorue uccneqosatenu s couaneuou cepe otseprakt ronu+ectseuuMu roqxoq u snktc
ctopouuuranu ra+ectseuuoro auanusa qauuMx (copauuMx s opne cnosecuMx ot+etos, +acto rony+aenMx s xoqe
uutepsek). Veqy corepuu+akaunu ctopouanu seqytc uarpeuuMe u sanMcnosatMe cropM (uarpunep, Glassner &
Moreno, 1989), rpu+en cpequ rcuxonoros pactet +ucno tex, rto roqsepraet conueuuk ctporo ronu+ectseuuMu roqxoq.
Tare uaupaet cuny teuqeuu ucronesosate ronrnerc netoqos, rorqa s oquo uccneqosauue srnk+akt aneneutM u
ronu+ectseuuMx, u ra+ectseuuMx usnepeuuu. 0a roqxoqa ocyqaktc uue.
konuvecmeennme vemodm
8 cneqykaux pasqenax rpeqrpuuunaetc rorMtra qate oaee rpeqctasneuue o uerotopMx auporo ucronesyenMx
ronu+ectseuuMx netoqax: aruqenuonoru+ecron uccneqosauuu, netoqe orpoca u arcrepuneutaneuMx netoqax. 0uu ue
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qonuM paccnatpusatec rar ssaunoucrnk+akaue. |cronesosauue tarux cpeqcts, rar orpocuuru, snetc rnk+esMn
aneneuton s uccneqosauux ro netoqy orpoca; uo te e cpeqctsa +acto rpuneuunM u s aruqenuonoru+ecrux, u
arcrepuneutaneuMx uccneqosauux. K tene uccneqosauu nouo uuorqa roqxoqute, ucronesy pq pasnu+uMx netoqos.
Cneqykaue pasqenM qenouctpupykt ato ua rpunepax, sstMx us nutepatypM ro uccneqosauuk ctpecca s pasnu+uMx
rpoeccuouaneuMx onactx. 8 qauuon cny+ae rnasuMu uccneqosatenecruu sorpoc racaetc toro, speqeu nu qn
usu+ecroro u rcuxu+ecroro sqopose sMcoruu yposeue rpoussoqctseuuMx tpeosauuu, co+etakauuc c nanou
sosnouoctek routpon (ocuosauo ua paote Kapacera; Karasek, 1979).
3nqeuonoruecke ccneqosau. 3ruqenuonoruk nouo orpeqenute rar uccneqosauue pacrpoctpaueuu u
qetepnuuaut cssauuMx co sqoposeen coctouuu u coMtuu s rorynux, a tare rpunoeuue atoro uccneqosauu r
routponuposauuk rponen co sqoposeen (Last, 1983). oatony aruqenuonoru+ecrue netoqM xapartepusyktc
areutuposauuen suunauu ua rocneqctsux s opne onesueu u noryt ucronesosate pq netoqonoruu. Ckqa otuoctc
orucateneuMe (qecrpurtusuMe) uccneqosauu, ocuosauuMe ua auanuse ctpyrtypM cneptuoctu (rpunep cn. s rnase 10,
spesra 10.2). Ckqa tare otuoctc uccneqosauu c ucronesosauuen routponeuou rpyrrM, s rotopMx sMopry nkqeu,
ctpaqakaux orpeqeneuuou onesuek, cpasuusakt c sMoprou nkqeu es atou onesuu, uo rocnequue qonuM Mte
narcunaneuo cxou c repsou sMoprou s qpyrux otuoaeuux. 3tot roqxoq ucronesykt qn cpasueuu sMopru nkqeu,
oneuMx paron rpyqu, c tenu, y roro uet atoro saonesauu, +toM orpeqenute, rto repeun uauonee ctpeccosMe
coMtu (cn. rnasy 4).
0quaro, sosnouo, canMn sauMn qn usy+euu ctpecca snetc rpocrertusuoe uccneqosauue, s rotopon
xapartepucturu nkqeu oquou u tou e sMopru routponupyktc s te+euue qnuteneuoro speneuu, uuorqa ua rpoteuuu
qectunetuu, +toM orpeqenute, rto us y+actuuros saonesaet. 3tot netoq auporo ucronesyetc rpu usy+euuu snuuu
ctpeccopos ua sqoposee. punepM nouo uautu s rnase 4, s rotopou paccnatpusaktc ctpecc u onesue, u s rnase 8 o
couaneuou roqqepre. lecronero aruqenuonoru+ecrux uccneqosauuu tare usy+anu snuuue rpoussoqctseuuMx
tpeosauuu u sosnouoctu routponuposate paoty. leqasuun rpunepon atoro suqa usMcrauuu snetc uccneqosauue,
rposeqeuuoe s CLA Anuron c ronneranu (Amick et al., 1998). 0uu socronesosanuce oneaou cyaectsykaeu asou qau-
uMx ro 3575 ny+uuan, coctouue rotopMx rpocneusanoce c ua+ana 1979-x roqos u srnote qo 1987 roqa. 8a ato spen y
519 rosunoce cepqe+uoe saonesauue. Xot pecrouqeutos uuqusuqyaneuo ue orpaausanu o xapartepucturax ux paotM,
Mnu orpeqeneuM rorasatenu s cepe rpoussoqctseuuMx tpeosauuu u routpon; ato Mno cqenauo ua ocuosauuu
uassauuu rpoeccuu u c ucronesosauuen netoqonoruu, paspaot+uranu rotopou snktc Lsap, urep u Kapacer
(Schwartz, Pieper & Karasek, 1988). 3tot oeuo+uMu netoq ucronesosan uuopnauk, ro+epruytyk us qpyrux orpocos,
oM+uo rposoqunMx s pqe rpoeccuouaneuMx onacteu, o yposue ueoxoqunMx tpeosauuu u routpon. 0cyqaenoe
uccneqosauue ue ouapyuno rosMaeuuoro pucra cepqe+uMx saonesauuu qn rpoeccuu, rotopMn rpucyau sMcoruu
routpone u uusrue tpeosauu pesynetat, rpotusoronouMu tony, rotopMu Mn rony+eu s cxoux uccneqosauux,
rposoqusauxc s qpyrux ctpauax (cn., uarpunep, Schnall, Landsbergis & Baker, 1994).
|ccneqosauu, roqouMe orucauuMn sMae, noryt cuaqute uac uuopnaueu o oaux teuqeuux u ssaunocssx.
0quaro ouu ue noryt yequteneuo rpoqenouctpuposate, snktc unu uet rpu+uuou cepqe+uoro saonesauu sMcorue
yposuu routpon u uusrue tpeosauu. 0+esuquo, noryt Mte uuMe ocueuu qn csseu neqy orpeqeneuuMnu
rpoeccunu u cneptuoctek. larpunep, tpyquo otqenute sosqeuctsue taroro rapanetpa, rar sosnouocte routponupo-
sate paoty, ot aerta rpuuaqneuoctu r orpeqeneuuony couaneuony rnaccy. Kar rpasuno, nkqu, rpuuaqneaaue r
couoarouonu+ecrun rpyrran onee sMcororo yposu, onaqakt oneaunu sosnouoctnu routponuposate csok paoty
u unekt onee sMcorue usueuuMe ouqauu. Xot ueqasuue uccneqosauu, roqouMe tony, rotopoe rposen Anur c
ronneranu, ctpentc routponuposate atu artopM, uccneqosauu noryt pasuutec ro ctereuu csoeu ycreauoctu. 3to
noet ocute +actMe rpotusope+u s pesynetatax. 8 sMaeorucauuon cny+ae netoq orpeqeneuu rorasateneu
routpon uaq paotou u rpoussoqctseuuMx tpeosauuu, ocuosauuMu ua uassauux rpoeccuu, tare snetc rpyMn.
Tarun opason, ueoxoqunM qpyrue netoqonoruu qn qaneueuaeu rposepru rurotes.
|ccneqosatenu-aruqenuonoru +acto srnk+akt netoqM orpoca s csou uccneqosauu c ucronesosauuen pao+eu u
routponeuou sMopor unu s rpocrertusuMe uccneqosauu. 0quaro orpocM snktc tare ocuosuMn cpeqctson qn
uccneqosateneu ctpecca, uutepecykauxc uuMnu rocneqctsunu, ueenu usu+ecra onesue.
0npocs. 0rpocM snktc uauonee auporo ucronesyenMn roqxoqon rpu uccneqosauuu ctpecca u +acto rpuneuktc
qn copa qauuMx ro ctpeccopan, uarpeuun u pasnu+uMn rponeyto+uMn repeneuuMn (xot netoq orpoca noet
tare Mte ucronesosau s ronuuauu c onee oertusuMnu qauuMnu, tarunu rar usuonoru+ecrue rorasatenu). 3tu
uccneqosauu noryt Mte rorepe+uo-cpesosMnu, rorqa sce usnepeuu rposoqtc s xoqe oquoro equuospeneuuoro orpo-
ca, unu nourutkquMnu, rorqa usnepeuu ctpeccopos noryt rposoqutec s oquu noneut (unu uecronero noneutos)
speneuu, a saten sa uuqusuqyynanu cneqt s te+euue orpeqeneuuoro repuoqa, +toM rony+ute rpeqctasneuue o
yqyaux uarpeuux. orepe+uo-cpesosMe uccneqosauu rposoqtc uanuoro +aae, sosnouo, rotony, +to ato canMu
nerruu croco copate qauuMe s rpurnaquou octauosre. punepon roqouoro uccneqosauu snetc auporonaca-
tauMu orpoc, rposeqeuuMu 1net+epon u ouc (Fletcher & Jones, 1993), s rotopon 3000 nkqeu saronunu sorpocuuru,
srnk+asaue oeuru rpoussoqctseuuMx tpeosauuu u routpon, yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou, tpesoru u qerpeccuu. Tare
rposoqunuce usnepeuu rposuoro qasneuu. 3to uccneqosauue yctauosuno, +to xot sMcorue rpoussoqctseuuMe tpeo-
sauu u uusruu routpone Mnu cssauM c onee uusrunu yposunu yqosnetsopeuuoctu u onee sMcorunu yposunu
tpesoru u qerpeccuu, cssu c rposuMn qasneuuen cuctenatu+ecru otnu+anuce rpotusoronouou uarpasneuuoctek. 3to
osua+aet, +to y nkqeu, sautMx ua rpeqronouteneuo onee ctpeccosou paote, Mno, rar rpasuno, onee uusroe
rposuoe qasneuue.
orepe+uo-cpesosMe qauuMe, roqouMe orucauuMn sMae, oM+uo ocuosauM ua qoryaeuuu, +to rpoussoqctseuuMe
ctpeccopM sMsMsakt rosMaeuue yposu tpesoru. 0quaro sosnouo, +to nkqu c sMcorunu yposunu tpesoru unu
uusrunu yposunu yqosnetsopeuuoctu onee crnouuM oeuusate csok paoty rar otnu+akaykc neuee rosutusuMnu
xapartepucturanu. ocronery rorepe+uo-cpesosMe uccneqosauu ue noryt sMsute rpu+uuuocte, nourutkquMe
uccneqosauu +ac-to paccnatpusaktc rar onee cosepaeuuMu roqxoq. 8 atou ruure ocyqaetc nuoectso nouru-
tkquMx uccneqosauuu, ucronesykaux netoqonoruk orpoca. 0quaro xot ouu, sosnouo, u crocouM rorapate, +to
ctpeccopM rpeqaectsykt uarpeuun, ato ueosateneuo osua+aet, +to ctpeccopM snktc rpu+uuou uarpeuuu.
0M+uo s orpocax, rposoqunMx s peaneuou octauosre, rpucytctsyet cnuaron nuoro qpyrux ueroutponupyenMx
sueauux artopos, +toM atu orpocM nornu sMsute rpu+uuuocte c qoctato+uou uaqeuoctek. Kpone toro, y nuorux
nkqeu ctpeccopM (tarue rar otcytctsue paotM) u rcuxonoru+ecroe pacctpouctso noryt cyaectsosate rapanneneuo s
te+euue qnuteneuoro speneuu, u qae nourutkquMe uccneqosauu ue crocouM crasate uan, +to rosunoce paueae
(Depue & Monroe, 1986).
Eequesuse (quesukosse) onpocs c6op o6paios iueuusx sneuaneu (experience sampling). 3tu
netoqM nouo paccnatpusate rar sapuaut orpocuoro roqxoqa, c tou creuu+ecrou ocoeuuoctek, +to nkqn
rpeqnarakt eequesuo (unu qae uecronero pas s qeue) otse+ate ua oquu u te e sorpocM. VM ye racanuce atoro
netoqa rpu orucauuu roqxoqa s oeure roscequesuMx uerputuocteu. 1ccneqosauu, ucronesykaue eequesuMe
usnepeuu, otuocuteneuo ueoM+uM s rcuxonoruu, uo ocoo sauM rpu usy+euuu ctpecca, rocronery rossonkt
uccneqosatenk roqpouo paccnotpete rpoeccM, rocpeqctson rotopMx cssauM ctpeccopM u uarpeuu. Ckqa otuo-
cutc sosnouocte oeuute otcpo+euuMe cssu (t. e. noryt nu ctpecco-aM, r rpunepy, snute ua uactpoeuue ue s tot e
canMu qeue, a ua cneqykauu). PaspaotauM netoqonoruu qn auanusa roqouMx qauuMx (Bolger et al., 1989; Caspi,
Bolger & Eckenrode, 1987). 0quaro tpyquocte coctout s ton, +to paccnatpusaenMu roqxoq rpuuocut cosoryruocte
qauuMx, rotopMe cnouo uuteprpetuposate rpu otcytctsuu xopoaux teopuu u rurotes, xapartepusykaux sce qetanu
csseu suytpu roqouMx cosoryruocteu. punep sapuauta atoro tura netoqonoruu, ussectuMu rar cop opasos
usueuuMx sre+atneuuu, rpeqronaraet rony+euue canoot+etos +epes orpeqeneuuMe pasnu+uMe unu cny+auuMe
uutepsanM speneuu c ronoaek oecre+euu y+actuuros paquoyrpasnenMnu ssyrosMnu curuanusatopanu unu
reuqepanu, nuo rpeqsaputeneuo sarporpannuposauuMnu +acanu (uarpunep, Marco & Suls, 1993). 8 otnu+ue ot qpyrux
netoqos, rotopMe oM+uo orupaktc ua petpocrertusuoe rpuronuuauue, rony+euuMe opasM noryt oxsatMsate
teryayk qeteneuocte u cuknuuytuoe uactpoeuue. Cn. spesry 2.6
Vap|o u 0ane (Marco & Suls, 1993) ucnonesoeanu vemodonocus copa opas(oe us+e++ex enevamne+uu dn+ o(e+|u moco, |a|
eed+ee+ee nponeve enu+sm +a +acmpoe+ue e meve+ue moco e d++ u e nocned,s(ue d+u 0opo| paomas(ux v,vu+ +ocunu
vace c cuc+anov, |omopeu nodaeanc+ eoceve pas e de+e e meve+ue eocevu d+eu nodp+d |ocda pecno+de+me cneaanu cuc+an, o+u
don+e enu cdename sanuce e d+ee+u|e cocnac+o cned,s(ev, |o+mpone+ov, nepev+s eonpocoe
demanu ux vecmo+axode+u+ e da++eu vove+m (+anpuvep, dova, e aemovoune unu +a paome),
demanu ux me|,(eu de+mene+ocmu (+anpuvep, vme+ue, eenon+e+ue paome, npocvomp menenepedav);
eos+u|na nu e meve+ue npeded,(ux 30 vu+,m |a|a+-nuo nponeva,
cmene+e ducmpecca, nopode++oco nponevou, o(e+ueaeva+ no a|ane c vemepev+ cpada(u+vu;
nepeuea+u+ pecno+de+moe e da++eu vove+m.
Pes,nemame no|asanu, vmo npedaecme,s(ee +acmpoe+ue u con,mcme,s(ue nponeve enu+nu +a +acmpoe+ue e meve+ue moco e
d++ n+mepec+o, vmo +acmpoe+ue, |a| pea|(u+ +a me|,(,s nponev,, eno x,e e cn,vae, |ocda npeded,(uu nepuod en ,
u+dueud,,va om+ocumene+o ecnponev+ev, vev ecnu o+ o(e+ueanc+ |a| cmpeccoeeu. Pes,nemame ma|e ceudemenecmeoeanu,
vmo nsdu c eeco|uv ,poe+ev ompu(amene+ex avo(uu ucnemeeanu oneauu ducmpecc e ce+su c nponevavu me|,(eco d++ u
vedne++ee npuxodunu e ce+ om nponev npeded,(eco d++.
3 da++ov cn,vae ae|me uccned,evex cmpeccopoe enu +es+avumene+evu u |pam|oepeve++evu Dd+a|o e cpae+e+uu c ea+evu
us+e++evu coemu+vu, |omopee cn,vasmc+ om+ocumene+o ped|o, o+u cocmaen+sm oc+oe, noeced+ee+ou us+u. /emope
do|aseeasm, vmo +av +eoxoduvo us,vame amom onem, ecnu ve xomuv no++me, |a| cmpecc enu+em +a +acmpoe+ue u avo(uu.
odxod amoco muna voem ma|e nponume ceem +a doncoepeve++ee ae|me xpo+uvec|ux, +o emopocmene++ex cmpeccopoe.
8pesra 2.6. Cop opasos usueuuMx sre+atneuuu

3kcnepueus. |cronesosauue arcrepuneutaneuMx netoqos, s rotopMx rcuxonoru+ecrue euoneuM usnepktc s
routponupyenou octauosre, snetc yuqaneuton nuorux onacteu rcuxonoruu. oqouMe netoqM rossonkt
uccneqosatenn nauurynuposate tonero uutepecykaunu repeneuuMnu, routponupy rpu aton qpyrue. Ten canMn
rosnetc sosnouocte sMsectu sarnk+euu o rpu+uue u cneqctsuu, +to uepeaneuo s ronesMx uccneqosauux,
rposoqunMx s ycnosux oM+uou usuu. larpunep, nuorue uccneqosauu ua rpoussoqctse rorasMsakt, +to yposeue
sosnouoro routpon uaq csoeu paotou cssau c yposuen narorony+u. 0quaro, rar rpasuno, uesosnouo ronectute
paotuuros cny+auuMn opason s rpoussoqctseuuMe ycnosu c sMcorun unu uusrun routponen. oatony nM ue noen
crasate, rpu+uuet nu speq can ueqoctator sosnouoctu routponuposate csok paoty, unu e te, rto sMupaet paoty c
uusrunu sosnouoctnu routpon, ato nkqu, rotopMe c canoro ua+ana neuee narorony+uM. K rpunepy, ouu noryt
Mte sMxoqanu us pasnu+uMx couaneuMx rnaccos, rotopMe cssauM c pasnu+uMnu turanu ruaesMx rpusM+er u opasa
usuu. 3tu artopM noryt ycunusate onesueuuyk cunrtonatury y nkqeu, paotakaux s ycnosux uusrux sosnouocteu
routpon csoeu paotM. oatony rpeqronaraetc, +to so nuorue uccneqosauu cssu neqy routponen uaq paotou u
sqoposeen rpuneausaetc artop couaneuoro rnacca (Fletcher, 1991).
8 arcrepuneutaneuMx uccneqosauux uuqusuqyynos nouo orpeqente cny+auuMn opason s pasuMe rpyrrM.
aopatopuMe ycnosu tare nouo routponuposate, c ten +toM ua pesynetatM ue snunu uerpeqsuqeuuMe ctpeccopM,
tarue rar ayn unu tenrepatypa. 8osnouo, sauee scero to, +to s arcrepuneutax uet ueoxoqunoctu ronaratec ua
canoot+etM o routpone uaq paotou; snecto atoro nouo coctasnte saqauu c oertusuo pasuMnu yposunu routpon.
larpunep, Ctertoy c ronneranu (Steptoe et al, 1993) roneaan cny+auuMn opason 40 ny+uu, rotopMe qonuM Mnu s
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
te+euue 5-nuuytuMx repuoqos sMronute arcrepuneutaneuMe saqauu, s ycnosux nuo sMcorux sosnouocteu
coctseuuou perynuu (sMcoruu routpone), nuo s ycnosux c sueaueu perynueu (uusruu routpone). / tex, rto
uaxoqunc s ycnosux c sueaueu perynueu, so spen tectuposauu orpeqennuce onee sMcorue rorasatenu rpos-
uoro qasneuu u cepqeueuu. pu aton y+actuuros tare rpocunu oeuute csoe socrputue routpon u tpeosauuu, u
sMcuunoce, +to usuonoru+ecrue pearuu Mnu sMpaeuM ocoeuuo pro y tex us y+actuuros s ycnosux c sueaueu
perynueu, rony rasanoce, +to ero paote rpucyau sMcorue tpeosauu u uusruu routpone. onarakt, +to ato noet
rpocuute nexauusn, rocpeqctson rotoporo ocoeuuoctu roqouou paotM noryt Mte cssauM c pucron cepqe+uo-
cocyquctMx saonesauuu. Xot arcrepuneutM rossonkt routponuposate sosqeuctsue taroro poqa artopos, atu
uccneqosauu unekt ueqoctator, coctoauu s ton, +to pesynetatM, rony+euuMe s ucrycctseuuou octauosre, noryt Mte
uerpuneuunM r peaneuony nupy (t. e. ouu noryt ue Mte aronoru+ecru sanuquMnu). oatony ot ronesMx uccneqosauuu
noryt tare tpeosate roqtsepqeuu rpuneuunoctu arcrepuneutaneuMx pesynetatos.
Paota, ocyqaena s rnase 5, ucronesyet arcrepuneutM qn usy+euu ctpecca, tpesoru u roruutusuou crocouoctu. 8
atou rnase qaktc qaneueuaue ocueuu toro, rar roqouMe arcrepuneutM noryt yrasMsate ua nexauusnM,
rocpeqctson rotopMx ctpeccopM snukt ua paotocrocouocte u narorony+ue.
kavecmeennme vemodm
8osnouo, cneqctsuen cnouoctu u netoqonoru+ecrux tpyquocteu qoctyruMx ronu+ectseuuMx roqxoqos snetc poct
rorynpuoctu netoqos ra+ectseuuoro auanusa, tarux rar ucronesosauue uutepsek u uccneqosauu cny+aes.
lapactakaa cnouocte cyaectsykaux ctatuctu+ecrux rpoeqyp noet tare royqate rcuxonora, ue cnuaron
cuneuoro s natenature, paccnatpusate ra+ectseuuMe roqxoqM rar onee nerruu sapuaut. 0quaro paota c
ra+ectseuuMnu qauuMnu otuunaet nuoro speneuu; ux tpyquo copate u rpoauanusuposate. Kpone toro, nuorue
uccneqosatenu-rcuxonoru, s rpuuure rpuneukaue ra+ectseuuMe netoqM, pacrpeqenkt pearuu (otsetM) ro
rateropun u rpuneukt +actotuMe roqc+etM u qae ctatuctu+ecruu auanus, xot qpyrue scenu cunanu otperaktc ot
atoro (Robson, 1993).
8osnouo, uauonee +acto ra+ectseuuMe netoqM uccneqosauu ctpecca ucronesyktc couonoranu u autporonoranu,
paotakaunu s atou onactu (cn., uarpunep, uccneqosauue Pollock, 1988, orucauuoe s rnase 1). 0quaro atu netoqM
ctauostc sce onee rorynpuMnu u s rcuxonoruu. 0quun us rpunepos snetc ctate 1upta-Koseuca (Firth-Cozens,
1992b) o uccneqosauuu orpeqeneuuMx cny+aes, s rotopou rpeqctasneuM qocrouaneuMe orucauu toro, raroe sua+euue
uneet rpoeccuouaneuMu ctpecc qn rourpetuMx paotuuros. oqouMe ot+etM orpeqeneuuo crococtsykt rcuxonoru-
+ecrony rouunauuk uuqusuqyaneuMx rpoeccos. 0quaro nuorun raetc, +to ocuosuoe qoctouuctso rcuxonoru +ccrux
netoqos s ux rorMtre roqoutu r usy+euuk +enose+ecroro roseqeuu c uay+uou ctporoctek, rpeqronarakaeu
ucronesosauue ronu+ectseuuMx u ctatuctu+ecrux netoqos qn rposepru rurotes, +to rossonet sMuectu pesynetatM sa
panru uccneqyenou sMopru.
kovunupoeannme vemodm
/+utMsa, +to uet netoqonoruu, rotopa Mna M nuaeua ueqoctatros u orpauu+euuu, +acto rpu opaaeuuu r
uccneqosatenecrony sorpocy qoryctuno co+etate pq pasnu+uMx netoqonoruu. 0uu noryt Mte cronuuuposauM suytpu
raroro-to oquoro uccneqosauu; uarpunep, ra+ectseuuMe netoqM noryt Mte ucronesosauM ua pauuux ctaqux uc-
cneqosauu, opasy asuc qn paspaotru orpocuuros. 8 uccneqosauux ctpecca s rpoussoqctseuuou octauosre +acto
epyt uutepsek y ueoneaoro +ucna paotuuros, c ten +toM usy+ute rponenM pao+eu cunM u orpeqenute artopM,
rotopMe cneqyet uccneqosate qanee c ronoaek oeuo+uMx aran. lapqy c tarunu arananu, s orpocuurax tare +acto
ucronesyktc otrpMtMe sorpocM, tpeykaue orucateneuMx otsetos, c enek rony+ute onee roqpouMe u uuopna-
tusuMe qauuMe.
n oecre+euu aqersatuou rposepru sauou rurotesM unu teopuu oM+uo rposoqutc nuoectso pasnu+uMx
uccneqosauuu, ocyaectsnenMx pasuMnu y+euMnu. Kar rpasuno, noet Mte ueoxoqun pq netoqonoruu qn rapautuu
toro, +to pesynetatM ue snktc scero nuae cny+auuoctek, oycnosneuuou ucronesosauuen oquou +actuou
netoqonoruu (t. e. netoqonoru+ecrun aptearton). K rpunepy, s uerotopMx onactx rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu rponenM
unu rurotesM, rar rpasuno, sosuurakt us oM+uou usuu; ux rposepkt, ucronesy arcrepuneutaneuMe netoqM s
naopatopuMx ycnosux, +toM saten sepuytec orte s ronesyk octauosry qn roqtsepqeuu pesynetatos. 3tot
roqxoq rossonet rpoqsuuytec s rposepre rurotes u paspaatMsate teopuu, unekaue rpartu+ecroe rpuneueuue.
0quaro, rar raetc, ero peqro ucronesykt s uccneqosauux ctpecca. 0M+uo rpu usy+euuu ctpecca uccneqosatenu
ronaraktc ro+tu ucrnk+uteneuo ua netoqM orpoca, rotopMe +acto nuaeuM teopetu+ecrou ocuosM u rpusoqt r ounuk
usonuposauuMx u ueroqtsepqeuuMx pesynetatos. Paspaotra rposepenMx rurotes u qopotuMx teopuu ueoxoquna
qn oecre+euu onee Mctporo passutu qauuou onactu.
0aopm u vemaananua
n paotM s tarou onactu, rqe rposoqutc nuoectso pasnu+uMx uccneqosauuu ro rposepre rarou-to oquou teopuu
unu rurotesM (uarpunep cssu neqy ctereuek routpon, rotopou +enoser onaqaet ua paote, u ero roqsepeuuoctek
cepqe+uMn saonesauun), noet Mte o+eue ronesuMn uautu osopuyk ctatek unu ruury, rotopa ooaaet ocuosuMe
noneutM atux uccneqosauuu. 0quaro nuorue osopuMe ctateu secena cyertusuM u noryt sasucete ot uactou+usoctu
astopa s otcneusauuu roqxoqaux ctateu, ot ero rourpetuou teopetu+ecrou rosuuu u uuteprpetauu pesynetatos.
Paspaotra cuctenM osopa s rocnequee spen otpaaet rorMtry rpuneueuu uecronero onee oertusuoro roqxoqa,
rotopMu oM+uo rpeqronaraet rpuqauue sua+uteneuou otrpMtoctu rar ctpaterun roucra, ucronesyenMn rpu oeure
nutepatypM, tar u rputepun qn srnk+euu s osop. PesynetatM csoqtc s tanuM cuctenatu+ecrun opason. Eae
onee ctporun roqxoqon snetc netaauaqus, rpeqronarakauu cuctenatu+ecruu osop nutepatypM, uo ucronesykauu
ctatuctu+ecrue netoqM, rotopMe rpeqctasnkt s ronu+ectseuuou opne senu+uuy u sua+unocte aerta qn pqa
cpasuunMx uccneqosauuu, c ten +toM orpeqenute senu+uuy oaero aerta.
lanu+ue netaauanusa, roqtsepqakaero rurotesy, oM+uo snetc qoctato+uo secrun qorasatenectson. 0quaro qae
s aton cny+ae octaetc necto qn ronenuru. sa uccneqosaten noryt ucronesosate pasuMe rputepuu qn srnk+euu
uccneqosauuu s csou auanus, pasuMe netoqM oeuru sauoctu uccneqosauuu u pasuMe ctatuctu+ecrue netoquru qn
ooaeuu pesynetatos. Ten canMn qsa netaauanusa oquou u tou e rponenM noryt uuorqa rpuxoqute r uecronero
pasuaunc sarnk+euun (cn., uarpunep, rnasy 6).
Heoqonoruecke npo6neus s nepaype no cpeccy
8 cneqykaux pasqenax ocyqaetc pq rnk+esMx netoqonoru+ecrux rponen, rotopMe ronesyktc ocoMn suunauuen
s nutepatype.
Moaev nu vm nonaeamsc na dannme cavoomvemoe?
|snoeuuoe sMae csuqetenectsyet, +to roqasnkaee oneauuctso uccneqosauuu ctpecca sasuct ot cpeqcts
usnepeuu, ucronesykaux canoot+etM. |uorqa yqaetc rony+ute oertusuMe oeuru rocneqctsuu, tarue rar
usuonoru+ecrue rorasatenu unu usu+ecrue onesuu, uo ecnu s oryce rponenM uaxoqtc uesua+uteneuMe
usu+ecrue cunrtonM unu rcuxonoru+ecruu quctpecc, torqa canoot+ety rpartu+ecru uet anetepuatusM. 8ce suqM
ctpeccopos (rpousqctseuuMe ctpeccopM, uerputuoctu u usueuuMe coMtu) tare, rar rpasuno, usnepkt, ucronesy
canoot+etM. Ten canMn so nuorux uccneqosauux u ctpeccopM, u uarpeuu, u rponeyto+uMe repeneuuMe usnepkt
nuae c ronoaek canoot+eta s xoqe rpoctoro rorepe+uo-cpesosoro orpoca. 0+esuquo, +to sce ato rpusoqut r oneaou
sasucunoctu pesynetatos ot to+uoctu u uaqeuoctu roqouMx ot+etos, rotopyk pq astopos roqseprakt conueuuk.
lacronero to+uM nkqu, cooaa o csoen socrputuu ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu? asapyc u 1onrnau (Lazarus & Folkman,
1984), r rpunepy, ronarakt, +to oeura ctpecca noet u ue Mte ocosuasaenou. 0quaro orpocuuru qn canoot+etos, c
qaneueuaun auanuson oeuor, ronaraktc ucrnk+uteneuo ua cosuateneuMe ot+etM, +to qonuo ten canMn cuuate ux
sanuquocte.
8 uerotopMx onactx uccneqosauuu ctpecca sosnouo rony+euue oeuo+uMx qauuMx us pasnu+uMx ucto+uuros, c ten
+toM sanuqusu-posate usneputeneuMe cpeqctsa ua ocuose canoot+etos, uarpunep rpu oeure rpoussoqctseuuMx
ctpeccopos. 0quo us uecronerux, rocsaeuuMx peaeuuk atou saqa+u, uccneqosauuu rposeqeuo Crertopon u |er-con
(Spector & Tex, 1991). AstopM ouapyunu tonero orpauu+euuMe ssaunocssu neqy oeuranu, qasaenMnu
uuqusuqyynanu xapartepucturan csoeu paotM, u oeuranu, rony+euuMnu rpu auanuse paotM, rposoqusaenc
uesasucunMnu arcreptanu. 0quaro arcreptM tare noryt rposute teuqeuuosuocte (Frese & Zapf, 1988). Cneqosa-.-
teneuo, ue scerqa cuo, rarou sapuaut oeuru onee to+eu. Ten ue neuee, sarnk+euu, rotopMe nM sMsoqun us
uccneqosauu toro, rar nkqu socrpuuunakt csou rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM, rar rpasuno, orupaktc ua qoryaeuue,
+to atu socrputu cootsetctsykt uerou oertusuou peaneuoctu. Ecnu e ouu snktc otpaeuuen uquocuurpasuu
uuqusuqyynos nuo s ton, rar rocnequue uuteprpetupykt ryurtM orpocuura, nuo s ton, rar ouu ua uux pearupykt
torqa nM ctanrusaenc c rponenou. 0ua noet Mte cneqctsuen uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu (cn. rnasy 6) unu rnoxoro
coctasneuu orpocuura. lerotopMe uccneqosatenu ucronesykt uankqateneu qn auanusa rocneqctsuu-uarpeuuu (r
rpunepy uactpoeuu), rony+a oeuo+uMe qauuMe ot cyrpyros, qpyseu unu ronner. larpunep, Ctoyu u lun (Stone &
Neale, 1984) rony+anu canoot+etM o eequesuMx coMtux u uactpoeuuu (ueratusuon u rosutusuon) ot 50 euatMx ny-
+uu sa repuoq rpoqonuteneuoctek qo 21 qu. Kpone toro, eequesuMe oeuru uactpoeuu nyeu qasanu ux euM. 8
enon nueuu cyrpyros cosraqanu, uo Mnu otne+euM u uerotopMe pasnu+u. Cssu neqy ueratusuMnu coMtunu u
ueratusuMn uactpoeuuen, unesaunu necto s oquu u tot e qeue, Mnu sMsneuM tonero s canoot+etax nyeu, torqa rar
ux euan yqasanoce saurcuposate aertusuM^ pearuu csoux cyrpyros ua atu coMtu nuae ua cneqykauu qeue.
|utepecuo, +to euM qoctato+uo +acto oeuusanu csoux nyeu rar uaxoqauxc s neuee rosutusuon uactpoeuuu, +en
to, rotopoe urcuposanu y ce nye. 0quaro, ro-suqunony, uet secrux rpu+uu rpeqronarate, +to cooaeuue
uankqaten o +een-nuo uactpoeuuu snetc onee uaqeuMn, +en oeura canoro +enosera. oatony tarue oeuru
qonuM, cropee scero, ucronesosatec s ra+ectse qoronueuu, a ue saneute canoor+etM.
po6neua ckaeu peiynsaos np cnonsiosau o6mero ueoqa. ponena pasnu+u-cxoqctsa pesynetatos
scneqctsue ucronesosauu oaero netoqa rpu usy+euuu pasnu+uMx peanuu snetc ocoeuuo artyaneuou qn
uccneqosauuu ctpecca, ucronesykaux canoot+etM. 3ta rponena sosuuraet, ecnu u ctpeccopM (tarue rar roscequesuMe
uerputuoctu), u uarpeuu (tarue rar tpesora) usnepkt, ucronesy oquu u tot e netoq (uarpunep, orpocuur qn
canoot+eta). 8 atux cny+ax cssu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu noryt Mte cneqctsuen netoqa, a ue
artu+ecrux rouctpyrtos, rotopMe rpeqctasnkt uutepec.
0qua us rpu+uu, ro+eny ato noet unete necto, coctout s teuqeuuosuoctu pearuu, t. e. s crnouuoctu uuqusuqyynos
roctouuo pearuposate ua ryurtM orpocuura s rosutusuou unu ueratusuou nauepe. Crertop (Spector, 1987) rorMtanc
usy+ute sua+unocte atou rponenM, rposeq osop uccneqosauuu, rotopMe ucronesosanu canoot+etuMe rorasatenu
repeusauuu (uarpunep yqosnetsopeuuocte paotou) u socrputuu pao+eu cpeqM. 0u rposepun teuqeuuk, coctoayk
s ton, +to pasnu+uMe xapartepucturu, usnepenMe oquun u ten e netoqon, roppenupykt neqy coou cuneuee, +en
pasnu+uMe xapartepucturu, usnepenMe pasuMnu netoqanu. 0u ouapyun, +to ro pesynetatan uccneqosauuu, rotopMe
ucronesosanu xopoao sanuqusu-posauuMe aranM c uaqeuMnu rcuxonetpu+ecrunu csouctsanu, uaanoce coscen
uenuoro qorasatenects cyaectsosauu rponenM oaero netoqa. 0quaro ou yrasMsaet, +to qoctosepuocte csseu,
rony+euuMx rpu ucronesosauuu oaero netoqa, noet rpeqctasnte onee cepeesuyk rponeny rpuneuuteneuo r
otqeneuMn ryurtan unu s cny+ae ueyqa+uo paspaotauuMx aran. 8MsoqM Crertopa pacrputurosanu ua netoqonoru-
+ecrux ocuosauux; u rostopua paota c tenu e qauuMnu, c rpuneueuuen roqtsepqakaero artopuoro auanusa, qeu-
ctsuteneuo ouapyuna csuqetenectsa s ronesy oycnosneuuMx oaun netoqon ucraeuuu (Williams, Cote & Buckley,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
1989). auuMu sorpoc, roqouo nuorun qpyrun s atou onactu, octaetc s nutepatype uepaspeaeuuMn. 0quaro |erc u
6eep Qex & Beehr, 1991), qena osop artu+ecroro natepuana, rpuxoqt r sMsoqy, +to xot ucraeuu, oycnosneu-
uMe netoqon, sronue noryt Mte rponenou s uerotopMx cny+ax, o+esuquo, +to ouu ue uactonero pacrpoctpaueuM,
+toM ucronesosate ux rar rpeqnor qn otpacMsauu scex roppenuu neqy usnepeuunu ua ocuose canoot+etos (c.
352).
pyra rpu+uua rponen c ucraeuunu, oycnosneuuMnu oaun netoqon, sarnk+aetc s ton, +to qn usnepeuu u
ctpeccopos, u uarpeuuu ucronesyktc rouertyaneuo cxoue ryurtM. 3ta rponena ye satparusanace so spesre 2.1.
Kar nM suqenu pauee s atou rnase, rputu+ecrue sane+auu, +to ctpeccopM u uarpeuu rouertyaneuo cneausaktc,
sMcrasMsanuce rpeqe scero s aqpec asa-pyca u ero tpausaruouaneuoro roqxoqa r usnepeuun ctpeccopos
(Dohrenwend et al., 1984; Dohrenwend & Shrout, 1985). 8srnq asa-pyca ua ctpecc spaaaetc sorpyr uqeu oeuru. 3to
seqet r usnepeuun ctpecca, uarpunep, s tepnuuax aranM uerputuocteu, ocyqasaeuc sMae (Lazarus et al., 1985),
rorqa nkqeu rpoct oeuute to, s rarou ctereuu un qocaqakt orpeqeneuuMe coMtu. oqouMe ryurtM noryt uuorqa
o+eue uaronuuate sorpocM, coqepaauec s canoot+etuMx aranax tpesoru, ucronesyenMx qn usnepeuu rocneqctsuu-
uarpeuuu, +to seqet r ueorpasqauuo sMcorun roppenun neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu. 3ta rponena tare
sosuuraet s qpyrux onactx uccneqosauu ctpecca; r rpunepy, rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM noryt usneptec
crocoanu, rotopMe srnk+akt s ce oeuru. ponena roqMtoeua s +acto utupyenon sMcrasMsauuu Kacna, rotopMu
sasnet, +to roqouMe teopetu+ecrue opnynuposru roraqakt s...
...cocmee++,s vemodonocuvec|,s noe,a|,, |omopa+ denaem mpueuane+evu s+avumene+,s vacme uccnedoea+uu npo-
useodcmee++oco u poneeoco cmpecca: usvepe+u+ +esaeucuvou nepeve++ou (| npuvep,: poneeou +eonpedene++ocmu, poneeoco
|o+nu|ma, nepecp,s|u u m. d.) u usvepe+u+ saeucuvou nepeve++ou (paoveco +anp+e+u+, ducmpecca u +e,doenemeope++ocmu)
u+ocda +acmone|o nus|u onepa(uo+ane+o, vmo, no-euduvov,, +en+smc+ ececo nuae de,v+ usvepe+u+vu |a|oco-mo od+oco no++mu+
(Kasl, 1978, c. 13).
Cneqosateneuo, cyaectsyet uenanMu paspMs neqy ssrnqanu tarux uccneqosateneu ctpecca, rar asapyc, c+utakaux,
+to uqe ctpecca nuaeua cnMcna es srnk+euu oeuru, u yeqeuunu tex, rto, ro*-qouo Kacny u opeuseuqy,
ronarakt, +to canoot+etM o ctpeccopax qonuM Mte rar nouo onee oertusuMnu, +toM useate rponenM,
rotopa Mna uassaua nosyarou tpusuaneuoctu (Frese & Zapf, 1988). 1pese u ar roqqepusakt rocnequkk to+ry
speuu u c+utakt, +to ecnu rorasatenu oertusuM, ato osua+aet, +to roruutusuMe u anououaneuMe rpoeccM
rourpetuoro uuqusuqyyna ue snukt ua cooaeuu o couaneuMx u usu+ecrux artax. 0uu ronarakt, +to nkou suq
ot+eta rocpeqctson cyertusuoro orpocuura nouo ronectute s routuuyyn, rpoctupakauuc ot canMx uusrux qo canMx
sMcorux rorasateneu, c to+ru speuu sasucunoctu ot+eta ot roruutusuMx u anououaneuMx rpoeccos.
Cneqosateneuo, ro ux routun, uerotopMe xapartepucturu ua ocuose canoot+etos noryt coqepate oertusuMe
rorasatenu ctpeccopos. 0quaro, xot uerotopMe repeneuuMe, tarue rar pao+a uarpysra, nouo nerro usnepute otuo-
cuteneuo oertusuMn crocoon c ronoaek canoot+etos, tarue xapartepucturu, rar ponesou rounurt, sepotuo, yqyt
scerqa cuneuo sasucete ot uuqusuqyaneuoro socrputu u roruutusuMx rpoeccos.
3tu qsa yuqaneutaneuo pasnu+uMx roqxoqa r usnepeuun ctpeccopos rpoqonakt cocyaectsosate s nutepatype, u to,
ecte nu repesec rpeunyaects uaq ueqoctatranu, sasucut rnasuMn opason ot eneu uccneqosauu.
hanpasneuuocs npuuuoc. pyra rponena, cssauua c ro-repe+uo-cpesosMnu uccneqosauunu, coctout s ton,
+to uesosnouo orpeqenute uarpasneuuocte rpu+uuuoctu. Ten canMn, xot u noet rorasatec noru+uMn qoryaeuue,
+to uneuuo socrputue ctpeccopos rpuseno r uarpeuuk, opatuMu sapuaut tare noet unete necto, uarpunep
repeusauue qerpeccuu norno ueratusuo otpasutec ua socrputux u rpuronuuauuu ctpeccopos. Terepe ye ussectuo,
+to uuqusuqyynM +aae socctauasnusakt s rantu arusoqM, rotopMe anououaneuo cootsetctsykt ux teryaeny
uactpoeuuk (cn., uarpunep, Bower, 1981). Tar, 6ayap yctauosun, +to uuqusuqyynM, y rotopMx s arcrepuneute
ucrycctseuuo sMsMsanu qerpeccusuoe uactpoeuue, rpuronuuanu onee ueratusuMe nu+uMe coMtu, +en te, rto
uaxoqunc s xopoaen uactpoeuuu. Ctunynu xopoaero uactpoeu u rpusoqut r opatuony aerty. 3tun nouo
ocuute poynerr, rony+euuMu 1upton-Koseucon u Xapqu (Firth-Cozens & Hardy, 1!|)2) rocne rcuxoteparuu rnueutM
qenouctpuposanu onee ro in i iiiiiiuc socrputu uerotopMx xapartepuctur paotM, ocoeuuo socrputu ctereuu rou-
tpon uaq paotou u ucronesosauu uasMros, xot xapartep paotM octasanc ten e.
orasauo, +to s naopatopuon uccneqosauuu tare o+eue nerro nauurynuposate ten, rar nkqu socrpuuunakt
xapartepucturu csoeu paotM. Aqnep, Cros u Cansenuuu (Adler, Skov & Salvemini, 1985) rposenu uccneqosauue, s
rotopon y+actuuran cny+auuMn opason rosopunu, +to ouu unekt nuo otuocuteneuo sMcorue, nuo otuocuteneuo
uusrue rorasatenu yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou. Te, rony rosopunu, +to y uux sMcorue rorasatenu, saten oeuusanu
ocoeuuoctu saqauu u ycnosuu cpeqM onee rosutusuo. 3to ue osua+aet, +to xapartepucturu saqauu ue sMsMsakt
ueyqosnetsopeuuoctu unu quctpecca; uneetc s suqy nuae to, +to uarpasneuuocte rpu+uuuoctu noet u ue Mte
oquoctopouueu.
8 cuny tpyquoctu rpeoqoneuu sMaeuassauuMx rponen /act c ronneranu (West et al, 1992) sasnet, +to:
...nonepev+o-cpesoeee onpoce, |omopee oc+oea+e +a odu+ov+ex eeop|ax u e |omopex ece nepeve++ee eeeod+mc+ us
cavoomvemoe, |a| npaeuno, ee+en+sm u+mepec+ee nammep+e cmamucmuvec|ux ce+seu ved, nepeve++evu, +o no|a
cnococme,sm no+uva+us noeede+u+ e ove+e ocpa+uve++ou cmene+u (c. 1).
lerotopMe araqenu+ecrue ypuanM (uarpunep, The Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology) terepe
uepeqro otrasMsaktc paccnatpusate rorepe+uo-cpesosMe uccneqosauu ua rpeqnet sosnouou rynurauu.
kakue unmepeanm epevenu eaanm?
8 arcrepuneutaneuMx uccneqosauux nM oM+uo rMtaenc ouapyute aertM ctpecca, rotopMe rposnktc ro+tu
uesaneqnuteneuo. 0quaro s oneauuctse uearcrepuneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu y+euMe usy+akt onee qonrospeneuuMe
rocneqctsu. 8 aton cny+ae rpeqneton ocooro paccnotpeuu peqro snetc ouqaenMu speneuuou uutepsan neqy
sosqeuctsuen ctpeccopa u rosneuuen rocneqctsu-uarpeuu (taroro rar ropouapua onesue cepqa). Korqa uccne-
qosatenu cneqt sa nkqenu ua rpoteuuu orpeqeneuuoro speneuu, rponeytru speneuu neqy usnepeuunu noryt
orpeqentec ua ocuosauuu sqpasoro cnMcna unu ucxoq us oprauusauouuMx unu aqnuuuctpatusuMx rpu+uu. Tar,
uccneqosauu, usy+akaue roscequesuMe ctpeccopM, noryt paccnatpusate ctpeccosMe rocneqctsu, rotopMe ot-
nu+aktc rpatrospeneuuoctek unu rposnktc s te+euue uecronerux queu (uarpunep uccneqosauu rpoctyqM), torqa
rar s cny+ae xpo-' uu+ecrux ctpeccopos unu sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu rocneqctsu noryt usy+atec ua rpoteuuu
neces unu net. 1pese u ar (Frese & Zapf, 1988) rpusnerakt suunauue r tony arty, +to cnaa csse neqy
ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu noet Mte oycnosneua oau-j o+uMn sMopon speneuuoro uutepsana. 0quaro saua ue
tonerc rpoqonuteneuocte auanusupyenoro speneuuoro repuoqa, uo tare xapartep csseu so speneuu. 1pese u ar
orucMsakt rte T|0E sosnouou speneuuou cssu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuuen.
1. Voqene pearuu ua ctpecc rorqa ctpeccop rosMaaet uarpeuue ro nepe ysenu+euu speneuu sosqeuctsu. Ecnu
ctpeccop yqaneu] uarpeuue yneueaaetc.
2. Voqene arrynynuu rorqa uarpeuue snetc pesynetaton arrynynuu u ue uc+esaet, ecnu ctpeccopM
yqaneuM.
3. Voqene quuanu+ecrou arrynynuu rorqa uarpeuue rosMaaetc qae rocne yqaneuu ctpeccopos, sosnouo,
us-sa rouueuuoro corpotusneuu/
4. Voqene aqartauu rorqa cua+ana otne+aetc rosMaeuue uarpeuu, uo +epes uerotopoe spen +enoser
aqartupyetc, u uarpeuue yneueaaetc, uecnotp ua to, +to ctpeccop ro-rpeueny rpucytctsyet.
5. Voqene aert craero rorqa qucyuru noet rosntec cryct rpoqonuteneuoe spen rocne
sosqeuctsu ctpeccopa, tar +to uarpeuue noet qasate o cee suate, rorqa ctpeccop onee ue rpucytctsyet (uarpunep
rocttpasnatu+ecruu ctpecc).
ar, opnauu u 1pese (Zapf, Dormann & Frese, 1996) yrasMsakt, +to s uactoaee spen oneauuctso uccneqosauuu
ctpecca ue rpuuunakt so suunauue atu sosnouMe sapuauu, paccnatpusa oM+uo tonero nuueuuMe cssu, u roatony
+acto ueqooeuusakt uctuuuyk cuny csseu.
Penemc nu nynukyeva numepamypa opaaqov uccnedoeamenscko npedeamocmu?
Eae oquu ucraakauu aneneut noet rpouuruyte s uay+uyk nutepatypy s pesynetate rpoeccos osopa u otopa,
rotopMu uneet necto qo rynurauu ctateu. 3to snetc rponenou ue tonero s uccneqosauux ctpecca, uo u s nkMx
qpyrux. Turu+uMu rpoecc csoqutc r tony, +to osop ctateu rposoqt 2 unu 3 arcrepta ro qauuony sorpocy, oM+uo
y+euMe, rynurykauec s tou e onactu, +to u astop ctateu.
3tot rpoecc uasMsakt osopon pasuMx. PeeuseutM qakt peqartopy peroneuqauu s otuoaeuuu toro, cneqyet nu
ctatek rpuute unu otsepruyte, nuo oua qonua Mte ucrpasneua u rpeqctasneua suose. Xot, teopetu+ecru, atot
rpoecc qoneu Mte crpaseqnusMn u ecrpuctpactuMn, ero rputurykt ro pqy rpu+uu. larpunep, peeuseutos
osuukt s ueenauuu peroneuqosate r rynurauu pesynetatM, ue qocturakaue yposu sua+unoctu (Kupfersmid, 1988),
u rostopeuu rpeqaectsykaux uccneqosauuu (Neuliep & Crandall, 1993b). 6opu-ateuu (Bornstein, 1991) auanusupyet
artM ro pqy uccneqosauuu u sarnk+aet, +to unektc secrue qorasatenectsa rpeqyeqeuuoctu rpotus
orynurosauu pesynetatos, ue qocturaux yposu sua+unoctu. 0+esuquo, +to ato noet unete oneaoe sua+euue qn
rporpecca uayru. posepra ctatuctu+ecrou sua+unoctu rorasMsaet: scerqa cyaectsyet sosnouocte, +to sua+unMe
pesynetatM oycnosneuM cny+auuoctek. 8osnouo, +to raroe-to oquo uccneqosauue, ocuosauuoe ua qauuMx, rotopMe
rony+euM so nuoron naroqap cny+ak, yqet orynurosauo, roqrpern ten canMn uerpasuneuyk rurotesy. | ropasqo
neuee sepotuo, +to yqyt rorqa-nuo orynurosauM uccneqosauu, rposepsaue ty e rurotesy u rpuuecaue
uesua+unMe (uo rpasuneuMe) pesynetatM. Vano cuoctu s otuoaeuuu toro, neuee nu sepotua rynurau rostopeuuu
rpeqaectsykaux uccneqosauuu (Neuliep & Crandall, 1993b).
3aknueue
3ta rnasa ropotro rosuaronuna sac c sorpocanu teopuu u usnepeuuu, a tare c netoqonoru+ecrunu roqxoqanu, rotopMe
ueoxoqunM qn rputu+ecrou oeuru nutepatypM ro ctpeccy. 0ua sMcsetuna cnouoctu s orpeqeneuuu routuu u
usnepeuuu ctpeccopos, uarpeuuu u rponeyto+uMx repeneuuMx. Teopu u usnepeuu uqyt pyra o pyry, u o+esuquo,
+to otcytctsue xopoaux teopetu+ecrux ocuos, rotopMe M uarpasnnu uccneqosauu s atou onactu, satpyquet
ooaeuue pesynetatos u rpertctsyet yqyaun uccneqosauun. Ten ue neuee, sMqeneuo uecronero qonuuupykaux
teopetu+ecrux u netoqonoru+ecrux roqxoqos. ocneqykaue rnasM orupaktc ua atu roqxoqM, uarpunep, rpu
paccnotpeuuu csseu neqy ctpeccopanu u sqoposeen.

|AA 3
4ionor cpecca
Andaena knoy (Angela Clow)

8 qauuou rnase orucMsaktc cnouMe rcuxousuonoru+ecrue cuctenM, rotopMe saqeuctsosauM s usuonoru+ecrux
rposneuux ctpecca. ouunauue usuonoru+ecrux pearuu ua ctpeccopM oecre+usaet suauue nexauusnos,
rocpeqctson rotopMx rcuxonoru+ecrue pearuu noryt unete rocneqctsu qn sqopose.
cuxousuonoru rMtaktc ocuute csse neqy rcuxonoru+ecrun coctouuen u ctatycon sqopose (rar ynctseuuoro,
tar u usu+ecroro). +toM route aty csse, rotopa taateneuo uccneqyetc so nuorux paotax, ueoxoquno rpuuunate
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
so suunauue auatonu+ecrue u usuonoru+ecrue cuctenM, rotopMe sosne+euM s rpoecc, ussectuMu rar pearu
ctpecca. enek qauuou rnasM snetc usnoeuue atux csseu u uccneqosauue usuonoru+ecrux rocneqctsuu
sosqeuctsu ctpeccopos. oatony sqece routue ctpecc paccnatpusaetc cropee s rnaue suytpeuuux pearuu ua
cutyauk, +en rar cana cutyau (ctpeccop). |uqusuqyaneuMe pearuu ua oquy u ty e cutyauk noryt otnu+atec
uactonero, +to ctunyn, rotopMu sMsMsaet pearuk ctpecca y oquoro +enosera, noet ue sMsMsate roqouou pearuu y
qpyroro. euctsuteneuo, ato uuqusuqyaneuoe pasuoopasue s pearux opasyet ocuosy noqeneu quates-ctpecca
(diathesis-stress), osua+akaero yssunocte +enosera s rnaue sosuuruoseuu rcuxoratonoruu u usu+ecrou onesuu.
3tu noqenu rpeqronarakt, +to uuqusuqyaneua rpeqpacronoeuuocte (diathesis), rotopa rpoqurtosaua |snuuuen
ycnosuu passutu u reuetu+ecrunu artopanu, sctyraet so ssaunoqeuctsue c uuteucusuoctek sueauero ctpeccopa, u ato
oycnosnusaet uuteucusuocte pearuu ctpecca, a ten canMn u ropor qn sosuuruoseuu saonesauu.
puuto c+utate, +to ctpecc oraceu qn sqopose, oquaro nuorue usuonoru+ecrue pearuu ua ctpeccopM
crococtsosanu sMusauuk s rputu+ecrue noneutM. 8 canon qene, uaau cuctenM pearuu ua ctpecc yuruouupykt
uapasue c roqouMnu cuctenanu y rpeqctasuteneu qpyrux suqos, rqe ouu rpoqonakt qeuctsosate ua naro usotuMx.
0coeuuoctu ycnosuu cyaectsosauu +enosera sarnk+aktc s ton, +to s cospeneuuon nupe roseqeu+ecra pearu,
sMssauua nuoectson ctpeccopos (uarpunep: rponenM s nu+uMx otuoaeuux, uesosnouocte ocyaectsnte routpone
sa coctseuuou paotou), ue cssaua c tenu e canMnu usuonoru+ecrunu rotpeuoctnu, rar ctpeccopM, rarun roq-
sepraktc qurue usotuMe, uarpunep, rpu rpecneqosauuu xuauuron. 0quaro nkqu rpoqonakt ucrMtMsate tarue e
sonuykaue usuonoru+ecrue ctpeccosMe pearuu, rar u rpeqctasutenu qpyrux suqos. Kopo+e rosop, ucxoquo pearu
oprauusna ua ctpeccop roqrotasnusaet ero r Mctpony usu+ecrony qeuctsuk (qpatec unu yerate). Xot ecte u
cutyauu, rpu rotopMx roqouMe pearuu +enosera noryt Mte peaakaunu qn sMusauu, rpu nuorux octotenectsax
s cospeneuuon nupe onee roqxoqaunu noryt orasatec qpyrue pearuu, uarpunep: reperosopM. 6onee toro, pearu
usotuoro ua ctpecc cosqaua qn toro, +toM opotec c otuocuteneuo ue+actMnu u yrpoakaunu usuu coMtunu,
torqa rar turM coMtuu, rotopMe qn nkqeu rpeqctasnktc ctpeccopanu, cny+aktc onee +acto, uo sua+uteneuo pee
uerocpeqctseuuo yrpoakt usuu. Cneqctsuen atoro snetc to, +to cuctenM pearuu nkqeu ua ctpecc ueoquorpatuo
artusupyktc. 8qece sosuuraet rponena. Tara +acta artusau noet pasnaqute cucteny pearuu, u rpu roqouMx
octotenectsax coctseuua cuctena pearuu oprauusna (cropee, +en ctpeccop) roteuuaneuo rpeqctasnet oneayk
yrposy sqoposek.
Ecte qse asosMe cuctenM usu+ecrou pearuu ua ctpeccopM; atu cuctenM noryt Mte artusuposauM unu e ue
srnk+euM s perynuk s sasucunoctu ot tectu sosqeuctsu (nrroe unu cuneuoe) u rpoqonuteneuoctu (octpoe unu
xpouu+ecroe) snuuu ctpeccopa. Cua+ana teny ueoxoquno uqeutuuuposate ctpeccop. 3to tpeyet cnouMx
nosrosMx rpoeccos, tarux rar socrputue u rante. Vosr uuterpupyet uuopnauk o ctunynax, u ecnu ouu
rpeqctasnkt yrposy, s nunu+ecrou cuctene sMpaatMsaktc anououaneuMe pearuu. unu+ecra cuctena srnk+aet
tarue onactu, rar rurroranr u nose+or (amygdala), u snetc asonkuouuo o+eue qpesueu ctpyrtypou. 3ta cuctena
otse+aet sa opnuposauue turos roseqeuu, ueoxoqunMx qn sMusauu, tarux rar ronosoe pasnuoeuue, ctpax u
arpeccu. un-u+ecra cuctena noet artususuposate taryk onacte nosra, rar rurotananyc. lurotananyc pacronoeu
tarun opason, +to noet rpusoqute s rapnouu+uoe cootsetctsue usu+ecrue pearuu rpu sosuuruoseuuu s qauuMu
noneut rarou-nuo anouu. lurotananyc noet routponuposate oe cuctenM rpoqyuposauu ctpeccosMx pearuu, a
uneuuo: cunrato-aqpeuanosyk (sympathetic adrenal medullary SAM) cucteny pearuu u rurotanano-rurousapuo-
uaqro+e+uuro-syk oce (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal lPA). 8necte atu qse cuctenM perynupykt qeteneuocte
rapquosacrynpuou cuctenM (+actoty cepqe+uMx corpaaeuuu u rposuoe qasneuue) u unnyuuou cuctenM (ronu+ectso u
artusuocte uprynupykaux unnyuuMx rnetor).
|neuuo s xoqe paotM atux cucten rcuxonoru+ecra pearu ua ctpeccop orasMsaet rpnoe sosqeuctsue ua oprauusn, a
rpu uerotopMx octotenectsax u ua sqoposee. |tar, nouo ysuqete uctoru cssu neqy sMcaunu nosrosMnu
rpoeccanu, srnk+a socrputue u oeury yrpoakaero ctunyna, anououaneuou pearueu ua ctunyn (uarpunep ctpax)
u, uaroue, sosqeuctsuen ua rapquosacrynpuyk u unnyuuyk cuctenM. lue onee roqpouo orucMsaktc atu
rpoeccM.
6poeue uepsuo cceus
Pone uepsuou cuctenM sarnk+aetc s ton, +toM sMsnte, +to rpoucxoqut s oprauusne u sue ero, uuteprpetuposate aty
uuopnauk u yrpasnte cootsetctsykaeu pearueu. n atoro uepsua cuctena ocuaaeua nuorunu nunnuouanu
creuaneuMx rnetor, rotopMe uasMsaktc ueupouanu.
Cyaectsykt ueupouM, rotopMe rpequasua+euM qn toro, +toM oayaate to, +to rpoucxoqut suytpu uac u sorpyr uac, u
qpyrue qn toro, +toM uuuuuposate rarue-nuo rpoeccM. +ysctsuteneuMe ueu-j pouM nouo uautu ua suytpeuuux
oprauax (uarpunep cepqe), m oprauax +yscts (uarpunep rnasa) u oneae scero roq roeu. 3tu +ysctsuteneuMe
ueupouM qaneae repeqakt uuopnauk s nosr, rqe nuoectso qpyrux ueupouos oequukt ee u orpeqenkt cnMcn
curuana. pu aton qpyrue ueupouM rpoqyupykt cootsetctsykayk pearuk, artususupy oprauM tena, uarpunep,
sactasn cepqe utec Mctpee, enesM sMqente s rpose xunu+ecrue areutM, uasMsaenMe ropnouanu, unu
sactasnte nMaM sMronute qsurateneuyk pearuk. Ecnu rosopute coscen yrpoaeuuo, ueupouM oprauusosauM tar, +to
ocyaectsnkt repeqa+y ro eru u cssauM qpyr c qpyron +epes ueupotpaucnuttepM (neurotransmitters) xunu+ecrue
areutM, rotopMe sMqenktc rpu roctyrneuuu curuana. 3tu xunu+ecrue areutM repeqaktc +epes cuuarcM (aenu)
neqy ueupouanu u orasMsakt sosyqakauu unu topnosauu aert ua cneqykauu ueupou. lecootsetctsykaa
artusuocte uerotopMx us atux ereu cssaua c pasnu+uMnu pacctpouctsanu, tarunu rar qerpeccuu, rotopMe +actu+uo
nouo ne+ute nerapctsanu, snukaunu (uapasue c qpyrunu nepanu) ua sMpaotry, sMcsooqeuue unu repeqa+y
ueupotpaucnuttepos.
lepsua cuctena +pessM+auuo cnoua, u +toM route, rar oua paotaet, cneqyet sMqenute s ueu pasnu+uMe
yuruouaneuMe roqcuctenM. n yrpoaeuu orucauu roqouou cuctenM rpoae saMte, +to atu roqcuctenM snktc
+actek uuterpuposauuoro enoro u ue qeuctsykt uesasucuno. poae scero pasqenute uepsuyk cucteny, yrasas ua ee
eutpaneuMe u repuepuuuMe ronroueutM. 8ce +actu eutpaneuou uepsuou cuctenM sarnk+euM s roctuMe ytnpM:
nosr roneaaetc suytpu +epera, a cruuuou nosr s rossouo+uure. Tarun opason, eutpaneua uepsua cuctena
srnk+aet ronosuou u cruuuou nosr u xopoao saauaeua ot rospeqeuuu. | uaoopot, repuepu+ecra uepsua cuctena
ue sarnk+eua s rocte, oua otsetsnetc ot eutpaneuou uepsuou cuctenM u sosspaaaetc r ueu, coequu octaneuMe
+actu uaaero tena: suytpeuuue oprauM u enesM, a tare crenetuMe nMaM.
Cana repuepu+ecra uepsua cuctena noet Mte roqpasqeneua ua +actu, s sasucunoctu ot ctereuu uaaero routpon
uaq ux paotou. Ta +acte repuepu+ecrou uepsuou cuctenM, rotopa routponupyet crenetuyk nycrynatypy, uasMsaetc
rpoussoneuou (voluntary) uepsuou cuctenou. VM noen cosuateneuo routponuposate paoty atou setsu
repuepu+ecrou uepsuou cuctenM. 0t uac canux sasucut, rar u rorqa artususuposate nMaM, roatony nM noen
oaatec rpu ronoau pe+u u sMpaeuu nua (nuesMe nMaM), a tare qsurate roue+uoctnu, +toM uqtu, eate u
qenate sce, +to saxo+etc. laoopot, ta +acte repuepu+ecrou uepsuou cuctenM, rotopa perynupyet uaau suytpeuuue
oprauM, ue uaxoqutc (s uopne) roq uaaun ocosuauuMn routponen. 8 te+euue usuu yuruu oprauusna ocyaects-
nktc es uaaux ocosuauuMx uuctpyruu. K rpunepy, cepqe eetc, ruaa repesapusaetc, a tenrepatypa tena
perynupyetc ronuoctek astonatu+ecru. 3tu rpoeccM uaxoqtc roq routponen tou +actu repuepu+ecrou uepsuou
cuctenM, rotopa uasMsaetc astouonuou uepsuou cuctenou.
Astouonua uepsua cuctena peaneuo oecre+usaet sMusauue. 6es aertusuou paotM atou setsu uaaeu
uepsuou cuctenM ue Mno M ueoxoqunoctu s sMcaux rcuxu+ecrux rpoeccax, tarux rar oaeuue u cosuateneua
qeteneuocte, nM rpocto ynepnu M unu, ro rpauueu nepe, Mnu o+eue oneuMnu. n ocyaectsneuu uauonee aer-
tusuoro sMronueuu csoeu tpyquou saqa+u y astouonuou uepsuou cuctenM toe ecte qse setsu: cunratu+ecra u
rapacunratu+ecra uepsuMe cuctenM (cootsetctseuuo, SNS u PNS); (puc. 3.1). VM ue yqen roqpouo paccnatpusate
pasnu+ue atux setseu (cn. nkou ctauqaptuMu natepuan ro usuonoruu). leoxoquno nuae sMsute uauonee sauMe
artM: pasuMe anououaneuMe coctouu sMsMsakt pasnu+uyk artusauk atux setseu astouonuou uepsuou cuctenM.
Kopo+e rosop, rpoeccM penarcauu rpoucxoqt rpu rpeonaqakaen y+actuu PNS, torqa rar sosyqeuue, +ysctso
tpesoru unu ctpeccosoe coctouue cssauM s ocuosuon c SNS.

Puc. 3.1. Kpatra cxena astouonuou uepsuou cuctenM.


6unao-aqpeuanosa (SAM) cceua peak
Korqa usotuoe ucrMtMsaet ctpax ro rarou-nuo rpu+uue, ero cunratu+ecra uepsua cuctena artususupyetc.
oqoua artususau, rpoucxoqut artu+ecru nruoseuuo. Ctpoeuue SNS taroso, +to setsu atou cuctenM rpartu+ecru
oxsatMsakt suytpu tena raqMu oprau u raqyk enesy, u passetsneuuMe ueupouM uerocpeqctseuuo snukt ua oprauM.
lopaqpeuanuu (ussectuMu tare rar uoptauucpuu) ato ueupotpaucnuttep, sMcsooqaenMu SNS qn toro, +toM
artususuposate suytpeuuue oprauM. 0quaro cyaectsyet qoronuuteneuMu nexauusn, rotopMu rosMaaet cornacosauuocte
u oquospeneuuocte pearuu, ycunusakaux quteneuocte usotuoro, u atun nexauusnon snetc sMqeneuue
aqpeuanuua (unu aruuepuua) s rpose. oras s rpose, aqpeuanuu Mctpo u ecrpertctseuuo pasuocutc ro teny, +toM
roqrotosute usotuoe r atare unu erctsy. Cuctena, rotopa sMqenet aqpeuanuu s rpose, uasMsaetc cunrato-
aqpeuanosou (SAM). Kar roqcrasMsaet uassauue, ata cuctena uaxoqutc roq yrpasneuuen cunratu+ecrou uepsuou
cuctenM, a tare nosrosoro seaectsa uaqro+e+uuros. pasuneua oeura ponu uaqro+e+uuros ueoxoquna qn nkoro
enakaero route usuonoruk ctpeccosou pearuu: uaqro+e+uuru sauM rar qn cunrato-aqpeuanosou, tar u qn
rurotanano-rurousapuo-uaqro+e+uurosou cuctenM, saqeuctsosauuMx rpu sosuuruoseuuu ctpeccosou pearuu.
/ nnerorutakaux unektc qse uaqro+e+uMe enesM, pacronoeuuMe ro oquou s sepxueu +actu raqou ro+ru (puc. 3.2).
Kaqa enesa uneet qse +etrue yuruouaneuMe souM. 8 eutpe uaxoqutc nosrosoe seaectso uaqro+e+uura, a sorpyr
sueaueu onactu neut ropa uaqro+e+uura. Pacronoeuuoe suytpu nosrosoe seaectso rpouusauo ueupouanu SNS, rpu
artusauu rotopMx s rpose sMqenetc aqpeuanuu. oras s rpose, aqpeuanuu Mctpo pacrpoctpauetc u sosqeuctsyet
ua usuonoru+ecrue cuctenM. Tarun opason, ata cuctena snetc cunrato-aqpeuanosou cuctenou pearuu ctpecca.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
(anee s atou rnase nM yqen paccnatpusate pone ropM uaqro+e+uuros s sMqeneuuu rnkropturouqos rar +actu
rurotonano-rurousapuo-uaqro+e+-uurosou cuctenM pearuu (lPA).)



6ceus SNS / SAM kapqosackynpua qeensuocs
leneqneuuMe pearuu, ocyaectsnenMe cuctenanu SNS u SAM, croueutpuposauM ua usneueuuu qeteneuoctu
rapqusacrynpuou cuctenM. epeq nuon oracuoctu rnasuou saotou qn oprauusna snetc oecre+ute qoctato+uoe
ronu+ectso rucnopoqa u auepruu qn nosra u nMa, +toM usotuoe norno crpasutec c oracuoctek s atare unu e
cracace erctson, u to u qpyroe tpeyet usu+ecrou artusuoctu. epsoe, +to rpoucxoqut, ato Mctpee eetc
cepqe, oecre+usa onee ouneuoe u noauoe cuaeuue rposek sauMx oprauos. oqc+utauo, +to rpu narcunaneuou
ctpeccosou pearuu cepqe noet s rte pas ysenu+ute sMpoc rposu ro cpasueuuk co crorouuMn coctouuen. 8
qoronueuue r atony s canux rposeuocuMx cocyqax rpoucxoqt usneueuu. 3to ctauosutc sosnouMn, rocronery cteuru
rnasuMx aptepuu (ato cocyqM qoctasnkt ooraaeuuyk rucnopoqon u aueprueu rpose ot cepqa ro scen oprauan)
oepuytM nene+auaunu rpyrnMnu nMaanu Vycrynatypa aptepuu uuuepsupyetc cunratu+ecrou uepsuou cuctenou.
8o spen ctpeccosou pearuu SNS corpaaaet atu nMaM, cya rpocset s cocyqax. pnMn pesynetaton atoro
snetc to, +to rpose uaruetaetc Mctpee, u rosMaaetc rposuoe qasneuue. oatony nuorue uccneqosatenu ctpecca
usnepkt rposuoe qasneuue. n toro +toM uarpasute atot ouneuMu u noauMu rotor rposu r uauonee
uyqakaunc +actn tena, SNS tare usneuet rotor rposu. K rpunepy, aptepuu, cuaakaue ruaesaputeneuyk
cucteny, sua+uteneuo cunaktc qn toro, +toM otsectu ocuosuou rotor. Tarun e opason cuuaetc rotor rposu r
ro+ran u roe, torqa rar rotor rposu r nosry u crenetuMn nMaan ysenu+usaetc qo narcunyna. 8osnouo, ctout
otnetute, +to qoronuuteneuo r cuueuuk tora rposu r ro+ran cuctena ctpeccosou pearuu sMqenet ropnou
(sasorpeccuu), rotopMu qeuctsyet ua ro+ru, topnos opasosauue no+u. 8an ussectuo, +to, s oaen, no+a snetc
unetpaton rposu. pu oracuoctu ueoxoquno narcunaneuo ysenu+ute oen, rutakayk u auepretu+ecryk yuruu
rposu. | uerpoqyrtusuo cuuate atu ra+ectsa rposu us-sa opasosauu no+u Korqa so spen rpusuca sosuuraet octpa
ueoxoqunocte rono+ut ec, ro ato rpocto sMseqeuue us oprauusna nuaueu otpaotauuou naccM no+u, torqa rar s
qeuctsuteneuoctu opasosauue no+u (u ro+rax) cuueuo.

Cepdevno-cocyducmme oneanu
1usuonoru+ecrue rpoeccM, orucauuMe sMae, ronuoctek rpucroconeuM qn sMusauu rpu ctpeccosMx pearux,
tpeykaux auepretu+ecru uacMaeuuoro roseqeuu. lo, rar yrasMsanoce sMae, s cospeneuuou usuu +enosera peqro
tpeyktc tarue yposuu usu+ecrou artusuoctu. ponenM co sqoposeen sosuurakt, rorqa cuctena ctpaqaet ot
rpeqespeneuuoro usuoca u paspMsa. osMaeuue rposuoro qasneuu, sMssauuoro artususaueu cunratu+ecrou
uepsuou cuctenM, noet sMssate ypuMu rotor rposu u usu+ecroe paspyaeuue tourou suytpeuueu oono+ru uerotopMx
rposeuocuMx cocyqos. To+ru, rqe cocyqM passetsnktc ua qsa (to+ru passetsneuu), ocoeuuo yssunM. Toura
oono+ra cocyqa noet Mte pasopsaua, otrpMsa qoctyr upuMn rucnotan u rnkrose (uanu+ue rotopMx toe
ysenu+usaetc rpu pearuu ctpecca, o aton cn. qanee).
8 pesynetate noryt rosutec otnoeuu tarux uposMx seaects roq paspMson s cteure cocyqa. 3tot rpoecc qaet
ua+ano tony, +to rnuuuuctM uasMsakt atepocrneposon, unu opasosauuen naer ua rposeuocuMx cocyqax (puc. 3.3)
0pasosauue naer noet unete tenMe rocneqctsu qn sqopose. Ecnu ouu opasyktc s cepqe+uMx aptepux, ato
noet rpusectu r cepqe+uMn rpuctyran. Ecnu ouu rosnktc s uuueu +actu tena, ro noet rosutec rpuxpanMsa-
uue (claudication); ato osua+aet, +to s uorax u rpyqu qae rpu ynepeuuon ycunuu sosuuraet one, sMssauua
ueqoctato+uMn rucnopoquMn cuaeuuen repuepuuuMx onacteu us-sa satpyqueuuoro rotora rposu. Ecnu naru
neaakt qoctyry rposu r nosry, to noet cny+utec uucynet (cn. Fusteretal, 1992).

Puc. 3 3 |sopaeuue rorepe+uoro ce+euu a) sqoposou u ) atepocrne-potu+ecru usneueuuou aptepuu +enosera 0patute suunauue
ua uposMe otnoeuu (naru), rpurperusauec r suytpeuueu cteure u cyakaue aupuuy rauana

6ceua peak rnoanauo-rnoqiapuo-uaqnoueuukoso oc (hPA)
pyrou cuctenou ctpeccosMx pearuu snetc oce lPA. pu sosy! qeuuu u yqosonectsuu, a ue tonero rpu
uarpeuuu, artusupyktc cuctenM SNS/ SAM. Cneqosateneuo, uenes orupatec ua artusupo-sauuocte atux cucten rar
ua quaruoctu+ecruu rpusuar uneuuo ctpeccosou pearuu. lanuoro tpyquee rony+ute artusauk ocu lPA. 8rnk+euue
cucten SNS/ SAM nouo cpasuute c saurauuen cru+ru, torqa rar artusau ocu lPA roxoa ua pasurauue oru.
8ae+e cru+ry nerro, uo ato qeuctsue qnutc ueqonro. Passeqeuue oru tpeyet oneaux ycunuu, u ou roput sua+uteneuo
qoneae. 0ce lPA artususupyetc tonero rpu rpauuux octotenectsax. Pasnu+u s uuqusuqyaneuMx roporax qn
srnk+euu lPA c+utaktc +actek rpeqpacronoeuuoctu (socrpuun+usoctu) uuqusuqa, +epes rotopyk rpenonnktc
sueauue pasqpaakaue coMtu (ctpeccopM). +en ner+e artususupyetc oce lPA, ten cuneuee yqet sosqeuctsue
ctpecca ua usu+ecroe u rcuxu+ecroe sqoposee. Artususauk ocu lPA, tare rar u cucten SNS/ SAM, nouo sMssate
+ucto rcuxonoru+ecrunu ctpeccopanu, xot aqartauouuoe sua+euue ocu sarnk+aetc s ee crocouoctu oecre+ute
cutyauk ataru unu erctsa.
Paccnotpun aty cucteny onee roqpouo (puc. 3.4). 8 ua+ane rnas! yrasMsanoce, +to ctpeccopM socrpuuunaktc
sMcaunu eutpanu nos-j ra (ropa ronosuoro nosra), opaatMsaktc s asonkuouuo qpesuu? nunu+ecrux onactx
(srnk+a rurroranr u nose+or) u repeqakt^ c qanee s rurotananyc. lurotananyc rony+aet curuanM ro nuorun
nosrosMn rytn. 8auo, +to ata onacte xopoao perynupyetc, tar rar ee artusau noet orasate auporoe sosqeuctsue
ua nuorue~u-suonoru+ecrue u rcuxonoru+ecrue rpoeccM. 6yrsa l s corpaaeuuu lPA ot aurnuucroro cnosa
hypotalamus. Ecnu s pesynetate rpoterauu scex sMaeuassauuMx rpoeccos artususupyetc orpeqeneuua onacte
rurotananyca, ussectua rar rapaseutpurynpuoe qpo, ato sMsMsaet sMqeneuue xunu+ecroro areuta, uasMsaenoro
artopon sMcsooqeuu ropturotporuua (corticotrophin releasing factor CRF). 8uose opasosauuMu CRF roctyraet s
nusneaauu y+actor rpose-cuaeuu, rotopMu uarpnyk rutaet repequkk qonk rurousa,
rotopa pacronoeua uerocpeqctseuuo roq rurotananycon. Aurnuucroe cnoso pituitary (rurous) qaet yrsy P s
corpaaeuuu lPA. octyrus s repequkk qonk rurotananyca, CRF qeuctsyet rar xunu+ecruu areut, sMsMsakauu
rpoqyruk qpyroro seaectsa, uasMsaenoro aqpeuoropturotporuMn ropnouon AKTl (ACTl).
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

Puc. 3.4. 0ce lPA. 3uqorpuuuMe cuctenM perynupyktc opatuou cssek, t. e. auqorpuuuMe rpoqyrtM, unekauec s uanu+uu,
ctunynupykt unu topnost rpoussoqctso canux ce. la rpunepe rorasaua cuctena c otpuateneuou opatuou cssek ro ocu lPA,
rorqa uaqro+e+uurosMu ctepouq roptuson roqasnet qaneueuayk sMpaotry canoro ce, snu ua rposocuaeuue nosra u
reperpMsa repsyk ctyreue urna rpoussoqctsa. |cto+uur: Physiological Psychology by Smock, Copyright 1999/ Reprinted by
permission of Prentice-Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, N. J.

8 ato spen areut AKTl (ACTl) sMqenetc s oayk rppseuocuyk cucteny. Vuaeuek qn qeuctsu atoro ropnoua
snktc qse uaqro+e+uMe enesM. Kar yrasMsanoce sMae, uaqro+e+uMe enesM snktc rnasuMnu s cuctenax,
cssauuMx co ctpeccosou pearueu: nosrosoe seaectso uaqro+e+uuros oecre+usaet aqpeuanuuon cunrato-aqpeuano-
syk cucteny (SAM), torqa rar sueau ropa uaqro+e+uuros pearupyet
ua AKTl, cuosa sMqen rnkroropturouq roptuson (y nkqeu) s oayk uprynuk rposu. oatony s uccneqosauux o
ctpecce +acto usnepetc yposeue roptusona (cn. rnasy 4).
Peeynqu cekpequu kopmuaona
Cerpeu roptusona (y nkqeu) us ropM uaqro+e+uuros tare perynupyetc uonoru+ecrunu +acanu oprauusna. /poseue
uprynupykaero roptusona canMu uusruu so spen uo+uoro cua, uo rpoyqeuue snetc noauMn ctunynon qn lPA:
yposeue noet rosMcutec s 3 pasa sa repsMe 30 nuuyt rocne rpoyqeuu (Pressner et al., 1997). 3to pesroe
rosMaeuue otuocuteneuo ueqonrospeneuuo; yposeue ra- t-qaet rpunusuteneuo qo sua+euuu, unesauxc s noneut
rpoyqe- L uu, rpunepuo s te+euue +aca, s octaneuou +actu qu rpoucxoqut roctouuoe u ctouroe cuueuue
roueutpauu uprynupykaero roptu- + sona. |tar, cerpeu roptusona s te+euue qu srnk+aet qsa ocuosuMx
ronroueuta: pearuk ua rpoyqeuue u sanetuoe quesuoe cuueuue. Csouctso yposu roptusona roctouuo cuuatec
ocnouet oeury asosMx yposueu rpu ucronesosauuu equuctseuuou to+ru usnepeuu; ocuosuMe usnepeuu ny+ae
ocyaectsnte ryten nuoectseuuMx sanepos s te+euue qu, cosraqakaux ro speneuu c rpoyqeuuen. Artusau
rurotanano-rurousapuo-uaqro+e+uurosou ocu (lPA), sMssauua ctpeccon, uarnaqMsaetc ua aty ouosyk artusuocte.
Pesruu ctpeccop yqet artususuposate sMpaotry CRF s rurotananyce, a saten sMqeneuue AKTl us repequeu qonu
rurousa, +toM sMssate qoronuuteneuyk ypuyk cerpeuk roptusona us ropM uaqro+e+uuros. la rpoxoqeuue pearuu
tpeyetc rpunepuo 20-30 nuuyt: oM+uo yposeue uprynupykaero roptusona pesro rosMaaetc rocne sosqeuctsu
cuneuoro ctpeccopa. 0quaro sMcoruu yposeue coxpauetc nuae ua orpauu+euuoe spen. 0ce lPA o+eue aertusuo
canoperynupyetc (rpu uopnaneuMx octotenectsax). 8 rurotananyce u s rurouse unektc peertopM (ocoMe
eutpM ysuasauu), rotopMe orpeqenkt yposuu roptusona. Ecnu yposuu rpesMaakt quesuyk uopny, peertopM
ua+uuakt uactpausate cucteny cerpeuu roptusona ua rouueuue. 3ta cuctena roxoa ua paoty tepnoctata s cuctene
eutpaneuoro otorneuu. Korqa tenrepatypa rosMaaetc, tepnoctat sneausaetc, +toM cuusute roctyrneuue terna.
oqouMn opason topnosutc cerpeu roptusona, rorqa rosMaaktc ero yposuu. 8cneqctsue atoro yposeue
uprynupykaero roptusona sosspaaaetc r csoeu uopne s te+euue +aca rocne nkoro pesroro rosMaeuu. VexauusnM,
yqepusakaue roptuson roq routponen, oM+uo o+eue aertusuM. Koptuson snetc ctepouqon u, naroqap csoeu
xunu+ecrou rpupoqe, crocoeu rpouurate s nkyk +acte tena. 0u csooquo rpouuraet s nosr u s nkMe qpyrue trauu
tena. 8 atux traux ou rposnet artusuoe qeuctsue (cn. uue), roatony ero sauo taateneuo routponuposate. pu
qaneueuaen paccnotpeuuu nM ysuqun, +to rpu xpouu+ecron ueroutponupyenon ctpecce noet cny+atec
rostopkaac artusau ocu lPA, +to noet rpusectu r qucyuyruu perynupykaux nexauusnos, a ato neaaet
rpasuneuo orpeqenute rosMaakauec yposuu roptusona. 8 pesynetate yposuu coxpauktc sMcorunu u
ueroutponupyenMnu. oqoua cutyau noet rpusectu r sua+uteneuony sosqeuctsuk ua usu+ecroe u ynctseuuoe
coctouue +enosera.
kopmuaon, emceooadenue anepeuu u cepdevnococyducma cucmeva
asaute paccnotpun snuuue roptusona ua yuruu oprauusna. Artususau ocu lPA cosnectuo c artususaueu cucten
SNS/SAM s rpoecce asonkuu passusanace tarun opason, +toM oecre+ute usotuMn sMusauue s rputu+ecrux
cutyaux. 3tu cuctenM paotakt cosnectuo. Pasnu+uMe ctpeccopM noryt s pasuou ctereuu artususuposate atu cuctenM
+epes ueoneaue rponeytru speneuu, roatony yrpasneuue pearunu u cosqauue ux rattepuos otnu+aktc s
sasucunoctu ot tura ctpeccopa, a tare ot pasnu+u uuqusuqos, uo snecte atu qse cuctenM pearuu coctasnkt rnasuyk
uupactpyrtypy sosnouocteu ctpeccosMx pearuu. lo ecnu ato tar, to ue qonuo yqusnte, +to ux yuruu s rarou-to
nepe cosneaaktc (cuuepru+uM).
/cuneuuoe cepqeueuue u rosMaeuuoe rposuoe qasneuue tpeykt roctasru auepruu (a tare rucnopoqa) r nMaan u
nosry. 0quou us ocuosuMx yuruu roptusona snetc sMcsooqeuue auepretu+ecrux saracos tena. 8 rputu+ecrux
cutyaux auepru tpeyetc cpo+uo. Pauee rpuopeteuua usMto+ua auepru (s opne rpaxnana, ca-xapos u
yrnesoqos) uararnusaetc s nMaax u re+euu s suqe rnkrore-uos (qnuuuMe eru rnkrosM). (lopnouon, rotopMu
ctunynupyet sarac atux seaects, snetc uucynuu, roatony y ue rony+akaux ne+euu oneuMx-quaeturos c
ueqoctatron uucynuua otne+aetc oneaoe coqepauue rnkrosM s rposu.)
epsa u rnasua pone roptusona s uyuMu noneut octauosute qaneueuaee uarorneuue, a so-stopMx, artususuposate
sMcsooqeuue atux saracos. |tar, rnkroreu sMcsooqaetc u pacraqaetc ua coctasuMe +actu rnkrosM, rotosMe r
ucronesosauuk. oqouMn opason so spen uarpeuu noryt sMcsooqatec uarorneuuMe upM u enru. 3tu
rpoeccM oecre+usakt cootsetctsykayk auepruk nMaan u nosry.
Ecnu oprauusn roqsepraetc nuororpatuou ctpeccosou artusauu ocu lPA, s pesynetate rpoucxoqut ueoquorpatuoe
sMcsooqeuue saracos auepruu, rotopMe us-sa csoucts cospeneuuMx ctpeccopos oM+uo ue ucronesyktc. 3ta
usMto+ua rnkrosa (u csooquMe upuMe, rucnotM, sMcsooqakauec us saracos upa) sacopkt rposeuocuMe
cocyqM, crococtsy opasosauuk atepocrnepotu+ecrux naer, rar Mno orucauo sMae. oqouMe naru
orpauu+usakt rotor rposu r tarun oprauan, rar nosr u cepqe, +to seqet r sosnouMn yqapan u cepqe+uMn rpuctyran.

6peccosse peak uuyuua qyuk
o cux rop uaae suunauue Mno cocpeqoto+euo ua ssaunocssu artusauu cucten ctpeccosMx pearuu u
rapquosacrynpuou yuruu. 0quaro oe cuctenM ctpeccosMx pearuu unekt tare rpnoe snuuue ua unnyuuyk
cucteny. lepsM astouonuou uepsuou cuctenM uaxoqtc rpno s traux, rotopMe opnupykt unu uararnusakt rnetru
unnyuuou cuctenM. K tony e rnetru unnyuuou cuctenM +ysctsuteneuM r uprynupykaeny roptusony, ocuosuony
ropnouy ctpecca. |tar, ata uupactpyrtypa rpequasua+eua qn yctauosneuu rpnou ssaunocssu ctpecca, unnyuuou
yuruu u pqa saonesauuu, ue cssauuMx c rapquosacrynpuou yurueu. 0cuosua yuru unnyuuou cuctenM
sarnk+aetc s ton, +toM saautute oprauusn ot uueruouuMx areutos, tarux rar supycM, artepuu u rapasutM.
|nnyuua cuctena noet roqsectu uac s qsyx ocuosuMx cny+ax: a) oua noet orasatec uequteneuou, u
uueruouuMe areutM rony+akt qoctyr r uaaeny teny u oprauan, +toM sMssate uueruouuMe onesuu unu )
unnyuua cuctena noet Mte uactonero csepxquteneuou, +to cana (cropee, +en uueruouuMu areut) sMsMsaet
saonesauue. Ctpecc cssau c atunu qsyn turanu unnyuuou qucyuruu (cn. Evans, Huck-lebridge and Clow, 2000).
7unm uvvynno ynkquu
+toM route, rar cssauM ctpeccosa pearu u saonesauue unnyuuoro rpoucxoqeuu, uan ueoxoquno ua asoson
yposue orpeqenute, rar qeuctsyet unnyuua cuctena (cn. Mair and Watkins, 1998). 0prauusn crocoeu ucronesosate qse
ctpateruu, +toM otpasute uueruk (Romagnani, 1997). epsa (ussectua rar rynopaneuMu unnyuutet) srnk+aet
cerpeuk aututen. Aututena ato enru, rotopMe tarun opason cssMsakt stoprauec ratoreuuMe areutM, +to te
tepkt artusuocte, a saten Mctpo sMsoqtc us oprauusna. 3tot tur saautM roqxoqut qn toro, +toM otpasute
sosqeuctsue ratoreuuMx areutos, rotopMe uaxoqtc sue rnetor tena. 8topa ctpateru (ussectua rar rneto+uMu
unnyuutet) snetc onee arpeccusuMn turon' saautM, tar rar unnyuuMe rnetru, sctyra s routart co stopraunc
ratoreuuMn areuton, artusuo ero paspyaakt. +aae scero tara saauta rpuneuetc qn toro, +toM oesspequte
onesuetsopuMe seaectsa, rotopMe ye roranu s rnetru tena (uarpunep, supycM). pu artusuoctu rneto+uoro
unnyuuteta paspyaeuue ratoreuuMx areutos cssauo u c paspyaeuuen rnetru-xosuua.
Knetru unnyuuou cuctenM, rotopMe uprynupykt s rposu, ato enMe rposuMe tenea, uasMsaenMe neuroutanu (cn.
Kiecolt-Glaser and Glaser, 1993). euroutM sMpaatMsaktc roctuMn nosron, rqe ouu octaktc qo sMspesauu, uo
uerotopMe us uux repeneaaktc ua xpaueuue s tunyc (suno+rosyk enesy), ceneseury unu s repuepuuuMe nunatu-
+ecrue ysnM. Knetru, rotopMe octaktc s roctuon nosre, ato tar uasMsaenMe 8-rnetru (8 ot bone rocte), torqa
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
rar qpyrue uasMsaktc T-rnetranu (T ot thymus suno+rosa enesa). 3tu qsa tura unnyuuMx rnetor coctasnkt
ocuosy qn qsyx turos unnyuuou saautM, orucauuMx sMae. Knetru roctuoro nosra (8-rnetru) qakt ua+ano aututenan
rpu rynopaneuon unnyuutete. 3tot tur unnyuuou artusuoctu eae uasMsakt Th2. Knetru sun o+rosou enesM (T-rnetru)
otsetctseuuM sa onee arpeccusuMu rneto+uMu unnyuutet, ussectuMu rar unnyuutet Th 1. |nnyuutet Th 1 o+eue saeu
rpu uactyrneuuu ua parosMe rnetru u supycM. Knetru-yuuM (NK natural killer) sxoqt s apceuan unnyuuteta Tb u
paotakt, +toM otpaate ataru para u supycos.
8 rarou-to ctereuu roqoua qsouctseuuocte unnyuuou yuruu rpotusope+ut perynuposauuk. Kaqa setse, yqy+u
artusuou, sMpaatMsaet xunu+ecrue seaectsa (cytokines), rotopMe perynupykt qpyryk setse. 8 te+euue cytor y cpequero
uuqusuqa rpoucxoqut cneua unnyuuteta, cssauuoro c rnetranu (Tb), rotopMu xapartepeu qn uo+uoro speneuu, u
rynopaneuoro unnyuuteta (Th2), rotopMu ocyaectsnetc s quesuoe spen (Petrovsky and Harrison, 1995). oronuu-
teneuo r eequesuou cneue uerotopMe uuqusuqM noryt Mte rpeqpacronoeuM r tou unu qpyrou ctpateruu opeM c
uuerueu. Ctpecc noet sosqeuctsosate ua atot anauc. 6yqet yrpoaeuuen orpeqenute qeuctsue ctpecca tonero
unnyuoroqasnkaun, tar rar roqasneuue artusuoctu oquou setsu noet royqute r paote qpyryk setse, rotopa
oraetc csepxartusuou.
Xponuveckue u ocmpme peakquu
1usuonoru+ecryk pearuk ua ctpecc nouo to+uo orucate rar pearuk, uapyaakayk anauc s peryntusuMx yurux
atux qsyx setseu unu ctpateruu qn opeM c uuerueu. 8 enon xpouu+ecra (unu rostopkaac) usuonoru+ecra
ctpeccosa pearu cssaua co cuueuuou perynueu rneto+uoro (Tb ) unnyuuteta u orasMsaet nuo ueoneaoe
snuuue ua (Th2), nuo ycunusaet perynuk rynopaneuoro (Th2) unnyuuteta. oxoe, +to ata cneua rpeqe scero
yrpasnetc rosMaeuuMn yposuen roptusona: roptuson snetc qosoneuo noauMn peryntopon cuueuu rneto+uoro
unnyuuteta, uo noet rosMcute rynopaneuMu (cssauuMu c aututenanu) unnyuutet. Pesruu ctpecc, uaoopot, noet
Mte cssau c uerunu aertanu rpatrospeneuuoro ycuneuu perynuposauu rneto+uoro unnyuuteta (Dhabhar and
McEwan, 1997).
3tu rposneuu, sosnouo, cssauM c uerocpeqctseuuou cunratu+ecrou uuuepsaueu unnyuuou cuctenM u noryt unete
rpatrospeneuuoe sua+euue rpu saaute usotuoro ot oracuoctu.
/tsepqeuue, +to xpouu+ecruu ctpecc, rotopMu corposoqaetc rostopkaeuc artusaueu rurotanano-rurousapuo-
uaqro+e+uu-rosou ocu (lPA) u sMcorun coqepauuen uprynupykaero roptuso-na, cssau c saneaeuuen rneto+uoro
unnyuuteta (Tb) ropnouane-uMn unnyuuteton (Th2), snetc cropuMn. 3to uapyaeuue s to+uon anauce unnyuuou
cuctenM snetc sosnouMn apryneuton s rouunauuu toro, +to ctpecc noet rpusectu r qsyn turan pacctpouctsa s
unnyuuou cuctene: otcytctsuk quteneuoctu u usnuaueu quteneuoctu. larpunep, rpu xpouu+ecron ctpecce
uankqaetc rouueuue crocouoctu opeM c paron (neuee aertuseu rneto+uMu unnyuutet) u oquospeneuuo
ysenu+euue crnouuoctu r annepru+ecrun pacctpouctsan, tarun rar actna (csepxpeartusuMu rynopaneuMu unnyuutet).
Cekpemopna uvvynna cucmeva
|nnyuua cuctena, qeuctsykaa +epes rpose, snetc nuae +actek saautuou cuctenM oprauusna. oronuuteneuo
cnusuctMe rosepxuoctu saauaeuM cerpetopuou unnyuuou cuctenou. CnusuctMe rosepxuoctu snktc oono+ranu
rpoxoqaux ro reny rauanos, uarpunep: ruaesaputeneuoro tparta u no+eronouoro rauana. 8 qeuctsuteneuoctu atu
rosepxuoctu otuoctc r sueaueu rosepxuoctu tena u tonero sarnk+euM s tene. 8 otnu+ue ot qpyrux sueauux rosepx-
uocteu tena, rotopMe saauaeuM anactu+uou u rnotuou roeu, y cnusuctMx rosepxuocteu uet usu+ecrux apeepos ot
uueruouuMx areutos. 1usu+ecrue apeepM ue Mnu sarnauuposauM, tar rar yuru cnusuctMx rosepxuocteu coctout
s ton, +toM oecre+ute Mctpyk u nerryk qoctasry canoro ueoxoqunoro qn oprauusna, a uneuuo repesapeuuou ruau
unu sosqyxa. 3tu rosepxuoctu snauMe u ternMe u rpeqctasnkt coou uqeaneuyk cpeqy qn uueruouuMx areutos,
tarux rar artepuu u supycM. 6onee toro, atu rosepxuoctu cnuaron ussunuctM, u ux rnoaaqe s 100 pas rpesocxoqut
rnoaaqe sueaueu rosepxuoctu tena. +toM rpeqotspatute rpouuruoseuue uueruu s oprauusn ro cnusuctMn
rosepxuoctn, oprauusny rpuxoqutc cuaqute ux apeepuou cnasrou us aututen. Aututena, rony+euuMe us 8-rnetor,
repeneaaktc ro cnusuctou rosepxuoctu us rnyuuM tena r sueaueu ronoctu u qeuctsykt tar, rar ua repequeu nuuuu
saautM rpotus stopeuu. 0cuosuMn aututenon qn saautM cnusuctMx rosepxuocteu roqouMn opason snetc
unnyuornoynuu A (secretory immunoglobulm A slgA). /posuu slgA sasuct ot qsyx ocuosuMx nexauusnos: a) uanu+ue 8-
rnetor u ) cropocte repeneaeuu ro cnusuctou rosepxuoctu. Can ro cee unnyuornoynuu A (slgA) ue rpeqctasnet s
unnyuuou cuctene uu setsu Tb, uu Th2, uo ecnu ero rpasuneuo copate qn uccneqosauu (cn. qanee), to yposeue ero
coqepauu s cnkue otpaaet yposeue unnyuornoynuua ua cnusuctMx ro sceu unnyuuou cuctene (Mestecky, 1993).
cuxoueupounnyuonoru rorasanu, +to yposuu slgA ocoo +ysctsuteneuM rar r octpMn, tar u r xpouu+ecrun ctpeccopan, u
+to atu usneueuu o+eue snukt ua sosnouocte rpouuruoseuu uueruu (cn. Evans, Clow and Huckleb-ridge, 1997).
Tarue uccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to xpouu+ecruu ctpecc seqet r uerpepMsuony cuueuuk yposu unnyuornoynuua A
(slgA), torqa rar octpMu, cosqauuMu s naopatopuu ctpeccop, noet sMssate y sqoposMx nkqeu speneuuoe rosMaeuue
yposu slgA (cn., uarpunep, Willemsenetal.,1998).
6peccosse peak qenpecc
8 nequuucrou nutepatype xopoao rpeqctasneua csse neqy rostopkaeuc roqsepeuuoctek ueroutponupyenMn
ctpeccopan u qerpeccueu, a uneuuo c nenauxonu+ecrun uactpoeuuen. 3to rpusoqut r ocyqeuuk eae oquoro usuo-
noru+ecroro csouctsa roptusona. Koptu-son crocoeu csooquo rpouurate s nosr, rqe ou noet sosqeuctsosate ua yposuu
nosrosMx ueupotpaucnuttepos, otsetctseuuMx sa uactpoeuue. 8 +actuoctu, sMcorue yposuu roptusona noryt cuusute
uanu+ue tpurtoaua s nosre. Tpurtoau snetc rpeqaectseuuuron rpoussoqctsa cepotouuua (5 lT), uusrue yposuu
rotoporo, rar ussectuo, cssauM c qerpeccusuMn uactpoeuuen (ussectuMu nerapctseuuMu autuqerpeccaut Prozac
qeuctsyet, +toM rosMcute uanu+ue cepotouuua s nosre). Tarun opason, ueoquorpatua artusau ocu lPA u sMcoruu
yposeue roptusona ue tonero rpeqpacronarakt r cepqe+uo-cocyquctMn saonesauun unu pary (s sasucunoctu ot
reuetu+ecrou rpeqpacronoeuuoctu u snuuu orpyeuu), uo tare rosMaakt sepotuocte qerpeccusuoro,
nenauxonu+ecroro uactpoeuu (cn. Dinan, 1994).
4ionoruecke iuepeu
3tot ueoneaou pasqen rpeqctasneu, +toM ocsetute uerotopMe sauMe qn rcuxousuonoros tenM, racakauec
oM+uMx oeuor ctpeccosMx pearuu y +enosera. Koue+uo, cyaectsyet nuoro crocoos oeuute roqouMe pearuu ua
usotuMx, auanusupy, r rpunepy, yposuu ueupotpaucnuttepos nosra, coctouue peertopuMx cucten, uo atu crocoM ue
paccnatpusaktc s qauuou rnase. n rcuxonoros sauM qoctato+uo nrrue crocoM oeuru, rotopMe ue rpu+uukt
ctpaqauuu y+actuuran. 0coo cneqyet otnetute sospocauu uutepec r ucronesosauuk cnkuM s ra+ectse rpeqneta
usy+euu.
Kar nM ye suaen, usuonoru+ecrue ctpeccosMe pearuu Msakt pasnu+uMnu y pasuMx nkqeu, u unu yrpasnkt
uecronero nexauusnos. Cornacosauuo paotakt cunratu+ecra uepsua cuctena (SNS) u cunrato-aqpeuanosa cuctena
(SAM), +toM ycunute cepqeueuue u rosMcute rposuoe qasneuue. 6Mno rposeqeuo nuoro uccneqosauuu, +toM
usy+ute ctereue roqouMx usneueuuu s sasucunoctu ot ocoeuuocteu uuqusuqa u coctouu sqopose (cn., uarpunep,
Uchino, Cacioppo and Kiecolt-Glaser, 1996). Tarue paotM artyaneuM, uo rpu ux rposeqeuuu noet ctate ronexou
Mctpota canux pearuu. Cneqyet otnetute, +to atu pearuu ue csouctseuuM rarou-to orpeqeneuuou anouu, ouu noryt
Mte oquuaroso uuteucusuM u rpu ronouteneuou, u rpu otpuateneuou anouu (cn. tare Krantz and Manuck, 1984).
|snepeuue artusuoe rurotanano-rurousapuo-uaqro+e+uuro-sou cuctenM cnyut ny+aun rorasatenen ueratusuou
anouu rar +ysctsuteneuoctu s otuoaeuuu orpeqeneuuMx otpuateneuMx xapartepuctur ctunynos: uosusua,
uerpeqcrasyenocte, ecroutponeuocte, ouqauue u nu+ua sauutepecosauuocte. 1artu+ecru o+eue tpyquo sMsute
rurotanano-rurousapuo-uaqro+e+uurosyk pearuk. Kar yrasMsanoce sMae, ata cuctena sua+uteneuo tpyquee sctyraet
s qeuctsue. 3to rpoucxoqut rpu o+eue cuneuou ocosuauuou yrpose. lauonee roqxoqauu croco usy+euu rurotanano-
rurousapuo-uaqro+e+uurosou ocu ato uccneqosate ee sosyqunocte. K rpunepy, uccneqosatenu noryt usy+ate
ctereue artusauu lPA rpu rpoqyuposauuu pearuu ua rcuxonoru+ecruu ctpeccop, rar ato qenaetc rpu rposeqeuuu
tecta couaneuoro ctpecca Tpauepa (Trier social stres's test), rorqa +enoser qoneu rosopute u nMcneuuo rpoussoqute
natenatu+ecrue pac+etM repeq ayqutopueu (Kirschbaum, Pike and Hellhammer, 1993). o ua+ana tecta u rocne ero
orou+auu orpeqenktc yposuu, cootsetctseuuo, ua+aneuou u roue+uou artusuoctu rurotanano-rurousapuo-uaqro-
+e+uurosou cuctenM, t. e. yposuu roptusona. 8ua+euu oM+uo qocturakt rura +epes 20 nuuyt rocne sosqeuctsu
cuneuoro ctpeccopa u sosspaaaktc r uopne s te+euue +aca. Vouo usnepute coqepauue roptusona (unu ero
rpeqaectseuuura AKTl) s rposu, uo qn atoro tpeyetc pate rpose qn auanusa, +to cano ro cee noet orasatec
ctpeccopon, u tpyquo ueoquorpatuo rposoqute aty rpoeqypy, +toM cnequte sa speneuuMnu usneueuunu. n
rcuxousuonoros uanuoro rpeqro+tuteneuee qenate usnepeuu ro auanusan cnkuM. Koptuson (uo ue AKTl) csooquo
roraqaet s cnkuy, u ero tan nerro usnepute. la yposuu roptusona ue snuet cropocte sMqeneuu cnkuM, u oquaqM
usnepeuuMu yposeue octaetc ctauneuMn rpu ronuatuou tenrepatype s te+euue uecronerux +acos. 6onee toro,
usnepeuue roptusona s cnkue uneet orpeqeneuuoe rpeunyaectso repeq usnepeuuen s rposu. 8 rposu orono 90% ot
oaero ronu+ectsa roptusona cssauo c rpyruMnu rpoteuuanu (roptuson cssMsaetc c rpoteuuon u aneynuuon), u
tonero 1 % octaetc uecssauuMn u usuonoru+ecru artusuMn. oatony usnepeuue roptusona s rposu qaet rorasauue
oaeu roueutpauu roptusona (cssauuMu + csooquMu). 8 cnkuy noet roracte tonero csooquMu roptuson
(uecssauuMu), u roatony roptuson s cnkue oecre+usaet uaqeuoe usnepeuue usuonoru+ecru artusuoro ronroueuta
roptusona (Kirschbauin and Hell-hammer, 1989).
6onee cnouo, cpasuuteneuo c roptusonon, usnepte s cnkue unnyuornoynuu A (slgA). Koptuson, raccusuo unetpyce
s cnkuuMx enesax, roraqaet s cnkuy. |nnyuornoynuu slgA, uaoopot, artusuo repeqaetc us cnkuuMx enes ro
cnusuctMn rosepxuoctn. Cneqyet qoasute, +to ue sce cnkuuMe enesM repeqakt slgA s oquuaroson oene.
lauonee sauMe cnkuuMe enesM, cssauuMe c sMpaotrou slgA, ato te, rotopMe neat roq sMron, t. e. roqsM+uMe
u roq+enkctuMe enesM. 0ronoyauMe enesM, rotopMe unekt s aerax csou rpotoru, sMqenkt orponuoe ronu+ectso
cnkuM rpu esauuu, uo atu enesM ue snktc rnasuMnu roctasauranu unnyuornoynuua A (slgA). oatony croco
copa cnkuM qn orpeqeneuu slgA rpu rcuxousuonoru+ecrux uccneqosauux orasMsaetc uerpoctMn. lenes
ctunynuposate sMqeneuue cnkuM (uu rpu ronoau esauu, uu nequraneutanu), tar rar ato noet ycunute sMqeneuue
cnkuM oronoyauMnu enesanu u rouusute roueutpauk slgA, sMpaotauuoro roqsM+uMnu enesanu. +toM copate
cnkuy, ny+ae scero ronoute ua uerotopoe spen (oM+uo orono 2-x nuuyt) roq sMr tanrou us rurpocroru+ecrou satM, u
qate cnkue csooquo s uen coupatec. PesynetatM, otpaakaue usneueuue yposueu slgA, scerqa qonuM y+utMsate
oen cnkuM, copauuou sa orpeqeneuuoe spen, roueutpauk atou cnkuM, a tare ee ronu+ectso sa equuuy
speneuu (t. e. roueutpau slgA oen cnkuM/ spen copa). |ccneqosauue, s rotopon ua atu sorpocM ue opaaakt
suunauu, uneet cepeesuMe ueqoctatru; roqouMe netoqonoru+ecrue rponenM sMsMsanu oneaue tpyquoctu s
pauukk ropy uccneqosauuu s qauuou onactu.
|snepeuue rorasateneu unnyuuou yuruu s cuctene rposoopaaeuu snetc onee cnouMn u ue paccnatpusaetc
s qauuou rnase. |cronesosauue cnkuM rar saneaakaero cpeqctsa rpu rcuxousuonoru+ecrux uccneqosauux auporo
ocyqanoce s nutepatype (cn. Ni-shanian et al., 1998; Kirschbaum, Pike and Hellhammer, 1993). 0quaro usnepeuue
rorasateneu unnyuuou yuruu rposu otuocutc r qsyn oneaun rateropun, t. e. r asosou artusuoctu u pearuu ua
ctunyn. 0M+uo ucronesyetc rorasatene ronu+ectsa creuaneuMx unnyuuMx rnetor s cuctene rposoopaaeuu.
Astonatu+ecrue c+et+uru rnetor noryt orpeqenute pasuMe turM rnetor u roc+utate ux ronu+ectso ua oquu nunnunutp
rporu. Vouo tare rposepute crocouocte unnyuuMx rnetor r rponuepauu (rpoecc, rotopMu tpeyetc qn ar-
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
tususauu). Tarou tur rposepru tpeyet rony+euu opasos rposu qn auanusa, u ua unnyuuMe rnetru so sstou rposu
in vitro cneqyet sosqeuctsosate ussectuMn artusatopon. anee nouo usnepute ctereue pearuu rponuepauu rnetor.
pyrou roqxoq sarnk+aetc s ton, +toM orpeqenute ronu+ectso xunu+ecrux seaects (cytokines), sMqeneuuMx
unnyuuMnu rnetranu. 3to nouo cqenate qsyn crocoanu: usnepeuue asosMx yposueu atux seaects s rposu unu
usnepeuue rosMaeuu yposueu, cneqykaux sa ctpeccon. Vouo usnepute ronu+ectso aututen; rpu aton ocoeuuo
rorasateneu unnyuornoynuu E (IgE), tar rar rosMaeuue ero yposu snetc qoctato+uo sauMn rorasatenen
artusuoctu Th2. A ysenu+euue ronu+ectsa rnetor-yuu (NK) unu ux artusuoctu snktc yequteneuMn csuqetene-
ctson rosMaeuuou artusuoctu Th 1. 8auutepecosauuony +utatenk qn qaneueuaero usy+euu uassauuMx ten nM
peroneuqyen opatutec r rperpacuou ruure Kuby (1997).
3aknueue
8 qauuou rnase ctpecc cropee paccnatpusaetc c to+ru speuu suytpeuuux pearuu ua cutyauk, +en rar cana
cutyau (ctpeccop). 8qece ue usy+anoce, +to snetc ocuosauuen qn uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu rpu atux pearux, uo
paccnatpusanuce nexauusnM, rpu ronoau rotopMx ocosuauua yrposa noet cuneuo snute ua cepqe+uo-cocyquctyk u
unnyuuyk cuctenM, a tare ua ueupotpaucnuttepM, otsetctseuuMe sa uactpoeuue. 8 roscequesuou usuu +enosera
ctpeccosMe pearuu sMsMsaktc cropee cutyaunu, cssauuMnu c nenu+uoctuMnu otuoaeuunu unu c uuaucanu,
+en c cutyaunu peaneuou yrposM usuu. Ten ue neuee, cuctenM ctpeccosMx pearuu y +enosera s rpoecce asonkuu
passusanuce, +toM cnyute uan uneuuo rpu tarux cutyaux, yrpoakaux usuu, rarue s ycnosux ectectseuuou usuu
Mnu M peqrunu sneuunu. leoquorpatua artusau cucten ctpeccosMx pearuu, sosnouo, sarnk+aet s cee
sua+uteneuyk yrposy sqoposek.
+acs 2
oiuouse sqqeks cpecca
8 atou +actu ruuru paccnatpusaktc uerotopMe us ocuosuMx rocneqctsuu ctpecca, usy+aenMx uccneqosatennu. VM ye
yctauosunu, +to ctpecc snetc uactonero oaun u pacrnMs+atMn tepnuuon, +to usnepeuu atoro sneuu rpe-
spaaaktc s uerpoctyk saqa+y. 8 orpeqeneuux ctpecca (cn., uarpunep, Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) s ra+ectse rputepu
+acto ucronesykt uuqusuqyaneuoe narorony+ue roqxoq, rotopMu roteuuaneuo srnk+aet s cepy uccneqosauuu
ctpecca nkou acrert narorony+u. Ckqa noet otuocutec auporuu crertp usu+ecrux ueqyros, rcuxonoru+ecrux
coctouuu u roruutusuMx rpoeccos, a tare rattepuos roseqeuu. Cootsetctseuuo, s nutepatype yqeneuo suunauue
oneaony +ucny roteuuaneuMx rocneqctsuu. 8qece yqyt paccnotpeuM tonero uerotopMe us uux.
Knk+esMe sorpocM, racakauec uccneqosauu sasucunocteu neqy ctpeccopanu u usu+ecrun u rcuxonoru+ecrun
narorony+uen, ocseaeuM s rnase 4. 8 ueu rpusoqtc qauuMe, otuocauec r creuu+ecrun rpunepan sasucunocteu,
rotopMe uaxoqtc s arueutpe uccneqosauuu, uarpunep uccneqosauuu cs su neqy usueuuMnu coMtunu u paron
nono+uou enesM. 8 atou rnase tar e paccnatpusaktc rcuxu+ecrue onesuu u cunrtonM, u ux cssu co ctpcco panu.
8 rnase 5 rnasuMn opason paccnatpusaetc sosqeuctsue ctpecca ua roruu tusuyk cepy 8 ueu auanusupyetc
sosnouocte toro, +to creuu+ecrue roruutusuMe aertM u xapartepucturu paotocrocouoctu oycnosneuM rcuxo-
couaneuMn uenarorony+uen u tpesorou. |cronesyktc qauuMe uccneqosauuu s onactu roruutusuMx u anououaneuMx
rpoeccos. 3tu qauuMe, rar rpasuno, rony+euM s panrax paot, ue unesaux enek coctseuuo uccneqosauue ctpecca, uo
ouu yrasMsakt ua nexauusnM, rocpeqctson rotopMx noryt Mte cssauM rcuxonoru+ecrue pearuu ua ctpeccopM u
rouueuua paotocrocouocte.
Fnasa 4
Crpecc: soposse w onesns
8eqyt nu rcuxonoru+ecrue artopM (srnk+a usueuuMe coMtu u rpoussoqctseuuMe tpeosauu, a tare
rcuxonoru+ecrue pearuu, rotopMe ouu sMsMsakt) r usu+ecrun u rcuxu+ecrun onesun? o+eny tpyquo sMsute atu
cssu? Karue nexauusnM noryt s uux y+actsosate? 8 atou rnase paccnatpusaktc qauuMe, rony+euuMe s orpauu+euuon
pqe onacteu uccneqosauu ctpecca, srnk+a uccneqosauu snuuuu ctpecca ua yuruouuposauue unnyuuou
cuctenM.
To+ra speuu, cornacuo rotopou ctpecc seqet r onesuu, snetc ocuosoronarakaeu so nuoron us toro, +to nM +utaen u
cnMaun o ctpecce, rpu+en s tarou ctereuu, +to +acto rpeqronaraetc cyaectsosauue yequteneuMx qorasatenects
atoro. larpunep, onnor (Pollock, 1988) s uccneqosauuu-uutepsek 114 uteneu 8enuroputauuu ouapyuna
cyaectsosauue pacrpoctpaueuuoro rpeqctasneuu, +to ctpecc noet sntec uerocpeqctseuuou rpu+uuou onesuu.
kqu ronaranu, +to co ctpeccon tecuee scero cssauM qsa creuu+ecrux coctouu: cepqe+uMe rpuctyrM u uepsuMe
cpMsM. Kar rpasuno, rosopunoce, +to rpu+uuanu cepqe+uMx rpuctyros snktc cutyauu (uarpunep ua paote), a
rpu+uuanu uepsuMx cpMsos nkqu. Turu+uou eptsou cepqe+uoro rpuctyra suqenc aqnuuuctpatop unu usuecneu,
ucrMtMsakauu cuneuoe qasneuue. Veuee sua+uteneuMe cunrtonM, tarue rar ronosuMe unu enyqo+uMe onu, rar
rpeqronaranoce, tare cssauM co ctpeccopanu unu sonueuunu. Vanosepotuo, +to rocne uccneqosauu onnor atu
rpeqctasneuu cuneuo usneuunuce. Cooaeuu o y+actuu ctpecca s onesuu perynpuo rosnktc s rpecce u
araqenu+ecrou nutepatype, yrpern nueuue, +to ctpecc sMsMsaet onesue.
1artu+ecru, y+utMsa pacrnMs+atocte u ooaeuuocte tepnuua ctpecc, sorpoc: 8eqet nu ctpecc r onesuu?
raetc rponenatu+uMn. 6pauuep u Peuuonqc (Briner & Reynolds, 1993) saxoqt uactonero qanero, +to c+utakt atot
sorpoc uausuMn u tpusuaneuMn. puctyra r usy+euuk cssauuMx c uun asosMx rponen, nM qonuM paccnotpete
oneaoe ronu+ectso pasnu+uMx sorpocos. lerotopMe us uauonee o+esuquMx repe+ucneuM uue.
8eqet nu sosqeuctsue pqa openeukaux ctunynos (ctpeccopos) r rcuxu+ecru u/unu usu+ecrun onesun?
Ecnu qa, to rarue cyaectsykt suqM ctpeccopos (sauMe usueuuMe coMtu, xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM, nenrue
uerputuoctu)?
CssauM nu ctpeccopM co scenu onesunu unu tonero c uerotopMnu?
8eqet nu r onesuu peaneuoe uanu+ue ctpeccopos unu cano oayaeuue +enoseron toro, +to ou ucrMtMsaet ctpecc,
tpesory unu qerpeccuk?
o+eny ctpaqakt tonero uerotopMe nkqu?
KarosM nexauusnM?
posoqutc oneaoe ronu+ectso uccneqosauuu, opaaakauxc r atun sorpocan; uerotopMe us uux yqyt ocyqatec
onee roqpouo s qpyrux +actx ruuru, uarpunep pone uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu u xpouu+ecrux rpoussoqctseuuMx
ctpeccopos.
lecnotp ua ounue uccneqosauuu, ua yqusneuue tpyquo yctauosute csse neqy rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u
saonesauuen. auuMe epytc us aupororo rpyra ucto+uuros u pasnu+uMx turos uccneqosauuu, rynuryenMx s
nequuucrou u rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatype. 8 te+euue nuorux net atu paotM orycuposanuce rnasuMn opason ua
sauMx usueuuMx coMtux. 6Mno rposeqeuo nuoro uccneqosauuu csseu neqy usueuuMnu coMtunu u
usu+ecrunu u rcuxu+ecrunu pacctpouctsanu, u atu paotM +acto qasanu rpotusope+usMe pesynetatM (cn., uarpunep,
Dohrenwend, 1998; Miller, 1989). Terepe s uccneqosauux uepeqro tare paccnatpusaktc roscequesuMe uerputuoctu u
xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM (cn. rnasy 2). 8ce tpu roqxoqa nouo rpocnequte s paotax, ocyqakauxc s atou rnase.
peqe +en paccnatpusate cssu neqy rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u creuu+ecrunu onesunu, qasaute ropotro
rpoauanusupyen to, ro+eny uccneqosauu s atou onactu ctanrusaktc c tpyquoctnu.
Kake pyquoc soiuka np sssneu csie ueqy ncxocoansusu
qakopau 6oneius?
8 rnase 3 nM ysuqenu, +to pearu ua ctpeccopM cssaua c nuoectson pasnu+uMx usuonoru+ecrux usneueuuu,
uarpunep s unnyuuon yuruouuposauuu. 8a+actyk rcuxousuonoru paccnatpusakt otuocuteneuo rpatrospeneuuMe
usneueuu s usuonoru+ecrux uuquratopax, tarux rar slgA u roptuson (cn. rnasy 3). 0quaro ueosateneuo qorycrate, +to
atu usneueuu urpakt sua+unyk pone s rpoqyuposauuu onesuu. +toM yqoctoseputec s aton, uan ueoxoquno
paccnotpete sosqeuctsu ctpeccopos u onesuu, tarue rar par, s peaneuou usuu. 0quaro torqa sosuuraet cnouocte,
coctoaa s ton, +to uenerro rporoutponuposate nuorue qpyrue roteuuaneuMe sneausakauec artopM. Kpone toro,
+ucno sosnouMx, roqsepraenMx usy+euuk, rpatrospeneuuMx u qonrospeneuuMx csseu neqy pasnu+uMnu
ctpeccopanu u pasuMnu saonesauunu ro+tu ueorpauu+euo. 8o nuorux cny+ax qauuMe, rar nM ato ysuqun,
ueoquosua+uM. asapyc (Lazarus, 1992) ronaraet, +to uneetc pq rpu+uu, satpyqukaux sMsneuue cssu neqy
rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u sqoposeen (u, cneqosateneuo, onesuek).
la sqoposee snuet o+eue nuoro artopos, srnk+a reuetu+ecrue snuuu u uec+actuMe cny+au. 8osnouo, octauetc
nuae uesua+uteneua +acte pasnu+uu, rotopMe nouo ocuute tarunu artopanu, rar ctpecc.
8qoposee, rar rpasuno, qoctato+uo ctauneuo u neuetc neqneuuo, roatony tpyquo rpoqenouctpuposate, +to
rcuxocouaneuMe artopM seqyt r usneueuun s sqoposee.
n qenouctpauu qnuteneuoro snuuu ctpecca ua sqoposee ueoxoquno oeuute, +to rpoucxoqut cuctenatu+ecru s
te+euue orpeqeneuuoro speneuu. 3to noet rotpeosate rostopuMx sMopor u, sepotuo, oneaux uuaucosMx satpat,
xot roqouMe uccneqosauu noryt rposoqutec u rposoqtc +epes otuocuteneuo ropotrue repuoqM (cropee necM,
+en roqM), usy+a cunrtonM onesuu unu rpoctyqy (cn., uarpunep, De Longis, Folkman & Lazarus, 1988; Evans & Ed-
gerton, 1991).
Kputepuu sqopose otnu+aetc ueorpeqeneuuoctek; r rpunepy, rputepuu, ocuosauuMu ua qonronetuu, ucrnk+aet
uerotopMe qoctato+uo usuyputeneuMe saonesauu, torqa rar rputepuu, ocuosauuMu
ua couaneuon yuruouuposauuu, seqet r sarnk+euuk, +to +enoser c sMcorun rposuMn qasneuuen sqopos.
3tu artopM o+eue satpyqukt sMsneuue cssu neqy rcuxoco-' uaneuMnu artopanu u sqoposeen. Kar nM ysuqun s
cneqykaux pasqenax, uerotopMe uccneqosatenu c+utakt, +to y uux uet ocuosauuu ytsepqate, yqto un yqanoce
sMsute xot M c uerotopou qoctosepuoctek ctereue, xapartep u qae uanu+ue roqouou cssu.
Crpecc w wswvecxax onesns
0+eue tpyquo sMronuute osop toro orponuoro ronu+ectsa uccneqosauuu, rotopMe rosnktc s nequuucrou u
rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatype u racaktc ponu usueuuMx coMtuu, uerputuocteu u xpouu+ecrux ctpeccopos s auporon
crertpe onesueu. 3ta rnasa cocpeqoto+eua ua tpex pasnu+uMx acrertax, rotopMe unnkctpupykt nuoroopasue
roqxoqos.
8 pauuux uccneqosauux paccnatpusanoce rnasuMn opason sosqeuctsue sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu (cn. rnasy 2).
0quou us onacteu, paccnatpusaenMx uue, rotopa rpusneraet oneaoe suunauue, snetc csse neqy ctpeccon u
paron nono+uou enesM. 8qece seqytc ocoeuuo aprue cropM o snuuuu rcuxocouaneuMx artopos unu ero
otcytctsuu. 8topou paccnatpusaenMu uue acrert sosqeuctsue xpouu+ecrux ctpeccopos routpon uaq paotou u
rpoussoqctseuuMx tpeosauuu. Csse neqy atun artopon u cepqe+uo-cocyquctMnu saonesauunu uaxoqutc s
oryce ocooro suunauu. Tpetuu acrert usu+ecroro uesqopose, ocseaaenMu s atou rnase, rpoctyqa. |s-sa
pacrpoctpaueuuoctu u toro arta, +to oua snetc nerrun saonesauuen, ee uccneqosate rpoae, +en qpyrue onesuu.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
uanennme commu u pak
| cpequ auporou rynuru, u cpequ nequuucrux paotuuros Mtyet nueuue o uanu+uu cssu neqy ctpeccosMnu
cutyaunu u ua+a-^ e non parosoro saonesauu nono+uou enesM. larpunep, s uccneqosauuu, rotopoe rposenu
6arxect, 6arxect u Peroq (Baghurst, Baghurst & Record, 1992) cooaaetc, +to atou to+ru speuu rpuqepusaetc 40%
euauu, usyaux ua kre Asctpanuu, a Ctertoy u /oqn (Steptoe & Wardle, 1994) yctauosunu, +to ro+tu ronosuua sMopru
creuanuctos-nequros nuo conuesanace, nuo Mna ysepeua s ton, +to ctpecc suuoseu s rpoqyuposauuu para
nono+uou enesM.
peqctasneuue, +to anououaneuo tpesouMe coMtu crococtsykt scen suqan para, rpucytctsyet s nequuucrou
nutepatype, ua+uua c XIX sera. 8 nutepatype rosnnuce nuoro+ucneuuMe tenatu+ecrue cooaeuu, ronneutupykaue
+actoty, c rotopou ueratusuMe coMtu, rope u qerpeccu cssauM c ua+anon scex suqos parosMx saonesauuu (cn.
LeShan, 1959). epsoe ctatuctu+ecroe usy+euue atou cssu rpurucMsakt Cuoy (Snow, 1893), rotopMu uccneqosan s
ouqoue 250 oneuMx paron u cooaun, +to 156 us uux repeunu raroe-to rope, uerocpeqctseuuo rpeqaectsosasaee
onesuu, +acto rotepk nusroro poqctseuuura. e Lau ronaraet, +to ata rurotesa uc+esna us nutepatypM s ua+ane XX
sera, rorqa rporpecc s xupypruu u paquonoruu Mn uauonee nuorooeaakaun, qas uaqeqy ua to, +to rponena para
yqet peaeua. 8o stopou +etseptu sera uqe o sua+unoctu ytpatM s rpu+uuuoctu para rosnetc cuosa. 6oneauuctso
uccneqosauuu orte ocuosMsaktc ua rnuuu+ecrux uankqeuux. Ten ue neuee, e Lau otne+aet roctouctso, c rarun
s pasuMx ctpauax u s pasuoe spen spa+u uesasucuno orucMsanu csoux raueutos, ucronesy tarue orpeqeneuu, rar
ot+auue, esuaqeuocte, rotep peeura, rotep cyrpyra unu uec+acte, rotopMe raytc uerpeoqonunM-
nu. Can e Lau tare ouapyun, +to +actota parosMx saonesauuu u y+utMsakaux sospact yposueu cneptuoctu Mna
sMae cpequ rpyrr, rotopMe repeunu rotepk, uarpunep, uauoneaa +actotuocte Mna sMsneua y sqosos, sa
rotopMnu cneqosanu passeqeuuMe, coctoaue s pare u qanee oquuorue (LeShan & Worthington, 1956).
6onee cospeneuua paota, racakaac rpeqe scero para nono+uou enesM, a ue para sooae, tare ropoquna
nuoectso uccneqosauuu, rotopMe yrasMsakt ua uanu+ue csseu (uarpunep, Cooper, Cooper & Faragher, 1989; Geyer,
1991; Chenetal., 1995). larpunep, Kyrep, Kyrep u 1aparep (Cooper, Cooper & Faragher, 1989) uccneqosanu 1956 euauu,
roceaasaux ouronoru+ecrue rnuuuru c cunrtonanu oryxonu unu onesueuuoctu rpyqu, a tare 567 routponeuMx
y+actuu. epeq uccneqosauuen u quaruocturou euauuM saronunu orpocuur, s rotopon crpaausanoce o usueuuMx
coMtux s qsa rpeqaectsykaux roqa. 3ta noqene uccneqosauu ussectua rar orpauu+euuoe rpocrertusuoe
uccneqosauue. 6Mno ouapyeuo, +to uerotopMe usueuuMe coMtu, srnk+a cnepte nya unu nusrou roqpyru, Mnu
cssauM c onesuek u ee tectek. ose +aue c ronneranu (Chen et al., 1995) uccneqosan 119 euauu, uarpasneuuMx
ua uorcuk. / euauu panu uutepsek, ucronesy repe+eue usueuuMx coMtuu u tpyquocteu 6payua u Xappuca (Brown
& Harris, 1979) (cn. rnasy 2), repeq ten rar un ctasunu orpeqeneuuMu quaruos. |ccneqosatenu ouapyunu, +to 19 us 41
euauuM c quaruoson par repeunu rpauue yrpoakaue usueuuMe coMtu s te+euue rtu net repeq roctauosrou
quaruosa, s cpasueuuu c 15 us 78 routponeuMx y+actuu. 0tne+anc tare rosMaeuuMu pucr, cssauuMu c ynepeuuo
yrpoakaunu coMtunu, * uo ou otcytctsosan s cny+ae uesua+uteneuMx coMtuu.
0quaro uecnotp ua sck yequteneuocte atux pesynetatos, nuoectso uccneqosauuu, rotopMe ucronesosanu
auanoru+uMu roqxoq, ue cynenu ux roqtsepqute (cn., uarpunep, Muslin, Gyarfas & Pieper, 1966; Greer & Morris, 1975;
Protheroe et al., 1999). la rpoteuuu nuorux net, xot otqeneuMe uccneqosauu rpoqonakt uaxoqute cssu, osopM
nutepatypM (cn., uarpunep, Stolbach & Brandt, 1988), rar rpasuno, sarnk+akt, +to uneetc nano qorasatenects
sasucunoctu. oqnuuuo rpocrertusuMe uccneqosauu (s rotopMx sa nkqenu ua+uuakt uankqate eae qo rosneuu
cunrtonos) peqru, uo oquo Mno rposeqeuo ouc, lonq-natton u eouon (Jones, Goldblatt & Leon, 1984), rotopMe
rposepnu rurotesy, +to sqosM, repeus ytpaty, onee rpeqpacronoeuM r pary nono+uou enesM, +en qpyrue
euauuM. 6Mna ocneqosaua sMopra uaceneuu 8enuroputauuu, coctasnsaa 1%, u yctauosneuo, +to xot i j cpequ
sqos uesua+uteneuoe ysenu+euue yposu cneptuoctu ot para nono+uou enesM uneno necto, ouo ue Mno sua+unMn.
ose Mn rposeqeu netaauanus s rorMtre rpuutu r rarun-to sarnk+euun ua ocuosauuu atux rpotusope+usMx qauuMx.
etturpy, 1peusep u Purau (Petticrew, Fraser & Regan, 1999) paccnotpenu 29 uccneqosauuu cssu usueuuMx coMtuu u
para nono+uou enesM. |ccneqosauu orucauM rar sapeuposasaue ro rnauy rposeqeuu, uo sce srnk+anu
routponeuMe rpyrrM. 0euru coMtuu, rar rpasuno, ocuosMsanuce ua routponeuMx repe+ux (uarpunep, SRRS) unu
uutepsek (uarpunep LEDS; cn. rnasy 2). 8 enon sarnk+euue Mno cneqykaun: otcytctsykt uaqeuMe qorasatenectsa
cssu neqy ueratusuMnu usueuuMnu coMtunu u paron ua ocuosauuu auanusa uauonee ra+ectseuuMx
uccneqosauuu. 0quaro atot netaauanus sce-taru rorasan, +to raueutru c paron nono+uou enesM onee +en s qsa pasa
+aae, cpasuuteneuo c routponeuMnu y+actuuanu, cooaanu o ueratusuMx usueuuMx coMtux, xot sepotuocte
cooaeuu unu o tenou ytpate ue Mna oneaeu. Auanuturu rpeqronounu, oquaro, +to atot pesynetat noet Mte
oycnosneu netoqonoru+ecrunu ueqoctatranu. Korqa paccnatpusanuce tonero rte uauonee ra+ectseuuMx
uccneqosauuu, ouu ue sMsunu sua+uno oneaero pucra para.
etturpy, 1peusep u Purau (1999) tare ronarakt, +to unektc orpeqeneuuMe qauuMe, csuqetenectsykaue o
teuqeuuosuoctu rynurauu (cn. rnasy 2) s atou onactu, u +to uccneqosauu c pesynetatanu uue yposu sua+unoctu
rynuryktc pee. Kpone toro, orynurosauuMe uccneqosauu, rotopMe sMsnkt csse (uarpunep, Chen et al., 1995),
+aae ocseaaktc s CV|, ten canMn roqqepusa oaectseuuMe rpeqctasneuu.
Eae oquu netaauanus Mn rposeqeu Var-Keuuou u ero ronneranu (McKenna et al., 1999). 0uu paccnatpusanu neueayk u
so nuoron auanoru+uyk sMopry uccneqosauuu u sMsunu sua+unyk csse passutu para nono+uou enesM c tenMnu
usueuuMnu coMtunu u orMton ytpatM. 0quaro ouu tare rputurykt ucronesyenMe netoqonoru+ecrue roqxoqM u
qorasMsakt, +to ouapyeuuMe cssu corposoqaktc nuoro+ucneuuMnu orosopranu. 0uu sarnk+akt, +to pe-
synetatM s enon roqtsepqakt tonero ynepeuuyk csse neqy creuu+ecrunu rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u
paron nono+uou enesM, a tare, uecronero qsycnMcneuuo, +to pesynetatM rosopt rpotus tpaquuouuou to+ru
speuu, cornacuo rotopou... artopM ctpecca snukt ua passutue para nono+uou enesM (c. 528).
PeeuseutM +acto sMsnkt netoqonoru+ecrue ueqoctatru, rotopMe, orpeqeneuuo, noryt cnyute ocueuuen csseu,
ouapyusaenMx so nuorux uccneqosauux. Kar nM suqenu s rnase 2, netoqM, rotopMe orupaktc ua petpocrertusuoe
rpuronuuauue (uarpunep uccneqosauu cny+au-routpone), noryt Mte teuqeuuosuMnu, rocronery te, y roro
quaruoctupykt par, noryt Mte crnouuM eneuarpasneuuo sMucrusate usueuuMe coMtu, +toM ocuute csok
onesue. |cronesosauue orpauu+euuMx rpocrertusuMx uccneqosauuu (Chen et al., 1995), oeuusakaux usueuuMe
coMtu repeq roctauosrou quaruosa, snetc netoqonoru+ecrun ycosepaeuctsosauuen pauuux petpocrertusuMx
uccneqosauuu. Ten ue neuee, ouu ro-rpeueny yssunM qn rputuru: nkqu c cunrtonanu, rotopMe rose orpeqenkt
rar par, noryt ye unete cuneuoe roqospeuue s otuoaeuuu csoero quaruosa. oatony taroro poqa uccneqosauu noryt
Mte roqsepeuM sosqeuctsuk tex e canMx ucraakaux artopos, rotopMe snukt ua petpocrertusuMe
uccneqosauu.
8 oaen, y+utMsa rpotusope+usMe nutepatypuMe qauuMe u uecronero napruuaneuMe u ueorpeqeneuuMe pesynetatM
netaauanusa, tpyquo ue rpuutu r cneqykaeny sarnk+euuk. la qauuMu noneut nM rpocto ue suaen uasepura,
sMsMsakt unu uet usueuuMe coMtu par nono+uou enesM. 0quaro tare sepotuo, +to ecnu aert uneet necto, ou,
cropee scero, o+eue nan ro cpasueuuk c snuuuen uonoru+ecrux artopos. leyequteneuMe pesynetatM +acto
ocukt netoqonoru+ecrunu ueqoctatranu, uo ato rpoucxoqut rotony, +to ucrnk+uteneuo tpyquo rporoutponuposate
sce sosnouMe rponeyto+uMe repeneuuMe. o-suqunony, tpeyetc oaupua arana u qonrospeneuuoe rpo-
crertusuoe uccneqosauue, oeuusakaee nuoectso coMtuu unu ctpeccopos qo rosneuu cunrtonos. oqouoe
uccneqosauue yqet rpauue qoporoctoaun u noet ro-rpeueny octasute sorpoc otrpMtMn. larpunep, Var-u
(McGee, 1999) yrasMsaet, +to rpu+uuuMe artopM noryt qeuctsosate s te+euue nuorux net qo roctauosru quaruosa,
roatony tpyquo ucrnk+ute sosnouocte, +to usueuuMe coMtu ycropkt passutue para unu snukt ua sepotuocte
quaruosa.
Tarue e aprue cropM seqytc ro rosoqy toro, snukt nu usueuuMe coMtu ue tonero ua uuuuuposauue, uo tare ua
passutue u peuqusM para nono+uou enesM. 0rte e, pesynetatM sqece octaktc ueyequteneuMnu (Jensen, 1991).
Kpone aertos usueuuMx coMtuu uutepec tare sMsMsaet poqctseuuMu sorpoc o sauoctu anououaneuMx
coctouuu (uarpunep qerpeccuu) unu nu+uoctuMx xapartepuctur (tarux rar sMtecueuue anouu) s rpu+uuuoctu u
peuqusax para nono+uou enesM. etaneuMu osop atux uccneqosauuu sMxoqut sa panru uactoaeu rnasM, oquaro
netaauanus Var-KeuuM u ero ronner ue roqtsepqun rurotesM, cornacuo rotopou raueutru c paron nono+uou enesM
ucrMtMsakt rosMaeuuyk tpesory unu qerpeccuk, nuo tpyquoctu c sMpaeuuen ruesa. Ten ue neuee, atu astopM
rony+unu sua+unMe pesynetatM, rorasMsakaue, +to raueutru c paron nono+uou enesM, rar rpasuno, rpeoqonesakt,
ctpecc c ronoaek ctpateruu otpuauu unu sMtecueuu, uo rpu aton tare sMsneuM netoqonoru+ecrue ueqoctatru u,
ro-suqunony, ueoxoqunM qoronuuteneuMe uccneqosauu. potusope+usMe qauuMe rony+euM tare s otuoaeuuu
ycrexa rcuxocouaneuMx sneaatenects s cuueuuu cneptuoctu. 3tot sorpoc ocyqaetc qanee s rnase 11.
0qua us tpyquocteu, c rotopou ctanrusaktc uccneqosatenu rpu oeure sosqeuctsu usueuuMx coMtuu, ato (rar
yrasMsaet Var-u, 1999) oneaa pacrnMs+atocte rurotes. XusueuuMe coMtu u qae taroe oquuo+uoe coMtue, rar
tena ytpata, oxsatMsakt o+eue auporuu crertp repeusauuu. 8 cneqykaen pasqene paccnatpusaktc uecronero
uccneqosauuu, roueutpupykaux suunauue rpeqe scero ua qsyx xpouu+ecrux rpoussoqctseuuMx ctpeccopax.
Xponuveckue npouaeodcmeennme cmpeccopm u cepdevno-cocyducmme aaoneeanu
posoqutc nuoectso uccneqosauuu, usy+akaux cssu neqy qsyn +actuMnu acrertanu rpoussoqctseuuoro ctpecca
(rpoussoqctseuuMnu tpeosauunu u routponen) u sqoposeen. 3to so nuoron oycnosneuo rorynpuoctek noqenu
pao+ero uarpeuu Kapacera (Karasek's job strain model), rotopa rpeqronaraet, +to atu qsa acrerta ocoeuuo sauM
qn rporuosuposauu uarpeuu. Cornacuo Kapacery, paota, rotopa otnu+aetc sMcorunu tpeosauunu (sMcorou
pao+eu uarpysrou u tenron) u uaq rotopou canu ucronuutenu unekt ueoneaou routpone (uarpunep, uaq ten, +to u
rorqa ouu qenakt), snetc sMcoro uarpeuuou. (3ta noqene u ee sua+euue qn rpoussoqctseuuoro ctpecca
paccnatpusaktc roqpouee s rnase 9.) Pauuue aruqenuonoru+ecrue uccneqosauu Kapacera u ero ronner (uarpunep,
Alfredsson, Karasek & Theorell, 1982; Karasek et al., 1981) rorasanu, +to co+etauue atux qsyx repeneuuMx qeuctsuteneuo
rporuosupyet cepqe+uoe saonesauue. 3tu repeneuuMe terepe +acto ucronesyktc s paotax, rpeqctasneuuMx u s
nequuucrou, u s rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatype, ropoqus oneayk u cnouyk cosoryruocte uccneqosauuu. Ckqa
otuocutc usy+euue: rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u (cn. rnasy 9); nMae+uMx u roctuMx saonesauuu (Skov, Borg &
Orhede, 1996; Krause et al., 1997); uenarorputuoro ucxoqa epeneuuoctu (Brandt & Nielsen, 1992); para tonctou ruaru
(Courtney, Longnecker & Peters, 1996) u yrotpeneuu uaproturos (Storr, Trmkoff & Anthony, 1999).
0quaro uauoneaee ronu+ectso uccneqosauuu paccnatpusaet csse neqy atunu rpoussoqctseuuMnu ctpeccopanu u
cepqe+uo-cocyquctMnu saonesauunu (cardiovascular disease, CVD) u corytctsykaunu artopanu pucra (uarpunep
rosMaeuuoe rposuoe qasneuue). Pq oaupuMx aruqenuonoru+ecrux uccneqosauuu terepe cootuocut +actoty cepqe+-
uMx saonesauuu u cneptuoctu ot CVD c suqon sautoctu. 8a+actyk atu uccneqosauu oeuusakt rpoussoqctseuuMe
ctpeccopM nkqeu, ucronesy netoqonoruk, rotopa rnaccuuupyet uuqusuqyynos ro rorasatenn pao+ux uarpeuuu
(c to+ru speuu yposu tpeosauuu u routpon) s cootsetctsuu c uauneuosauunu ux rpoeccuu. Tar, r rpunepy, scex
ouuautos nouo paccnatpusate rar unekaux paoty c uusrun routponen u sMcorunu tpeosauunu. C qpyrou
ctopouM, uerotopMe uccneqosauu oeuusakt rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM, ucronesy onee cyertusuMu netoq,
rorqa uuqusuqyynos rpoct oeuute rpucyaue ux paote yposuu tpeosauuu u routpon. |cronesy repsMu netoq,
Anpeqccou, Kapacer u Teopenn (Alfredsson, Karasek & Theorell, 1982) ouapyunu, +to ecrorouua paota s co+etauuu
c uusrun routponen cssaua c onee sMcorou +actotou cepqe+uMx saonesauuu. puneu stopou netoq, oucou, Xonn
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
u Teopenn (Johnson, Hall & Theorell, 1989) yctauosunu, +to uauoneauu pucr Mn s cny+ae usonuposauuou paotM c
sMcorunu tpeosauunu u uusrun routponen.
posoqutc tare oneaoe ronu+ectso uccneqosauuu, cootuocaux ocoeuuoctu paotM c artopanu pucra, rotopMe
rpucytctsykt rpu cepqe+uo-cocyquctMx saonesauux (cn. rnasy 3), tarunu rar sMcoroe rposuoe qasneuue (cn.,
uarpunep, Brisson et al., 1999; Fletcher & Jones, 1993; Fox, Dwyer & Ganster, 1993) unu yposuu aqpeuanuua u roptusona
(cn., uarpunep, Pollard et al., 1996; Fox, Dwyer & Ganster, 1993). 1orc, yauep u lauctep s csoen uccneqosauuu
nequuucrux cectep yctauosunu, +to ronuuau sMcorux tpeosauuu u uusroro routpon rossonna rpeqcrasMsate u
sua+euu rposuoro qasneuu, u yposuu roptusona. 0quaro 1net+ep u ouc ro sMopre us pasuopoquMx rpoeccuu ue
sMsunu rarux-nuo csseu neqy routponen u rposuMn qasneuuen, a tan, rqe ouapyusanuce cssu c tpeosauunu,
ouu (cssu) unenu uarpasneuue, rpotusoronouoe tony, rotopoe rpeqcrasMsanoce (t. e. paotuuru, qeteneuocte
rotopMx xapartepusosanace neueaunu tpeosauunu, unenu onee sMcoroe rposuoe qasneuue).
Kpone toro, ussectuo ueoneaoe ronu+ectso arcrepuneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu, rotopMe usneunu yposuu pao+ero
uarpeuu s naopatopuu u usy+anu csse c rpatrospeneuuMnu usuonoru+ecrunu uuquratopanu, rotopMe y+actsykt s
passutuu CVD (cn. rnasy 3). Ckqa otuoctc +actota cepqeueuu u yposeue roptusona (Perrewe & Ganster, 1989;
Steptoe et al., 1993). K rpunepy, Ctertoy c ronneranu yctauosun, +to y ny+uu cpequux net otne+anuce onee sanetuMe
reperaqM rposuoro qasneuu, rorqa ouu ue nornu routponuposate tenr sMronueuu naopatopuMx saqauuu,
srnk+asaux peaeuue saqa+ u sMronueuue pucyura c ronoaek seprana. 0quaro tenr nano snun ua yposeue roptusona,
rosson rpeqronoute, +to tenr paotM orasMsaet ueroe creuu+ecroe sosqeuctsue ua cepqe+uo-cocyquctoe
yuruouuposauue.
leoxoqunocte sceoennkaero netaauanusa unu cuctenatu+ecroro osopa qasuo uaspena, uo y+utMsa pasnu+ue
rorasateneu u otcytctsue cpasueuuu neqy uccneqosauunu, rposectu ux yqet o+eue tpyquo (Knstensen, 1995). 0quaro
Luann, auqcepruc u 6eurep (Schnall, Landsbergis & Baker, 1994) rposenu osop nutepatypM, otuocaeuc r CVD. 0uu
sasnkt, +to nutepatypa orpeqeneuuo yrasMsaet ua rpu+uuuyk csse neqy pao+un uarpeuuen u CVD. 0quaro
rorqa usy+aktc rnasuMe aertM, 17 us 25 uccneqosauuu qenouctpupykt sua+unMe cssu neqy quarasouon
rpoussoqctseuuMx peaeuuu u rocneqctsuen, torqa rar tonero 8 us 23 uccneqosauuu yrasMsakt ua sua+unMe cssu
neqy tpeosauunu u rocneqctsuen. pyroe oaupuoe uccneqosauue Anetepnaua c ronneranu (Alterman et al., 1994),
rposeqeuuoe rocne atoro osopa, tare csuqetenectsyet o oneaeu sua+unoctu routpon s cneptuoctu ot ropouapuou
onesuu cepqa. lecronero ueqasuux uccneqosauuu toe sMsunu aert tpeosauuu, uo rpotusoronouMu tony,
rotopMu rpeqcrasMsanc (cn., uarpunep, Alterman et al., 1994; Hlatky etal., 1995; Steenland, Johnson &Nowlin, 1997).
o ueqasuero speneuu oneauuctso uccneqosauuu ucronesosano sMopru ny+uu, u c+utanoce, +to rpuuta noqene
xye roqxoqut qn euauu, uo orte e nM uneen sqece rounurtykaue pesynetatM. larpunep, 8auquep c ronneranu
(Weidner et al., 1997) yctauosun, +to paota c sMcorunu tpeosauunu/uusrun routponen ue Mna cssaua c ysenu+euuen
nequuucrux cunrtonos u spequMnu rpusM+ranu s sMopre ny+uu, uo ue euauu. 0quaro onee rosquee uccneqo-
sauue Anura c ronneranu (Amick et al., 1998) sce-taru ouapyuno, +to sMcorue tpeosauu u uusruu routpone, snecte c
nanou roqqeprou, rpeqorpeqennu y euauu xyqaee coctouue sqopose. Kpone toro, 6puccou c ronneranu (Brisson et
al., 1999) yctauosun, +to ronuuau oneaou ceneuuou otsetctseuuoctu u paotM, tpeykaeu sMcororo uarpeuu,
Mna cssaua c rosMaeuuMn rposuMn qasneuuen y sMcoro opasosauuMx euauu, sautMx ua routopcrux qonuoctx.
Kar u cneqosano ouqate, atu rynurauu roqseprnuce nuoro+ucneuuou rputure. K rpunepy, +acto sMqsuraetc
osuueuue, +to uccneqosauue ue crocouo rpuute so suunauue snuuue couaneuoro rnacca (Muntaner & O'Campo,
1993). pyrue rputurykt to, rar orepauouaneuo orpeqenktc rnk+esMe routu tpeosauuu u routpon, ronara, +to
ouu cnuaron pacrnMs+atM u sceoxsatMsakau (cn., uarpunep, Jones et al., 1998). Kpone toro, Kpucteuceu (Kristensen,
1996) yrasMsaet, +to qsa netoqa oeuru pao+ero uarpeuu rnaccuuupykt oquux u tex e nkqeu aconktuo ro-
pasuony. pyrue rputu+ecrue sane+auu ocyqaktc s rnase 9.
Tarun opason, ua ocuosauuu atou nutepatypM tpyquo cqenate cuMu sMsoq. 0quaro 8au qep ou u Vaue (Van der
Doef & Maes, 1998) s osope, rotopMu ue pasrpauu+usaet aertM tpeosauuu u routpon, sarnk+akt, +to auanus
pasnu+uMx cosoryruocteu, netoqos usnepeuu u rnauuposauu paotM s sua+uteneuou ctereuu roqtsepqaet rurotesy,
cornacuo rotopou paota c sMcorunu tpeosauunu u uusrun routponen crococtsyet CVD. laaa to+ra speuu coctout s
cneqykaen: tan, rqe qorasatenectsa unektc, ouu, ro-suqunony, yrasMsakt rpeqe scero, ua sauocte routpon uaq
paotou, a ue tpeosauuu. Xot qauuMe s atou onactu rpoqonakt uararnusatec, ueoxoquna qaneueuaa paota
(srnk+a ysenu+euue ronu+ectsa naopatopuMx uccneqosauuu), +toM sMcuute, rarue creuu+ecrue acrertM
routpon noryt Mte sauM, uarpunep: saeu nu routpone uaq tenron paotM unu e onee sauoe snuuue orasMsaet
oaee y+actue s rpuutuu peaeuu?
0cuxocoquansnme akmopm u npocmyda
Poct ronu+ectsa qauuMx o snuuuu ctpeccopos ua unnyuuoe yuruouuposauue crococtsosan rosMaeuuk uutepeca r
sosqeuctsun tarux artopos, rar usueuuMe coMtu, nenrue uerputuoctu, socrputue ctpecca u uueruouuMe
onesuu (Cohen & Williamson, 1991). Koau u /unnencou yrasMsakt, +to c enek ycreauoro rporuosuposauu onesueu
ua ocuosauuu atux rorasateneu ueoxoquno unete qoctato+uo sMcoroe pacrpoctpaueuue onesuu s usy+aenou sMopre.
3to rpuseno r tony, +to s uccneqosatenecrou nutepatype ctanu qenate areut ua usy+euuu pacrpoctpaueuuMx
saonesauuu, tarux rar rpoctyqa (uacnopr), rpurr u reprec.
Cneqyet otnetute, +to s usy+euuu uueruu qenakt pasnu+ue neqy uuuuposauuoctek u uanu+uen artu+ecrux
cunrtonos. 8 cny+ae rpoctyqM rnuuu+ecrue rposneuu uacnopra sosuuraet tonero y +actu tex, rto uuuuposau.
|ueruk nouo ouapyute c ronoaek auanusa rposu. auuMe o uanu+uu rnuuu+ecrou rpoctyqM sasuct ot oeuru
sueauux cunrtonos, nuo cooaaenou y+actuuron uccneqosauu, nuo rony+aenou, uarpunep, ryten usnepeuu
(ssseausauu) naccM cnusu.
6oneaoe ronu+ectso uccneqosauuu, ucronesykaux pasnu+uMe netoqonoruu, qenouctpupyet csse neqy ctpeccopanu u
rpoctyqoa pocrertusuMe uccneqosauu, ucronesykaue oeuru ceneuuMx ctpec- * copos (tarux rar usueuuMe
coMtu) u ceneuuoe yuruouuposauue, rorasMsakt, +to atu artopM rporuosupykt +actoty sosuuruoseuu
quaruoctu+ecru roqtsepqeuuMx rpoctyqM u rpurra y +neuos ceneu (cn., uarpunep, Clover etal., 1989; Graham, Douglas &
Ryan, 1986). oscequesuMe ctpeccopM tare Mnu usy+euM 3saucon u 3qepto-uon (Evans & Edgerton, 1991), rotopMe
rorpocunu 100 +enoser saronute eequesuMu orpocuur s te+euue 10 ueqene, sa rotopMe y 17 +enoser rosunace
rpoctyqa (uacnopr). |ccneqosatenu yctauosunu, +to +actota narorputuMx coMtuu yneueaanace s te+euue ueqenu,
uerocpeqctseuuo rpeqaectsosasaeu ua+any rpoctyqM (ato Mno uassauo +etMpexquesuou yMnek enateneuoctu), u
+to y+aaanuce uerputuoctu unu ueratusuMe coMtu. 8 +actuoctu, otcytctsosanu couaneua roqqepra u nusocte, u
unenu necto uauonee cepeesuMe uerputuoctu, cssauuMe c nenu+uoctuMnu rponenanu.
Anetepuatusua uuteprpetau cooaaenMx csseu neqy ctpeccopanu u rpoctyqou noet csoqutec r cneqykaeny:
nkqu, rotopMe repeusakt nuoro ctpeccosMx coMtuu, +aae sctyrakt s routart c supycon rpoctyqM. 0quu us crocoos,
rarunu uccneqosatenu rMtaktc qoutec oneaero routpon uaq sosnouMnu rponeyto+uMnu repeneuuMnu s atou
onactu, ato ucronesosate rsasuarcrepuneutaneuMu roqxoq. Kar rpasuno, s tarux uccneqosauux sqoposMe
uuqusuqyynM saronukt petpocrertusuMe orpocuuru o rcuxocouaneuMx artopax, repeq ten rar roqsepruytec
routponupyenony sosqeuctsuk supyca rpoctyqM. Koau u /unnencou (Cohen & Williamson, 1991) s csoen osope
uasMsakt roqouMe rsasuarcrepuneutaneuMe uccneqosauu supycuo-ucrMtateneuMnu (viral-challenge). 3tu uc-
cneqosauu rpuuoct cneaauuMe u, rar rpasuno, qoctato+uo orpauu+euuMe qauuMe o snuuuu ctpecca ua
socrpuun+usocte r rpoctyqe, sosnouo, us-sa csoux netoqonoru+ecrux ueqoctatros. 0quaro s uerotopMx ueqasuux
cooaeuux rpusoqtc onee yequteneuMe qauuMe.
8 8enuroputauuu roqouMe uccneqosauu rposoqunuce s Concepu s uMue uecyaectsykaen otqeneuuu rpoctyqM
Konuteta ro nequuucrun uccneqosauun (Medical Research Council). 8 csoux uccneqosauux Koau u ero ronneru (cn.,
uarpunep, Cohen, Tyrell & Smith, 1991b; Cohen, Tyrell & Smith, 1993) uauunanu sqoposMx qoposonees, rotopMe qonuM
Mnu rposectu s otqeneuuu uecronero ueqene. o rpuMtuu ouu saronunu petpocrertusuMe orpocuuru, racasauec
sauMx usueuuMx coMtuu, socrputu ctpecca u ueratusuMx anouu, a tare snukaux ua sqoposee rpusM+er. n
unnyuuou oeuru tare panuce auanusM rposu. 8aten oquou rpyrre qoposonees sararMsanu s uoc rarnu,
coqepasaue ueoneayk qosy oquoro us rtu supycos rpoctyqM. osM cootsetctsosanu ten, rotopMe nkqu oM+uo
rony+akt rpu repeqa+e uueruu ot +enosera r +enosery. leoneaony +ucny y+actuuros s routponeuMx ycnosux
snecto supyca qasanu conecoqepaaue rarnu. lu uccneqosatenu, uu qoposoneM ue suanu, rony qanu supyc, a rony
rarnu c conek. /+actuuru coqepanuce s rapautuue, nuo s oquuo+ectse, nuo c oquun-qsyn qpyrunu qoposoneanu, s
te+euue qsyx queu qo supycuoro ucrMtauu u cene queu rocne uero. 8ce ato spen ouu rpoxoqunu eequesuMe rposepru
ua uanu+ue rpusuaros u cunrtonos. Cryct 28 queu panuce rostopuMe auanusM rposu.
Koau, Taupenn u Cnut (Cohen, Tyrell & Smith,1991b) cooaunu, +to us 394 y+actuuros, roqseprauxc sosqeuctsuk
supycos, uuuuposauuMnu orasanuce 82%, a rnuuu+ecra rpoctyqa rosunace y 38%. |s 26 +enoser s routponeuou
rpyrre uuuuposauuMnu orasanuce tonero 19%, u uurto us uux ue rorasan rnuuu+ecrux rpusuaros rpoctyqM.
Cooaeuu o rcuxonoru+ecron ctpecce qo sosqeuctsu supyca (rony+euuMe c ronoaek ronuuuposauuoro rorasaten,
ocuosauuoro ua usueuuMx coMtux, socrpuuunaenon ctpecce u ueratusuMx anoux) Mnu cssauM c y+aaeuuen
pecrupatopuou uueruu ro rpuuury qosa-pearu, t. e. qn raqoro ysenu+euu rorasaten ctpecca unenu necto
cootsetctsykaee ysenu+euue rpoeuta y+actuuros c rpoctyqou! orasatenu ctpecca Mnu cssauM c uuerueu tecuee,
+en c rnuuu+ecrunu onesunu. 0aue pesynetatM octasanuce tenu e u torqa, rorqa rpuuunanuce so suunauue yposuu
unnyuuteta, snukaue ua sqoposee rpusM+ru u nu+uoctuMe repeneuuMe (canooeura, nu+uMu routpone u uutposep-
cu/arctpasepcu).
|cronesy ty e sMopry, Koau, Taupenn u Cnut (1993) usy+unu ooconeuuMe aertM ctpeccosMx usueuuMx
coMtuu, socrpuuunaenoro ctpecca u ueratusuMx anouu. 0uu rpuanu r sMsoqy, +to cssu neqy usueuuMnu
coMtunu u rpoctyqou u neqy socrpuuunaenMn ctpeccon u rpoctyqou orocpeqyktc pasuMnu rpoeccanu.
lecamue+ee us+e++ee coemu+ enu ce+sa+e c noeeae++ou vacmomou |nu+uvec|ux saoneea+uu, ama ce+se onocpedoeanace
cnae+ev opasov ,eenuve+uev cuvnmovoe cpedu u+u(upoea++ex nsdeu. 3ocnpu+uvaeveu cmpecc u +ecamue+ee avo(uu ma|e
enu ce+sa+e c |nu+uvec|uvu ones++vu, +o amu ce+su enu o,cnoene+e e oc+oe+ov ,cune++ou u+e|(ueu (c. 138).
Koau c ronneranu ouapyun, +to usueuuMe coMtu rporuosuposanu onesue, qae rorqa socrputue ctpecca u
ueratusuMe anouu, a tare snukaue ua sqoposee rpusM+ru routponuposanuce. 3to ctasut roq conueuue
pacrpoctpaueuuoe qoryaeuue, +to sosqeuctsue usueuuMx coMtuu snuet ua sqoposee +epes +ysctsa u anouu.
larpotus, nouo rpeqronoute, +to usueuuMe coMtu crocouM sMsMsate rpoctyqy, qae ecnu nM ue ocosuaen
+ysctsa ctpecca, tarue rar tpesora unu roqasneuuocte. onuM nu nM ucrMtMsate +ysctso ctpecca, +toM ou rosnun i
uaae sqoposee, sorpoc, rotopMu ocyqaetc so spesre 4.1.
epexoq r eae onee qetaneuony usy+euuk ctpeccopos, y+actsykaux s passutuu rpoctyqM, Koau c ronneranu (Cohen et
al., 1998) s uccneqosauuu, rposeqeuuon s CLA, yctauosun, +to c sosuuruoseuuen rpoctyqM cssauM orpeqeneuuMe turM
ctpeccopos. 8 aton uccneqosauuu c ronoaek LEDS oeuusanuce u octpMe, u xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM. Kpone toro,
oeuusanuce artopM nu+uoctu u couaneuMe routartM. Kar u s rpeqMqyaux uccneqosauux, y+actuuros roqsepranu
sosqeuctsuk supyca, rpu+en rpusuaru uueruu u rnuuu+ecrou rpoctyqM Mnu ouapyeuM y cxoero +ucna
ucrMtyenMx. |ccneqosatenu yctauosunu, +to octpMe ctpeccopM (sosqeuctsue rotopMx rpoqonanoce neuee neca) ue
ysenu+usanu sepotuocte rpoctyqM, uo onee yctou+usMe, xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM Mnu cssauM c rosMaeuuou
socrpuun+usoctek. 3to rposnnoce rnasuMn opason s oneaen ronu+ectse cny+aes rpoctyqM cpequ
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
uuuuposauuMx nkqeu. Cana cuneua csse Mna ouapyeua qn nenu+uoctuMx rounurtos u

E(e od+a nponeva c no++muev cmpecc cocmoum e mov, vmo +e coecev +c+o, +eoxoduvo nu +av ucnemeeame v,ecmeo cmpecca,
vmoe nodeepcamec+ eosdeucmeus cmpecca. 3 non,n+p+ov npedcmaene+uu o cmpecce uvnnu(um+o npuc,mcme,em ude+, vmo ve
voev coo(ame mone|o o v,ecmee. 3mo don,(e+ue ma|e neum e oc+oee ucnonesoea+u+ onpoc+u|oe-cavoomvemoe, ma|ux |a|
GHQ. Dd+a|o v+ocue uccnedoeamenu paccvampueasm ma|e ce+su ved, cmpeccopavu u sdopoeeev (+anpuvep, ce+sa+e nu
us+e++ee coemu+ c npocm,dou), +e ,vumeea+ o(e+|u ducmpecca u mpeeocu. o-euduvov,, amo npomueopevum
moa+sa|(uo+ane+ov, nodxod, asap,ca | cmpecc, (cv. cnae, 2), e |omopov o(e+|a +en+emc+ (e+mpane+ev |ovno+e+mov.
Dd+a|o mp,d+ocme c npu+(unov o(e+|u u eco npuve+e+u+ e cavoomvemax cocmoum e mov, vmo amo mpe,em ocos+a+u+ o(e+|u,
mocda |a|asa-p,c nonacaem, vmo u+dueud,,v voem +e ocos+aeame |a|ue-nuo unu | ece aneve+me o(e+|u. D+ cvumaem, vmo e
da++ov cn,vae voem deucmeoeame vexa+usv sa(ume. Ddu+ us npuvepoe nodo+oco vexa+usva, cmpamecu+ eemec+e+u+,
oc,daemc+ e cnaee 7. Ecnu +em +eoxoduvocmu e cos+amene+ou o(e+|e cmpeccopoe, mocda uveem cvecn usvep+me ce+se ved,
cmpeccopavu u +anp+e+u+vu es o+samene+oco paccvompe+u+ moco, |a| enu+em eocnpu+mue cmpecca +a mpeeoc,. Tev cavev
eonpoce: 3ed,m nu | ones+u ma|ue cmpeccope, |a| us+e++ee coemu+? u 3edem nu | ones+u v,ecmeo cmpecca u mpeeocu?
+en+smc+ de,v+ pas+evu, xom+ u ce+sa++e-vu, eonpocavu. | coane+us, pacnneevameu xapa|mep no++mu+ cmpecc os+avaem,
vmo amo pascpa+uve+ue vacmo +e ocoeapueasm. 0avoomveme c -+en+smc+ u+du|amopov mone|o od+oco: eed,m | ,x,dae+us
sdopoee+. |a| ve eudenu e cnaee 2, uccnedoeamenu cvumasm, vmo cmpeccope cned,em usvep+me +esaeucuvo om o(e+o|. e++ocme
amoco nodxoda devo+cmpup,sm |oa+, Taupenn u 0vum (Cohen, Tyrell & Smith, 1993).
8pesra 4.1. onuM nu nM ucrMtMsate ctpecc unu tpesory, +toM usueuuMe coMtu unu qpyrue ctpeccopM rpu+uuunu speq
sqoposek?

rpoussoqctseuuMx ctpeccopos (s ocoeuuoctu qn cutyauu, rorqa +enoser ue unen paotM unu Mn saut ueronuoe
spen). 0quaro eseutane, atpur-Vunnep u eseutane (Leventhal, Patrick-Miller & Leventhal, 1998) yrasMsakt, +to
sMcora rnata sa y+actue noet osua+ate, +to uccneqosauue rpusnerno nkqeu c roqouMnu rponenanu. Kpone toro,
uerotopMe artM csuqetenectsosanu, +to nkqn, unesaun xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM, sosqeuctsue octporo coMtu, s
cyauoctu, oecre+usano orpeqeneuuyk saauty, sosnouo, otsnera ot xpouu+ecrou rponenM. Xot uccneqosauue
sMsuno, +to uutposeptM u nkqu c orpauu+euuMnu couaneuMnu routartanu uuuuposanuce +aae, ato ue otpaanoce
ua cssu ctpeccop uarpeuue (t. e. atun artopan Mn rpucya tonero rpnou aert).
8Msoq, r rotopony rpuanu Koau, Taupenn u Cnut, +to xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM snktc uauonee sauMn turon
ctpeccopos, y+actsykaux s sosuuruoseuuu rpoctyqM, rpotusope+ut paote 3sauca u 3qeptoua (Evans & Edgerton,
1991), ocyqeuuou sMae, rotopa yrasMsaet ua sauocte nenrux uerputuocteu s quu, rpeqaectsykaue rosneuuk
rpoctyqM. Koau, Taupenn u Cnut ronarakt, +to ato noet Mte oycnosneuo pasuMnu suqanu usy+aenMx coMtuu, rorqa
octpMe coMtu, usnepenMe c ronoaek LEDS, uanuoro onee cepeesuM, +en roscequesuMe socrputu nenrux
uerputuocteu.
lerotopMe ueqasuue uccneqosauu tare csuqetenectsykt, +to rosutusuMe usueuuMe coMtu noryt Mte eae onee
sauMnu, +en ueratusuMe. K rpunepy, Ctoyu u ero ronneru (Stone et al., 1992) yctauosunu, +to rpoctyqy rporuosupykt
cropee rosutusuMe, +en ueratusuMe coMtu, a 3sauc c ronneranu (Evans et al., 1996) ouapyun, +to rocneqykaee
rosneuue rpoctyqM rpeqorpeqennu tonero rosutusuMe coMtu. oqouo Koauy, Taupenny u Cnuty (1993), ouu
ouapyunu, +to canoot+etM o socrputuu ctpecca ue Mnu cssauM c rpoctyqou, u +to aert ue ocunc rpusM+-
ranu, snukaunu ua sqoposee. Kpone toro, ouu c+utakt, +to csse uenes ronuoctek ocuute ten, +to nkqu, unesaue
rosutusuMe coMtu, couaneuo artusuee u roqsepraktc oneaeny sosqeuctsuk ratoreuos. Tarun opason, ne-
xauusnM atou cssu uecuM. 0quaro ato uccneqosauue qaet qoronuuteneuMe roqtsepqeuu to+re speuu, cornacuo
rotopou socrputue ctpecca noet ue Mte rnk+esMn sorpocon.
8 enon, Koau c ronneranu (1998) ronaraet, +to uccneqosauu, ucronesykaue cnouMe netoqonoruu, rpuuoct
yequteneuMe qorasatenectsa cssu qosa-pearu neqy rcuxonoru+ecrun ctpeccon (orpeqenenMn s tepnuuax
ueratusuMx coMtuu u aertusuMx coctouuu, rotopMe ouu sMsMsakt) u sepotuoctek rosneuu rpoctyqM.
8ocrputue ctpecca ue scerqa snetc peaakaun. o-suqunony, anououaneuMu quctpecc cssau c rosMaeuuMn
pucron uueruu, a usueuuMe coMtu, s ton +ucne rosutusuMe, cssauM c artu+ecrun rosneuuen rpoctyqM.
8oavoanme vexanuavm, neaaue e ocnoee ceau veady cmpeccopavu u uauveckuv
adopoesev u oneansm
Ctertoy (Steptoe, 1991) uqeutuuupyet qse ocuosuMe cssu, rocpeqctson rotopMx ctpeccosMe pearuu noryt snute ua
sqoposee.
Koruutusuo-roseqeu+ecruu ryte. Ctertoy c+utaet, +to roruutusuMe, aertusuMe u roseqeu+ecrue acrertM ctpeccosou
pearuu noryt orasMsate snuuue ua sqoposee, rotopoe (snuuue) ue sasucut ot rarux M to uu Mno rpnMx usuonoru-
+ecrux aertos. larpunep, rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM noryt sectu r tony, +to +enoser, ucrMtMsakauu tpesory
(aertusuMu aneneut), peaaet, +to curapeta ronoet eny paccnautec u ny+ae crpasutec co ctpeccon (roruutusuMu
aneneut), u roatony ryput oneae (roseqeu+ecruu aneneut). Tarun opason, sosuuruoseuue cssauuoro c rypeuuen
pacctpouctsa snetc rocseuuMn aerton rypeuu, a ue rpnMn aerton pearuu ua rpoussoqctseuuMe ctpeccopM.
8 nutepatype atot suq cssu +acto orucMsakt rar orocpeqosauue (mediation) t. e. rypeuue orocpeqyet csse neqy
ctpeccopanu u sqoposeen. (0rocpeqosauue ocyqaetc roqpouee s rnase 6.)
cuxousuonoru+ecruu ryte. 3tot ryte otnu+aetc cnouoctek, u Ctertoy uqeutuuuposan tpu tura y+actsykaux s
uen usuonoru+ecrux rpoeccos. K rpunepy, rpu ctpecce noet unete necto rurepartusua pearu ato usMto+ua
usuonoru+ecra pearu, u oua noet crococtsosate sosuuruoseuuk onesuu. larpunep, rosMaeuue rposuoro
qasneuu, rar pearu ua ctpecc, noet rpeqorpeqente rposuoe qasneuue s yqyaen. 8o-stopMx, rurepartusuocte no-
et qectaunusuposate cyaectsykaue onesueuuMe rpoeccM, ooctp onesue (taryk rar quaet). 8-tpeteux,
ctpeccopM noryt orasMsate sosqeuctsue ua unnyuuyk pearuk, r rpunepy, rocpeqctson csoero snuuu ua auqorpuuuyk
cucteny. 8 aton cny+ae ctpeccopM cssauM c onesuek +epes rouueuue corpotusneuu.
8o nuorux us sMaeorucauuMx uccneqosauuu paccnatpusanuce sosnouMe nexauusnM, ocukaue cyaectsykaue
cssu. Tar, s uccneqosauux Koaua, Taupenna u Cnuta (1991b) routponupyktc aertM snukaux ua sqoposee
rpusM+er rpu oeure cssu neqy usueuuMnu coMtunu u onesuek. Vuorue uccneqosauu tare rpuerakt r
usuonoru+ecrun usnepeuun, uarpunep rposuoro qasneuu unu r usnepeuun unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu, +toM
usy+ute atu nexauusnM (uarpunep, Cohen, Tyre & Smith, 1991b, 1993; Cohen et al, 1998; Steptoe et al., 1993). 8
cneqykaux pasqenax uerotopMe sosnouMe nexauusnM paccnatpusaktc onee rnyoro. Cua+ana ocyqaktc
roruutusuo-roseqeu+ecrue rytu. anee cneqyet orucauue rcuxousuonoru+ecroro rytu, cssauuoro c unnyuuMn
yuruouuposauuen. Eny yqenetc oneaoe suunauue, rar sosnouou cssu neqy rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u
onesuek.
auuse o ou, uo cpeccops seqy k iueueuu s npssukax, snmx ua
iqoposse
|ccneqosauu, paccnatpusakaue roruutusuo-roseqeu+ecrue rytu, cocpeqoto+usakt suunauue rpeunyaectseuuo ua
ton, cssauM nu ctpeccopM c ueratusuMnu rpusM+ranu rypeuu u yrotpeneuu anroron. osutusuMn rpusM+ran, tarun
rar sqoposa queta u usu+ecrue yrpaueuu, yqenetc otuocuteneuo nano suunauu, xot tare sepotuo, +to
ctpeccosMe coMtu noryt uapyaate roqouMe rpusM+ru. Cyaectsykaue uccneqosauu, rar rpasuno, ctpotc ua
qoryaeuuu, +to ueratusuoe snuuue ua sqoposee rypeuu, sMrusru u otcytctsu usu+ecrux yrpaueuuu to+uo
yctauosneuo. 3to qoryaeuue qoctato+uo xopoao oocuosauo. let conueuuu, +to qauuMx o speqe rypeuu ceu+ac onee
+en qoctato+uo (cn., uarpunep, Dunn et al., 1999), a sua+unocte usu+ecrux yrpaueuuu o+esuqua (cn., uarpunep, Blair et
al., 1989). /ctauosneuo, +to +pesnepuoe rotpeneuue anroron tare orasMsaet spequoe snuuue ua sqoposee, oquaro
qauuMe, racakauec ynepeuuMx yposueu rotpeneuu anroron, neuee cuM (cn. spesry 4.2). auuMu art eae oneae
ycnouet uuteprpetauk pesynetatos, racakauxc atoro artopa pucra.
0M+uo uccneqosauu snuuu ctpeccopos ua rotpeneuue ctunynupykaux seaects rpeqronarakt cssu neqy
sMcorunu yposunu usueuuoro ctpecca u pasnu+uMnu acrertanu rotpeneuu roqouMx seaects, tarunu rar
uuuuuposauue rypeuu, sMrusru u yrotpeneuu uaproturos (Wills, 1990). /unne tare ronaraet, +to ctpeccopM cssauM
c rosMaeuuMn ronu+ectson seaects, rpuuunaenMx ux roctouuMnu rotpeutennu, u rouueuuMn ycrexon s
rpeoqoneuuu atux rpusM+er.
0quo us uccneqosauuu, roqtsepqakaee uqek roruutusuo-roseqeu+ecroro rytu neqy roqouMn rotpeneuuen
seaects u usu+ecrun sqoposeen, Mno rposeqeuo e 1pauron, euruucon u Poyson (DeFrank, Jenkins & Rose, 1987).
0uo paccnatpusano cssu neqy rpoussoqctseuuMnu ctpeccopanu, couaneuou roqqeprou, rotpeneuuen anroron u
rposuMn qasneuuen rpu ocneqosauuu asuaqucret+epos. ony+euuMe qauuMe rorasMsakt, +to sMcorue yposuu
rpoussoqctseuuMx ctpeccopos u xopoaa couaneua roqqepra Mnu cssauM rnasuMn opason c ysenu+euuen
rotpeneuu anroron, a ato, s csok o+epeqe, rporuosuposano rosMaeuuoe rposuoe qasneuue.
0quaro cssu neqy ctpeccopanu u snukaunu ua sqoposee rpusM+ranu ue rpnonuueuuM. larpunep, Koau c
ronneranu (1991b) sMsun teuqepuMe pasnu+u s rattepue csseu c rypeuuen, yrasMsakaue ua snuuue ronuou pao+eu
sautoctu, qerpeccuu, rosMaeuuou +actotM cyrpyecrux rounurtos u ueratusuMx usueuuMx coMtuu y euauu.
erpeccu u cyrpyecruu rounurt, a tare ssaunoqeuctsue neqy roctouuou paotou u cyrpyecrun rounurton
Mnu, rpone toro, cssauM y euauu c rosMaeuuMn rotpeneuuen anroron. 0quaro rypeuue Mno cssauo c
rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu tonero y ny+uu. 8 +actuoctu, ouo Mno cssauo c qerpeccueu, rpoussoqctseuuMnu
tpeosauunu u routponen uaq paotou.
pyrue uccneqosauu, rotopMe usy+akt rpoussoqctseuuMe tpeosauu u routpone, roqtsepqakt sMsoq, +to
ocoeuuoctu paotM ro-pasuony snukt ua cssauuMe co sqoposeen rpusM+ru ny+uu u euauu (cn., uarpunep, Weidner
et al., 1997; Hellerstedt & Jeffrey, 1997). Tar, 8auquep u ero ronneru yctauosunu, +to tpeosauu u quarasou peaeuuu
cootuoctc c spequMnu rpusM+ranu (ronuuuposauuMu rorasatene rypeuu, yrotpeneuu anroron u roe u otcytct-
su usu+ecrux yrpaueuuu) y ny+uu, uo ue y euauu. 0uu ronarakt, +to atu rpusM+ru noryt +actu+uo orocpeqosate
csse neqy rpoussoqctseuuMnu artopanu u sepotuoctek ropouapuou onesuu. pyrue rpoussoqctseuuMe tpeosa-
uu, tarue rar cneuua paota, cqeneua paota, spequMe ycnosu tpyqa u usu+ecra uarpysra, Mnu cssauM c onee
+actMn rypeuuen y ooux ronos (Johansson, Johnson & Hall, 1991).
leyqusuteneuo, +to roqsepraktc suunateneuony usy+euuk tare rpusM+ru ctyqeutos, rotosauxc r arsaneuan. Tot
art, +to ctyqeutM rpeqctasnkt coou nerro qoctyruyk sMopry, rotopa roqsepraetc sosqeuctsuk oaero ctpeccopa
s oquo u to e spen, osua+aet, +to ouu snktc rorynpuMn oerton uccneqosauuu. larpunep, Ctertoy c ronneranu
(Steptoe et al., 1996) cpasuun rpyrry ctyqeutos yuusepcuteta,

3epo+m+o, nompene+ue an|ocon+ +en+emc+ od+uv us +auonee pacnpocmpa+e++ex vemodoe, |omopee ve ucnones,ev dn+ moco,
vmoe cnpaeumec+ co cmpeccopavu. le|omopee us ae|moe an|ocon+ xopoao useecm+e, e mov vucne nec|a+ npunod++mocme
+acmpoe+u+, denpeccu+, omc,mcmeue sdpaeovecnu+, epeve++oe unu xpo+uvec|oe +ap,ae+ue |oc+umue+ou cnoco+ocmu u nomep+
|oopdu+a(uu. Ve ma|e s+aev, vmo an|ocone eeseeaem npuee|a+ue.
D(enpu++mo, vmo usemov+oe nompene+ue an|ocon+ eped+o, od+a|o +e coecev no++m+o, vmo e da++ov |o+me|cme os+avaem
usemov+oe. le|omopee do|aseeasm, vmo eped+o nsoe nompene+ue an|ocon+, dp,cue nonacasm, vmo ,vepe++oe |onuvecmeo
an|ocon+, +anpuvep 2-3 cma|a+a eu+a e de+e, eseped+o, a mpemeu ,meepdasm, vmo +e npuvu++sm epeda +av+oco oneaue
|onuvecmea (| npuvep,. 1 nump eu+a e de+e). |pove moco, +axod+mc+ ma|ue, |mo cvumaem nompene+ue an|ocon+ nones+ev dn+
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
sdopoee+. lue npueod+mc+ +ec|one|o npuvepoe npomueopevueex pes,nemamoe.
5oemma u lapu+|en (Boffetta & Garfinkel, 1990) uccnedoeanu 276 802 avepu|a+(a, npoeep++, +e pee nu ,vupasm eoo(e, u
om |opo+ap+ou ones+u cepd(a (CHD), e vacm+ocmu, nsdu, ,vepe++o nompen+s(ue an|ocone, cpae+umene+o c +enes(uvu.
a++ee no|asanu, vmo an|ocone ,ve+eaaem eepo+m+ocme cvepmu e (enov cpedu mex, |mo eenueaem od+,-dee nop(uu e de+e, a
ma|e eepo+m+ocme cvepmu om CHD cpedu mex, |mo eenueaem s+avumene+o oneae Dd+a|o +e ece uccnedoea+u+ noseon+sm
sa|nsvume, vmo an|ocone nonese+ dn+ sdopoee+. 21-nem+ee ducna+cep+oe uccnedoea+ue onee 5000 v,vu+ +e ee+euno ce+su ved,
an|oconev u |opo+ap+ou ones+es cepd(a, |a| mone|o enu uc|nsve+e nome+(uane+o eveaueas(uec+ a|mope. Dd+a|o o(uu
puc| cvepmu en eeae cpedu v,vu+, eenueaeaux 22 nop(uu e +edens, a ma|e uvena vecmo ocoe++o cune+a+ ce+se co cvepmes
om u+c,nemoe (Hart et al , 1999) /n|ocone ma|e ce+seeasm c noeeae++ev puc|ov pa|oeex saoneea+uu. Vepnemmu c |onnecavu
(Merietti et al., 1989) cpae+un 122 one+ex pa|ov c 606 |o+mpone+evu ,vacm+u|avu u o+ap,un, vmo eepo+m+ocme pa|a pma u
copma+u cpedu mex, |mo nompen+n an|ocone u maa| e oneaux |onuvecmeax, ena ove+e eeco|ou Xuamm (Hiatt, 1990) npoeen
vemaa+anus 21 uccnedoea+u+, |omopee us,vanu ce+se ved, nompene+uev an|ocon+ u pa|ov vonov+ou enese , e+(u+. D+
o+ap,un, vmo eepo+m+ocme pa|a eospacmana +a 50% cpedu e+(u+, |omopee nompen+nu e cped+ev od+, unu dee nop(uu e de+e.
8pesra 4.2. Csse neqy anroronen u sqoposeen.

cqasasayk arsaneuM, c rpyrrou, y rotopou ue Mno arsaneuos. Tex, rto cqasan arsaneuM, oeuusanu ua asoson yposue
u saten s te+euue qsyx ueqene qo arsaneuos; routponeuyk rpyrry oeuusanu ua arsusaneutuon uutepsane. 0uqaenMe
rorasatenu socrpuuunaenoro ctpecca u quctpecca sospactanu, rorqa qo arsaneuos octasanoce neueae speneuu.
1usu+ecra artusuocte yneueaanace ro nepe rpunueuu arsaneuos. 0quaro usneueuu s rotpeneuuu anroron
sasucenu ot yposu roqqepru. 8 +actuoctu, otne+anoce yneueaeuue rotpeneuu anroron y ctyqeutos rpu oneaou
couaneuou roqqepre, torqa rar ctyqeutM, unesaue nanyk couaneuyk roqqepry, ua+uuanu rotpente anrorone s
oneaux ronu+ectsax, t. e. csse neqy ctpeccopanu u anroronen ocnannace couaneuou roqqeprou. (6onee
roqpouoe ocyqeuue ocnaneuuMx csseu cn. s rnase 6.) Korqa paccnatpusanoce rypeuue, cssu c uun rar rona, tar u
couaneuou roqqepru usneunuce: s arsaneuauouuou rpyrre ctyqeutru c nanou couaneuou roqqeprou s repuoq ne-
qy qsyn sanepanu ua+uuanu rypute onee uuteucusuo, ctyqeutM e uet. / routponeuMx y+actuuros ue Mno
otne+euo cuctenatu+ecrux usneueuuu s rpusM+rax neqy qsyn sanepanu. 0rqeu u Vtauqaapu (Ogden & Mtandabari,
1997) rony+unu cxoue pesynetatM; s +actuoctu, ouu cooaakt o cuueuuu rotpeneuu anroron, yneueaeuuu
usu+ecrux yrpaueuuu u o oneaen +ucne rypuneauros.
Tarun opason, nM suqun, +to csse neqy ctpeccopanu u snukaunu ua sqoposee rpusM+ranu uerpocta:
arsaneuauouuMu ctpecc +acto narotsopuo usneuet oquy rpusM+ry (rotpeneuue anroron), uo orasMsaet ueratusuoe
snuuue ua qpyryk. oqouoe cuueuue rotpeneuu anroron s ycnosux arsaneuauouuoro ctpecca uaronueuo cnMc-
non, rorqa snukaue ua sqoposee rpusM+ru paccnatpusakt rar ctpateruu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca, rar ato rpeqnarakt
|urnqek, Xapqu u Kyrep (Ingledew, Hardy & Cooper, 1996). | yneueaeuue usu+ecrux yrpaueuuu, u y+aaeuue rypeuu, u
cuueuue rotpeneuu anroron nouo paccnatpusate rar ctpateruu rpeoqoneuu, rotopMe ronorakt, sMcsooqa
spen u rosMaa cocpeqoto+euuocte (cn. tare rnasy 7).
0qua us peqro paccnatpusaenMx sosnouocteu sarnk+aetc s ton, +to rorqa socrputue ctpecca cssauo c snukaunu
ua sqoposee rpusM+ranu, ooctpeuue socrputu ctpecca sMsMsaetc artu+ecru spequMnu rpusM+ranu. 0quaro /unne
(Wills, 1990) s csoen osope rotpeneuu ctunynupykaux seaects ronaraet, +to cxoqctso qauuMx, rony+euuMx s pqe
uccneqosauuu pasnu+uoro tura, rorasMsaet: qonuuupykaee uarpasneuue rpu+uuuoctu ot socrputu usueuuoro
ctpecca r rotpeneuuk seaects, a ue uaoopot. 0u rpeqnaraet qse sosnouMe noqenu atoro sosqeuctsu, rotopMe
roqxoqt qn ucronesosauu s yqyaux uccneqosauux. |x nouo tare rpunarate r qpyrun snukaun ua sqoposee
rpusM+ran.
Voqene anououaneuou perynuu. Cornacuo eu, s ycnosux ctpecca rotpeneuue seaects sMronuet yuruk
cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, cuua tpesory.
Voqene canoroutpon. Cornacuo eu, ctpecc cuuaet canoroutpone, rocronery ou ysenu+usaet roruutusuyk uarpysry u
ocnanet oayaeuue coctseuuou cunM, rotopMe noryt snute ua coxpaueuue canoroutpon u corpotusneuue
conasuan.
Pasyneetc, atu noqenu ue snktc ssaunoucrnk+akaunu, u oe noryt urpate orpeqeneuuyk pone.
8 enon qauuMe csuqetenectsykt, +to ctpeccopM sce e uuorqa snukt ua rpusM+ru, uo cssu otnu+aktc cnouoctek.
To, s rarou ctereuu uankqaenMe cssu neqy ctpeccopanu u onesuek nouo rpurucate snukaun ua sqoposee
rpusM+ran, rouunaetc ueoquosua+uo. 0quaro pq uccneqosauuu, ocyqaenMx s atou ruure, rorasMsaet, +to rorqa
uneetc csse neqy ctpeccopanu u sqoposeen, oua nuae +actu+uo ocuuna rpusM+ranu, snukaunu ua sqoposee
(cn., uarpunep, Cohen, Tyrell & Smith, 1993; Evans etal., 1996).
8nunue cmpeccopoe na uvvynnym cucmevy
Csse neqy ctpeccon u unnyuuMn yuruouuposauuen snetc, ocuosuMn oerton uccneqosauuu s onactu
rcuxouespounnyuonoruu. 0ctpMe ctpeccopM uaxoqtc s eutpe suunauu nuorux roqouMx uccneqosauuu (osop cn. y
0'upu O'Leary, 1990). Ckqa otuocutc uccneqosauue arctpaopquuapuMx coMtuu, uarpunep snuuu ua rocnouastos
rpusoqueuu rocnu+ecroro ropan Aronnou (Fischer et al, 1972). 0quaro 0'upu c+utaet, +to roqouMe arctpenane-
uMe ctpeccopM noryt ocnoute usuonoru+ecrue u rcuxonoru+ecrue snuuu ua unnyuuoe yuruouuposauue.
6onee oM+uMn, uo sce-taru otuocuteneuo octpMn ctpeccopon snktc arsaneuM s ronneqe. ourutkquMe uccneqo-
sauu oeuusakt unnyuuoe yuruouuposauue, rar rpasuno, s te+euue uecronerux ueqene qo arsaneuauouuoro
repuoqa u rocne uero. Kauront-lneusep, lneu-sep u ux ronneru rposenu cepuk roqouMx uccneqosauuu ctyqeutos-
nequros u ouapyunu aertM roqasneuu unnyuuou cuctenM, tarue rar cuueuue rpoeuta T-rnetor u ronu+ectsa
NK-rnetor (Kennedy, Kiecolt-Glaser & Glaser, 1988) (cn. rnasy 3). 6Mno tare yctauosneuo, +to unnyuuMe usneueuu,
cssauuMe c arsaneuanu, orasMsakt cuneuoe snuuue ua rpoqonuteneuocte sausneuu pau. larpunep, Vapyxa,
| Kauront-lneusep u 1aserexu (Maruha, Kiecolt-Glaser & Favegehi, 1998) uauocunu ctauqaptuMe pauru, s enx uorcuu,
ua tsepqoe ueo ctyqeutos-ctonatonoros so spen netuux rauuryn u sa tpu qu qo arsaneuos. 0uu ouapyunu, +to
pauru sausanu ua tpu qu (t. e. ua 40% speneuu) qoneae rpu rpunueuuu arsaneuos, +en so spen rauuryn.
0quaro sosnouo, +to roqouMe octpMe coMtu neuee sauM, +en xpouu+ecrue ctpeccopM roscequesuou usuu,
srnk+a tarue acrertM, rar pasuornacu neqy cyrpyranu unu yxoq sa rpectapenMnu poqctseuuuranu. Paota Kauront-
lneusep, lneusepa u ux ronner ocoeuuo sua+una s yctauosneuuu cssu neqy roqouMnu ctpeccopanu u unnyuuMn
yuruouuposauuen. 8 uccneqosauuu, cpasuusasaen rorapuo euauu, rotopMe pasoanuce co csounu raptuepanu, u
sanyuux y+actuu routponeuou rpyrrM, astopM sMsunu ocnaneuuoe unnyuuoe yuruouuposauue y euauu, rotopMe
pasoanuce c raptuepanu s rpeqaectsykaeu roq (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 1987). Koue+uo, rpu+uua sqece noet Mte s ton,
+to pacctasauec nkqu seqyt neuee sqoposMu opas usuu; oquaro uccneqosatenu ue ouapyunu artos, rotopMe M
csuqetenectsosanu o aton. Kpone toro, qae cpequ sanyuux euauu neuee ra+ectseuuMu par Mn cssau c
uerotopMn yxyqaeuuen unnyuuou qeteneuoctu.
poeccM, y+actsykaue s atux cssx, Mnu roqpouee usy+euM Vanapru c ronneranu (Malarkey et al., 1994) s
uccneqosauuu, s rotopon 90 nonoqoeuos roneaanu ua 24 +aca s otqeneuyk ronuaty. Vonoqoeuos rpocunu s te+euue
30 nuuyt ocyqute u paspeaute cyrpyecrue sorpocM, rotopMe oM+uo rpusoqt r rounurty (uarpunep, racasauec
poqctseuuuros cyrpyros unu uuaucos). 0cyqeuue sarucMsanoce u saten auanusuposanoce. o ocyqeuu, s ero xoqe
u rocne uero panuce auanusM rposu u orpeqennuce yposuu ropnouos (s ton +ucne aqpeuanuua, uopaqpeuanuua u
roptusona). |ccneqosatenu yctauosunu, +to cyrpyecruu rounurt u spaqeuocte Mnu cssauM c usneueuunu s
yposux scex oeueuuMx ropnouos, sa ucrnk+euuen roptusona. 0uu ronarakt, +to atu usneueuu noryt sectu r yxyq-
aeuuk unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu. XeuauuM qenouctpuposanu oneaue usneueuu, +en ny+uuM, s otset ua
cyrpyecruu rounurt. Auanoru+uMe pesynetatM Mnu rony+euM u qn onee spenMx rap (Kiecolt-Glaser etal., 1998).
8 qpyrou cepuu uccneqosauuu, ua atot pas s otuoaeuuu tex, rto saotutc o nkqx c onesuek Anereunepa, Kauront-
lneusep u ronneru ouapyunu, +to saotauec cooaakt o onee sMcorux yposux socrpuuunaenoro ctpecca u
otnu+aktc xyqaun unnyuuMn yuruouuposauuen, +en routponeuMe y+actuuru (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 1991). 3tot
aert rpoqonan rpucytctsosate s qsyxnetuuu repuoq rocne tenou ytpatM (Esterling et al, 1994). / saotauxc
tare neqneuuee sausanu pauM, +en y routponeuMx y+actuuros (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 1995).
Xepept u Koau (Herbert & Cohen, 1993) rposenu netaauanus 38 uccneqosauuu, usy+asaux csse neqy ctpeccopanu u
unnyuuMnu rocneqctsunu y sqoposMx nkqeu. Ckqa otuocunuce uccneqosauu rpatrospeneuuMx naopatopuMx
ctpeccopos (rpoqonuteneuoctek neuee rony+aca), rpatrospeneuuMx ectectseuuMx ctpeccopos (rpoqonuteneuoctek
ot uecronerux queu qo neca, uarpunep arsaneuM s ronneqe) u qonrospeneuuMe ectectseuuMe ctpeccopM
(rpoqonuteneuoctek onee neca, uarpunep tena ytpata unu otcytctsue paotM). 8 enon astopM ouapyunu
qauuMe, yequteneuo rorasMsakaue cssu neqy ctpeccopanu u pqon unnyuuMx rapanetpos, a tare to, +to
oertusuMe ctpeccopM Mnu cssauM c onee cepeesuMnu usneueuunu s unnyuuon yuruouuposauuu, +en
canoot+etM o ctpecce. 0uu tare yctauosunu, +to octpMe naopatopuMe ctpeccopM u qonrospeneuuMe ctpeccopM
peaneuou usuu sMsMsanu pasnu+uMe unnyuuMe usneueuu, otpaasaue pasnu+uMe rpoeccM (cn. rnasy 3). Kpone toro,
nenu+uoctuMe ctpeccopM senu r uuMn unnyuuMn aertan, ueenu uecouaneuMe ctpeccopM.
8 oaen, ata onacte uccneqosauuu sMsnet roteuuaneuo sauMe cssu neqy rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u
unnyuuMn yuruouuposauuen. 8 aton pasqene nM cnornu nuae srpate rosuaronute sac c atou cnouou u
pacaupkaeuc onactek uccneqosauuu, qas oaee rpeqctasneuue o ronrnercuMx cssx neqy pasnu+uMnu turanu
ctpeccopos u pasnu+uMnu unnyuuMnu rapanetpanu. VM eae ue suaen, uacronero sauM rpoqenouctpuposauuMe
unnyuuMe usneueuu s rpoqyuposauuu onesuu. 0quaro uccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to nkqu, saotauec o ron-to, u
ctyqeutM, ucrMtMsakaue ctpecc/ tpesory, qenouctpupyk! xyqaue unnyuuMe pearuu ua supyc rpurra u, cneqosateneuo,
onee yssunM repeq uuerueu (Glaser et al., 1998; Vedhara et al., 1999). 3to yrasMsaet ua csse neqy unnyuuMnu
rapanetpanu u onesuek. 0quaro uecuo, nouo nu cootuectu cssauuMe co ctpeccon unnyuuMe usneueuu c onee
tenMnu saonesauunu. Ltauu, Vunnep u Tpectnau (Stein, Miller & Trestman, 1991) ytsepqakt, +to uet qorasatenects
cssu neqy qerpeccueu u ctpeccosMnu coMtunu u raroro M to uu Mno ysenu+euu cneptuoctu unu saonesaenoctu
ot pacctpoucts, cssauuMx c unnyuuou cuctenou. Kar nM suqenu sMae, uneetc ue tar y nuoro qauuMx, +to usueuuMe
coMtu unu qerpeccu crococtsykt pary nono+uou enesM. Ltauu tare yrasMsaet, +to cneptuocte rocne taroro
ctpeccosoro coMtu, rar tena ytpata, cssaua c cepqe+uo-cocyquctMnu saonesauunu, a ue c unnyuuMnu
pacctpouctsanu (Osterweis, Solomon & Green, 1984). Ltauu c ronneranu ronaraet, +to sauo yctauosute cssu neqy
rcuxu+ecrunu pacctpouctsanu u/unu ctpeccosMnu repeusauunu u creuu+ecrunu pacctpouctsanu, cssauuMnu c
unnyuuou cuctenou, rpeqe +en sMsnte nexauusnM.
0ovevy nekomopme nmdu onee eocnpuuvvuem k eoadecmeum cmpeccopoe, vev dpyeue?
Xot unektc qauuMe o cssu neqy ctpeccopanu u onesuek, cosepaeuuo o+esuquo, +to saonesaet ue raqMu
+enoser, roqsepeuuMu sosqeuctsuk raroro-to ctpeccopa. oqxoq quates-ctpecc, rpeqctasneuuMu s rnase 3,
rpeqronaraet, +to snuuue ctpeccopos ua uuqusuqyyn yqet sasucete ot ero uuqusuqyaneuou usuonoru+ecrou
rpeqpacronoeuuoctu. 0quaro rcuxonoru+ecrue u couaneuMe artopM noryt tare crococtsosate tony, +to
uuqusuqyyn ucrMtaet ua cee spequMe sosqeuctsu unu, uaoopot, yqet saauaeu ot aertos ctpeccopos. Ckqa
noryt otuocutec uuqusuqyaneuMe nu+uoctuMe artopM unu artopM cpeqM, uarpunep qoctyruocte tarux pecypcos, rar
couaneua roqqepra (cn. rnasy 8). 8 uccneqosauux ctpecca u onesueu uerotopMe artopM nu+uoctu usy+akt +aae,
+en qpyrue. 0cuosuou areut qenaetc ua te artopM, rotopMe, rar c+utaetc, cssauM c qucyuruouaneuMnu ctunnu
u ctpaterunu rpeoqoneuu (cn. rnasy 7). 8 ocoeuuoctu c onesuek cootuoct uaop xapartepuctur, cssauuMx c
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ueratusuMnu anounu. K uun otuocutc nu+uocte tura A (xapartepusyena ueteprenusoctek, pasqpauteneuoctek,
spaqeuoctek, qyxon corepuu+ectsa, ysne+euuoctek paotou u +ectonkuen) u ueratusua aertusuocte (teuqeuu
ucrMtMsate ueratusuMe anouu u unete ueratusuoe rpeqctasneuue o cee). Cnoua csse neqy atunu artopanu u
uarpeuunu paccnatpusas xc qetaneuo s rnase 6. 8o spesre 4.3 rpeqctasneu oquu creuu+ecruu roqxoq r usy+euuk
nu+uoctu, ocoeuuoctu rotopou, ro-suqunony, cssauM c rosMaeuuou rpeqpacronoeuuoctek r onesun s enon.
Eae oqua sosnouocte, rorqa uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u noryt Mte sauM s uerotopMx uccneqosauux rocneqctsuu
onesueu, coctout s ton, +to oquu nkqu onee crnouuM cooaate o onesux, +en qpyrue. K rpunepy, 1eneqnau u Koau
(Feldman & Cohen, 1999) yctauosunu, +to nu+uoctuMe xapartepucturu, tarue rar uespotu+uocte u qopocosectuocte,
ysenu+usanu ronu+ectso cooaeuuu o cunrtonax rpoctyqM, rotopMe ue unenu usuonoru+ecrou ocuosM. 3tot aert
noet snute ua pesynetatM uccneqosauuu, orupakauec ucrnk+uteneuo ua canoot+etM unu ua spa+euMu quaruos,
rotopMu noet cuneuo sasucete ot cooaeuuu raueutos.
8meodm
PesynetatM uccneqosauuu, ocyqasauxc s atou rnase, ueoquosua+uM. Xot Mno sMsneuo nuoectso uutepecuMx
csseu neqy rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u sqoposeen, oaue qauuMe s ronesy csseu neqy rcuxocouaneuMnu
artopanu u onesunu qaneru ot orpeqeneuuoctu 8 ny+aen cny+ae nouo rpeqronoute, +to oaectseuuoe rpeq-
ctasneuue o atux cssx orepeaet uay+uMe qorasatenectsa lerotopMe uccneqosatenu yrasMsakt, +to s uactoauu
noneut unektc tonero orpauu+euuMe qauuMe, csuqetenectsykaue o uassauuMx cssx (cn, uarpunep, Bnner &
Reynolds, 1993, Cohen & Williamson, 1991) auuMe, rotopMe y uac unektc, rorasMsakt, +to csse noet sasucete ot
toro, rarue ctpeccopM, onesuu u uuqusuqyynM paccnatpusaktc
K rpunepy, qauuMe, ro-suqunony, roqtsepqakt snuuue ctpeccopos ua sosuuruoseuue rpoctyqM (cn, uarpunep, Cohen
et al, 1998). Koue+uo, ato ue osua+aet, +to rony+euuMe pesynetatM nouo repeuectu ua qpyrue onesuu, tarue rar par unu
cepqe+uMe saonesauu (Leventhal, Patnck-Miller & Leventhal, 1998) Paccnatpusa auporuu crertp onesueu, Koau u
Vauyr (Cohen & Manuck, 1995) rpuanu r cneqykaeny sMsoqy.

Dd+a us nepeve++ex nuv+ocmu, onpedene++o ce+sa++a+ c +ecamue+ou ae|mue+ocmes u nones+a+ e npoc+osupoea+uu ones+u,
neccuvucmuvec|uu cmune os+c+e+u+ Paom, e amou onacmu npoeenu umepco+, 0enucva+ u ux |onnecu umepco+, 0enucva+ u
3auna+ (Peterson, Se-ligman & Vaillant, 1988a) nonacasm, vmo venoee| c neccuvucmuvec|uv cmunev os+c+e+u+ c|no+e+ os+c++me
+ecamue+ee coemu+, cosdaea+ ,cmouvueee, cnoane+ee, e+,mpe++ue ampu,(uu lanpuvep, ma|ou venoee| voem mpa|moeame
cepees+eu |o+nu|m c dp,cov |a| +evmo, vmo +u|ocda +e ,dem ,nae+o (,cmouvueoe), cnoco+oe ece pasp,aume (cnoane+oe)
u e vev eu+oeam + cav (e+,mpe++ee) lanpomue, onee onmuvucmuv+eu venoee| voem u+mepnpemupoeame coemue |a| +evmo
ve+ee npodonumene+oe, uves(ee +av+oco onee ocpa+uve++ee nocnedcmeu+ u o,cnoene++oe eu+ou dp,coco venoee|a unu
ocmo+menecmeavu 3 od+ov uccnedoea+uu, npodonaeaevc+ 35 nem, umepco+ u eco |onnecu (Peterson et al., 1988b)
|naccuu(upoeanu cmune os+c+e+u+ 99 een,c|+u|oe lapeapdc|oco ,+ueepcumema, |omopee ,vunuce mav e 1942-1945 codax, |ocda
uv eno no 25 nem moe o(e+ume cmune os+c+e+u+, uccnedoeamenu ucnonesoeanu vemod, e |omopov nuceve++ee omveme o
us+u e mp,d+oe eoe++oe epev+ enu nodeepc+,me |o+me+m- a+anus, +a npedvem ,cmouvueex cnoane+ex, e+,mpe++ux
os+c+e+uu. 3amev o(e+ueanc+ p+d ce+sa++ex co sdopoeeev nocnedcmeuu (npu onope +a da++ee vedu(u+c|ux ocnedoea+uu) |adee
n+me nem, no|a ,vacm+u|av +e ucnon+unoce 60 nem nccnedoeamenu o+ap,unu, vmo neccuvucmuvec|uu cmune os+c+e+u+ en
ce+sa+ c o(uv cocmo++uev sdopoee+ e nepuod c 45 do 60 nem, dae |ocda |o+mponupoeanoce ucxod+oe cocmo++ue sdopoee+ e
eospacme 25 nem. laseeaemc+ p+d nome+(uane+ex vexa+usvoe lanpuvep, neccuvusv voem npueodume | naccue+ocmu neped
nu(ov ones+u u +ecnoco+ocmu opamumec+ sa vedu(u+c|ou novo(es nnu e, noc|one|, ma|ue nsdu, |a| npaeuno, ucnemeeasm
mp,d+ocmu e peae+uu nponev, o+u voc,m eme +e cnoco+e nodaeume |pusuc e sapodeae u mev cavev cman|ueasmc+ c onee
v+ocovucne++evu unu m+enevu us+e++evu coemu+vu D+u voc,m +e npudaeame s+ave+u+ ce+sa++ev co sdopoeeev npueev|av,
ma| |a| uv |aemc+, vmo me +e cmo+m e+uva+u+, unu voc,m eme co(uane+o usonupoea+e u nuae+e ,epa co(uane+ou
noddep|u
5onee nosd+ue uccnedoea+u+ ma|e ce+seeanu neccuvucmuvec|uu cmune os+c+e+u+ c uvv,++ev ,+|(uo+upoea+uev (Kamen-
Siegeletal, 1991), u eno no|asa+o, vmo |amacmpouv+ocme (m e os+c+e+ue +enpu+m+ex coemuu cnoane+evu npuvu+avu)
+en+emc+ npedeecm+u|ov cvepmu om +ecvacm+ex cn,vaee unu e pes,nemame +acunu+ (Peterson et at, 1998), p,cue npuvepe
uccnedoea+uu, us,vas(ux enu++ue +ecamue+ex ducnosu(uo++ex cmuneu, paccvampueasmc+ e cnaee 6.
8pesra 4 3 eccunuctu+ecruu ctune ocueuu u onesue

/equteneuMe qorasatenectsa, +to ctpecc crococtsyet ratousuonoruu +enose+ecrux onesueu, cryquM, u qae tan,
rqe qorasatenectsa unektc, ouu ocukt otuocuteneuo ueoneaou rpoeut pasnu+uu
Xot rora tpyquo yctauosute csse neqy rcuxocouaneuMnu artopanu u usu+ecrou onesuek, rasanoce M, ner+e
qorasate cssu neqy ctpeccopanu, tarunu rar usueuuMe coMtu, u rcuxu+ecrunu onesunu. 0quaro s atou onactu
sosuurakt auanoru+uMe tpyquoctu
6pecc ncxuecke 6oneiu
cuxuatpu+ecrue cunrtonM +acto oeuusaktc uccneqosatennu ctpecca pu+uua ue tonero s ton, +to atu cunrtonM
rpeqctasnkt uutepec canu ro cee, uo tare s ton, +to ouu c+utaktc rpeqsectuuranu usu+ecrux u rcuxu+ecrux
pacctpoucts. Xot orpeqeneuu ctpecca pacrnMs+atM, oquu us suqos ero rposneuu s opne cunrtonos, tarux rar
tpesora, uarpeuue unu oayaeuue ctpecca, snetc, ro- suqunony, eutpaneuMn qn atoro routu (uo cn spesry
4.1). Tar, uccneqosatenu, rar rpasuno, ucronesykt cpeqctsa usnepeuu tpesoru u qerpeccuu s ra+ectse uaqeuoro u
sanuquoro crocoa oeuru atux artopos (cn. rnasy 2). Ceu+ac uneetc oneaoe ronu+ectso rynurauu, paccnatpusa-
kaux snuuue pasnu+uMx ctpeccopos ua rcuxuatpu+ecrue cunrtonM, xot nuorue us atux uccneqosauuu orpauu+euM
rorepe+uo-cpesosMnu rnauanu u noryt ctanrusatec c oaunu netoqu+ecrunu rponenanu. punepM rpusoqtc ua
rpoteuuu sceu ruuru (cn., uarpunep, Parkes, 1991; Fletcher & Jones, 1993). 0M+uo un yqaetc rorasate cssu neqy
ctpeccopanu u yposunu tpesoru u qerpeccuu, rotopMe cpasuunM c yposunu, ucrMtMsaenMnu anynatopuMnu
raueutanu rcuxuatpos. larpunep, uccneqosauu rorasMsakt sMcorue yposuu rcuxu+ecrou onesueuuoctu s
sMoprax nkqeu, unekaux paoty (cn. spesry 2.4, rnasa 2). 3ta csse sMsnetc uactonero +acto, +to noet
rorasatec noru+uMn qoryaeuue, +to onee arctpenaneuMe ctpeccopM seqyt r onee cepeesuMn cny+an sepuu-
upyenMx rcuxu+ecrux onesueu.
leconueuuo, oaerpuutou snetc to+ra speuu, +to rcuxocouaneuMe artopM cssauM c rcuxu+ecrunu
pacctpouctsanu. Auanusupy qunetautcrue rpeqctasneuu onee +en 2000 sspocnMx nkqeu, Puqqep (Ridder, 1996)
ouapyun, +to rcuxocouaneuMu ctpecc snetc stopMn ro rorynpuoctu ocueuuen rpu+uuM qyaesuMx
pacctpoucts.
0quaro +toM roqtsepqute aty to+ry speuu, ueoxoqunM qauuMe, cssMsakaue rcuxocouaneuMe artopM u
uesasucuno quaruoctupyenMe rnuuu+ecrue onesuu (tarue rar qerpeccu u ausopeuu) c ronoaek rnauos
uccneqosauu, rotopMe noryt rorasate uarpasneuue rpu+uuuoctu. Paruu (Rabkin, 1993) rpoussoqut osop atou nu-
tepatypM, u rostop te e ytsepqeuu, rotopMe nM sctpe+anu ua rpoteuuu sceu atou rnasM, sasnet:
/+utMsa ato ro+tu yuusepcaneuoe rouunauue ctpecca rar cyaectseuuoro octotenectsa s uactyrneuuu onesuu, ten
onee yqusuteneuo, +to roqasnkaee oneauuctso uccneqosauuu ctpecca u rcuxu+ecrux pacctpoucts ue crocouM
rpoqenouctpuposate, ua ocuosauuu rnuuu+ecrux qauuMx, rouctuue sua+unyk sasucunocte, xot u ueoquorpatuo
sMsnktc ueoneaue, ctatuctu+ecru sua+unMe cssu (c. 477).
Paruu ronaraet, +to sua+uteneua +acte cyaectsykaux uccneqosauuu ctpaqaet usuanu, rocronery uccneqosatenu
ctpecca yqenkt rpauue nano suunauu cuctenatusuposauuou quaruocture rcuxu+ecrux pacctpoucts nuorue rpocto
orpeqenkt uanu+ue unu otcytctsue onesuu ua ocuosauuu uutepsek unu oaux peutuurosMx oeuor.
Paruu c+utaet, +to s cny+ae rcuxu+ecrou onesuu cyaectsyet tare ocoa rponena c oeurou ctpeccopos. 8a+actyk
uesosnouo orpeqenute, s rarou ctereuu ctpeccosMe coMtu u repeusauu s repuoq repeq roctauosrou quaruosa
Mnu crposouposauM yxyqaakaunc coctouuen raueuta. oatony uarpasneuue rpu+uuuoctu +acto uecuo. Kpone
toro, so nuorux uccneqosauux sosuuraet suarona rponena roteuuaneuo teuqeuuosuoro petpocrertusuoro
rpuronuuauu. Kar ato rpuuto rpu usy+euuu usu+ecrux onesueu, nuorue uccneqosauu ucronesykt petpocrertusuyk
netoqonoruk, s rotopou rpuronuuauue coMtuu sa+actyk ueuaqeuo (cn. rnasy 2). 0quaro ato rpespaaaetc s eae
oneayk rponeny, ecnu raueut ctpaqaet cepeesuou qerpeccueu unu ausopeuueu. Ten ue neuee uauonee pac-
rpoctpaueuuMn roqxoqon r uccneqosauuk snetc petpocrertusuoe usy+euue, oeuusakaee +actoty ctpeccosMx
coMtuu y nkqeu, y rotopMx ye quaruoctuposanu pacctpouctso. oqnuuuo rpocrertusuMe uccneqosauu, rotopMe
cneqt sa roroptou nkqeu ua rpoteuuu qnuteneuoro speneuu, peqru.
enpeccu
erpeccuu rocsaeuo uanuoro oneae uccneqosauuu, +en qpyrun rcuxu+ecrun pacctpouctsan. 8 oquon ocoeuuo
ussectuon rpocrertusuon uccneqosauuu 6payu u Xappuc (Brown & Harris, 1978) yctauosunu, +to y euauu, rotopMe
repeusanu usueuuMe qpanM u ue unenu roqqepru s suqe qoseputeneuMx otuoaeuuu, qerpeccu sosuurana +aae.
3to uccneqosauue ocyqaetc qanee s rnase 8. 6payu u Xappuc paccnatpusanu s qetanx tpyquocte rposeqeuu rpauu
neqy rnuuu+ecrou qerpeccueu u qerpeccusuMn uactpoeuuen u ocuosMsanu quaruos qerpeccuu ua ctauqaptusuposau-
uon rnuuu+ecron uutepsek, srnk+asaen peutuurosMe oeuru ee tectu. 0uu rpeqnounu cuMe rputepuu
orpeqeneuu cny+aes rnuuu+ecrou qerpeccuu u rorpauu+uMx coctouuu.
lpku (Gruen, 1993) rposoqut osop paot s atou onactu u sarnk+aet: PesynetatM oneaoro ronu+ectsa uccneqosauuu
rorasMsakt, +to usueuuMu ctpecc cssau c qerpeccueu sua+uno, uo ynepeuuo (c. 554). 0quaro Paruu (Rabkin, 1993) s
csoen osope usupaet uecronero onee octopouyk rosuuk, sasn, +to atu sosqeuctsu nanM, ocu, s ny+aen
cny+ae, 10% pasnu+uu. pu aton uccneqosatenu ctpecca peqro ouapyusakt, +to rcuxocouaneuMe artopM
ocukt sua+uteneuyk +acte pasnu+uu ro rarony M to uu Mno k rorasatenk narorony+u. /+utMsa ronu+ectso
qpyrux sosnouMx artopos snuuu (uarpunep: sospact, ron, snuuu reueturu u passutu, a tare ue usnepsauec
rcuxonoru+ecrue artopM), qae ueoneayk +acte pasnu+uu, ocueuuMx orpauu+euuMn ronu+ectson rcuxocoua-
neuMx coMtuu, nouo paccnatpusate rar sre+atnkayk. 1pese (Frese, 1985) ytsepqaet, +to roqouMe ueoneaue
aertM noryt sce pasuo Mte rnuuu+ecru sua+unMnu. K rpunepy, ato noet osua+ate, +to s oneaou cosoryruoctu,
rotopa roqsepranace sosqeuctsuk cepeesuoro ctpeccopa, qerpeccu sosuuruet y sua+uteneuoro +ucna nkqeu, y rotopMx
s rpotusuon cny+ae ee ue Mno M.
0quaro tare o+esuquo, +to repeq nuon toro e ctpeccosoro coMtu y oneauuctsa nkqeu qerpeccuu ue sosuuraet.
Kar rpeqronaraet uccneqosauue 6payua u Xappuca (Brown & Harris), oquu tonero ctpeccosMe repeusauu peqro
ocukt sosuuruoseuue qerpeccuu. Csou srnaq suoct nuoectso artopos, uarpunep, uerotopMe nkqu noryt Mte
onee yssunM repeq sosqeuctsuen ctpeccosMx coMtuu s cuny reuetu+ecrou rpeqpacronoeuuoctu unu qetcroro orMta.
0tcytctsue nenu+uoctuMx pecypcos tare crocouo snute ua corpotusnenocte ctpeccopan. 3tu pecypcM Msakt
sueauunu (uarpunep: ctereue routpon, couaneua roqqepra u qoxoq) u suytpeuuunu (uarpunep: nu+uocte, ctune
rpeoqoneuu, nenu+uoctuMe uasMru u t. q.). aneueuaee ocyqeuue atux sorpocos cn. s rnasax 6-8.
pyeue ncuxuveckue paccmpocmea
auuMe, cssMsakaue ctpeccopM, tarue rar usueuuMe coMtu, c qpyrunu rcuxu+ecrunu pacctpouctsanu, neuee
yequteneuM. larpunep, sosuuruoseuue ou+ecrux pacctpoucts (tarux rar aropaou) +acto cssMsakt co
ctpeccosMnu coMtunu. Kar otne+aet Paruu, pq uccneqosauuu csuqetenectsyet, +to orono 2/3 raueutos cooaakt o
raron-nuo ctpeccope, ycyrynkaen cutyauk. 0quaro s atou onactu otcytctsykt qoctato+uo ra+ectseuuMe
uccneqosauu, +toM nouo Mno yctauosute +etryk csse.
8 cny+ae ausopeuuu atuonoru+ecra pone ctpecca rpeqronaraetc pee; oneaa +acte uccneqosauuu corycuposaua
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ua ponu ctpeccopos s sosuuruoseuuu peuqusa. 8qece Paruu (1993) c+utaet, +to otcytctsykt rosutusuMe qauuMe s
ronesy cssu neqy ctpeccosMnu usueuuMnu coMtunu u ua+anon ausopeuuu. auuMe, rosopaue rpotus ponu us-
ueuuMx coMtuu, rony+euM s uccneqosauuu netoqon cny+au-routpone, rotopoe rposenu Ctkse, opeuseuq u Croqon
(Stueve, Dohrenwend & Skodol, 1998), cpasuusasaue pone usueuuMx coMtuu rpu qerpeccuu, ausopeuuu u qpyron
ueaertusuon pacctpouctse u ucronesosasaue routponeuMe rpyrrM. 0uu ouapyunu, +to ctpeccosMe coMtu Mnu
cssauM c ua+anon qerpeccuu, uo ue c qpyrunu pacctpouctsanu.
|nektc u qpyrue qauuMe o ton, +to usueuuMe coMtu noryt Mte cssauM c sosuuruoseuuen peuqusa (cn,uarpunep,
Birley & Brown, 1970). 0quaro atu coMtu +acto ssaunoqeuctsykt co nuorunu uuMnu artopanu, uarpunep c
couaneuou roqqeprou (Hultman, Wieselgren & Oehman, 1997).
3aknueue
8 enon, uerotopMe qauuMe yrasMsakt ua to, +to ctpeccosMe coMtu rporuosupykt sosuuruoseuue qerpeccusuMx
saonesauuu, uo ue ausopeuuu unu qpyrux rcuxotu+ecrux pacctpoucts. Tpyquoctu u otcytctsue cuoctu s otuoaeuuu
oertusuoro quaruosa, uapqy c qoronuuteneuMnu rponenanu, racakaunuc canoot+etos, qenakt aty onacte
uccneqosauuu eae onee rponenatu+uou, +en usy+euue usu+ecrou onesuu. 0quaro cuo, +to s oeux onactx
uccneqosauu ocnouktc pqon qucrosuuouuMx u uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu, rotopMe noryt snute ua cssu neqy
ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu. Ckqa noryt otuocutec rcuxonoru+ecra rpeqpacronoeuuocte u saautuMe artopM, a
tare usuonoru+ecrue artopM (s ton +ucne reuetu+ecrue snuuu). ocnequue sMxoqt sa panru ocyqaenoro s atou
ruure; oquaro MctpMu rporpecc s reuetu+ecrux uccneqosauux otrpMsaet uosMe sosnouoctu repeq uccneqosauunu
ctpecca. Ctauosutc sce onee qoctyruou rposepra uuqusuqyynos ua uanu+ue sce oneaero ronu+ectsa reuetu+ecrux
naprepos, otse+akaux sa pasnu+uMe saonesauu. 3to rossonet routponuposate roqouMe artopM s uccneqosauux,
usy+akaux rcuxocouaneuMe sosqeuctsu, u cosqaet s yqyaen sosnouoctu qn pasrpauu+euu reuetu+ecrux u cpeqo-
sMx snuuuu, tarux rar pone usueuuMx coMtuu.
|nasa 5
Korususe xapakepck, cpecc pesora
5en Cepn, 5en hsmenn u auv 5pam Ben Searle, Ben Newell , Jim Bright
3ta rnasa rpeqctasnet paotM s onactu roruutusuMx xapartepuctur u anouu, sua+unMx qn usy+euu ctpecca. 0ua
suaronut c pqon teopuu u arcrepuneutaneuMx rapaqurn, ucronesyenMx rpu usy+euuu euoneuos, cssauuMx co
ctpeccon, u orucMsaet snuuu ctpecca ua pasnu+uMe acrertM roruutusuoro yuruouuposauu, srnk+a suunauue,
rante u cyqeuue.
Ecnu nM qorycraen, +to ctpeccopM seqyt r roseqeu+ecrun usneueuun, torqa ueoxoquno paccnotpete xapartep
rpoecca, neaaero s ocuose atux usneueuuu. ora nM ocyqunu pearuu-uarpeuu s tepnuuax usuonoruu u
canoot+etos (uarpunep: rposuoe qasneuue u pearuu, quaruoctupyenMe c ronoaek orpocuuros); qpyrou roqxoq r
pearun-uarpeuun paccnotpete, rar pearupyet ua ctpeccopM roruutusua cuctena. orMtru tpartosate
euoneuM uarpeuu c y+eton roruutusuMx rpoeccos ctauostc rorynpuMn uccneqosatenecrun roqxoqon, u ceu+ac
usqaktc ypuanM, uarpunep Cognition and Emotion, rotopMe rocsaeuM atun uccneqosauun. 0quaro uay+uMe qauuMe,
cssMsakaue ctpeccopM c roruutusuMnu rpoeccanu (tarunu rar suunauue u rante), qanero ue oquosua+uM. +actu+uo
ato oycnosneuo pacrnMs+atoctek orpeqeneuuu ctpecca, rotopMe rpe-
onaqakt s uactoaee spen (cn. rnasy 1). Kar nM suqenu s rnase 2, tepnuu ctpecc +acto ucronesykt qn orucauu
usuonoru+ecrou unu rcuxonoru+ecrou pearuu ua ctpeccopM, +to seqet r sua+uteneuony cosraqeuuk rorynpuoro
yrotpeneuu tepnuua ctpecc u routuu tpesoru u qerpeccuu. 3tun routun yqenetc oneaoe suunauue s
roruutusuou nutepatype (cn., uarpunep, Eysenck, 1992; Beck & Emery, 1985).
Xot sce atu routu reperpMsakt qpyr qpyra, tpesora u qerpeccu snktc onee ysrunu, to+uee orpeqeneuuMnu u
ner+e usnepenMnu routunu. ocronery ouu onee taateneuo uccneqosauM roruutusuMnu rcuxonoranu, snuuu
tpesoru u qerpeccuu ua roruutusuMe rpoeccM tare rouunaktc cuee. Xot ata onacte uccneqosauuu peqro
ocyqaetc s ruurax ro ctpeccy, rotopMe oM+uo roueutpupykt suunauue ua paotax onee rpurnaquoro xapartepa,
roqouMe uccneqosauu crocouM oecre+ute ny+aee rouunauue rpoecca ctpecca. |ccneqosauu ctpecca,
ueconueuuo, sMurpakt ot oneaeu uuterpauu roqouMx roqxoqos. 8 cneqykaen pasqene qaetc rpatruu osop
uerotopMx rnk+esMx pasnu+uu neqy netoqanu roruutusuou rcuxonoruu u netoqurou, ucronesyenou rcuxonoranu
creuanuctanu s onactu rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu u sqopose +enosera.
Korusua ncxonor
KoruutusuMe rcuxonoru ronesyktc ctporo routponupyenMnu arcrepuneutaneuMnu rapaqurnanu u, rar rpasuno,
rposoqt uccneqosauu s naopatopuu, rqe atot sMcoruu yposeue routpon oecre+ute ner+e, +en s ronesMx ycnosux.
cuxonoru creuanuctM rpurnaquMx otpacneu, s rotopMx oM+uo usy+akt ctpecc (uarpunep: sqpasooxpaueuue,
rcuxonoru poeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu unu rnuuu+ecra rcuxonoru), tare rposoqt naopatopuMe
uccneqosauu, uo sqece cyaectsyet onee yctou+usa tpaquu usy+ate euoneuM s ectectseuuou octauosre. 0qua us
rpu+uu ctpenneuu uccneqosate roseqeuue uerocpeqctseuuo ua nectax, rqe ato roseqeuue oM+uo passopa+usaetc,
ato enauue saqeuctsosate te oratMe ro coqepauuk u ronrnercuMe cpeqosMe artopM, rotopMe noryt suocute csou
srnaq s usy+aenMe euoneuM. Cootsetctseuuo, oprauusauouuMe rcuxonoru noryt usy+ate ctpecc ua pao+ux nectax, a
rnuuu+ecrue rcuxonoru s rpyrrax raueutos. C+utakt, +to roqouMe uccneqosauu onee aronoru+ecru sanuquM, +en
naopatopuMe roqxoqM, rocronery rcuxonor noet ysuqete roseqeuue s ero roqnuuuon u ronuon routercte (t e. s
uopnaneuou aronoru+ecrou cutyauu). 0quaro +acto aronoru+ecra, sanuquocte noet qocturatec euou yneueaeuu
ctporoctu arcrepuneutaneuoro routpon. Kar nM suqenu s rpeqMqyaux rnasax, s rpurnaquMx ycnosux ronuoctek
yqosnetsopkauu routpone rpocto uesosnoeu aopatopuMe arcrepuneutM +acto ucronesykt u ctpeccopM, u
usnepeuu paotocrocouoctu, rotopMe cuneuo otnu+aktc ot tex, rotopMe unekt necto s peaneuMx usueuuMx
cutyaux. oatony roqouMe uccneqosauu yssunM qn rputuru ua ton ocuosauuu, +to un ueqoctaet aronoru+ecrou
sanuquoctu, t e ux uenes repeuectu ua peaneuyk usue. 0quaro rocronery ouu noryt routponuposate sce acrertM
arcrepuneuta, sosuuraet sosnouocte rorasate rpu+uuuo-cneqctseuuMe cssu, s rotopMe ue sneausaktc roctopouuue
repeneuuMe larpunep, snecto toro +toM qate rosneuu ctpeccopa, a saten crpaausate y+actuuros, rar ouu ce
senu, s routponupyenon arcrepuneute ctpeccopon nouo nauurynuposate, neu ero uuteucusuocte u
rpoqonuteneuocte, a pearuk y+actuura nouo usnepte s ronu+ectseuuou opne. Ten canMn atu uccneqosauu cro-
couM rponute cset ua nexauusnM, rocpeqctson rotopMx ctpeccopM, anouu (tarue rar tpesora u qerpeccu) u
roruutusuMe xapartepucturu cssauM qpyr c qpyron.
Teop csi korusuo qeensuoc, pesor qenpecc
Cyaectsyet nuoectso teopuu, rotopMe rMtaktc ocuute snuuue tpesoru u qerpeccuu ua roruutusuyk crocouocte;
roatony nM! cocpeqoto+unc tonero ua tpex uauonee snuteneuMx 3tu teopuu unekt otuoaeuue r tpesore rar
coctouuk u r tpesore rar +epte. Coctouuen tpesoru uasMsakt yposeue tpesoru, rotopyk +enoser ucrMtMsaet s qauuoe
spen. oq tpesorou rar +eptou (tpesouoctek) rouunakt yctou+usyk xapartepuctury uuqusuqyyna, coctoayk s ton,
+toM ucrMtMsate tpesory; +enoser c sMcorou tpesouoctek ucrMtMsaet tpesory uanuoro +aae, +en +enoser c uusrou
tpesouoctek. 3tu rorasatenu, rar rpasuno, oeuusakt, ucronesy netoqury usnepeuu tpesoru Cruneprepa (s ote+e-
ctseuuou rparture arana canooeuru peartusuou u nu+uoctuou tpesouoctu + . Cruneprepa, aqartuposauua k. .
XauuuMn. pun. peq.) (cn. spesry 5.1).

Dnpoc+u| no mpeeoce |a| cocmo++us u vepme (State- Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI Sptelberger, 1970) amo onpoc+u| dn+
cavoomvema, cosda++eu c (enes pascpa+uve+u+ mpeeocu |a| (a) cocmo++u+ (c|opomev+oco ae|mue+oco onema) u (b) vepme
{,cmouvueou xapa|mepucmu-|u nuv+ocmu) 3mo cpedcmeo usvepe+u+ cocmoum us de,x vacmeu, codepa(ux no 20 ,meepde+uu
{copv,nupoea++ex e ,meepdumene+ou u ompu(amene+ou opve) Pecno+de+moe npoc+m dame omeem
a) c mov|u spe+u+ moco, vmo o+u v,ecme,sm e da++eu vove+m, m e ux me|,(eco cocmo++u+ (csda e|nsve+e ,meepde+u+ +
+anp+e+, + cno|oe+, + ,eepe+ e cee)
b) c mov|u spe+u+ moco, vmo o+u v,ecme,sm oev+o, m e ompaaemc+ aneve+m nuv+ocm+ou vepme (csda e|nsve+e ,meepde+u+
+ ucnemeeas +epeos+ocme u ecno|oucmeo, + ,doenemeope+ coou, ve++ npecned,sm ecno|ou+ee vecnu)
STAI vacmo npuve++sm uccnedoeamenu cmpecca, |omopee, e saeucuvocmu om ceoux (eneu u sadav, voc,m ucnonesoeame a|ane
nuo cocmo++u+, nuo vepme u|an, 0ocmo++ue mpeeocu oev+o ucnones,sm dn+ moco, vmoe o(e+ume |pam|oepeve++eu unu
cum,amue+eu ducmpecc, nuo pea|(us +a ,cnoeu+, |omopee ,cpoasm cavoo(e+|e, +anpuvep +a o(e+|, paome (Saunders et al ,
1996), xom+ eco ma|e ucnones,sm u dn+ moco, vmoe o(e+ume om|nu|u +a cmpeccoeee us+e++ee coemu+, |omopee va(e ececo
+en+smc+ onee doncoepe-ve++evu avo(uo+ane+evu pea|(u+vu (cv , +anpuvep, Sexton-Radek, 1994) u|ana Tpeeoca |a| vepma
vacmo ucnones,emc+ |a| vepa +ecamue+ou ae|mue+ocmu (cv , +anpuvep, Steptoe, Lipsey &Wardle, 1998) le|omopee
uccnedoeamenu npuve++sm oe a|ane +anpu-vep, uu, |no,eep u 5epmo+ (Shea, Clover & Burton, 1991) o(e+ueanu enu++ue mpeeocu
|a| cocmo++u+ u |a| vepme, a ma|e eosdeucmeue cmpeccoeex us+e++ex coemuu +a uvv,++oe ,+|(uo+upoea+ue , cm,de+moe-
vedu|oe, comoe+(uxc+ | a|save+av.
8pesra 5 1 0rpocuur ro tpesore rar coctouuk u +epte

7eopu cxev 5eka (scema theory)
Teopu cxen 6era, otuocaac r qerpeccuu u tpesore, ocuosaua ua roqxoqe r rantu, rotopMu socxoqut r paote
6aptnetta (Bartlett, 1932). 8 cyauoctu, cxena ato xpauunuae rantu, rotopoe coqeput pq cssauuMx aneneutos
uuopnauu. 6er u 3nepu (Beck & Emery, 1985) orpeqenkt roruutusuyk cxeny rar uuterpuposauuyk ctpyrtypy unu co-
tu u, sosnouo, tare ronroueut apturynuouuou retnu (articulatory loop). Ctereue, s rotopou ta unu uua saqa+a
tpeyet ucronesosauu eutpaneuoro ucronuuteneuoro unu apturynuouuoro ronroueutos oycnosut ctereue, s rotopou
coctouue tpesoru noet snute ua sMronueuue saqa+u.
Dnepamue+,s nav+me onuceeasm |a| +acmone+eu npuop conoe+oco vosca. 3mo |oc+umue+a+ ,+|(u+, |omopa+ novocaem +av
cnedume sa mev, vmo ve denaev, unu cde ve e da++eu vove+m +axoduvc+, u xpa+um u+opva(us cmone|o epeve+u, c|one|o
+eoxoduvo, dn+ moco vmoe ve npu++nu |a|oe-mo peae+ue: +apanu meneo++eu +ovep unu noemopunu +es+a|ovoe u+ocmpa++oe
cnoeo, |omopoe mone|o vmo ,cneaanu (Logie, 1999). oamov, onepamue+a+ nav+me npedcmaen+em coou +evmo +av+oco oneaee,
vev npocmo xpa+unu(e |pam|oepeve++ou nav+mu o+a neum e oc+oee eenon+e+u+ v+ocux |oc+umue+ex sadav, ma|ux |a|
pacc,de+ue u +a,ve+ue. 5addenu (Baddeley. 1990) nonacaem, vmo onepamue+a+ nav+me onupaemc+ +a u+ee cucmeve, +eenu me,
|omopee ucnones,smc+ e doncoepeve++ou nav+mu, e pes,nemame veco na(ue+me c av+esueu voc,m onadame +opvane+o
,+|(uo+up,s(eu onepamue+ou nav+mes, a na(ue+me c nnoxou onepamue+ou nav+mes voc,m xopoao nov+ume coemu+
npoanoco.
5addenu npednonacaem, vmo onepamue+a+ nav+me onupaemc+ +a |o+mponup,s(,s cucmev, e+uva+u+ ((e+mpane+eu
ucnon+umene+eu |ovno+e+m), |omopa+ |oopdu+up,em p+d ecnovocamene+ex cucmev. |nsveeevu ecnovocamene+evu cucmevavu,
|omopee nodeepcasmc+ us,ve+us, +en+smc+ eus,ane+o-npocmpa+cmee++eu no|+om, omeevas(uu sa eoccosda+ue eus,ane+ex
opasoe u va+un,n+(us uvu, u o+onocuvec|a+ (unu apmu|,n+(uo++a+) nemn+, omeevas(a+ sa va+un,n+(us u+opva(ueu,
oc+oea++ou +a pevu.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

peika 5.2. 0nepasua naus.
Knk+esou acrert teopuu Auseura coctout s ton, +to neqy yposunu coctouu tpesoru u paotocrocouoctek ue noet
Mte rpoctou nuueuuou cssu. Auseur ytsepqaet, +to rorqa opaotra rarou-to sauou saqa+u uaxoqutc roq yrposou
us-sa ctpeccopa, uuqusuqyyn noet rosMcute yposeue csoux ycunuu, c ten +toM coxpauute yposeue paotocrocouoctu.
3to qoronuuteneuoe ycunue sMnusaetc s ucronesosauue qoronuuteneuMx pecypcos opaotru. o atou rpu+uue
tpesora noet otpaatec ua aertusuoctu opaotru (ucronesosauuu pecypcos suunauu) s oneaeu ctereuu, +en
oua otpaaetc ua aertusuoctu paotM (crocouoctu xopoao sMronuute saqa+y). Auseur c+utaet, +to uuqusuqyynM c
sMcorou tpesouoctek crnouuM ny+ae ucronesosate atu qoronuuteneuMe pecypcM. 3to noet Mte +actu+uo
oycnosneuo oneaeu osao+euuoctek ro rosoqy rnoxoro sMronueuu saqa+u, u +actu+uo rosMaeuuMn ocosuauuen
uecootsetctsu neqy enaenMn u artu+ecrun sMronueuuen. Vouo crasate, +to s raron-to cnMcne tpesouMe nkqu,
s cpasueuuu c uetpesouMnu, ny+ae paotakt s ctpeccosMx ycnosux, tar rar ouu r uun rpusMrnu. 0quaro sauo
ronuute, +to tpesouMu +enoser rpurnaqMsaet oneae ycunuu qn coxpaueuu paotocrocouoctu, cpasuunou c
paotocrocouoctek uetpesouoro +enosera. TpesouMu +enoser uaronuuaet +enosera, rotopony rpuxoqutc eate,
+toM ue otctate ot csoero o+eue Mctpo uqyaero crytuura. lo rorqa Mctpo uqyauu +enoser repexoqut ua er, tpe-
souMu +enoser ue noet eate Mctpee u otctaet. puneuuteneuo r roruutusuMn sosnouoctn, rorqa tpesouMu
uuqusuqyyn rpoqonaet ctanrusatec c sMsMsakaunu tpesory ctunynanu, eny noet ue xsatute pecypcos qn
qaneueuaero uapaausauu ycunuu, u roatony ero paotocrocouocte yxyqaaetc, torqa rar uetpesouMu +enoser, ora-
sasauuc repeq tenu e ctunynanu, onaqaet qoctato+uMn saracon pecypcos, +toM ysenu+ute ycunu u coxpauute
paotocrocouocte.
ose Auseur u ero ronneru (cn., uarpunep, Eysenck, 1997; Eysenck & Derakshan, 1997; Derakshan & Eysenck, 1998)
ycosepaeuctsosanu aty noqene. 0uu ctpenunuce ocuute pasnu+uMe ocoeuuoctu suunauu u cosqauu
uuteprpetauu, otne+aenMe y pasnu+uMx rpyrr nkqeu. 3tu ocoeuuoctu oycnosneuM yposuen nu+uoctuou tpesouoctu
u tarou xapartepucturou, rar ctpenneuue +enosera qenouctpuposate couaneuo enateneuoe roseqeuue. 8auueprep,
Lsap u asuqcou (Weinberger, Schwartz & Davidson, 1979) sMqenunu +etMpe pasnu+uMe rpyrrM uuqusuqyynos s
cootsetctsuu c rorasatennu tpesouoctu rar +eptM u ctpenneuu r couaneuou enateneuoctu roseqeuu. kqeu c
uusrunu rorasatennu ro couaneuou enateneuoctu roseqeuu u tpesouoctu rnaccuuuposanu rar uusro tpesouMx,
nkqeu c sMcorun rorasatenen tpesouoctu, uo c uusrun rorasatenen couaneuou enateneuoctu otuecnu r sMcoro
tpesouM, (s uerotopMx uccneqosauux ux uasMsakt ceucutusanu sensitisers). Tex, y roro Mnu sMcorue
rorasatenu ro oeun +eptan, rnaccuuuposanu rar saauaakauxc sMcoro tpesouMx. PerpeccopM (repressors) Mnu
orpeqeneuM rar otnu+akauec uusrou tpesouoctek u l sMcorun ctpenneuuen r couaneuou enateneuoctu csoero
roseqeuu. (cn. tare rnasy 7).
8 cyauoctu, cornacuo atou uosou noqenu tpesouoctu, sMcoro tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM rpeysenu+usakt ctereue
yrposM, taaeuc s r cssauuMx c yrposou ctunynax. larpotus, perpeccopM, rar rpasuno

rpeyneueaakt ctereue yrposM,
taaeuc s tarux ctunynax.
0aeu ocoeuuoctek paccnotpeuuMx noqeneu snetc to, +to; ctpeccopM rpeqctasneuM s rantu, u opaotra uosou
uuopnauu rpeqorpeqenetc nuo uanu+uen ctpeccopa, nuo rantek o uen. 8o scex noqenx ctpeccopM snukt
ua suunauue, rotopoe, s csok o+epeqe, snuet ua to, +to opaatMsaetc. Tarun opason, ctpecc sosqeuctsyk \ et ua
roruutusuMe rpoeccM u suunauu, u rantu. Terepe uneet cnMcn sMcuute, rarue qauuMe roqtsepqakt atu noqenu u
onee oaee

ytsepqeuue, cornacuo rotopony ctpeccy rpucyae roruutusuoe snuuue.

3kcnepueuansuse ccneqosau korususx xapakepck pesor
8MaeorucauuMe oaue teopuu, a tare nuoectso qpyrux creuaneuMx teopuu, rposepkt c ronoaek
arcrepuneutaneuMx rapaqurn. oqouMe uccneqosauu rossonkt nauurynuposate cpeqosMnu artopanu s
qoronueuue r tourou oeure roruutusuMx u roseqeu+ecrux xapartepuctur. Paspaotauo nuoectso pasnu+uMx
uccneqosatenecrux rapaqurn qn usy+euu roruutusuMx euoneuos s arcrepuneutaneuMx ycnosux, u ceu+ac uneetc
ounue nutepatypuMx ucto+uuros ro atou tene. 8qece nM paccnotpun nuae uerotopMe us rnk+esMx tenatu+ecrux
uccneqosauuu, roueutpupykaux suunauue ua uauonee cyaectseuuMx roruutusuMx acrertax.
8nuvanue
3aqau ua ckauposaue. 6er u 3nepu (Beck & Emery, 1985) u qpyrue teopeturu c+utakt, +to tpesouMe nkqu +aae
rposnkt csepxquteneuocte s otuoaeuuu yrpoakaux ctunynos, a ato osua+aet, +to ouu yqyt crauuposate cpeqy ua
uanu+ue yrpoakaeu uuopnauu Mctpee u taateneuee, +en uetpesouMe nkqu. 8 uccneqosauux, usy+asaux atot
euoneu, kopcru, 6nuuqep u Luner (Lu-borsky, Blinder & Schimek, 1965) qenouctpuposanu y+actuuran raptuuru c
cercyaneuMn, arpeccusuMn unu ueutpaneuMn coqepauuen. orasatennu qeteneuoctu crauuposauu (suunateneuoro
pasrnqMsauu) cnyunu qauuMe o qsueuux rnas. PerpeccopM crauuposanu neueae, +en ceucutusM. o-suqunony, ato
yrasMsaet ua to, +to tpesouocte rar +epta qeuctsuteneuo cssaua co csepxquteneuoctek. 0quaro Xeunu (Haley, 1974)
yctauosun, +to so spen rpocnotpa unena o uec+actuon cny+ae ua paote u perpeccopM, u ceucutusM crauuposanu
oneae, +en y+actuuru, rotopMe ue Mnu uu perpeccopanu, uu ceucutusanu. Xot atot art rosoput ue s ronesy
rurotesM, cornacuo rotopou tpesora qonua crococtsosate onee taateneuony crauuposauuk, uerotopMe qauuMe s
uccneqosauuu Xeunu rorasMsanu, +to ceucutusM oneae orycuposanuce ua ctpeccoson coqepauuu, +en perpeccopM.
Ctout otnetute, +to s uccneqosauuu kopcru, 6nuuqepa u Lunera ucronesosanuce ctatu+uMe usopaeuu (a ue
qsuyauec, rotopMe tpeykt onee uuteucusuoro qsueuu rnas), u +to sMtecueuue oeuusanoce rpu ronoau tecta
+epuuneuMx rteu Popaaxa rpoertusuou texuuru, rotopa peqro rpuneuetc s cospeneuuMx arcrepuneutaneuMx
uccneqosauux.
Xanrepuu (Halperin, 1986) rorasMsan y+actuuran ctatu+uMe raptuuru c cercyaneuMn, uacunectseuuMn unu ueutpaneuMn
coqepauuen. 8 raptuurax c cercyaneuMn u uacunectseuuMn coqepauuen unenuce rnk+esMe necta, rotopMe otse+anu
sa oneayk +acte anououaneuoro aerta. Xanrepuu ouapyun, +to perpeccopM rocsaanu usy+euuk atux nect ua
raptuurax ooux turos sua+uteneuo neueae speneuu, +en ceucutusM, a ato rossonet rpeqronoute, +to sMcoro
tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM noryt crauuposate cpeqy s oneaeu ctereuu, uo +to ato onee uuteucusuoe crauuposauue
ueosateneuo orpauu+usaetc yrpoakaunu ctunynanu.
3aqau ua osnekaeuocs. lerotopMe uccneqosatenu (cn., uarpunep, Easterbrook, 1959) ronaranu, +to tpesora
crococtsyet cyeuuony, unu onee corycuposauuony, suunauuk, u, cneqosateneuo, tpesouMe nkqu qonuM
otsneratec neueae, +en uetpesouMe. 0quaro, rar nM suqenu, qpyrue ytsepqakt, +to tpesora crococtsyet csepx-
quteneuoctu, u +to tpesouMe nkqu otsneraktc ner+e. Kar M to uu Mno, to+uMe rporuosM ua ocuosauuu atux teopuu
cqenate tpyquo. Ecnu tpesouMe nkqu crauupykt cpeqy ua uanu+ue yrpoakaeu uuopnauu s oneaeu ctereuu, +en
uetpesouMe, torqa ux yqyt ner+e otsnerate yrpoakaue otsnerakaue artopM. Ecnu tpesouMe nkqu rpocto
crauupykt cpeqy Mctpee u taateneuee, +en uetpesouMe torqa ux yqyt ner+e otsnerate nkMe roctopouuue artopM.
+toM usy+ute otsnerakaee snuuue tpesouMx u ueutpaneuMx ctunynos, Vateks u Var-eoq (Mathews & MacLeod,
1986) rposenu arcrepuneut ua quxotonu+ecroe cnyaauue. /+actuuros rpocunu otcnequte (rporosopute scnyx) otpMsru
pe+u, rotopMe socrpoussoqunuce ro oquony us rauanos rapM ctepeouayauuros. /rpoakaue u ueutpaneuMe cnosa
ssy+anu ro stopony rauany, ua rotopMu suunauue ue uarpasnnoce; rocttectosa rposepra rorasana, +to atu cnosa ur
Mnu sMsneuM y+actuuranu. 0quaro Vateks u Var-eoq sce-taru ouapyunu, +to yrpoakaue cnosa, repeqasasauec
ro stopony rauany, otpasunuce ua ra+ectse otcneusauu s oneaeu ctereuu, +en ueutpaneuMe cnosa. 3tot pesynetat
Mn rony+eu tonero qn tpesouMx y+actuuros, rorasMsa, +to yrpoakaue ctunynM otsnerakt tpesouMx nkqeu
ner+e, +en ueyrpoakaue, u +to ato rpoucxoqut sa c+et roqcosuateneuMx rpoeccos. 0quaro senu+uua aerta qn
atoro pesynetata Mna ueoneaou, osua+a, +to rarue M to uu Mno ueqoctatru sMronueuu paotM y tpesouMx
nkqeu, sosnouo, u ue unekt rpartu+ecroro sua+euu.
Vateks c ronneranu (Mathews et al., 1990) cooaun o auanoru+uon aerte. Tpu rpyrrM nkqeu (ctpaqasaue ua
teryauu noneut reuepanusosauuMn tpesouMn pacctpouctson [generalised anxiety disorder, GAD], ueqasuo repeuecaue
GAD u sqoposMe routponeuMe y+actuuru) rony+unu saqauue ocuute cnosa; rpu aton un rpeqsnnuce otsnerakaue
cnosa, rotopMe Mnu nuo yrpoakaunu, nuo ueyrpoakaunu. /+actuuru c artyaneuou tpesorou otsneranuce oounu
uaopanu otsnerakaux cnos s oneaeu ctereuu, +en routponeuMe y+actuuru, torqa rar te, rto ueqasuo repeuec GAD,
otnu+anuce ot routponeuou rpyrrM tonero s cny+ae yrpoakaux cnos. 3to rossonet rpeqronoute, +to sMcora
tpesouocte rpeqpacronaraet uuqusuqyyna r rosMaeuuou yssunoctu repeq yrpoakaunu otsnerakaunu ctunynanu,
uo +to tonero teryaa tpesora snuet ua yssunocte repeq nkMn otsnerakaun ctunynon. 0quaro Mno M ronesuo
rposepute atot sMsoq s ycnosux, rorqa nouo nauurynuposate coctouuen tpesoru.
Cornacuo teopuu rpoqyrtusuoctu opaotru uuopnauu Auseu-ra, tpesouMe nkqu qonuM otsneratec ner+e rpu
sosqeuctsuu nkoro otsnerakaero ctunyna. lpeuqou u Auseur (Graydon & Eysenck,
1989) yctauosunu, +to otsneraenocte, ro-suqunony, sospactaet, rorqa sMcoru tpeosauu r opaotre uuopnauu.
Auseur (1992) ytsepqan, +to sonueuu unu oayaeuu tpesoru rornoaakt pecypcM suunauu, s pesynetate +ero nka
saqa+a ro opaotre uuopnauu ctauosutc onee tpyqoenrou. Ecnu tpesora cssaua c ycuneuuMn sMsneuuen u
opaotrou yrpoakaux ctunynos, ato qonuo qenate tpesouMx nkqeu onee socrpuun+usMnu r nkony otsnera-
kaeny ctunyny, u s ocoeuuoctu r yrpoakaeny. oqtsepqeuu atoro rpeqronoeuu nouo uautu s uccneqosauuu
Auseura u lpeuqoua (1989). /+actuuros rpocunu rpo+utate rocneqosateneuoctu yrs u sMronuute c uunu +ucnosMe
orepauu (uarpunep: JULI + 3 = ? [0tset: MXOL]). AstopM ouapyunu, +to xot neqy tpesouou u uetpesouou
rpyrranu u ue Mno pasnu+uu s cny+ae eccnMcneuuoro otsnerakaero ctunyna, uo tpesouMe nkqu otsneranuce
oneae, +en uetpesouMe, rpu sosqeuctsuu ueyrpoakaero otsnerakaero ctunyna, rotopMu Mn cssau c
sMronuenMn saqauuen.
3aqaua 6pyna. 8aqauu Ctpyra (Stroop) snktc eae oquou opnou saqa+ ua otsneraenocte. 8 opuruuaneuon
saqauuu Ctpyra ucronesyetc repe+eue cnos, rpeqctasnkaux coou uassauu setos (uarpunep: KPAClb| u
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
0PAlXE8b|). 3tu cnosa uare+atauM rpacrou pasuoro seta, rpu+en neqy uarucauuMn cnoson u rpacrou,
ucronesosauuou qn atoro cnosa, uet uurarou cssu. larpunep, cnoso KPAClb| noet Mte uare+atauo cuueu
rpacrou, a cnoso 0PAlXE8b| seneuou. /+actuuros rpoct rocneqosateneuo rpocnatpusate cnosa u uasMsate
set rpacru, rotopou uare+atauo raqoe cnoso, uruopupy rpu aton ero sua+euue. K rpunepy, ecnu cnoso KPAClb|
uare+atauo cuueu rpacrou, ouqaetc, +to y+actuur craet: Cuuuu. 3to saqauue otnu+aetc cnouoctek, rocronery
rpu ero sMronueuuu tpeyetc roqasute uerpoussoneuyk artusuocte pacrosuasauu cenautu+ecrux xapartepuctur cnos
(Martin, 1978). lecnotp ua to, +to uqeutuurau setos ato saqauue, rotopoe oM+uo sMronuetc Mctpo u nerro,
cenautu+ecrue sua+euu noryt nerro otsne+e y+actuuros.
0aa rapaqurna s roruutusuMx uccneqosauux tpesoru rpeqctasnet coou noquuuposauuoe saqauue Ctpyra. 8
aton saqauuu y+actuuran rorasMsakt repe+eue cnos, rotopMe otnu+aktc ro anououaneuou sua+unoctu. Cnosa cuosa
uare+atauM pasuMn seton. /+actuuros rpoct rpocnotpete repe+eue u uassate set rpacru qn raqoro cnosa,
uruopupy uarucauuoe cnoso. o-suqunony, y+actuuran tpeyetc oneae speneuu ua to, +toM cooaute set rpacru
qn cnos,
rotopMe rpusnerakt ux suunauue. Vuoro+ucneuuMe uccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to y+actuuran, ctpaqakaun
tpesouMnu pacctpouctsanu, tpeyetc oneae speneuu ua to, +toM rpopearuposate ua' yrpoakaue cnosa (tarue rar
ctpaqauue, paueuMu unu uacunectseuuMu), +en ua ueutpaneuMe cnosa, ro cpasueuuk co sqoposMnu y+actuuranu
(Martin, Williams & Clark, 1991). larpunep, Vateks u Var-eoq (Mathews & MacLeod, 1985) yctauosunu, +to raueutM c
GAD neqneuuee uasMsakt seta cnos, cssauuMx c yrposou, +en uetpesouMe nkqu. 0quaro Vaptuu, /unnenc u Knapr
ouapyunu, +to rpu sMcorou tpesouoctu, uo ue qocturakaeu yposu rnuuu+ecrou, nkqu Mctpee uasMsakt yrpoa-
kaue cnosa, +en y+actuuru co cpequunu u uusrunu yposunu tpesouoctu. Vaptuu, /unnenc u Knapr rorasanu, +to
raueutM c GAD neqneuuee uasMsakt seta cssauuMx c yrposou cnos, +en ueraueutM c tarunu e yposunu tpe-
souoctu. 3to rossonet rpeqronoute, +to xot tpesora noet urpate pone s otsneraenoctu, uarpasneuue suunauu ua
cnosa, cssauuMe c yrposou, Mno oycnosneuo uerocpeqctseuuo uanu+uen GAD, unu rarun-to uuMn artopon,
otuocaunc r repeueceuuk atoro pacctpouctsa.
ponena c noquuuposauuMn saqauuen Ctpyra coctout s ton, +to y+actuuru, s ocoeuuoctu rnuuu+ecrue raueutM,
crocouM yraqate, rarun qoneu Mte ouqaenMu rattepu pearuu, a ato noet rouusute uaqeuocte pesynetatos. K
rpunepy, apaxuooM (nkqu c uppauouaneuou osuek rayros) noryt suate, +to ux sMpanu qn arcrepuneuta us-sa ux
ouu, u ato noet rpusoqute r tony, +to ouu yqyt, ocosuauuo unu ueocosuauuo, saneqnte csou pearuu ua orpe-
qeneuuMe cnosa. Eae oqua rponena u c saqauunu Ctpyra, u c quxotonu+ecrun cnyaauuen sarnk+aetc s ton, +to ouu
rpeqronarakt sepaneuMe otsetM y+actuuros. 8epaneuMe otsetM tpeykt otuocuteneuo oneaou roruutusuou
artusuoctu, u, cootsetctseuuo, ua arcrepuneut noet snute oneae roctopouuux repeneuuMx. oqouoe suauue noet
ue snute ua rpeqpacronoeuuocte y+actuuros qo sMronueuu saqauu ua suunauue, uo rar tonero ouu ysuqenu u
rpo+utanu cnoso A/K, ato suauue noet otpasutec ua cropoctu ux sepaneuMx pearuu. 0quun us peaeuuu oeux
rponen snetc orpauu+euue ctereuu roruutusuou artusuoctu, tpeyenou qn otseta.
3aqaue c nepeuemamec ouko. 0quou us anetepuatus sMaeorucauuMn rapaqurnan snetc saqauue c
repeneaakaeuc to+rou (MacLeod, Mathews & Tata, 1986). 8Mronu ato saqauue, y+actuuru cuqt repeq nouutopon
ronrektepa u cneqt sa ueutpaneuMn
to+e+uMn ctunynon, rosnkaunc ua arpaue. To+ra rosnetc nuo s sepxueu, nuo s uuueu +actu arpaua. 8 raqon
cny+ae y+actuuros rpoct uaunate ua orpeqeneuuyk ruorry. Kpone toro, uerocpeqctseuuo repeq rpeqsneuuen to+ru
ua arpaue sMcse+usaetc rapa cnos (oquo ueutpaneuoe, a qpyroe cssauuoe c yrposou). 0quo us cnos rosnetc s
sepxueu ronosuue arpaua, a stopoe s uuueu. /rpoakaue u ueutpaneuMe cnosa rosnktc c pasuou sepotuoctek
s raqou us ronosuu arpaua, tar e rar u to+ra.
|cronesy ato saqauue, Var-eoq, Vateks u Tata (MacLeod, Mathews & Tata, 1986) rpoqenouctpuposanu, +to tpesouMe
y+actuuru (raueutM c GAD) Mctpee, +en uetpesouMe, ouapyusanu to+ry, rorqa oua rosnnace s tou ronosuue
arpaua, rqe repeq atun qenouctpuposanoce cnoso, cssauuoe c yrposou. 3tu pesynetatM Mnu rostopeuM qn cnos,
cssauuMx c couaneuou yrposou, ua rotopMx raueutM c couaneuou oueu saoctpnu oneae suunauu, +en
routponeuMe y+actuuru (Asmundson & Stein, 1994).
pu aton cuosa nouo roctasute roq conueuue aronoru+ecryk sanuquocte paccnotpeuuMx uccneqosauuu. Vauurynu
cnosanu cosepaeuuo o+esuqua, u ue ucrnk+eua qoraqra y+actuura, +to atu cnosa otnu+aktc ocoMnu csouctsanu. 8
+actuoctu, cnosa, cssauuMe c yrposou, onaqakt onee xapartepuMnu ocoeuuoctnu, +en ux ueutpaneuMe qsouuuru,
rocronery sce ouu rpuuaqneat r otuocuteneuo ysro orpeqeneuuou rateropuu yrposa, torqa rar ueutpaneuMe cnosa
epytc us onee auporou rateropuu cnos. oatony +enosery otuocuteneuo rpocto route, +to repeq uun rpyrra
cssauuMx c yrposou cnos, uo cnouee sMsute roqouMu +etruu rattepu s ueyrpoakaux cnosax. Cootsetctseuuo, ato
suauue noet otpaatec ua qeuctsux +enosera. lanuoro onee ctporun roqxoqon Mno M pate ueutpaneuMe cnosa
us rateropuu, rotopa ctone e ysra, uarpunep cnosa, cssauuMe c paotou (ouc, ruceneuuMu cton, rpeqrputue,
terctosMu peqartop u t. q.).
3uaueue skcnepueuos ua suuaue. 3rcrepuneutM ua suunauue noryt Mte o+eue usoapeuuMnu. K rpunepy,
saqauue c to+rou octasnet o+eue nano sosnouocteu qn snuuu roctopouuux repeneuuMx. 3to rpauue sauo qn
rouunauu toro, rar tpesora u ctpecc otpaaktc ua yuqaneutaneuMx roruutusuMx rpoeccax, tarux rar roueutpau
suunauu u sMsneuue ctunynos. lo saten tpeyktc qoronuuteneuMe ronesMe uccneqosauu, +toM rposepute
pesynetatM, rotopMe qonuM Mte socrpoussoqunM s ycnosux peaneuou usuu. Kar tonero tarue uccneqosauu
rposeqeuM, nouo paspaatMsate
teparestu+ecrue roqxoqM. oatony ocuosua saqa+a roruutusuMx rcuxonoros rposepute teopuu u orpeqenute
asosMe rpoeccM, rotopMe noryt yrasate uarpasneuue rpurnaquMx uccneqosauuu.
hnmepnpemaqu navms
Teuqeuoiuocs uepnpea. 3rcrepuneutM ua teuqeuuosuocte uuteprpetauu rpussauM orpeqenute ctereue, s
rotopou tpesora snuet ua to, rar nM uuteprpetupyen ueoquosua+uMe ctunynM. peqronaraetc, +to tpesouMe
uuqusuqyynM yqyt uuteprpetuposate ueorpeqeneuuMe ctunynM rar yrpoakaue. 8 uccneqosauux, rposeqeuuMx Var-
eoqon (MacLeod, 1990), tpesouMe u uetpesouMe y+actuuru cnyaanu pasM, rotopMe nouo Mno rpouuteprpe-
tuposate pasnu+uMn opason, s sasucunoctu ot uuteprpetauu oquoro cnosa-onooua, rotopoe norno unete unu
ueutpaneuoe, unu yrpoakaee sua+euue, uarpunep: die/dye (ynupate/rpacute), break/ brake (nonate/topnosute). ocne
toro rar rpousuocunace raqa pasa, y+actuuran saqasanu sorpocM ua rouunauue, +toM oeuute ux uuteprpetauk
raqou pasM. PesynetatM Var-eoqa rorasanu, +to sMcoro tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM sua+uno +aae, +en uetpesouMe,
qasanu onee yrpoakayk uuteprpetauk. 0quaro roqoua rpoeqypa ue useraet ueoertusuoctu otsetos; xot
y+actuuru noryt rpoussoqute cxoue repsoua+aneuMe uuteprpetauu ctunynos, uetpesouMe nkqu noryt rpocto pee
cooaate o yrpoakaux uuteprpetaux.
Auseur c ronneranu (Eysenck et al., 1991) s eae oquon arcrepuneute ua uuteprpetauk ueorpeqeneuuoctu rorMtanc
useate teuqeuuosuoctu pearuu. TpesouMn u uetpesouMn y+actuuran rpeqnaranuce qsycnMcneuuMe u ueutpane-
uMe rpeqnoeuu. 8aten c y+actuuranu rposoqunu tect ua ysuasauue, s rotopon un rpeqnaranuce repepasuposauuMe
sapuautM repsoua+aneuMx rpeqnoeuuu. epepasuposauuMe sapuautM Mnu neuee qsycnMcneuuMnu, yqy+u ro
cnMcny nue unu r yrpoakaeny, unu r ueyrpoakaeny sua+euuk repsu+uoro rpeqnoeuu. PesynetatM tectos ua
ysuasauue rorasanu, +to tpesouMe y+actuuru +aae, +en uetpesouMe, qasanu onee yrpoakaue uuteprpetauu
qsycnMcneuuMn ctunynan. 0qua us rponen c atun pesynetaton coctout s ton, +to uesosnouo orpeqenute, snetc
nu cssauua c tpesorou teuqeuuosuocte uuteprpetauu aerton s peune ou-nauu t. e. astonatu+ecrun pas-
peaeuuen qsycnMcneuuoctu, unu e petpocrertusuMn rpoeccon, ucronesosauuMn so spen saqauu ua ysuasauue
(Hitchcock & Mathews, 1992). 8 rorMtre paspeaute aty rponeny Var-eoq u Koau (MacLeod & Cohen, 1993) rposepunu,
rar y+actuuru uuteprpetupykt qsycnMcneuuMu terct s peune ou-nauu (t. e. uesaneqnuteneuo). |cronesosanuce
otpMsru tercta, rotopMe coqepanu qsycnMcneuuoe rpeqnoeuue c sosnouoctnu oquou anououaneuo ueratusuou u
oquou ueutpaneuou uuteprpetauu, sa rotopMn cneqosana pasa-rpoqoneuue tonero c oquou uuteprpetaueu. Var-
eoq u Koau ouapyunu, +to rorqa rpoqoneuue cootsetctsosano ueutpaneuou uuteprpetauu, sMcoro tpesouMn
y+actuuran tpeosanoce oneae speneuu ua rouunauue otpMsros, +en nkqn c uusrou tpesouoctek, a ato rorasMsano,
+to sMcoro tpesouMe y+actuuru ye sapauee rpuqanu qsycnMcneuuony rpeqnoeuuk ueratusuyk orpacry, oycnosu-
sayk onee rpoqonuteneuoe rouunauue pasM, rotopa rpotusope+una ux repsoua+aneuony rpeqctasneuuk.
8 rocnequee spen teuqeuuosuocte uuteprpetauu rpusneraet oneaoe suunauue uccneqosateneu, rpu+en
uuteprpetau ctunynos ctana eutpaneuou ocoeuuoctek s uecronerux noqenx tpesoru (cn., uarpunep, Eysenck, 1997;
Williams et al., 1988,1997; Mogg & Bradley, 1998; Mogg et al., 2000). Tar, cornacuo Auseury (1997), teuqeuuosuocte
uuteprpetauu qonua unete rpotusoronouyk uarpasneuuocte s sMcoro u uusro tpesouMx rpyrrax. eparaau u
Auseur (Dera-kshan & Eysenck, 1997) rpeqronounu tarue rocneqctsu atoro, +to sMcoro tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM yqyt
rpeysenu+usate tpesouocte coctseuuoro roseqeuu s couaneuMx cutyaux. larpotus, perpeccopM qonuM
onaqate rpotusoronouou teuqeuuosuoctek uuteprpetauu u ueqooeuusate tpesouocte csoero roseqeuu.
|ccneqosatenu rony+unu s qsyx arcrepuneutax qauuMe, roqtsepqakaue atu rporuosM.
Teuqeuoiuocs nau. 8 rpeqMqyaen pasqene Mnu rpuseqeuM qauuMe, rotopMe roqtsepqakt rurotesy, +to
rosMaeuuMe yposuu tpesoru seqyt r usupateneuou opaotre ueratusuMx ctunynos. Tare Mno rorasauo, +to tpe-
souMe nkqu noryt ny+ae rpuronuuate ueratusuMe ctunynM, naroqap oycnosneuuou uactpoeuuen teuqeuuosuoctu
rantu, rorqa uuqusuqyynM ny+ae rpuronuuakt natepuan, cootsetctsykauu ux uactpoeuuk so spen rpuronuuauu.
0quaro s uactoaee spen uneetc uesua+uteneuoe +ucno qauuMx, roqtsepqakaux uqek, +to teuqeuuosuocte uneet
necto s cny+ae rpuronuuauu anououaneuo ueratusuMx ctunynos. 1artu+ecru, pq uccneqosauuu rorasan, +to y sMcoro
tpesouMx y+actuuros rpuronuuauue ueratusuMx ctunynos yxyqaaetc (cn., uarpunep, Mogg, Mathews & Weinman,
1987). auuMe, rpotusope+aaue uqee o teuqeuuosuoctu rpuronuuauu, rony+euM s uccneqosauuu laqeuta u Vuueru
(Nugent & Mineka, 1994), s rotopon sosnouoctu unrnuutuou u arcrnuutuou rantu usy+anuce s rpyrrax sMcoro u
uusro tpesouMx y+actuuros. (Ctporo rosop, arcrnuutua rante otuocutc r uuopnauu, rotopyk nouo cosuate-
neuo rpuronuute, torqa rar unrnuutuMe socronuuauu ue sosuurakt ro sarasy, uo ux cyaectsosauue noet
rposutec, r rpunepy, so spen paotM uaq saqauunu.) 8 arcrepuneute laqeuta u Vuueru y+actuuru oeuusanu csoe
otuoaeuue r routun, oaun ronu+ectson 64 cnosa, us rpyrrM, coqepasaeu pasuoe ronu+ectso rosutusuMx u ueutpa-
neuMx cnos, a tare cnos c couaneuou u usu+ecrou yrposou. 8aten c y+actuuranu rposoqunu tect ua unrnuutuyk
rante (sasepaeuue cnos tonero ua ocuosauuu rpeqsneuuoro ropu), tect ua arcrnuutuoe rpuronuuauue u tect ua
arcrnuutuoe ysuasauue. 8 qsyx arcrepuneutax ue Mno ouapyeuo rarou-nuo teuqeuuosuoctu unrnuutuou rantu
qn cnos, cssauuMx c yrposou. Teuqeuuosuocte qn cssauuMx c yrposou cnos s tecte ua arcrnuutuoe rpuronuuauue
Mna sMsneua y tpesouMx y+actuuros s oquon arcrepuneute, uo ue Mna rony+eua rostopuo. 3tu pesynetatM
rossonunu laqeuty u Vuuere sarnk+ute, +to qauuMe s ronesy teuqeuuosuoctu rpuronuuauu y tpesouMx y+actuuros
s ny+aen cny+ae qsycnMcneuuM. 3tot sMsoq roqtsepqakt Vateks u Var-eoq (Mathews & MacLeod, 1994), yrasMsa,
+to c oner+euuMn rpuronuuauuen anououaneuo ueratusuoro natepuana, ro-suqunony, cssaua qerpeccu, a ue
tpesora.
lecronero ucrnk+euuu us atoro rattepua Mno sMsneuo qn socronuuauuu astouorpau+ecroro xapartepa (cn.,
uarpunep, Burke & Mathews, 1992; Richards & Whittaker, 1990), xot, orte e, ueqasuue uccneqosauu ctast roq
conueuue uaqeuocte atux pesynetatos. 8 uccneqosauux astouorpau+ecrou rantu y+actuuran rpeqnarakt cnosa u
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
rpoct rpuronuute raroe-to coMtue us nu+uou usuu, cssauuoe c raqMn cnoson. Kar rpasuno, ucronesyktc
ronuuauu ueratusuo u rosutusuo uarpyeuuMx cnos, u oeuusaetc nateutuMu repuoq rpuronuuauu ( r. e. spen,
ueoxoqunoe qn rpuronuuauu) raqoro cnosa. Pu+apqe u /utteurep yctauosunu, +to sMcoro tpesouMe y+actuuru
Mctpee rpuronuuanu coMtu, cssauuMe co cnosanu, otuocaunuc r tpesore, +en co cnosanu, otuocaunuc r c+ac-
tek. 0quaro rorqa esu u Vuuera (Levy & Mineka, 1998) rposenu ! cxouu arcrepuneut, rotopMu srnk+an ucronesosauue
ueutpaneuMx | cnos s ra+ectse asosoro ycnosu, to ue sMsunu uurarux pasnu+uu s nateutuoctu rpuronuuauu neqy
sMcoro u uusro tpesouMnu rpyrranu. esu u Vuuera yrasMsakt, +to neqy ux uccneqosauuen u arcrepuneuton
Pu+apqca u /utteurepa unenoce nuoectso rpoeqypuMx pasnu+uu. 0quaro uesosnouocte rouertyaneuo socrpousse-
ctu arcrepuneut Pu+apqca u /utteurepa (uapqy c otpuateneuMnu pesynetatanu s otuoaeuuu teuqeuuosuoctu, +acto
rony+aenMnu s uccneqosauux ueastouorpau+ecrux socronuuauuu) sactasnet ux crertu+ecru cnotpete ua qauuMe,
racakauec oycnosneuuou uactpoeuuen teuqeuuosuoctu rantu s cny+ae tpesoru.
8 ueqasuen rpesocxoquon osope nutepatypM ro teuqeuuosuoctu unrnuutuou rantu Pycco, 1orc u 6oyns (Russo, Fox
& Bowles, 1999) rpeqnarakt tpu rputepu, rotopMn, ro ueoxoqunoctu, qonuM yqosnetsopte uccneqosauu rpu
qenouctpauu teuqeuuosuoctu unrnuutuou rantu:
1. onuo unete necto sua+unoe ssaunoqeuctsue neqy coctouuen tpesoru u cnosanu, rnaccuuuposauuMnu ro
ctereuu anououaneuoro sosqeuctsu.
2. 8Mcoro tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM qonuM qenouctpuposate oneauu otrnur ua cnosa, cssauuMe c yrposou, +en uusro
tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM, u tarue e unu onee uusrue yposuu otrnura ua ueutpaneuMe cnosa.
3. 8Mcoro tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM qonuM qenouctpuposate sua+uno onee sMcorue yposuu otrnura ua cnosa,
cssauuMe c tpesorou, ro cpasueuuk c otrnuron ua ueutpaneuMe cnosa.
la ocuosauuu osopa nutepatypM u coctseuuou arcrepuneutaneuou paotM Pycco, 1orc u 6oyns sarnk+akt, +to uet
yequteneuMx qauuMx s ronesy teuqeuuosuoctu unrnuutuou rantu y sMcoro tpesouMx uuqusuqyynos, a tare
ytsepqakt, +to rapaqurna teuqeuuosuoctu unrnuutuou rantu ue roqutc qn usy+euu pasnu+uu neqy sMcoro u
uusro tpesouMnu nkqenu u qn uuterpauu uuopnauu.
3uaueue ccneqosau uepnpea nau. 3rcrepuneutM, racakauec uuteprpetauu u rantu, orupaktc
ua saqauu, rotopMe onee rpunueuM r peaneuou usuu, +en saqauu ua uccneqosauue suunauu. oatony ner+e
ysuqete ux roteuuaneuMe rpunoeuu. larpunep, uccneqosauu teuqeuuosuoctu uuteprpetauu rossonkt rony+ute
rpeqctasneuue o ton, rarun opason uuqusuqyyn, rotopMu ye ucrMtMsaet qasneuue u tpesory, uarpunep ua
rpoussoqctse, noet socrpuuunate sueaue ueutpaneuMe coMtu rar onee ctpeccosMe (euoneu, orucauuMu rar
stopu+uMu ctpecc, 1net+epon Fletcher, 1991). 0uu noryt tare yrasMsate ua sosnouMe roqxoqM r teparuu.
|ccneqosauu teuqeuuosuoctu rantu tare unekt roteuuaneuoe sua+euue qn rpurnaquMx uccneqosauuu u ne+euu
qerpeccuu. Tar, /unnenc c ronneranu (Williams et al., 1996) repeuec arcrepuneutaneuMe roqxoqM r teuqeuuosuoctu
rantu ua usy+euue qerpeccuu, paccnatpusa coqepauue, a ue rpocto anououaneuyk teuqeuuosuocte astouorpa-
u+ecrou rantu cyuuqaneuMx raueutos. 0u ouapyun, +to ouu, rar rpasuno, rnoxo ronut orpeqeneuuMe coMtu.
Astop ronaraet, +to ato snuet ua paspeaeuue rponen, rorqa roqouMe raueutM ctanrusaktc c tpyquoctnu, tar rar
ue noryt ussne+e us rantu socronuuauu o orpeqeneuuMx qeuctsux, rotopMe nornu M un rono+e crpasutec c
rponenanu. +to e racaetc tpesoru, to otcytctsue s uactoauu noneut qauuMx s ronesy teuqeuuosuoctu rpu-
ronuuauu ue rossonet uccneqosatenn rpunoute r +eny-nuo pesynetatM, rony+euuMe s atou onactu.
Cyadenu, onepamuena navms u emnonnenue aadanu
nue suoouansusx cocou ua cyqeu. Eae oqua onacte uccneqosauuu, rotopa noet rono+e s
rouunauuu ctpecca u tpesoru, onee aupora cepa tarux coctouuu, rar uactpoeuue, u to, rar ouu snukt ua
roruutusuMe rpoeccM. 1oprac (Forgas, 1995) rpeqnoun noqene anououaneuoro orpaausauu (affect infusion model,
AIM) qn ocueuu u rporuosuposauu snuuuu uactpoeuu ua rpuutue peaeuuu. 6Mno rorasauo, +to rporuosM,
sMronueuuMe ro noqenu AIM, rpunounM r cyqeuun o roseqeuuu orpyakaux, r cyqeuun o coctseuuon
roseqeuuu, r atpuyuu ycrexa unu ueyqa+u u r pqy qpyrux couaneuMx cyqeuuu (cn. osop y 1opraca Forgas, 1995).
1oprac ytsepqaet, +to nkqu noryt uspate oquy us nuoectsa ctpateruu opaotru uuopnauu, rorqa ouu rpuuunakt
peaeuu, ocoeuuo s couaneuMx cutyaux. AIM uqeutuuupyet +etMpe us atux ctpateruu opnuposauu cyqeuu.
Ctpateru rpnoro (uerocpeqctseuuoro) qoctyra uneet necto, rorqa cyqeuue o qauuon sorpoce ye sMuocunoce s
rpoanon, u uuqusuqyyn nuae rpoussoqut rpnoe u ronuoe ussne+euue us rantu atoro cyqeuu. Ctpateru notusupo-
sauuou opaotru uneet necto, rorqa uuqusuqyyn ctpenutc qoctu+e orpeqeneuuou enu rpu sMueceuuu cyqeuu
(uarpunep, notusau rpuutu peaeuu, rotopoe rossonut +enosery ro+ysctsosate ce ny+ae), u, cootsetctseuuo,
ctaqu opaotru uuopnauu otuocuteneuo ropotra. Ctpateru aspuctu+ecrou opaotru uneet necto, rorqa
sorpocM qoctato+uo rpoctM, to+uocte cyqeuu neuee saua, u rorqa roruutusuMe pecypcM orpauu+euM, roatony ctaqu
opaotru uuopnau tare ropotra. laroue, ctpateru cyctautusuou opaotru uneet necto, rorqa sorpocM onee
cnouM, u uneetc socrpuuunaena rotpeuocte s to+uoctu, roatony uuqusuqyyn rpoussoqut pacaupeuuyk opaotry
uuopnauu.
AIM rporuosupyet, +to ctereue snuuu uactpoeuu ua cyqeuu sapeupyet sqone routuuyyna atux ctpateruu opaotru.
8 cyqeuu, tpeykaue aspuctu+ecrou unu cyctautusuou opaotru, anououaneuMe coctouu srnk+aktc +aae,
+en s uerocpeqctseuuo qoctyruMe unu notusuposauuMe cyqeuu. Cyctautusua opaotra uauonee yssuna,
roqseprace snuuuk u usua+aneuoro uactpoeuu, u anouu, sosuurakaux s xoqe qoronuuteneuou opaotru. Cornacuo
AIM, ctpecc u tpesora qonuM orasMsate otuocuteneuo ueoneaoe snuuue ua rpuutue peaeuuu, rorqa rpuuunaetc
rpoctoe u nanosauoe peaeuue, ro cpasueuuk c cutyaueu, rorqa nM xotun sMuectu to+uoe cyqeuue ro cnouMn
sorpocan.
6oneauuctso uccneqosauuu, rotopMe roqtsepqakt AIM, rpeqronarakt uuqyuposauue paqoctuoro u re+aneuoro
uactpoeuu, ucronesy tarue rpuenM, rar nMcneuuoe rpuronuuauue ocoeuuo paqoctuMx unu re+aneuMx coMtuu, nuo
rpocnotp suqeosarucu paqoctuMx unu re+aneuMx coMtuu. oqouMe rpuenM ueuseuo sMsMsakt nuae cnaMe u
rpatrospeneuuMe usneueuu uactpoeuu, u orte e ue coscen cuo, noet nu ua y+actuuros atux uccneqosauuu snute
teuqeuuosuocte pearuu. lecnotp ua ato, rporuosM ua ocuosauuu AIM sacnyusakt qaneueuaero usy+euu.
|ccneqosauu, rposepkaue noqene AIM, corycuposauM ua paqoctuon u re+aneuon uactpoeuuu. Poqctseuuou
teopueu, rotopa, sosnouo, onee rpunouna r tpesore, snetc noqene quuanu+ecrou cnouoctu (dynamic complexity
model, DCM; Paulhus & Lim, 1994). DCM rporuosupyet, +to socrputu nkqeu ctauostc neuee cnouMnu u onee
ronpusosauuMnu, rorqa nkqu ucrMtMsakt usuonoru+ecroe sosyqeuue. 3rcrepuneutaneuMe uccneqosauu
ucronesykt rponruu nouotouuMu ayn, c ten +toM sMssate y uerotopMx y+actuuros sosyqeuue (netoq, rotopMu o+eue
roxo ua nuorue nauurynuu c tpesorou). onxac u un ouapyunu, +to rorqa nkqeu rpocunu sMuectu csou cyqeuu
s otuoaeuuu ussectuMx nu+uocteu unu suaronMx, uaxoqauec s coctouuu rosMaeuuoro sosyqeuu y+actuuru
sMuocunu onee rpauuue cyqeuu, +en uesosyqeuuMe. DCM rpeqronaraet, +to tpesora noet sectu r ucronesosauuk
onee aspuctu+uMx rpuenos opaotru uuopnauu, rorqa rpoussoqtc yrpoaeuu, seqyaue r neuee cnouMn
socrputun. o-suqunony, DCM cornacyetc c teopueu couaneuoro oner+euu 8auoua (social facilitation theory;
Zajonc, 1965), cornacuo rotopou cuneuoe sosyqeuue yxyqaaet sMronueuue cnouMx saqauuu (rorqa qonuuupykaa
pearu noet ue Mte rpasuneuou), uo noet oner+ute sMronueuue rpoctMx saqauuu.
nue pesor ua soiuouoc onepasuo nau. Pauee s atou rnase sM rosuaronunuce c teopueu
rpoqyrtusuoctu opaotru uuopnauu Auseura, s cssu c noqenek orepatusuou rantu 6aqqe-nu. eutpaneuMn s
teopuu Auseura snetc sMsoq, +to ueqoctatru paotocrocouoctu, cssauuMe c tpesorou, oneae crasMsaktc ua
sMronueuuu tpyquMx roruutusuMx saqa+ u ocnanktc s tou ctereuu, s rarou roruutusuMe saqa+u noryt Mte
sMronueuM astonatu+ecru (MacLeod & Donnellan, 1993). Kar nM suqenu, teopu rpoqyrtusuoctu opaotru uuopnauu
rpeqronaraet, +to rpu+uua atoro sneuu tpesora, rotopa orpauu+usaet sosnouoctu orepatusuou rantu. Cornacuo
Auseury (1992), tpesora ue uapyaaet astonatu+ecrue rpoeccM, rocronery ouu ue saqeuctsykt pecypcM orepatusuou
rantu. |, uarpotus, tpesora otpasutc ua tpyquMx saqauux, rotopMe tpeykt qoctyra r orepatusuou rantu, ecnu
uarpysra ua rocnequkk rpesMcut ee qoctyruMe sosnouoctu.
Teopu rpoqyrtusuoctu opaotru uuopnauu ycreauo ocuet nuorue arcrepuneutaneuMe pesynetatM, oquaro, rar
yrasMsakt Var-eoq u ouuennau (MacLeod & Donnellan, 1993), teopetu+ecryk euuocte uccneqosauuu ronrponetupykt
qsa netoqonoru+ecrux ueqoctatra. 8o-repsMx, socrpousseqeuu qsyx repsu+uMx pesynetatos, rotopMe notusuposanu
paspaotry atou noqenu, roqtsepqakt tonero to, +to euoneuM qeuctsuteneuo unekt necto, uo ue oecre+usakt
arcrepuneutaneuou rposepru noqenu. 8topou ueqoctator racaetc xapartepa cpasueuuu, rotopMe rposoqtc neqy
saqauunu. Vuorue uccneqosauu rMtaktc cpasuusate pesynetatM sMronueuu saqauuu, rotopMe rpeqsnkt pasnu+-
uMe tpeosauu r orepatusuou rantu. 0quaro, cocpeqoto+usace ua xapartepucturax saqauu, cssauuMx c rpeqs-
nenMnu r orepatusuou rantu tpeosauunu, nuorue uccneqosatenu ue rpuuunakt so suunauue qpyrue rorasatenu, ro
rotopMn saqauu pasutc, u rotopMe noryt ocuute pasnu+uoe snuuue tpesoru ua sMronueuue saqauu.
Var-eoq u ouuennau (1993) cooaakt o arcrepuneute, rotopMu paspeaaet rponeny cneaeuu tpeosauuu r
orepatusuou rantu c qpyrunu (teopetu+ecru uecyaectseuuMnu) otnu+unu saqauuu, rocpeqctson ucronesosauu
rapaqurnM uarpysru (cn., uarpunep, Bad-deley & Hitch, 1974). /+actuuru sMronunu noru+ecroe saqauue ro rpannature,
oquospeneuuo saronuua rocneqosateneuocte us aectu up s ra+ectse uarpysru ua rante. larpysrou ua orepatusuyk
rante nauurynuposanu, ycnou rocneqosateneuocte up, rotopMe uaqo Mno saronuute. Var-eoq u ouuennau
rpeqronounu, +to +en cnouee rocneqosateneuocte, ten oneae uarpysra ua orepatusuyk rante u ten neueae
yuruouaneuMe sosnouoctu atou rantu, qoctyruMe qn peaeuu noru+ecroro saqauu. AstopM sMqsuuynu cne-
qykayk rurotesy: snuuue sMcorou corytctsykaeu uarpysru ua rante rpu peaeuuu noru+ecrou saqa+u yqet
uerporopuouaneuo oneaun qn sMcoro tpesouMx y+actuuros. 3to ocuetc ten, +to, cornacuo teopuu
rpoqyrtusuoctu opaotru uuopnauu, snuuue tpesoru ua sMronueuue tpyquMx roruutusuMx saqa+ u aert cuu-
euuMx yuruouaneuMx sosnouocteu orepatusuou rantu, sMsMsaenMu s saqauuu c corytctsykaeu uarpysrou,
qonuM ssaunoqeuctsosate qpyr c qpyron.
|neuuo tarou rattepu pesynetatos u Mn rony+eu Var-eoqon u ouuennauon. 8ce y+actuuru rpoqenouctpuposanu
onee rpoqonuteneuoe nateutuoe spen peaeuu s ycnosuu c sMcorou uarpysrou ua rante, uo y sMcoro tpesouMx
y+actuuros ysenu+euue nateutuoctu Mno uerporopuouaneuo oneaun. 3tot pesynetat, snecte c auanoru+uMnu
qauuMnu, o rotopMx ueqasuo cooaunu eparaau u Auseur (Derakshan & Eysenck, 1998), qenaet onee seconMn
ucxoquoe ytsepqeuue Auseura, +to orpauu+euue yuruouaneuMx sosnouocteu orepatusuou rantu otse+aet sa
ueqoctatru s sMronueuuu tpyquMx roruutusuMx saqa+, rotopMe, rar rpasuno, ouapyusaktc y sMcoro tpesouMx
nkqeu.
nue cpecca ua ssnonueue iaqau. Kapacer (Karasek, 1979) rpeqronoun, +to ua rpoeccuouaneuMu ctpecc
snukt qse rpoussoqctseuuMe xapartepucturu: tpeosauu u routpone (cn. rnasM 3 u 9). oq tpeosauunu rouunakt
ctereue suunauu u ycunuu, rotopMe ueoxoqunM +enosery qn sMronueuu csoeu paotM. Koutpone otuocutc rpeqe
scero r csooqe rpuutu peaeuuu s otuoaeuuu paotM. Kapacer rpeqronoun, +to paota yqet onee ctpeccosou,
rorqa tpeosauu sMae, a routpone uue. Kapacer tare rpeqronoun, +to tpeosauu u routpone yqyt
ssaunoqeuctsosate, cosqasa rpauue ctpeccosyk cpeqy. Kar rpasuno, aty noqene rposepnu s ronesMx uccneqosauux,
rony+a cneaauuMe pesynetatM (cn. Jones & Fletcher, 1996b), oquaro uecronero uccneqosateneu usy+unu ee s onee rou-
tponupyenMx ycnosux naopatopuu.
apre, Ctauns u 6poyqeut (Parkes, Styles & Broadbent, 1990) qn rposepru atou teopuu ucronesosanu saqauue c
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
unutaueu coptuposru ro+tM. 0uu usy+anu sosqeuctsue paotM, tenr rotopou saqasanc naauuou, ro cpasueuuk c
paotou, tenr rotopou saqasanc canunu y+actuuranu. Astopos uutepecosano, ue snuet nu routpone uaq tenron
paotM ua ctpecc, sosyqeuue u sMronueuue saqauu, oeuusaenMe ro canoot+etan. |ccneqosauue tare
paccnatpusano sosqeuctsue tpeosauuu r saqauuk rocpeqctson srnk+euu qsyx saqauuu c uassMsaenMn naauuou
tenron (MctpMn u neqneuuMn). 8 aton routercte ctpecc rouunaetc rar ueratusuoe uactpoeuue, a ctpecc u sos-
yqeuue usnepnuce c ronoaek Koutponeuoro repe+u ro ctpeccy u sosyqeuuk (Stress Arousal Check-list; Mackay
etal., 1985). epe+eue rpeqronaraet peutuurosyk oeury teryaux +yscts c ronoaek pasnu+uMx rpunarateneuMx, rotopMe
repeqakt uactpoeuue +enosera u cssauM co ctpeccon, uarpunep: uarpeuuMu u uepsosuMu, u c sosyqeuuen,
uarpunep: uactopoeuuMu. /+actuuru ycresanu paccoptuposate oneauu oen roppecrouqeuuu rpu ycnosuu cano-
ctoteneuo saqasaenoro tenra, cpasuuteneuo c ycnosunu, rorqa tenr saqasana naauua. pu aton to+uocte paotM rpu
repson ycnosuu Mna sMae, +en rpu ycnosuu c MctpMn naauuuMn tenron. Xot sosyqeuue rpu ycnosuu Mctporo
naauuuoro tenra Mno sMae, +en rpu ycnosuu neqneuuoro naauuuoro tenra, canoot+etM y+actuuros o ctpecce rpu
tpex ycnosux ue pasuunuce sua+unMn opason. Kar tarosMe, pesynetatM aprca, Ctaunsa u 6poyqeuta ue roqtsep-
qanu uarpnyk teopuk Kapacera, xot, ro-suqunony, unenace csse neqy rporuosanu Kapacera u sMronueuuen
saqauu. 6onee sMcorue tpeosauu Mnu cssauM c oneaun sosyqeuuen, a tare c xyqaun sMronueuuen saqauu.
Cepn, 6paut u 6oxuep (Searle, Bright & Bochner, 1999) rostopunu uccneqosauue aprca, Ctaunsa u 6poyqeuta c coptu-
posrou ro+tM. Cepn, 6paut u 6oxuep ucronesosanu ronuyk artopuyk noqene qn cpasueuu sosqeuctsu sMcorux u
uusrux tpeosauuu (Mctpa u neqneuua cropocte coptuposru), sMcororo u uusroro routpon (canoctoteneuoe unu
naauuuoe saqauue tenra), a tare oneaou u nanou couaneuou roqqepru (uanu+ue unu otcytctsue rosutusuou opat-
uou cssu u roqaqpusauu). Kar u rpeqcrasMsanoce, onee sMcorue tpeosauu sMsMsanu onee ueratusuoe
uactpoeuue, tar e rar u nana couaneua roqqepra. Koutpone uaq saqauuen ue snun ua cooaaenMu yposeue
ctpecca, +to noet ocuute, ro+eny ue Mno ssaunoqeuctsu neqy tpeosauunu u routponen s cooaeuux o
ctpecce. /+actuuru paccoptuposMsanu oneae rouseptos rpu ycnosuu c sMcorunu tpeosauunu, uo qorycranu oneae
oauor rpu atou rosMaeuuou cropoctu. /+actuuru paccoptuposMsanu oneae rouseptos rpu ycnosuu c sMcorun
routponen, a tare cosepaanu neueae oauor, rorqa ouu canu saqasanu tenr csoeu paotM. Kpone toro, uneno necto
ssaunoqeuctsue neqy tpeosauunu u routponen, tar rar pasnu+ue neqy uusrunu u sMcorunu tpeosauunu Mno
onee cyaectseuuMn rpu ycnosux c naauuuMn tenron, +en s ycnosux c canoctoteneuo saqasaenMn tenron.
Couaneua roqqepra ue snuna ua sMronueuue paotM. 8 cuny yrpasneuu yposuen ctpecca repeq sMronueuuen
saqauu u arcrepuneutaneuMnu ycnosunu, ue Mno sMsneuo sua+unou roppenuu neqy yposuen ctpecca rocne
sMronueuu saqauu u rarun-nuo rorasatenen sMronueuu saqauu. Cootsetctseuuo, cneqyet qoryctute, +to xot u ua
canoot+etM o ctpecce, u ua sMronueuue saqauu snunu xapartepucturu saqauu, cano oayaeuue ctpecca ue snuno ua
sMronueuue atoro saqauu.
lecnotp ua to, +to atu arcrepuneutM c unutaueu paotM roqtsepqakt teopuu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, tarue rar
noqene Kapacera, ouu ue snktc yequteneuMn roqtsepqeuuen rporuosos o snuuuu ctpecca ua roruutusuoe yur-
uouuposauue. Xot artopM, rotopMe sMsMsakt ctpecc, ro-suqunony, tare yxyqaakt sMronueuue saqauuu, otcytct-
syet +etra csse neqy oayaaenMn ctpeccon u sMronueuuen saqauu. 3to uneet oneaoe sua+euue qn arcrepuneu-
tos, usy+akaux csse neqy ctpeccon u roruutusuMnu xapartepucturanu, tar rar nkoe suoe snuuue uuqyuposauuoro
ctpecca ua roruutusuocte noet sa+actyk Mte cneqctsuen rpoeqypM uuqyuposauu ctpecca, a ue oayaeuuu ctpecca.
3k ue osua+aet, +to uccneqosauu, ucronesykaue uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u (uarpunep, s tpesouoctu), osateneuo
onee ra+ectseuuMe, tar rar orte e noryt rpucytctsosate qpyrue artopM, rotopMe snukt u ua tpesouocte, u ua
roruutusuoe yuruouuposauue. 3tu qpyrue artopM canu ro cee noryt Mte uutepecuM c teopetu+ecrou r
rpartu+ecrou to+er speuu, uo noryt Mte ue roqxoqaunu qn uccneqosauu toro, raroe snuuue, ecnu ouo uneetc,
ctpecc orasMsaet ua roruutusuocte. |s atoro cneqyet rpoctou sMsoq: rorqa nM paccnatpusaen ctpeccosoe uactpoeuue,
cooaaenoe s canoot+etax, a ue ucronesyen creuu+ecrue cpeqctsa usnepeuu tpesoru, uneetc, s ny+aen cny+ae,
uenuoro qauuMx, +to ctpecc snetc uerocpeqctseuuou rpu+uuou yxyqaeuu paotocrocouoctu rpu sMronueuuu
rpoctMx saqa+. 8epotuee, +to u ua ctpecc, u ua sMronueuue saqa+ snuet rarou-to tpetuu artop.
3uaueue ccneqosau cyqeu, onepasuo nau ssnonueu iaqau. Vuorue us arcrepuneutos,
srnk+euuMx s atot pasqen, onaqakt sMcorou aronoru+ecrou sanuquoctek. 3tu arcrepuneutM ctpentc cMnutuposate
peaneuMe cyqeuu, rotopMe nkqu sMuoct, unu peaneuMe saqauu, rotopMe nkqu sMronukt. oatony pesynetatM,
rony+euuMe s tarux uccneqosauux, ro-suqunony, uauonee euuM c to+ru speuu ux sosnouoro rpunoeuu.
|ccneqosauu, rorasMsakaue, +to cyqeuu s otuoaeuuu qpyrux nkqeu ctauostc onee rpauuunu, rorqa +enoser
uaxoqutc s coctouuu sosyqeuu (unu ctpecca), unekt oneaoe sua+euue qn tarou passusakaeuc rpurnaquou
onactu, rar rcuxonoru rounurta. 8ua+unocte cuueuu sosyqeuu s pqe onacteu paspeaeuu rounurta,
ua+uua c roucynetatusuou ronoau cyrpyran u rou+a neqyuapoquou ronuturou, nouo uccneqosate s rpurnaquou
cepe.
+to racaetc rpoeccuouaneuou onactu, to uccneqosauu c coptuposrou ro+tM rorasMsakt, +to oayaeuue ctpecca
sospactaet ro nepe rosMaeuu tpeosauuu r suunauuk, a ato cssauo c rosMaeuuen rpoussoquteneuoctu tpyqa, uo c
rouueuuen to+uoctu. 0quaro xot roqouMe uccneqosauu nouo repeuectu ua cutyauu peaneuou usuu, ato qoctu-
raetc euou cuueuu arcrepuneutaneuoro routpon. 3to snetc ueuseuou yctyrrou, rotopa qenaet onee
seconMnu apryneutM s ronesy rpuneueuu pqa roqxoqos uaqeuo routponupyenMx arcrepuneutaneuMx rapaqurn,
rossonkaux rposepute teopetu+ecrue rurotesM s routponupyenMx ycnosux, repeuoc saten roqouMe uqeu ua onee
aronoru+uMe arcrepuneutM u, uaroue, ua orpocM, usy+akaue peaneuyk usue, u ua uccneqosauu sneaatenects.
3aknueue
8 atou rnase uccneqosanoce ytsepqeuue, +to ctpecc orasMsaet ueratusuoe snuuue ua roruutusuoe yuruouuposauue.
VM ocyqunu tpu teopuu, rotopMe rpeqnarakt sosnouMe ocueuu roruutusuoro nexauusna ctpecca, a tare paccno-
tpenu cepuk uccneqosauuu, s pasuou ctereuu roqtsepqakaux atu teopuu. o-suqunony, nuorue us atux uccneqosauuu
rossonkt rpeqronoute, +to nkqu, ucrMtMsakaue ctpecc unu tpesory, sMronukt roruutusuMe saqauu uua+e, ueenu
uetpesouMe nkqu. 0quaro ecnu rocnotpete ua atu uccneqosauu rputu+ecrun ssrnqon, to qanero ue o+esuquo, +to
ctpecc unu tpesora snukt ua sce roruutusuMe rpoeccM.
8 +en seconocte qauuMx, csuqetenectsykaux o snuuuu ctpecca/ tpesoru ua roruutusuoe yuruouuposauue? peqe
scero ouu, ro-suqunony, rorasMsakt, +to tpesora qeuctsuteneuo snuet ua ctpateru+ecrue roruutusuMe rpoeccM,
srnk+a sMronueuue uerotopMx saqa+, a tare ua orpeqeneuuMe rpoeccM suunauu. 0quaro neuee o+esuquo, +to
tpesora snuet ua uuopnauk, rotopyk nM rpuronuuaen. 8auo suunateneuo rocnotpete ua to, +to qenouctpupykt
atu arcrepuneutM. Vuorue arcrepuneutM, rocsaeuuMe tpesore, ucronesykt rnuuu+ecrux raueutos (uarpunep, c
reuepanusosauuMn tpesouMn pacctpouctson) unu nkqeu, ro-suqunony, otnu+akauxc sMcorou tpesouoctek
(tpesorou rar +eptou), snecto toro +toM uerocpeqctseuuo nauurynuposate oayaeuunu coctouu tpesoru. le scerqa
cuo, nMcnt u seqyt nu ce nkqu, otnu+akauec tpesouoctek, tar e, rar te, rto ucrMtMsaet tpesory s qauuMu
noneut, unu y roro ucrycctseuuo sMssanu tpesory. 0coeuuo ato otuocutc r cny+an, rorqa ucronesyktc rocseuuMe
unu uectauqaptuMe netoqM pasrpauu+euu sMcoro u uusro tpesouMx nkqeu (tarue rar uqeutuurau perpeccopos u
ceucutusos, a ue uuqusuqyynos c sMcorou u uusrou tpesouoctek, ocoeuuo rorqa ato qenakt c ronoaek rpoertusuMx
tectos).
Ecnu nM xotun rnye usy+ute snuuue tpesoru ua roruutusuocte, to qonuM csectu uerotopMe us atux pesynetatos
snecte. n atoro ueoxoquno sMronuute cpasueuu neqy pasnu+uMnu arcrepuneutanu. o qauuou rpu+uue sauo,
+toM nM ronesosanuce ctauqaptuMnu netoqanu uuqyuposauu tpesoru. Auanoru+uMn opason, uan ueoxoquno
ronesosatec ctauqaptuMnu cpeqctsanu usnepeuu tpesouoctu. laroue, uan ueoxoquno rnye usy+ute csse neqy
coctouuen tpesoru, tpesouoctek u tpesouMnu pacctpouctsanu. 8osnouo, ato ronoet rposectu rnaccuurauk
uuqusuqyynos ro sMcorou/uusrou tpesouoctu, a tare nauurynuposate coctouuen tpesoru. lan uyuo rocnotpete,
nMcnt u seqyt nu ce sMcoro tpesouMe uuqusuqyynM oquuarosMn opason, uesasucuno ot coctouu, u rar ato
cootuocutc c uuqusuqyynanu, uaxoqaunuc s coctouuu cuneuou tpesoru, uo otnu+akaunuc uusrou tpesouoctek.
lan tare ueoxoquno cpasuute tpesouMx u uetpesouMx nkqeu, rotopMe ue sMxoqt sa panru uopnM, c nkqenu,
rotopMe ctpaqakt quaruoctuposauuMnu tpesouMnu pacctpouctsanu. larpunep, uccneqosauue Vaptuua, /unnenca u
Knapra (Martin, Williams & Clark, 1991) qenouctpupyet, +to noquuuposauuMu aert Ctpyra, oM+uo rpurucMsaenMu
tpesore, pasuutc s cny+ae raueutos c GAD u nkqeu, ue ctasaux raueutanu, uecnotp ua to, +to ux yposuu tpesouo-
ctu Mnu uqeutu+uMnu. Peaakaun noneuton sqece snetc to, +to rorqa nM cpasuusaen nkqeu us sqoposou cosory-
ruoctu s coctouuu sMcorou u uusrou tpesoru, rorqa nM cpasuusaen sMcoro u uusro tpesouMx nkqeu us sqoposou
cosoryruoctu, u rorqa nM cpasuusaen raueutos c tpesouMnu pacctpouctsanu u ueraueutos, nM rposoqun pasnu+uMe
cpasueuu. 3to ocoeuuo sauo y+utMsate s qauuMx arcrepuneutaneuMx rapaqurnax, s rotopMx aronoru+ecryk
sanuquocte +acto rpuuoct s eptsy rosMaeuuk arcrepuneutaneuoro routpon.
8 oaen, ata rnasa rorasMsaet sauocte ctporux arcrepuneutaneuMx rapaqurn, rotopMe rossonkt uan sMqenute
suMe aertM cssauuMx co ctpeccon rouctpyrtos, tarux rar tpesora unu qerpeccu. K rpunepy, nuorue uccneqosauu
cooaakt o pasnu+uon sMronueuuu saqauuu s tpesouou u uetpesouou rpyrrax, +to noet unete sauoe rpartu+ecroe
sua+euue. 0quaro qae uerotopMe uccneqosauu, rposoqunMe s naopatopuou octauosre, nouo rputurosate sa ueqo-
ctator ctpororo routpon u sa ueto+uMe usneputeneuMe cpeqctsa, rotopMe uuorqa ucronesyktc qn oeuru euoneuos.
0quaro tan, rqe nM oecre+usaen ctporuu routpone uapqy c +etro orpeqeneuuMnu u creuuuposauuMnu nepanu
tpesoru unu qerpeccuu (snecto tarou onee pacrnMs+atou repeneuuou, rar ctpecc), nM crocouM uqeutuuuposate
suMe snuuu ua roruutusuyk crocouocte. |ccneqosatenecruu roqxoq, rotopMu rpeqronaraet sMsneuue asosMx
aertos s ctporo routponupyenou naopatopuou cutyauu, a saten auanusupyet pesynetatM u rposepet ux cuosa s
ectectseuuMx ycnosux, noet s uauoneaeu ctereuu crococtsosate rporpeccy s onactu usy+euu ctpecca.

+acs 3
oueuy nq no-paiuouy pearpy ua cpeccops?
8 qauuon pasqene nM paccraen o sauMx artopax, rotopMe uuorqa uasMsaktc rponeyto+uMnu repeneuuMnu (intervening variables) 0t atux
repeneuuMx sasucut, yqet nu +enoser ucrMtMsate ctpecc unu uet Vouo +acto cnMaate ytsepqeuu o ton, +to nkqu ro-pasuony pearupykt ua
ctpeccopM, u +to uerotopMe nkqu onee roqsepeuM ctpeccan 3to noet sasucete ot usu+ecrux/reuetu+ecrux artopos (cn rnasy 3) 3to noet Mte
pesynetaton pasuuM nkqeu ro tarun rorasatenn, rar sospact, ron unu nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu 8 rnase 6 nM roqpouo paccrasMsaen o atux
artopax, a tare o nu+uoctuou xapartepucture, ussectuou rar ueratusua aertusuocte 8 atou rnase tare rpeqctasneuM rpeqronaraenMe
anetepuatusuMe nexauusnM (ux rpnMe, perynupykaue u rocpequu+ecrue snuuu), rocpeqctson rotopMx sce paccnotpeuuMe s qauuon pasqene
artopM sosqeuctsykt ua ssaunocssu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu
Cneqykauu ronrnerc artopos, snukaux ua to, rpuseqyt nu ctpeccopM r uarpeuuk, ato otnu+u s tex crocoax, c ronoaek rotopMx nkqu
crpasnktc c tpyquoctnu 8 rnase 7 nM paccraen o tarou oaupuou u cnouou onactu, rar cosnaqauue co ctpeccon (copmg) Paccnatpusaktc rar
roqxoqM, y+utMsakaue nu+uMe crnouuoctu +enosera (roruur-ctunu), tar u roqxoqM, urcupykaue otsetuMe pearuu +enosera ua pasnu+uMe cutyauu
(roruur-ctpa-teruu)
laroue, s rnase 8 rouqet pe+e o ue neuee nacatauou u cnouou cepe uccneqosauuu o couaneuou roqqepre rar sueauen pecypce, rotopMu
noet rono+e nuuunusuposate snuuue ctpeccopos 8 atou rnase paccrasMsaetc, rar couaneua roqqepra snuet ua sqoposee +enosera a tare o
ton, rar saonesauu (uarpunep par) royqakt +enosera ucrate roqqepru u ronoau y qpyrux nkqeu

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

|nasa 6
huqsqyansuse painu s peakx ua cpecc
0mcu kynep u auv 5pam Lucy Cooper and Jim Bright
8 atou rnase nM paccraen o ton, ro+eny nkqu ro-pasuony pearupykt ua ctpecc. VM rocuenc qauuMx, ueoxoqunMx
qn toro, +toM rpoqenouctpuposate uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u s sosuuruoseuuu pearuu uarpeuu. VM coroctasun
reuetu+ecrue, rpuopeteuuMe u qucrosuuouuMe uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, u rpuseqen rpunepM ro raqou us atux
rateropuu qn toro, +toM rorasate, rar to unu uuoe otnu+ue snuet ua sosuuruoseuue uarpeuu.
o tpaquuu rcuxonoru rpuctaneuoe suunauue yqenkt tony, rar nkqu repeuoct ctpecc u rar pearupykt ua ctpeccopM.
8 sua+uteneuou ctereuu atot uutepec asupyetc ua oaen yeqeuuu, +to uerotopMe nkqu onee roqsepeuM ctpeccy
u onee pauunM, +enqpyrue (uarpunep: roqxoq quates-ctpecc). oatony nkqu pacrpeqenktc s panrax uerotoporo
routuuyyna corpotusneuu ctpeccy. enaetc sMsoq, +to rarue-to nkqu roqsepeuM ctpeccy, a qpyrue peqro oay-
aakt uarpeuue qae s tpyquMx ycnosux. 3ta uqe rpeqctasnet uutepec qn oprauusauu, sauunakauxc otopon
cnyaaux, rotony +to tarou roqxoq rossonet neueqepan uapate cotpyquuros c yctou+usou rcuxurou u, cootsetctseu-
uo, ue uectu oneaux ronreucauouuMx pacxoqos. 8 onactu oxpauM sqopose ata uqe rpusnerateneua rotony, +to
rpeqronaraet sosnouMn sMsneuue nkqeu, crnouuMx ucrMtMsate ctpecc, qn ronoau rotopMn nouo paspaatMsate
cootsetctsykaue sneaatenectsa.
VM paccraen o uerotopMx uccneqosauux, rposoqusauxc s peaneuMx usueuuMx cutyaux, roatony y rcuxonoros ue
Mno sosnouoctu artusuo nauurynuposate ocuosuMnu repeneuuMnu. 8 oneauuctse paot cpasuusaktc rpyrrM
nkqeu c orpeqeneuuMnu nu+uoctuMnu xapartepucturanu (uarpunep: noryc routpon, arctpasepcu uutposepcu). 8 to
e spen Mnu paspaotauM uerotopMe uosMe noqenu, y+utMsakaue uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u s pearuu ua ctpecc
(uarpunep: tur A u tur 6).
|neetc secena sua+uteneuoe +ucno paot, paccnatpusakaux artopM uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu s cssu co ctpeccon.
Kyrep u euu (Cooper and Payne, 1988) pasqenunu atu artopM ua tpu rateropuu: reuetu+ecrue artopM (uarpunep:
usu+ecrue qauuMe unu sospact); rpuopeteuuMe artopM (uarpunep: couaneuMu rnacc, opasosauue, couaneua
roqqepra) u qucrosuuouuMe artopM (uarpunep: roruur-ctune, ueratusua aertusuocte, tur A u qpyrue nu+uoctuMe
repeneuuMe). leuetu+ecrue u qucrosuuouuMe artopM c+utaktc s enon ctauneuMnu ocoeuuoctnu unu xaparte-
pucturanu uuqusuqyyna, a rpuopeteuuMe xapartepucturu neuktc ua rpoteuuu usuu. 0quaro ato pasrpauu+euue
ue sronue +etro orpeqeneuo. larpunep, rpuopeteuuMe artopM, tarue rar couaneua roqqepra, +acto srnk+akt
qucrosuuouuMe u reuetu+ecrue ronroueutM. |nu e ynctseuuMe crocouoctu ato u reuetu+ecrue, u rpuopeteuuMe
ra+ectsa.
ocne paccnotpeuu s cneqykaen pasqene uerotopMx sauMx netoqonoru+ecrux sorpocos, nM rpuseqen onee
qetaneuoe uccneqosauue o uerotopMx ocuosuMx repeneuuMx, rotopMe orpeqenkt uuqusuqyaneuMe otnu+u
pearuposauu.
onpocs ueoqonor
8 rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatype, rocsaeuuou tene uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu ctpeccosoro pearuposauu, ecte oqua u ta
e netoqonoru+ecra rponena, cssauua c usnepeuuen. 8 uccneqosauux taroro poqa sauo cpasuute yposuu
uarpeuu rpu sosqeuctsuu oquux u te e ctpeccopos orpyakaeu cpeqM s rpyrrax nkqeu, otnu+uMx ro uerotopony
uuqusuqyaneuony rorasatenk. ponena atoro roqxoqa coctout s ton, +to nkqu, s sasucunoctu ot ux uuqusuqyaneuMx
xapartepuctur, noryt Mte rpeqsstMnu, qasa canoot+etM o ctpecce ue oquuaroso otrposeuuo. 3to suquo ua rpunepe
ueratusuou aertusuoctu (NA). Tar uasMsaetc crnouuocte +enosera ucrMtMsate otpuateneuMe anouu u cosqasate
ueratusuyk -roueruk (Watson and Clark, 1984). peqctasun s ra+ectse rpunepos qsyx cnyaaux, Vonnu u euu. /
Vonnu onee sMcora ueratusua aertusuocte, +en y euu. Korqa ouu oe orasMsaktc repeq nuon taroro
ctpeccopa, rar sosnouoe ysoneueuue ro corpaaeuuk atatos, to Vonnu c oneaeu sepotuoctek yqet cooaate o
tpesore u qerpeccuu, +en euu. Ten ue neuee, so nuorux rcuxonoru+ecrux uccneqosauux ue rpuuunaetc so suunauue
asosMu yposeue tpesoru. A ato sauo, rotony +to Vonnu +aae cooaaet o rosMaeuuon yposue uarpeuu, rar s
rpucytctsuu, tar u rpu otcytctsuu ctpeccosMx artopos. Ecnu rocne ysoneueuu c paotM y Vonnu yposeue tpesoru
oraetc sMae, to ato noet osua+ate, uarpunep, cneqykaee:
8apuaut A. / oeux qesyaer sospactaet uarpeuue rpu yrpose corpaaeuu, uo Vonnu +ysctsosana uarpeuue c
canoro ua+ana, roatony utorosMu yposeue ee uarpeuu sMae, +en y euu. 0tpuateneuMe repeusauu Vonnu
snukt ua oauu yposeue ee tpesoru u qerpeccuu, uo ue unekt cuneuoro snuuu ua to, rar uneuuo oua pearupyet ua
rourpetuMu ctpeccop, uarpunep, ua corpaaeuu ua paote.
8apuaut 6. leratusuMe anouu Vonnu sactasnkt ee onee uuteucusuo pearuposate ua rourpetuMu ctpeccop, tar +to
yposeue ee uarpeuu ysenu+usaetc s oneaeu, +en y euu, ctereuu.
VM cosepaunu M oaury s cutyauu A, ecnu M cqenanu sMsoq, +to +enoser, xapartepusyenMu N A, osateneuo
racyet repeq ctpeccosMnu artopanu u ue crpasnetc c uunu. 8ce ato sauo yto+uute ue tonero rotony, +to s
rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatype ato +acto uruopupyetc, uo u s cssu c ten, +to qn sMopa tura ctatuctu+ecrux rpoeqyp
uyuo route nexauusnM snuuu repeneuuou ueratusuou aertusuoctu ua ssaunocsse ctpeccopa u uarpeuu
(uneet necto cutyau A unu 6). 6onee toro, rar nM roraen qanee, qn raqoro nexauusna pearuposauu paspaotauM
pasnu+uMe nepM ro yneueaeuuk unu rpeqotspaaeuuk ctpecca ua pao+en necte. 0quaro, +to racaetc anrupu+ecrux,
teopetu+ecrux u rpartu+ecrux eneu, to c canoro ua+ana uyuo yctauosute, rar uera repeneuua snuet ua csse
ctpeccopa u coctouu uarpeuu. 8 cutyauu A orucMsaetc euoneu, ussectuMu rar rpnoe sosqeuctsue (direct
effect), a cny+au 6 qenouctpupyet perynupyenoe uuqusuqyaneuMnu ocoeuuoctnu sosqeuctsue ctpeccopa (moderated
effect). 3tu qsa nexauusna, a tare tpetuu oauu nexauusn (orocpeqosauue mediation) orucauM uanu qanee. la puc.
6.1 rpusoqutc cxena qeuctsu atux nexauusnos.


Puc. 6.1. AnetepuatusuMe noqenu. |cto+uur: Edwards, Baglioni and Cooper, 1990.
0pvoe eoadecmeue
epsa noqene, orucMsakaa, rar uuqusuqyaneuMe otnu+u noryt snute ua ssaunocsse ctpeccop - uarpeuue,
qenouctpupyet rpnoe, unu aqqutusuoe snuuue. pnoe snuuue osua+aet, +to uuqusuqyaneuMe xapartepucturu
orasMsakt uerocpeqctseuuoe sosqeuctsue ua yposeue uarpeuu, uesasucuno ot rourpetuoro sosqeuctsu ctpeccopa.
pyrunu cnosanu, snuuue nu+uMx ra+ects ua sosuurakauu yposeue uarpeuu ue sasucut ot xapartepuctur ctpeccopa,
rpu aton oe qpyrue repeneuuMe (NA u ocoeuuoctu roruura) tare suoct uesasucunMu srnaq s utorosyk cunrtonatury
(Parkes, 1994). 0rucauue sMae sapuauta A - rpunep toro, rar ueratusua aertusuocte uerocpeqctseuuo snuet ua
+enosera. anee nouo crasate, +to uuqusuqyaneuMe xapartepucturu roruura orasMsakt uerocpeqctseuuoe snuuue ua
+enosera, ecnu atu ocoeuuoctu cosnaqauu scerqa cuuakt uarpeuue y +enosera, uesasucuno ot toro, uacronero
senur yposeue ctpeccopa orpyakaeu cpeqM. (6onee qetaneuo nM ocyqaen roruur s rnase 7). Ecnu rosopute o
sneaatenectse s cssu co ctpeccon, to s qauuon cny+ae ycreauocte cuueuu yposu uarpeuu sasucut ot
ysenu+euu unu yneueaeuu yposu couaneuou roqqepru.
4akmopm-nocpednuku (veduamopm)
8topou nexauusn ato orocpeqosauue. 0rocpeqosauue sosuuraet, rorqa uuqusuqyaneuMe otnu+u +enosera
orasMsaktc rponeyto+uou repeneuuou, rpu snuuuu rotopou ctpeccop opnupyet csoe sosqeuctsue ua yposeue
uarpeuu. |tar, ero+ra rpu+uu u cneqctsuu seqet ot ctpeccopa +epes orocpeqykauu artop r uarpeuuk (Frese
and Zapf, 1988). larpunep, tarou nexauusn roruura, rar couaneua roqqepra, orasMsaetc orocpeqykaun artopon s
octotenectsax, rorqa onesue peeura royqaet nate nounusosate couaneuMe ucto+uuru roqqepru, a ato, s csok
o+epeqe, cuuaet ee yposeue tpesoru unu qerpeccuu. A, craen, tarou ctpeccop, rar paspMs para, noet sectu r
ocnaneuuk couaneuou roqqepru (rorqa +enoser tepet raptuepa, rotopMu paueae ero roqqepusan, a uuorqa
repectaet oaatec c ceneeu u qpysenu raptuepa) u r ycuneuuk tpesoru u qerpeccuu. Ecte eae sapuaut, rotopMu
peqro y+utMsaetc s uccneqosauuu, rorqa can ctpeccop orasMsaetc cpequun sseuon, rocpequuron s eru neqy
repeneuuou uuqusuqyaneuMx otnu+uu u yposuen uarpeuu. larpunep, +to racaetc couaneuou roqqepru, to
sMcoruu ee yposeue royqaet +enosera r tony, +toM sctyrate s otuoaeuu c nuoro+ucneuuMnu ctpeccopanu
(uarpunep, cornacutec sMronute tpyquyk paoty). 8ce ato s csok o+epeqe snuet ua yposeue uarpeuu +enosera. 8
qauuon cny+ae couaneua roqqepra ctana uesasucunou repeneuuou, a ctpeccop, tarou rar uosa paota, artopon-
rocpequuron.
+toM c+utate ctatuctu+ecru roqtsepqeuuMn, +to, uarpunep, couaneua roqqepra orocpeqyet ssaunocssu neqy
cyrpyecrunu rponenanu u tpesorou, qonuM unete necto tpu arta (ro 8aror and Kenny, 1986). 8o-repsMx, rorasa-
tene couaneuou roqqepru qoneu unete cuneuyk ssaunocsse c rorasatennu rar cyrpyecrou rponenuoctu, tar u
tpesoru; so-stopMx, tpesora qonua Mte cuneuo cssaua c cyrpyecrunu tpyquoctnu; u s-tpeteux, rorqa rorasatene
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
couaneuou roqqepru ue uneet ctatuctu+ecru sua+unMx csseu c uassauuMnu sMae xapartepucturanu, qonua
uc+esuyte u rpna ssaunocsse neqy rponenanu s pare u tpesorou. 8 sasucunoctu ot cunM roppenuu sMqenkt
ronuoe unu +actu+uoe orocpeqosauue. lyuo tare otnetute, +to orpeqenkauu cutyauk artop (s qauuon cny+ae
ctpeccop), qoneu rpeqaectsosate rocpequury. Tonero artopM rpuopeteuuMx uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu noryt
rocneqosateneuo sMronute rocpequu+ecryk yuruk, to ecte couaneua roqqepra noet sntec tarun rocpeq-
uuron, a sospact +enosera ue yqet tarun artopon. u+uoctuMe xapartepucturu, rar rpasuno, ue snktc
rocpequuranu, ecnu tonero ue yqet qorasauo, +to ctpeccopM qeuctsuteneuo snukt ua nu+uocte.
Peeynupymue akmopm (vodepamopm)
Perynupykaue artopM s otnu+ue ot artopos-rocpequuros peaneuo usneukt xapartep ssaunocssu neqy
ctpeccopon u uarpeuuen, suqousneu ctereue unu uarpasneuue atou cssu. Tar, nouo crasate, +to couaneua
roqqepra cnr+aet ssaunocsse neqy ctpeccopon, tarun rar pao+a uarpysra, u uarpeuuen, tarun rar tpesora,
ecnu, uarpunep, sMcora pao+a uarpysra rpusoqut r sMcorou tpesore tonero s otcytctsue couaneuou roqqepru.
Korqa ecte couaneua roqqepra, to ysenu+euue uarpysru noet sMssate neuee tpesouyk pearuk. Tarou
cnr+akauu artop, crococtsykauu ocnaneuuk ssaunocssu ctpeccopa u uarpeuu, uasMsaetc yepon (buffer).
Voqepatop, rotopMu ycunusaet csse ctpeccop uarpeuue, uasMsaetc artopon yssunoctu unu peartusuoctu
(vulnerability or reactivity). larpunep, c+utaetc, +to uerotopMe nu+uoctuMe artopM qenakt +enosera onee yssunMn
repeq ctpeccon. u+uocte nouo uassate noqepatopon sosqeuctsu pao+eu uarpysru ua tpesory, ecnu, uarpunep,
rorasauo, +to pao+a uarpysra ycunusaet tpesouocte tonero y nkqeu, xapartepusykauxc peartusuoctek. C to+ru
speuu ctatucturu oa tura perynupykaux sosqeuctsuu qenouctpupyktc rpu uanu+uu aertos ssaunoqeuctsu s
qucrepcuouuon unu nuoectseuuon perpeccuouuon auanuse.
pu rnauuposauuu sneaatenects ro cuueuuk uarpeuuu noqepatopM paccnatpusaktc rar onee sua+unMe,
cpasuuteneuo c nequatopanu, artopM (Frese and Zapf, 1988). ocronery perynupykaue repeneuuMe ssaunoqeuctsykt
co ctpeccopanu, to nouo usneuute uuteucusuocte ctpeccosoro pearuposauu, ecnu nauurynuposate yposuen unu
noqepatopa, unu ctpeccopa (uarpunep uarpysru). Tar, s pao+ux ycnosux, ecnu orasMsaetc, +to tarou yep ctpecca,
rar couaneua roqqepra, snetc noqepatopon sosqeuctsu oneaou pao+eu uarpysru, to passutue onee
aertusuMx nexauusnos roruura norno M ocnaute ueratusuoe snuuue pao+eu uarpysru, rpu aton ue osateneuo
Mno M cuuate uarpysry. 8 csok o+epeqe, qn rpeqotspaaeuu uarpeuuu, tarue ussectuMe artopM, rar yssunocte
unu peartusuocte, nouo Mno M yctpauute unu yneueaute. larpunep, ecnu oraetc, +to nkqu orpeqeneuuoro tura
onee pear"-tusuM r tarun ctpeccopan, rar sMronueuue cpo+uou paotM, to ctout oprauusosate paoty tar, +toM tarony
+enosery rpuanoce neueae ruate paoty r orpeqeneuuony +ucny, u ato cyaectseuuo ocnauno M uarpeuue.
laoopot, ecnu ata nu+uoctua ocoeuuocte uneet cropee rpnoe unu orocpeqykaee sosqeuctsue, +en noqepatopuoe,
to ctpeccop ue s coctouuu usneuute xapartep cssu ctpeccop uarpeuue. Tarun opason, yrpasneuue yposuen
ctpeccopa ue seqet c ueoxoqunoctek r rosutusuony sosqeuctsuk ua yposeue uarpeuu. |tar, cyaectsyet tpu
ocuosuMx nexauusna snuuu uuqusuqyaneuMx xapartepuctur +enosera ua rpoecc ctpecca. KaqMu us atux nexauusnos
suocut csou usneueuu s rnauuposauue sneaatenects. 8 cneqykaen pasqene nM paccnotpun, rar uerotopMe sauMe
uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u srnk+aktc so ssaunocssu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuuen.

nue uqsqyansusx painu
lendep
Kar oM+uo c+utakt, reuqep orasMsaet uerocpeqctseuuoe snuuue ua yposeue uarpeuu. o cpequeny coctouuk
sqopose u ctatucture cneptuoctu ny+uuM u euauuM so nuoron otnu+aktc. larpunep, ny+uuM s +etMpe pasa +aae
ynupakt ot cepqe+uo-cocyquctMx saonesauuu (coronary heart disease CHD), s rte pas +aae ynupakt ot
saonesauuu, sMssauuMx anroroneuMn otpasneuuen, a cpequ rpoqonuteneuocte ux usuu ua 8 net neueae, +en y
euauu (Ivancevich and Matteson, 1980). Ten ue neuee, rar rorasMsakt uccneqosauu, euauuM cooaakt o onee
sMpaeuuMx cunrtonax uarpeuu, ouu +aae tpesoatc ro rosoqy sqopose (roceaakt rnuuuru u rparturykaux
creuanuctos). Ctout, s +actuoctu, otnetute, +to tarue rcuxonoru+ecrue sneuu, rar qerpeccu, +aae quaruoctupyktc
y euauu, +en y ny+uu. Kar cooaaet Xonnc (Holmes, 1994), uccneqosauu, rposoqusauec s te+euue 40 net s 30-tu
ctpauax, rorasanu, +to cootuoaeuue euauu u ny+uu, ctpaqakaux qerpeccueu, coctasnet rpunusuteneuo 2 r 1. Ecnu
rosopute o neuee sua+uteneuMx rponenax rcuxonoru+ecroro sqopose, to, ro qauuMn neqyuapoquoro uccneqosauu
yraca u lona (Lucas and Gohm, 1999), euauuM +aae
ucrMtMsakt ueratusuMe anououaneuMe coctouu, +en ny+uuM. A ro pesynetatan /autxonncroro uccneqosauu
(Whitehall Study nacatauoe nourutkquoe aruqenuonoru+ecroe ocneqosauue rpaqaucrux cnyaaux ouqoua), y
euauu orpeqeneuM sua+uno onee sMcorue oeuru ro rorasatenn rcuxonoru+ecroro quctpecca (ro arane GHO)
(Fuhrer et al., 1999). Ten ue neuee ue so scex uccneqosauux tar ot+etnuso rpocneusaktc teuqepuMe pasnu+u. o
rocnequun qauuMn eae oquoro rpyrueuaero nourutkquoro uccneqosauu c ucronesosauuen aranM GHO (British
Household Panel Survey; n = 10 000), sua+unMx pasnu+uu neqy ny+uuanu u euauuanu ro ctereuu quctpecca uet (Buck
et al., 1994).
8epotuo, tare, +to reuqep snuet u ua canoot+etM nkqeu o rcuxu+ecron sqoposee. uuep u ronneru (Diener et al.,
1999), a tare 1yq-uta, uuep u Cauqsur (Fujita, Diener and Sandvik, 1991) qenakt sMsoq o ton, +to euauuM +aae
ny+uu ucrMtMsakt anouu, u ux anouu uuteucusuee. 8 csok o+epeqe, atu pasnu+u noryt otpaate pasnu+uMe
rynetypuMe ouqauu s otuoaeuuu ny+uu u euauu. Voet Mte, yrasauuoe pasnu+ue cssauo c ten, +to qn oaectsa
onee rpuenneno, rorqa euauuM sMpaakt ueratusuMe +ysctsa unu rpusuakt, +to ucrMtMsakt ueysepeuuocte s cee.
XeuauuM +aae Msakt sMuyqeuM otsetute ua tarou sorpoc: Tee uyuo sMrnaratec? (Crown and Crisp, 1979) unu
TM s rocnequee spen tepeae sepy s csou cunM? (Goldberg, 1978). lyuo tare y+ecte, +to ro nepe toro rar
teuqepuMe ponu ypasuusaktc, sce pee s uccneqosauux ouapyusaktc cepeesuMe reuqepuMe pasnu+u.
Xot, c to+ru speuu arcrepuneutatopa, uneet cnMcn routponuposate repeneuuyk rona rpu uccneqosauuu ssaunocssu
ctpeccopa u uarpeuu, atot routpone ue rossonet to+uo yctauosute, rar uneuuo ron snuet ua tarue ssaunootuoae-
uu. |uqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, rpoucterakaue us reuetu+ecrux artopos, qasuo ye cnyat tenou qn cropos, rar s
rcuxonoruu, tar u s oaectse s enon. Korqa rcuxonoru ctpentc qorasate, +to ssaunocsse ctpeccopa u uarpeuu
oycnosneua reuetu+ecrunu artopanu, to sosuuraet cepeesua rponena, tar rar cua+ana tpeyetc yctauosute, raroe
snuuue orasMsakt ua aty ssaunocsse corytctsykaue artopM orpyakaeu cpeqM. oatony rorqa pe+e uqet o reuqe-
pe, uecuo, ron nu +enosera orpeqenet ero pearuk ua uarpeuue, unu pasnu+u s pearuu oycnosneuM ctunynanu
orpyakaeu cpeqM. Tar, uarpunep, couaneuoe uay+euue, ycsoeuue ctepeoturos, qoctyruocte roruur-ctpateruu, rat-
tepuM paotM, couaneuMe uopnM roseqeuu u qucanauc snactu y ny+uu u euauu noryt orasMsate snuuue ua atu
pasnu+u. VM ye suqenu s rnase 4, +to teuqep crasMsaetc ua xapartepe ssaunocssu neqy sqoposeen u onesuek
+enosera (cn., uarpunep, Cohen et al., 1991a). Ten ue neuee, enMu pq qpyrux artopos, rar reuetu+ecroro, tar u
cpeqosoro rpoucxoqeuu, noryt suocute csou srnaq s pasnu+ue ssaunocsseu neqy, uarpunep, yrotpeneuuen
anroron u qerpeccueu y rpeqctasuteneu pasuMx ronos.
8oapacm/adopoese
8ospact ato eae oquo us uuqusuqyaneuMx otnu+uu, rotopoe ropou urpaet ueoquosua+uyk pone s yctauosneuuu
ssaunocssu ctpeccop uarpeuue. |uorqa rcuxonoru rposoqt pasrpauu+euue neqy xpouonoru+ecrun u
usuonoru+ecrun sospacton +enosera. Xpouonoru+ecruu sospact ato tot repuoq speneuu, rotopMu rpoxoqut c no-
neuta poqeuu, a usuonoru+ecruu sospact sasucut ot toro, c rarun ronu+ectson opeteuuu u rotepe ctanrusaetc s
usuu +enoser, uacronero ctpeccosou Mna ero usue (Ivancevich and Matteson, 1980). peqctasnetc, +to can ro cee
xpouonoru+ecruu sospact cssau c turon ctpeccopos, rotopMe sosqeuctsykt ua +enosera, a usuonoru+ecruu sospact
cssau c rocneqosateneuoctek unu pesynetaton sosqeuctsu tarux ctpeccopos.
Xpouonoru+ecruu u usuonoru+ecruu sospact cootuoctc c oaun usu+ecrun coctouuen +enosera u ero coctouuen
sqopose. +acto c+utaetc, +to usu+ecru onee sqoposMe nkqu, ro-suqunony, ny+ae crpasnktc co ctpeccosMnu
cutyaunu, +en usu+ecru cnaMe. 0quaro sa+actyk ua usu+ecruu ctatyc +enosera orasMsaet snuuue cosoryruocte
ueuonoru+ecrux artopos, tarux rar repeueceuuMe saonesauu, nu+uMe rpusM+ru u couaneuo-arouonu+ecroe
ronoeuue. pu aton so nuorux uccneqosauux ro ctpeccy paccnatpusaetc tonero xpouonoru+ecruu sospact u ero
rpnoe snuuue.
8 uccneqosauux, rocsaeuuMx ssaunocssn sospacta u yposu rcuxu+ecroro sqopose, ue rpocneusaetc uerocpeq-
ctseuuou cssu neqy qsyn atunu artopanu. Kar rorasano uccneqosauue 11 000 paotuuros sqpasooxpaueuu (Wall et
al., 1997), onee nonoqMe y+actuuru arcrepuneuta s enon Mnu s ny+aeu rcuxonoru+ecrou opne, +en ux ctapaue
ronneru. o qauuMn ye yronuuasaeroc uccneqosauu British Household Panel Survey, srnk+akaero nkqeu pasuoro sos-
pacta, rpeqctasnetc qosoneuo cnoua raptuua; s rpyrre nkqeu cpequero sospacta (35-44 roqa) rcuxonoru+ecroe
sqoposee yxyqaaetc, roton yny+aaetc u yxyqaaetc cuosa, ua+uua rpunusuteneuo c 75 net (Buck et al., 1994). 8
ooux sMaeuassauuMx uccneqosauux ucronesosanu arany GHQ, qn toro +toM oeuute yposeue rcuxonoru+ecroro
narorony+u. /opp (Warr, 1992) ocneqosan 1686 paotuuros pasnu+uMx rpoeccuu u usy+un ux rcuxu+ecroe coctouue
s cssu c otuoaeuuen r paote. Cnyaaue cpequero sospacta sMpaanu neueae autysuasna u yqosnetsopeuuoctu
paotou, +en cnyaaue rononoe u roctapae.
cuxonoran eae rpeqctout sMcuute pone sospacta rar artopa uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu. 3ta ssaunocsse, o+esuquo,
ue rpocta. VM ye suqenu us rnasM 4, +to sospact u ctpeccopM noryt snute qpyr ua qpyra rpu sosqeuctsuu ua sqoposee
(to ecte sospact qeuctsyet rar noqepatop). 3tot tur ssaunocssu usy+eu nano.
0paaoeanue u coquansnm cmamyc
lerotopMe uuqusuqyaneuMe otnu+u (tarue rar teuqep) oycnosneuM reuetu+ecru, a nuorue qpyrue rpuopetaktc
+enoseron ua rpoteuuu usuu. K tarun artopan otuoctc opasosauue, qoxoqM, couaneua roqqepra u
pasnu+uMe ctpateruu roruura, rotopMe nkqu ucronesykt qn toro, +toM crpasutec co ctpeccopanu. (0 couaneuou
roqqepre u roruur-ctpaterux roqpouo paccrasauo s rnasax 7 u 8.)
ocronery rpoeccu u opasosauue uerocpeqctseuuo cssauM c qoxoqon +enosera, to nouo ouqate, +to atu artopM
cssauM c rcuxonoru+ecrun u usu+ecrun sqoposeen. larpunep, qerpeccu, rar orasanoce, ssaunocssaua c couaneuo-
arouonu+ecrun ctatycon (8eer-man, Copeland, Prince, 1999). /equteneuo qorasauo, +to couaneuo-arouonu+ecruu
ctatyc +enosera orasMsaet uerocpeqctseuuoe snuuue ua usu+ecroe sqoposee u cneptuocte (cn., uarpunep, Wilkinson,
1997). 8 cepeesuMx uccneqosauux, s rotopMx usy+aktc rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM u ux sosqeuctsue ua sqoposee,
oM+uo y+utMsaktc repeneuuMe opasosauu u couaneuo-arouonu+ecroro ctatyca, +to noet rpusectu r ux cneaeuuk
c rpoeccuouaneuMnu ctpeccopanu. larpunep, nkqu c uesMcorun couaneuo-arouonu+ecrun ctatycon oM+uo
sMronukt paoty, rotopa ue rpeqoctasnet sua+uteneuMx sosnouocteu canony +enosery routponuposate ee, u ux
paota +aae rpusoqut r saonesauun cepqa (Fletcher and Jones, 1993).
Ten ue neuee, rar u s cny+ae snuuu rona, opasosauue noet snute ua to, +to nkqu cooaakt o csoen uarpeuuu.
Kar rorasan uauouaneuMu auanus, rposeqeuuMu s CLA, ny+uuM c onee sMcorun yposuen opasosauu +aae sMpaa-
nu csou pearuu ua cpeqosMe ctpeccopM, ucronesy rcuxonoru+ecrue tepnuuM (tarue rar +ysctso ueysepeuuoctu s cee,
pauunocte, tpesouocte, oayaeuue rcuxu+ecroro uaqnona), a nkqu c uusrun yposuen opasosauu +aae orpeqennu-,
csoe coctouue s tepnuuax usu+ecrux cunrtonos (Bryant and Marquez, 1986).
Koutpone tarux qenorpau+ecrux repeneuuMx uneet oneaoe sua+euue qn uccneqosauu ctpecca. lo sce e, rorqa
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
rosoputc o repeneuuMx uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu, to +aae roqpasynesaktc qucrosuuouuMe uuqusuqyaneuMe
pasnu+u (uarpunep: nu+uoctuMe +eptM). 3tu xapartepucturu nM paccnotpun qanee.

cnoiouuse qakops
8 nutepatype paccnatpusaetc pq +ept, unekaux rarue-nuo cssu co ctpeccon, uo s otuoaeuuu qsyx us uux rony+euM
uauonee uutepecuMe qauuMe. 3to roseqeuue ro tury A spaqeuocte u ueratusua aertusuocte (cn., uarpunep,
George, 1992). leratusua aertusuocte oqua us nu+uoctuMx xapartepuctur, otuocauxc r oneaou rtepre
(Tokar, Fischer and Subich, 1998; cn. spesry 6.1). +to racaetc routu roseqeuu ro tury A, to ouo sMqeneuo rpu
usy+euuu artopos pucra cepqe+uMx saonesauuu CHD (coronary heart disease) (cn., uarpunep, Rosenman et al., 1964).
0e atu repeneuuMe rpusnernu suunauue uccneqosateneu. cuxonoru roctouuo srnk+akt ux s osopuMe ctateu o
nu+uoctuMx repeneuuMx (cn., uarpunep, Schaubroeck and Ganster, 1991; O'Driskoll, 2001; Parkes, 1994). anee nM
paccraen o snuuuu atux repeneuuMx ua coctouue ctpecca.
7un A u epaadenocms
outue roseqeuu A-tura ocuosauo ua cepuu paot, ussectuMx rar Western Collaborative Group Studies (WCGS;
Rosenman et al., 1964) u rocsaeuuMx usy+euuk artopos pucra cepqe+uo-cocyquctMx saonesauuu. ocne toro rar
rcuxonoru s te+euue socenu net rposoqunu nuoro+ucneuuMe uutepsek u uankqeuu, Mnu sMqeneuM uuqusuqyynM,
xapartepucturu roseqeuu rotopMx sactasnnu otuectu tarux nkqeu r rpyrre pucra. oseqeu+ecruu rattepu A-tura
rossonet orucate ucronesykaux ero uuqusuqyynos rar ueteprenusMx, pasqpauteneuMx, spaqeuMx, crnouuMx r
corepuu+ectsy, +pesnepuo rornoaeuuMx paotou, ctpenauxc r qoctueuun u cocpeqoto+euuMx ua conkqeuuu
cporos sMronueuu paotM u repseuctse nkou euou. Tur 6 xapartepusyetc otuocuteneuo uesMcorunu sua+euunu
ro atun rorasatenn. ae rocne toro rar rcuxonoru ctanu routponuposate tpaquuouuMe artopM pucra (uarpunep:
rposuoe qasneuue, yposeue xonectepuua, uctopuk ceneu), sMcuunoce, +to pucr sosuuruoseuu cepqe+uo-cocyquctMx
saonesauuu y nkqeu A-tura s qsa pasa sMae, +en y nkqeu 6-tura. 8rocneqctsuu uccneqosanuce nexauusnM,
cosqakaue y rpeqctasuteneu A-tura utorosMe uarpeuu. 8 cootsetctsuu c oquou us rurotes rurotesou sMupaenou
uesaauaeuuoctu (differential exposure hypothesis; Cohen and Edwards, 1989), nkqu A-tura ueuanepeuuo canu
roqctasnkt ce s cutyauu, rqe snuuue ctpeccopos ua uux yqet ycuneuuMn, uarpunep: canu sMupakt paoty c
sMcorun yposuen tpeosauuu; tarun opason, csse nu+uoctuMx xapartepuctur u yposu uarpeuu orocpeqyetc
pao+unu ctpeccopanu. 0quaro uenuoro+ucneuuMe paotM, s rotopMx usy+anace ata rurotesa, s enon ue qakt
qorasatenects. 8 oquon uccneqosauuu orpeqennace rpuuaqneuocte paotuuros r tury A unu 6. Auanus rorasan, +to
oa tura orasMsaktc s ctpeccosMx cutyaux (uarpunep paotakt ua naauuuMx nuuux copru). 6onee toro, y nkqeu
6-tura Mnu onee sMcorue rorasatenu ro aranan, usnepkaun conatu+ecrue ueqonorauu (Caplan et al., 1975).
Anetepuatusua rurotesa (rurotesa quepeuuposauuou peartusuoctu differential reactivity hypothesis; Cohen and
Edwards, 1989) ytsepqaet, +to nkqu A-tura onee +ytro pearupykt ua ctpeccopM s orpyakaeu cpeqe u onee
uarpeuM s ycnosux ctpecca, to ecte tur A noqepatop ssaunocssu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu. 0rte-
taru artM s roqqepry u rpotus atou rurotesM pasuopoquM, uerotopMe uccneqosauu yrasMsakt ua to, +to ato
qeuctsuteneuo tar (cn., uarpunep, Ivancevich, Matteson and Preston, 1982; Payne, 1988), a uerotopMe artM
csuqetenectsykt rpotus qauuou rurotesM (uarpunep, Burke, 1988; Keenan and McBain, 1979). lauonee sauo to, +to ro
utoran oquoro us uecronerux uccneqosauuu, ucronesosasaux usnepeuu oertusuMx xapartepuctur ctpeccopa (tenr
paotM saqaetc canun +enoseron unu astonatu+ecru), tare ue ouapyeuo roqtsepqeuuu yrasauuou sMae rurotesM.
8 qauuon cny+ae usy+anuce sosnouMe cssu ctpeccopa u yposu tpesoru u qerpeccuu y paotuuros (Hurrell, 1985).
8 enon uneetc oneae qauuMx o ton, +to nkqu A-tura +aae repeusakt usuonoru+ecroe uarpeuue, a ue rcuxono-
ru+ecruu quctpecc unu quctpecc, cssauuMu c paotou (Ganster et al., 1991). 0quaro uccneqosauu nkqeu A-tura
rpotuusope+usM (O'Driscoll, 2001). pu aton +aae scero ato rpotusope+ue sosuuraet sa c+et tpex artopos: rnoxo
orpeqeneua rpupoqa noqenu, rpeqnaraena noqene oquonepua, sanuquocte rapanetpos atou noqenu ueo+esuqua
(Parkes, 1994). 8o-repsMx, rcuxonoru cropt o ton, snetc nu tur A +eptou nu+uoctu i unu ato ctune otsetos ua
sorpocM rpu sMronueuuu canoot+etos (Frew and Bruning, 1987; cn. tare rnasy 7). 8o-stopMx, artopuMe auanutu+ecrue
uccneqosauu roqseprakt conueuuk sanuquocte canoro atoro rouctpyrta, u orasMsaetc, +to ou coctout us pqa ue
cssauuMx neqy coou rouctpyrtos (Parkes, 1994). larpunep, lauctep u ronneru (Ganster et al., 1991) cqenanu sMsoq o
ton, +to tur A nouo sMsute rpu ronoau ctpyrtypuposauuoro uutepsek (Rosenman et al., 1964), sMqenkaero tpu
uesasucunMx artopa: spaqeuocte, pe+esMe xapartepucturu u coqepauue otseta. 8-tpeteux, y+euMe roqsepranu
conueuuk sanuquocte pasnu+uMx cpeqcts usnepeuu xapartepuctur atou noqenu, tarux rar, uarpunep, canoot+etM c
ronoaek rpeqnaraenMx sorpocos (Parkes, 1994; Powell, 1987).
auuMe repsoua+aneuMx uccneqosauuu, s +actuoctu paot ro saonesauun cepqa, roctereuuo oeceuunuce, rotony
+to rocneqykaue arcrepuneutM u osopM qanu ueratusuMe pesynetatM. Tar, uarpunep, osopM paot ro atou tene (cn.,
uarpunep, Powell, 1987; Matthews and Haynes, 1986), s ton +ucne tex, rotopMe rpeqctasnnu coou nuorornauosMe rpo-
crertusuMe uccneqosauu, rorasanu, +to tur A orasanc sua+uno cssau c CHD ro qauuMn rpunepuo ronosuuM uccne-
qosauuu. Kpone toro, rposoqunc eae u pq netaauanusos (cn. rnasy 2) (Booth-Kewley and Friedman, 1987; Matthews,
1988; Myr-tek, 1995). auuMe atux netaauanusos rorasMsakt, +to pesynetatM arcrepuneutos sapeuposanu s sasucunoctu
ot toro, rarou netoq rpuneunu rcuxonoru. Kar qenakt sMsoq 6yt-KMonu u 1puqnau (Booth-Kewley and Friedman, 1987):
3 amov osope ve euduv, vmo c|no++ocme | |opo+ap+ev ones++v eos+u|aem va(e +e , c,emnueoco u +emepnenueoco mp,doconu|a,
a , venoee|a, c|no++oco ucnemeeame +ecamue+ee avo(uu (c. 343).
cuxonoru otne+akt, +to r tarun saonesauun crnouuM nkqu, sraqakaue s qerpeccuk, tpesouMe, snMe, crnouuMe r
arpeccusuony corepuu+ectsy u +acto ucrMtMsakaue pyctpauk. 8 osope Vate-ks (Matthews, 1988) yrasMsaetc, +to
uauonee cyaectseuuMu ronroueut qn nu+uoctu A-tura ato spaqeuocte. Kar rose sMcuunu enopcru u ronneru
(Demborski et al., 1989), uneuuo rorasatene spaqeuoctu Mn uauonee rporuoctu+eu s otuoaeuuu CHD, a ue utoro-
sMu rorasatene A-tura. ocne atoro uccneqosauu y+euMe sce oneae ctanu usy+ate ucrnk+uteneuo spaqeuocte, u
terepe ata repeneuua ctana oerton netaauanusa (cn., uarpunep, Miller et al., 1996). Vunnep u ronneru srnk+unu s
csou auanus 45 uay+uMx paot u rpuanu r sMsoqy, +to spaqeuocte uesasucunMu artop pucra qn cepqe+uMx
saonesauuu. pu orpeqeneuuu rorasaten spaqeuoctu c ucronesosauuen ctpyrtypuposauuoro uutepsek sMsunu, +to
sosqeuctsue atou xapartepucturu rar artopa pucra CHD Mno ue neueaun unu qae oneaun, +en y tpaquuouuMx
artopos pucra: rosMaeuuMu yposeue xonectepuua, sMcoroe rposuoe qasneuue unu rypeuue. Korqa routponuposanuce
qpyrue artopM pucra, to ssaunocsse neqy spaqeuoctek u pucron saonesauuu octasanace rpeueu. Cyaectsykt
tare qauuMe o ton, +to rorqa rposoqtc sneaatenectsa ro ocnaneuuk spaqeuoctu, to ato aertusuo cuuaet
rposuoe qasneuue y raueutos c ropouapuMnu onesunu (Gidron, Davidson and Bata, 1999).
|utepecuo, +to s cospeneuuMx uccneqosauux ouapyusaktc onee cnaMe ssaunocssu, +en ato yqasanoce uautu s
pauuux uay+uMx paotax, rar s cny+ae c roseqeuuen A-tura (Miller et al., 1991). o nueuuk Vunnepa u ronner (1991,1996),
unekt necto netoqonoru+ecru oycnosneuuMe apteartM: s uccneqosauux rocnequero speneuu urypupykt tonero
rpyrrM c sMcorou ctereuek pucra, rorqa nkqu ye onaqakt orpeqeneuuou opnou ropouapuou onesuu. 3to uapyaaet
ctporocte uccneqosauuu, u pesynetatM orasMsaktc rpeqsstMnu.
o-rpeueny uecuo, raros nexauusn qeuctsu spaqeuoctu. 8epotuo, spaqeuMu +enoser +aae rposoupyet
ctpeccopM (rurotesa sMupaenou uesaauaeuuoctu) unu tarue nkqu xye rpucrocanusaktc, rorqa ctanrusaktc co
ctpeccopanu (rurotesa quepeuuposauuou peartusuoctu). Tare sronue sosnouo, +to spaqeuMe nkqu +aae
ctpaqakt ot uarpeuuMx coctouuu, rotony +to ouu seqyt neuee sqoposMu opas usuu. Ten ue neuee ne-taauanus
Vunnepa u ero ronner rorasMsaet, +to ato ue equuctseuuoe ocueuue yrasauuoro arta. |ccneqosauu s
roqasnkaen oneauuctse paccnatpusakt nuae rpnoe sosqeuctsue nu+uoctuMx xapartepuctur ua onesue u ue
roqseprakt creuaneuony auanusy te rytu, rotopMnu spaqeuocte snuet ua ssaunocsse ctpeccop uarpeuue.
+toM ocyqute pasnu+uMe nexauusnM roqouou ssaunocssu, opatunc r tony, rar rouunaetc s nutepatype
ueratusuMu aert.
heeamuena aekmuenocms
8repsMe orpeqeneuue tarou xapartepucturu nu+uoctu, rar ueratusua aertusuocte, unu NA, qanu /otcou u Knapr
(Watson and Clark) s 1984 roqy. outue NA, roqouo routuk A-tura, sosuurno s pesynetate rposoqunMx uccneqosauuu,
rpu+en ue tonero s onactu ctpecca, uo u onee aupororo rnaua ato paotM ro rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu, couaneuMn u
rnuuu+ecrun rponenan. leratusua aertusuocte o+eue auporoe routue. 0uo otpaaet yctou+usMe uuqusuqya-
neuMe otnu+u s ueratusuou anououaneuoctu u -roueruu. kqu c sMcorou ueratusuou aertusuoctek: a) +aae
ucrMtMsakt quctpecc, qucronopt u ueyqosnetsopeuuocte; ) oneae crnouuM r canoauanusy u +aae urcupyktc ua
csoux ueyqa+ax u ueqoctatrax; s) +aae opaaakt suunauue ua ueratusuMe ctopouM nupa, u roatony r) otuoctc r cee
xye u neueae yqosnetsopeuM coou u usuek s enon (Watson and Clark, 1984). 0cuosua +epta atoro euoneua
coctout s ton, +to ou rposnetc qae torqa, rorqa ycnosu s enon narorputuM qn +enosera. 3to rossonet
cqenate sMsoq o ton, +to s pasuMe repuoqM speneuu u s pasuMx ycnosux nkqu c sMcorou ctereuek ueratusuou
aertusuoctu ucrMtMsakt oneae quctpecca u ueyqosnetsopeuuoctu, s otnu+ue ot tex, y roro uusruu yposeue
ueratusuou aertusuoctu. 8 enon, rar noqene, NA sua+uteneuo ny+ae usy+eua anrupu+ecru u teopetu+ecru, +en A-
tur, u roatony oua neuee rpotusope+usa. Tare NA sMcoro roppenupyet c A-turon (Payne, 1988). outue NA +acto
cuuouunu+uo routuk ueupotusna l. Au-seura, u s uccneqosauux atu nu+uoctuMe usnepeuu roctouuo
otoqectsnktc. Kpone toro, ato oquu us rtu rorasateneu, coctasnkaux rtuartopuyk noqene nu+uoctu
(oneayk rtepry). 3to tarcouonu nu+uoctu, qasuo ye rpuuta s uayre (cn. sctasry 6.1).+aae scero s onactu
usy+euu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca rcuxonoru uccneqykt uneuuo ueratusuyk aertusuocte u ee snuuue (Tokar,
Fischer and Subich, 1998, c. 133).
kak neeamuena aekmuenocms coomnocumc c dpyeuvu nuvnocmnmvu akmopavu?
C+utaetc, +to qpyrue xapartepucturu nu+uoctu, y+actsykaue s rpoecce ctpecca, tarue rar noryc routpon (Rotter,
1966) u sMuocnusocte (Kobasa, 1979), so nuoron reperpMsaktc ocuosuMnu nu+uoctuMnu rorasatennu u, s +actuoctu,
ueratusuou aertusuoctek (Payne, 1988; Tokar, Fischer and Subich, 1998).

la oc+oea+uu pes,nemamoe o(e+ov+ex a|an eno paspaoma+o v+oco pasnuv+ex |o+(en(uu nuv+ocmu. |ammenn, 3ep u Ta(,o|a
(Cattell, Eber and Tatsuoka, 1970) eeden+sm 16 no|asameneu e ceoev 16-a|mop+ov nuv+ocm+ov usvepe+uu (16PF). p,cue aemope
npueod+m copasdo ve+eae oc+oe+ex xapa|mepucmu| nuv+ocmu.
eyxakmopna vodens
/use+| (1953) npednonoun, vmo nuv+ocme ade|eam+o onuceeaemc+ npu novo(u de,x napavempoe: a|cmpaeepcuu/u+mpoeep-cuu u
+eupomusva/ cmaune+ocmu, a nose eeen e(e mpemuu napavemp ncuxomusv (E,senck and Eysenck, 1976). 3osvo+o, ucxod+a+
de,vep+a+ vodene onee useecm+a.
0muakmopna vodens (onsma nmepka)
lopva+ (Norman, 1963) ucnonesoean o(e+ov+ee a|ane |ammenna u paspaoman n+me eed,(ux napavempoe a|cmpaeep-cu+,
comoe+ocme cocnaaamec+ (agreeableness), vecm+ocme, avo(uo+ane+a+ cmaune+ocme u |,nem,pa. 3mu napavempe enu
,cma+oene+e cmamucmuvec|u, c novo(es a|mop+oco a+anusa. 3 numepam,pe v+oco|pam+o nodvep|ueanoce oneaoe s+ave+ue
ecex n+mu a|mopoe (Hampson, 1988), od+a|o o npupode od+oco us amux a|mopoe ncuxonocu cop+vo cnop+m. Va|-|pa u |ocma
(McCrae and Costa, 1985) os+eunu, vmo o+ap,unu +oeeu a|mop, +aseeas(uuc+ om|pemocme. 3mo mepvu+ os+avaem
om|pemocme onem,, mo ecme nuepane+ee escn+de, meopvecmeo, u+menne|m,ane+ee u x,doecmee++ee u+mepece. Xavnco+
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
(Hampson, 1988) cvumaem, vmo amom a|mop vo+o paccvampueame |a| ceoeopas+,s opv, nepeve++ou |,nem,pe lopva+a.
8pesra 6.1. Teopetu+ecrue ssrnqM ua nu+uocte.

oryc routpon ato crnouuocte +enosera orucMsate coMtu unu rar uaxoqauec roq nu+uMn (suytpeuuun, uutepua-
neuMn) routponen, unu roq routponen sueauux (arctepuaneuMx) artopos, tarux rar cyqea, cny+au u yqa+a (Rotter,
1966). C+utaetc, +to nkqu c sMcorun uutepuaneuMn noryc-routponen rpunarakt oneae ycunuu, +toM routponuposate
orpyakayk cpeqy, ouu onee oy+aenM, artusuo uayt u ucronesykt suauu u oneae suunauu yqenkt uuopnauu,
a ue couaneuMn tpeosauun cutyauu (Phares, 1976). leyqusuteneuo, +to tarue nkqu artusuee corpotusnktc
ctpeccy. 8 rpoecce uccneqosauuu roqtsepqunuce rpeqronoeuu o ton, +to nkqu c sueauun norycon routpon +aae
cooaakt o onee cepeesuMx ctpeccopax u onee sMcorux yposux uarpeuu (cn., uarpunep, Payne, 1988).
anee, ecte nuoro qauuMx o ton, +to nkqu c sMcorou arctepuaneuoctek xapartepusyktc u onee sMcorun yposuen
ueratusuou aertusuoctu (cn., uarpunep, Jolley and Spielberger, 1973; Watson, 1967). 0uapyeuo, +to noryc routpon s
enon roppenupyet (r = 0,4) c ueratusuMn aerton (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1964). leyqusuteneuo roatony, +to, rar rora-
sMsakt otqeneuMe uccneqosauu, routpone ueratusuou aertusuoctu rpusoqut r tony, +to pauee sua+una ssauno-
csse neqy norycon routpon u uarpeuuen ctauosutc uesua+unou. Tar, uarpunep, euu (Payne, 1988), uccneqy
espaotuMx ny+uu, yctauosun, +to routpone ueratusuou aertusuoctu ucrnk+un rpeqe sua+unyk ssaunocsse
neqy norycon routpon u rorasatennu qerpeccuu u tpesoru. Cootsetctseuuo, ssaunocsse neqy norycon routpon u
uarpeuuen nouo rpurucate ueratusuou aertusuoctu.
Cxouu apryneut sMqsuranc otuocuteneuo ssaunocssu sMuocnusocte ctpecc. Cornacuo teopuu, sMuocnusMu
crocoeu sMctasute saauty ot ctpecca, ucronesy cuny cuctenM roruutusuou oeuru. 8 atou cuctene ecte tpu ctpateruu:
rpusepeuuocte (sepa s to, +to usue u qeteneuocte unekt euuocte u sua+euue); routpone (sepa s to, +to +enoser
noet routponuposate coMtu); u ctpenneuue r ucrMtauun (usneueuue s usuu +enosera ouqaeno u noet Mte
ronesuo) (Maddi and Kobasa, 1991). Ten ue neuee, ueratusua aertusuocte u sMuocnusocte s sua+uteneuou ctereuu
roppenupykt neqy coou, u uerotopMe rputuru ronarakt, +to ueratusua aertusuocte, rar onee aupora rateropu,
srnk+aet s ce sMuocnusocte, to ecte sMuocnusMu +enoser tot, rotopMu uneet uusrue rorasatenu ro NA. (Funk and
Houston, 1987). laroue, tare uneetc nueuue, +to tur A tecuo cssau c ueratusuou aertusuoctek (Payne, 1988).
Teneps sau qonuo 6ss cuo, uo uerasua aqqeksuocs so eupansuoe noue s ccneqosau
nuuoc. oatony s cneqykaen pasqene nM paccnotpun ssaunocsse neqy ueratusuou aertusuoctek,
ctpeccopanu u uarpeuuen. VM onee qetaneuo rpoauanusupyen aty ssaunocsse. 3to ronoet uan route sck
cnouocte uerotopMx sorpocos, c rotopMnu ctanrusaktc uccneqosatenu rpu rorMtre route rytu sosqeuctsu
uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu ua ssaunocsse ctpeccop uarpeuue. Cua+ana, oquaro, nM paccraen o ton, rar
usnepetc ueratusua aertusuocte.
havepenue neeamueno aekmuenocmu
leratusua aertusuocte orpeqenetc uecronerunu crocoanu; +aae scero c ronoaek cpeqcts, usnepkaux
nu+uoctuyk tpesouocte u ueupotusn. 3ta roueru passusaetc ua ase oaupuMx uccneqosauuu, s rotopMx
sMsneuM cuneuMe ssaunocssu neqy pasnu+uMnu usnepeuunu otpuateneuMx repeusauuu, tarunu rar ueupotusn,
nu+uoctua tpesouocte, qerpeccu, cuna ego u oaa uecrocouocte r aqartauu (Watson and Clark, 1984; Watson,
Clark and Tellegen, 1988). 8ce e, rorqa rposoqutc uccneqosauue ctpecca, to ueoxoquno sMpate tarue rorasatenu,
rotopMe M nuuunaneuo repeceranuce c rapanetpanu usnepeuu rcuxonoru+ecroro uarpeuu. larpunep, ro+tu sce
usnepeuu ueupotusna u nu+uoctuou tpesouoctu srnk+akt rapanetpM, cxoue c rapanetpanu qn orpeqeneuu
conatu+ecrux ano. 0quaro oqua us netoqur rossonet usnepte NA, ue ucronesy rorasatenu, cssauuMe c
conatu+ecrou cunrtonaturou. 3to Lrana rosutusuMx u ueratusuMx repeusauuu (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule -
PANAS; Watson, Clark and Tellegen, 1988). Paspaotauua creuaneuo qn usnepeuu NA, ata arana rpeqronaraet, +to
pecrouqeutM yrasMsakt, uacronero to+uo xapartepusyet ux raqoe rpunarateneuoe us crucra. +aae scero uneuuo tarou
netoq rpuneuetc s uccneqosauuu ctpecca (cn. spesry 6.2).
kak neeamuena aekmuenocms enuem na cavoomvemm o cmpeccopax u nanpaenuu
Ecnu y+ecte, +to ueratusua aertusuocte snuet ua roruutusuyk u aertusuyk oeury +enoseron ce u orpya-
kaero nupa, to ueyqusuteneuo, +to ee paccnatpusakt rar unekayk sauoe snuuue ua repeusauue ctpecca. |s canoro
orpeqeneuu NA cneqyet, so-repsMx, +to nkqu c sMcorou ueratusuou aertusuoctek yqyt otuocutec r orpyakaeny
onee otpuateneuo, +en nkqu c uusrou NA. 8o-stopMx, nkqu c cuneuou ueratusuou aertusuoctek scerqa yqyt ucrM-
tMsate onee cuneuMu quctpecc u ueyqosnetsopeuuocte, +en nkqu c uusrou ueratusuou aertusuoctek, uesasucuno ot
ycnosuu orpyakaeu cpeqM. |tar, ro orpeqeneuuk, ye c canoro ua+ana qenaetc rporuos o ton, +to nkqu c sMcorou
ueratusuou aertusuoctek yqyt cooaate o onee cuneuMx ctpeccopax u uarpeuux, +en nkqu c uusrou ueratusuou
aertusuoctek. Ecnu sM ronuute us rpeqMqyaux rpunepos, u Vonnu, u euu ctanrusanuce c oquun u ten e
ctpeccopon sepotuocte rotepte paoty. / Vonnu Mna sMcora ctereue NA, u uneuuo oua, a ue euu, +ysctsosana
uauonee cuneuoe uarpeuue.

u|ana nosumue+ex u +ecamue+ex nepeuea+uu (PABwsffWfetson, 0 Tellegen, 1988) amo ecmpeu u npocmou vemod usvepe+u+ +a-
cmpoe+u+ PANAS codepum dee dec+mun,+|moeee a|ane, e|nsvas(ue punacamene+ee, |omopee o(e+ueasm +acmpoe+ue no
de,v napavempav. osumue+oe nepeuea+ue (P/) amo o(,(e+ue a+m,suasva, a|mue+ocmu, ueocmu, a +ecamue+oe (NA)
v,ecmeo c+eea, npespe+u+, #u+e, cmpaxa u +epeos+ocmu. 3mom u+cmp,ve+m ucnonesoeanc+ dn+ us,ve+u+ +acmpoe+u+ e pasnuv+ee
epeve++ee npove,m|u. Ta|, +anpuvep, venoee|a npocunu ,|asame: |a| ee ce+ v,ecme,eme np+vo ceuvac, |a| ee ce+
v,ecmeoeanu +a npoanou +edene, |a| ee ce+ v,ecmeoeanu e npoanov cod,. |pove moco, venoee|a vocnu nonpocume ,o(e+ume,
|a| o+ ce+ v,ecme,em oev+o. Ta|uv opasov, amom onpoc+u| vo+o ucnonesoeame dn+ moco, vmoe pascpa+uvume ,cmouvueee
vepme nuv+ocmu venoee|a u eco cocmo++ue (Watson and Tellegen, 1985). Yomco+ u Tennude+ ,|aseeasm, vmo npu usvepe+u+x
cocmo++u+ a|ana ,ecmeumene+a | |onea+u+v +acmpoe+u+ venoee|a, eos+u|as(uv e omeem +a usve+e+u+ o|p,as(eu cpede,
a usvepe+ue vepme ,cmouvueo c meve+uev epeve+u. /emope cvumasm, vmo PANAS +ade+eu u ocmoeep+eu cnoco
onpedene+u+ ncuxonocuvec|oco naconon,vu+ venoee|a De amu a|ane e s+avumene+ou cmene+u |oppenup,sm c onpoc+u|ov
denpeccuu 5e|a (Beck Depression Inventory; Beck et al., 1961) u onpoc+u|ov mpeeoc u |a| vepme u cocmo++u+ (State-Trait Anxiety
Inventory, Spielberger, Gorsuch and Luschene, 1983), devo+cmpup,+ nonoumene+,s esauvoce+se c NA u ompu(amene+,s c P/.
8pesra 6.2. Lrana rosutusuMx u ueratusuMx repeusauuu.

3tot sMsoq roqtsepqaetc so nuorux arcrepuneutax u osopax. 0rasMsaetc, ueratusua aertusuocte sua+uno
roppenupyet c enMn pqon rorasateneu ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu rar cssauuMx, tar u ue cssauuMx c paotou.
larpunep, rar rorasanu uccneqosauu s rpoeccuouaneuou cepe, NA sua+uno roppenupyet c pasnu+uMnu
ctpeccopanu: ponesou ueorpeqeneuuoctek, ponesMn rounurton, nenu+uoctuMn rounurton u qasneuuen cutyauu
(Chen and Spector, 1991); routponen, couaneuou roqqeprou (Moyle, 1995b); tpeosauunu paotM (Parkes, 1990).
Tare NA roppenupyet c pasuoopasuMnu rorasatennu uarpeuu, tarunu rar ctoura tery+ecte raqpos, rpeqauuocte
csoeu oprauusauu (Cropanzano and James, 1993); yqosnetsopeuuocte paotou (Brief, Butcher and Roberston, 1995);
aceuteusn (Chen and Spector, 1991); sMropauue (Deary et al., 1996) u oaee rcuxoconatu+ecroe uenarorony+ue (cn.,
uarpunep, Moyle, 1995b).
ecmeumensno nu emcoku ypoeens neeamueno aekmuenocmu npedpacnonaeaem k movy,
vmo nmdu ucnmmmeamm onee cunsnoe nanpaenue?
Xot s nutepatype qoctato+uo qauuMx o ssaunocssu neqy NA u rorasatennu ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu ro
canoot+etan, s to e spen nuorue creuanuctM cropt o ton, raryk pone sMronuet NA s rpoeccuouaneuon ctpecce.
8 +actuoctu, seqytc cropM o ton, orasMsaetc nu ueratusua aertusuocte otqeneuMn ronroueuton, qeuctsykaun
rar ronexa, unu e oua qeuctsyet rar peaneuMu artop yssunoctu (xot sronue sosnouo, +to unektc u qpyrue ar-
topM, uarpunep sMupaena uesaauaeuuocte). Veaakaee sosqeuctsue NA rposnetc, rar c+utakt, s
ueoocuosauuon rpeysenu+euuu uankqaenMx csseu neqy rorasatennu ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu ro canoot+etan
(NA rpusoqut r rpeqsstMn ueratusuMn pearun ua sorpocM o ctpeccopax u uarpeuux). Tarun opason, +acto
c+utaetc, +to ueratusua aertusuocte netoqonoru+ecra ronexa s uccneqosauuu, u ee uyuo routponuposate rpu
usy+euuu ctpecca (cn., uarpunep, Brief et al., 1988; Stone and Costa, 1990). Tara noqene uasMsaetc noqenek ronexu
(oua orucaua qanee). 0quaro ueratusuyk aertusuocte paccnatpusakt u rar peaneuMu artop yssunoctu, rotopMu
urpaet sauyk pone s oayaeuuu ctpecca. NA noet sosqeuctsosate ua csse ctpeccop uarpeuue, qeuctsy cropee
ue rar ronexa, a rar noqepatop, usneu cuny ssaunocssu. 0t nkqeu c sMcorou NA ouqakt, tarun opason, rosMaeu-
uou peartusuoctu s otuoaeuuu ctpeccopos u, cootsetctseuuo, sospactauu uarpeuu (Bolger and Schilling, 1991).
oatony tarux nkqeu c+utakt onee yssunMnu repeq sosqeuctsuen rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, cpasuuteneuo c
cotpyquuranu, unekaunu uusryk NA. Tarou roqxoq, orucMsakauu quepeuuposauuyk peartusuocte, uasMsaetc
noqenek yssunoctu NA (orucMsaetc qanee).
Xot qse noqenu ueratusuou aertusuoctu unekt cosepaeuuo pasuMe teopetu+ecrue u rpartu+ecrue asM, ueoxoqu-
no otnetute, +to ato qoronukaue qpyr qpyra noqenu, a ue ucrnk+akaue. | qeuctsuteneuo, qanee nM rpusoqun
uccneqosauue, rotopoe qorasMsaet, +to ueratusua aertusuocte orasMsaetc u ronexou, u artopon yssunoctu s
rpoeccuouaneuon ctpecce. Ten ue neuee, rar nM roraen uue, s uay+uou nutepatype rpocneusaetc teuqeuu
rpusuasate noqene ronexu, ten canMn, oequ snuuue NA rar artopa yssunoctu.
Modens novexu
8 ocuose noqenu ronexu neut rpeqrocMnra, +to rorasatenu uesasucunMx u sasucunMx repeneuuMx s uccneqosauuu
ctpecca ucraaktc rorasatennu ueratusuou aertusuoctu. C+utaetc, +to rorasatenu ctpeccopos u uarpeuu ua
ocuose canoot+etos ue rpno, a rocseuuo usnepkt atu xapartepucturu. (Dohrenwood et al., 1984). +to ato osua+aet ua
rparture, unnkctpupyet spesra 6.3.

Y 1peda eeco|ue no|asamenu +ecamue+ou ae|mue+ocmu( NA). Ev, ececda |aemc+, vmo cma|a+ +anonoeu+, n,cm, a +e
+anonoeu+, nono+. D+ vacmo om+ocumc+ | vup, +ecamue+o. Ev, |aemc+, vmo eco paoma e ouce cn,um npuvu+ou cune+oco
cmpecca, nomov, vmo o+ nnoxo nadum co ceouv occov, u , +eco cnua|ov v+oco den. 3 |ovna+uu, cde o+ paomaem, e nocned+ee
epev+ npousoano v+oco co|pa(e+uu, u 1peda mpeeoum, vmo o+ voem eme cned,s(uv. oamov, 1ped ove+e mpeeoumc+ u
ecno|oumc+.
5epm paomaem e mov e ouce, vmo u 1ped, u , +eco moe oneaa+ cmene+e +ecamue+ou ae|mue+ocmu. |a| u 1peda, eco
moe mpeeoum, vmo u+ voem nomep+me paom,, u o+ cmpadaem om mex e nponev +a paome, vmo u 5epm.
Da o+u +edae+o npu+uvanu ,vacmue e onpoce, npoeodueaevc+ ncuxonocov e ux opca+usa(uu. 3 amov onpoce +a mev, cmpecca
ma|e onpeden+emc+ mpeeo+ocme. |ocda oouv +aauv ,vacm+u|av npedocmaeunu opam+,s ce+se, mo , +ux o|asanuce
odu+a|oeee pes,nemame o+u +apanu 70 annoe us 100. nv c|asanu, vmo cped+uu pes,nemam e |ovna+uu en 48 us 100, ma| vmo ,
+ux eeco|uu ,poee+e mpeeo+ocmu. 3c|ope nocne amoco e ux omden saaen occ u nped,npedun paom+u|oe o mov, vmo +eoxoduvo
noeecume |avecmeo paome. 5occ npucposun 1ped, u 5epm, ,eone+e+uev. 3amev ux c+oea +aeecmun ncuxonoc. cuxonoc nonpocun
ux on+me sanon+ume a+|em, +a mpeeo+ocme. la amom pas pes,nemame no|asanu, vmo ved, 1pedov u 5epmov ecme
c,(ecmee++oe omnuvue. Y 1peda non,vunc+ pes,nemam 80 us 100, a , 5epma 95 us 100. 3 deucmeumene+ocmu |o v+ocuv
cn,a(uv e ux opca+usa(uu npuxodun occ u, e cped+ev, ,poee+e mpeeo+ocmu , +ux doxodun do 58. n+ 1peda NA o|asanace
nepeve+|ou, deucme,s(eu |a| novexa e no+uva+uu ucmu++oco nonoe+u+ ee(eu. 3ede eco cavoomvem ee+eun oneauu ,poee+e
mpeeocu, vev , dp,cux, ,e c cavoco +avana. |ocda occ cman ,cpoame ev, u doaeun ecno|oucmea, mo ,poee+e mpeeocu , 1peda
nod++nc+ e(e eeae. Tev +e ve+ee mpeeoca , 1peda noeecunace, |a| u , ecex e |ovna+uu (+a 10 n,+|moe). 3ce amo coeopum o mov,
vmo eco +ecamue+a+ ae|mue+ocme +e cdenana eco e(e onee nodeepe++ev cmpeccopav, npocmo 1ped +avan c onee eeco|ou
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
omvem|u. mo |acaemc+ 5epma, mo eco +ecamue+a+ ae|mue+ocme o|asanace a|mopov ,+seuvocmu. Xom+ c cavoco +avana ,
+eco ,poee+e mpeeo+ocmu en eeae, vev , ocmane+ex, +o |ocda +a +eco +avan daeume occ, mo eco mpeeo+ocme eospocna do
npedena. ns-sa ceoeu +ecamue+ou ae|mue+ocmu 5epm cman ,+seuv neped cmpeccopavu, u eco ,poee+e mpeeocu eepoc +a 25
n,+|moe, mo ecme ,eenuvunc+ e 2,5 pasa no cpae+e+us co cped+uvu no|asamen+vu.
8pesra 6.3. Voqene ronexu u noqene yssunoctu (rpunepM).

Voqene ronexu orasana oneaoe snuuue ua uccneqosauue ctpecca. Ecnu sMsneuua ua ocuose canoot+eta csse
neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu ocuetc ue ux uctuuuou ssaunocssek, a sneaatenectson ueratusuou
aertusuoctu, to sosuuraet conueuue otuocuteneuo sMsoqos rpeqMqyaux uccneqosauuu (cn., uarpunep, Burke, Brief
and George, 1993). Tara noqene ctasut roq conueuue asosyk noqene rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, s rotopou
c+utaetc, +to ctpeccopM ua paote rpu+uuuo cssauM c yposuen uarpeuu s rpoeccuouaneuou cepe. la rparture,
ecnu oneauuctso nkqeu roxoe ua 1peqa, orucauuoro so spesre 6.3, to ato osua+aet, +to ucrnk+euue unu ocnaneuue
ctpeccopos ua paote nuae uesua+uteneuo yneueaut uarpeuue taroro +enosera. Ecnu otrasatec ot tou rocMnru, +to
ctpeccopM ua paote sMsMsakt uarpeuue, to torqa sosuuraet conueuue s enecoopasuoctu sneaatenects ro
cuueuuk ctpecca ua pao+en necte. |sneueuue orpyakaeu cpeqM ua paote ue rpuuecet ronesM, ecnu sce usnepeuu
ctpeccopos ua paote u uarpeuuu scero nuae cnyat aupnou qauuMx o ueratusuou aertusuoctu. Tonero ecnu
usneutc oayaeuu +enosera u can +enoser, to nouo yqet ytsepqate, +to canoot+et o uactpoeuuu u oayaeuux
uneet rpartu+ecryk euuocte.
8 ronesy atou noqenu ueratusuou aertusuoctu rosopt qsa ocuosuMx ucto+uura. epsMu rorqa s pasuoe spen u s
pasuMx cutyaux rocneqosateneuo usnepetc oqua u ta e xapartepuctura. larpunep, yctauosru ro otuoaeuuk r
paote y +enosera ue neuktc qae rpu cepeesuMx repeneuax s rapeepe (Staw, Bell and Clausen, 1986), atu yctauosru
octaktc ueusneuuMnu u rpu rpyruMx repeneuax s usuu (Costa, McCrae and Zonderman, 1987). Kocta, Varrpa u 8ou-
qepnau (1987) rposenu qestunetuee nourutkquoe uccneqosauue u ouapyunu, +to qucrosuuouuMe xapartepucturu
ny+ae rpeqcrasMsanu, yqet nu +enoser rcuxu+ecru narorony+eu, s to spen rar sauMe repeneuM s usuu (uarpunep:
usneueuu s ceneuuon ctatyce, cneua paotM u necta utenectsa) ue rossonnu cqenate to+uMu rporuos. 8 to spen
rar uuqusuqyaneuMe xapartepucturu qasanu sosnouocte ocuute 25% pasnu+uu s yposue rcuxu+ecroro narorony+u,
octotenectsa usuu rossonnu ocuute scero 4-6% pasnu+uu. 3tu pesynetatM sactasnkt rpeqronoute, +to
usneueuu rcuxuru +enosera nouo ocuute rarou-to ctauneuou ero +eptou, a ue repeneuuMnu us orpyakaeu
cpeqM.
8topou ucto+uur cseqeuuu s ronesy noqenu ronexu qauuMe uccneqosauuu, s rotopMx usy+aetc ssaunocsse neqy
ueratusuou aertusuoctek u yctou+usMnu rorasatennu usu+ecroro sqopose. 0tne+aetc, +to rone cropo NA urpaet
ctone cyaectseuuyk pone s socrputuu +enoseron ce rar uaxoqaeroc s ctpeccoson coctouuu, to N A qonua Mte
cssaua u c usuonoru+ecrunu uuquratopanu uarpeuu. 0quaro uccneqosauu s enon ue roqtsepqunu atux sMsoqos
(cn., uarpunep, Costa, McCrae and Zonderman, 1987; Watson and Pennebaker, 1989). /otcou u euueeurep (1989),
uarpunep, ouapyunu, +to xot ueratusua aertusuocte unena sua+unMe cssu c pasnu+uMnu sMsnenMnu ro
canoot+etan anoanu ua sqoposee, ue sMsneuo csseu NA uu c usuonoru+ecrunu rapanetpanu (uarpunep:
uoxunu+ecrue rorasatenu rposu u rposuoe qasneuue), uu c rorasatennu roseqeuu (uarpunep: roqqepauue quetM u
usu+ecrou opnM, +ucno susutos r spa+y). Kar rorasan oaupuMu osop nutepatypM, cqenauuMu /otcouon u euue-
eurepon, ueratusua aertusuocte ue Mna cssaua uu c rorasatennu sqopose cepqa, uu c artopanu pucra
cepqe+uMx saonesauuu, uu co cneptuoctek ot cepqe+uMx saonesauuu, uu c rapquoratonorueu. 8 utore nouo sarnk-
+ute, +to suauue rorasateneu NA ue rossonet rporuosuposate uu coctouue sqopose ua rarou-nuo qnuteneuMu
repuoq, uu roseqeu+ecrue rposneuu, uarpasneuuMe ua roqqepauue sqopose.
8 uactoaee spen s nutepatype sctpe+aktc qsa nueuu s otuoaeuuu noqenu ronexu. epsoe tpartyet cneaeuue
repeneuuMx ctpeccopa u uarpeuu rar rponeny usnepeuu. 8topoe otuocut pone NA rar ronexu sa c+et
yctauoso+uoro snuuu NA ua to, +to nkqu cooaakt s csoux canoot+etax o ctpeccopax u uarpeuux. 8 orucauux
repsoro tura yrasMsaetc, +to usnepeuue rorasateneu ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu roqsepeuo snuuuk NA, rocronery
coqepauue aran oeuru reperpMsaet qpyr qpyra. Tar, otqeneuMe ryurtM uerotopMx aran ueratusuou aertusuoctu,
uarpunep aranM ueupotusna Auseura (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1976), cosraqanu c ryurtanu aran, oeuusakaux oaee
rcuxu+ecroe narorony+ue u anoM ua coctouue sqopose (Payne, 1988). Tot e apryneut sMcrasMsanc u s
otuoaeuuu oaerpuutMx usnepeuuu ctpeccosMx coMtuu usuu, tarux rar arana coMtuu usuu u arana roscequesuMx
rpertctsuu (cn., uarpunep, Brett et al., 1990) Ten ue neuee cosraqeuue coqepauu aran ue ronoraet aqersatuo
ocuute pone ueratusuou aertusuoctu rar ronexu. larpunep, qae rorqa cosraqakaue ryurtM ucrnk+unu us
aran ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu, csse c ueratusuou aertusuoctek sce pasuo coxpauunace (Burke, Brief, George, 1993).
8 orucauuu stoporo tura yrasMsaetc, +to ueratusua aertusuocte snuet ua ot+etM nkqeu o ctpeccopax u uarp-
euuu. C+utaetc, +to rocronery nkqu c ueratusuou aertusuoctek socrpuuunakt u oeuusakt ce u orpyeuue
ueratusuo, to u ux ot+etM o ctpeccopax u uarpeuux yqyt otpaate aty yctauosry. 6onee toro, nkqu c sMcorou
ctereuek ueratusuou aertusuoctu cooaakt o repeusauuu onee cuneuoro quctpecca, uesasucuno ot cutyauu; ux
canoot+etM yqyt rpeqsstMnu qae s otcytctsue suMx ctpeccopos (cn., uarpunep, Stone and Costa, 1990).
Taroe orucauue noqenu ronexu +aae scero sctpe+aetc s uccneqosauux. 3ty noqene ueratusuou aertusuoctu
roqtsepqaet ussectua paota, rposeqeuua 6puon u ronneranu (Brief et al., 1988). 8 aton uccneqosauuu y 497
neueqepos u creuanuctos routponuposanoce snuuue ueratusuou aertusuoctu ua ctpeccopM u uarpeuu rar
cssauuMe, tar u ue cssauuMe c paotou (conatu+ecrue anoM, ueratusuMe repeusauu ua paote,
yqosnetsopeuuocte paotou u usuek). 3tot routpone rpusen r raqeuuk sua+euuu 12 us 15 repsoua+aneuo sua+unMx
roppenuu uue yposu sua+unoctu. 8 cpequen roppenu yneueaunace ua 0,22. AstopM rpuxoqt r sMsoqy, +to:
3 uccnedoea+uu npoeccuo+ane+oco cmpecca +enes+ +e ,vumeeame enu++ue +ecamue+ou ae|mue+ocmu. Ve +e enpaee
,meepdame, vmo npocmee |oppen+(uu ved, no|asamen+vu paoveco cmpecca u paoveu +acp,s|u, onpeden+evee no da++ev
cavoomvemoe, ,d,m docmamov+o u+opvamue+evu (c. 197).

3tu qauuMe roqtsepqaktc u euuon (Payne, 1988). oatony nM cosetyen s uay+uMx paotax routponuposate
ueratusuyk aertusuocte scerqa, rorqa ucronesyktc canoot+etM ucrMtyenMx.
Ten ue neuee, cana noqene ueratusuou aertusuoctu rar ronexu ocrapusanace ro pqy rpu+uu. 8 +actuoctu Lopoyr,
lauctep u 1orc (Schaubroek, Ganster and Fox, 1992) ytsepqakt, +to rpeqespeneuuo qenate sMsoq o otcytctsuu cssu
neqy ueratusuou aertusuoctek u usu+ecrun sqoposeen. pusoqtc qauuMe o ton, +to s uerotopMx uay+uMx
paotax ouapyusaetc ssaunocsse neqy ueratusuou aerusuoctek u sqoposeen. 3to racaetc, uarpunep, yur-
uouuposauu unnyuuou cuctenM (coqepauue unnyuornoynuuos s cnkue) u cuctonu+ecroro rposuoro qasneuu.
/+euMe otnetunu, +to s nutepatype sctpe+aetc qoctato+uo uecootsetctsuu, roatony tpyquo rosopute o atuonoru+e-
crou ponu ueratusuou aertusuoctu s otuoaeuuu coctouu sqopose ua rpoteuuu qnuteneuoro cpora. Kpone toro,
sMsMsakt conueuu u rpotusope+usMe pesynetatM, rony+euuMe s pqe uay+uMx paot, rotopMe, cneqy cosety 6pua u
ronner, rMtaktc sM+neuute NA us cssu ctpeccop uarpeuue. Tar, uarpunep, ere u Crertop (Jex and Spector,
1996) u Voun (Moyle, 1995b) sMcuunu, +to rorqa routponuposanace ueratusua aertusuocte, uneno necto
orpauu+euuoe cuueuue roppenuu. Crertop u qpyrue (Spector et al., 2000) ocyqakt sorpoc o NA rar artope, suo-
caen rytauuy so ssaunocssu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu. AstopM ronarakt, +to ocyaectsn routpone NA s
paotax, rocsaeuuMx ssaunocssn ctpeccop uarpeuue, uccneqosatenu cropee yqankt rpu+uuy pasuornacuu, +en
usy+akt, rarun uneuuo opason NA orasMsaet sosqeuctsue ua atu ssaunocssu. Crertop c coastopanu rpeqnarakt pq
anetepuatusuMx nexauusnos, s ton +ucne u noqene yssunoctu (oua orucMsaetc uue).
aq, |pes u Topesuu (Judge, Erez and Thoresen, 2000) ocrapusakt tesuc o ton, +to NA opnupyet y +enosera
rpeqsstoe otuoaeuue r qeuctsuteneuoctu u qpyrun nkqn. 3tu astopM otne+akt uanu+ue s uactoaee spen qauuMx o
ton, +to nkqu c ueratusuou aertusuoctek crnouuM cropee Mte onee (a ue neuee) to+uMnu rpu oeure orpyakaero
(Alloy and Abramson, 1979); ue xsataet e un yctauosru ua rosutusuoe otuoaeuue r cee, csouctseuuoe uopnaneuMn
nkqn (cn., uarpunep, Taylor and Brown, 1988; Weinstein, 1980). | rora eae ueqoctato+uo usy+euo sosqeuctsue tarux
rosutusuMx yctauosor ua ssaunocsse ctpeccopos u uarpeuuoro coctouu. peqronaraetc, +to oqua us opn
rosutusuMx yctauosor, canoonau, s qeuctsuteneuoctu rpusoqut r tony, +to nkqu s ot+etax cooaakt, yqto ucrMtM-
sakt neueae uarpeuu u y uux neueae rponen co sqoposeen. /+euMe c+utakt, +to ata repeneuua noet unete ue
neueaee sua+euue,
+en ueratusuMu aert. Tar +to sosnouo, repeneuuMe uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu noryt rpusectu cropee r ueqooeure,
+en r repeoeure rpo+uoctu ssaunocsseu ctpeccop uarpeuue. lassauuMe astopM (Judge, Erez and Thoresen, 2000;
Spector et al., 2000) equuoqyauo otne+akt, +to uyuo ue rpocto routponuposate ueratusuyk aertusuocte rar
suocayk ronexu repeneuuyk, a usy+ate ee cany ro cee.
Modens yaeuvocmu
3ta noqene NA rar noqepatopa rpeqronaraet atuonoru+ecryk pone ueratusuou aertusuoctu, coctoayk s usneueuuu
cunM ssaunocssu ctpeccop uarpeuue. la ocuosauuu atou noqenu qenaetc rporuos o ton, +to s ctpeccoreuuMx
ycnosux nkqu c sMcorou ueratusuou aertusuoctek ucrMtMsakt onee sMpaeuuoe uarpeuue, +en nkqu co cnaou
ueratusuou aertusuoctek. To ecte c+utaetc, +to y nkqeu c oneaou ueratusuou aertusuoctek rosMaeua peartu-
suocte, u ouu cuneuee pearupykt ua ctpeccopM s orpyakaeu cpeqe (cn.,uarpunep, McCraeand Costa, 1991; Deary etal,
1996). oatony nM noen cqenate sMsoq, +to s cutyauu, rorqa r +enosery rpeqsnktc rosMaeuuMe tpeosauu,
rcuxonoru+ecrue, roseqeu+ecrue u usuonoru+ecrue rorasatenu y nkqeu c cuneuou unu cnaou ueratusuou
aertusuoctek yqyt otnu+atec
Kar c+utakt /otcou u Knapr (Watson and Clark, 1984), tara rosMaeuua peartusuocte nkqeu c cuneuou NA sronue
cootsetctsyet orpeqeneuuk ueratusuou aertusuoctu. 0quaro tara peartusuocte ue Mna aqersatuo usy+eua. Ten ue
neuee c+utaetc, +to nu+uoctua tpesouocte yrasMsaet ua ueratusuyk aertusuocte, tar +to ro orpeqeneuuk
rosMaeuua peartusuocte noet c+utatec rnasuMn rpusuaron tpesouoctu rar +eptM (cn., uarpunep, Spielberger,
1983). oatony sronue noru+uo, +to rosMaeuua peartusuocte snetc eae u xapartepucturou nkqeu c sMcorun
yposuen NA.
/qusuteneuo, +to noqene yssunoctu tar nano usy+eua, s ocoeuuoctu ecnu y+ecte, uacronero oneaoe sua+euue uneet
ata noqene. 0ua rporuosupyet orpeqeneuue tex nkqeu, rotopMe coctasnkt rpyrry pucra s otuoaeuuu sosqeuctsu
rpoeccuouaneuMx u usueuuMx ctpeccopos. Tar, uarpunep, s cootsetctsuu c noqenek noqepatopuoro sosqeuctsu,
rorqa sospactakt tpeosauu ua pao+en necte, nkqu c cuneuou ueratusuou aertusuoctek repsMnu rpost
cunrtonM uarpeuu. pu aton ueratusua aertusuocte cssaua c roseqeu+ecrunu uuquratopanu uarpeuu:
nkqu c sMcorou NA qenouctpupykt cuueuue pesynetatos paotM, rosMaeuue rorasateneu aceuteusna u tery+ectu
raqpos. Tarun opason, noqene yssunoctu rpeqctasnet +enosera c sMcorou ueratusuou aertusuoctek rar onee
ueyqouoro u qoporoctoaero paotuura. oatony nouo cqenate rporuos, rotopMu uneet oneaoe rpartu+ecroe
sua+euue. 8neaatenectsa, uarpasneuuMe ua oner+euue sosqeuctsu ctpeccopos ua pao+en necte u yneueaeuue ux
ronu+ectsa, qonuM aertusuo cuuate uarpeuue y nkqeu c sMcorou ueratusuou aertusuoctek.
8 tex uenuoro+ucneuuMx uccneqosauux, s rotopMx tectuposanuce oe noqenu noqene yssunoctu u noqene ronexu,
oe ouu rony+unu roqtsepqeuue (uarpunep, ecte uccneqosauu Morrison, Dunne and Fitzgerald and Gloghan, 1992; Marco
and Suls, 1993). Ten ue neuee uyuo otnetute, +to pesynetatM uccneqosauuu, s rotopMx rposepnuce aertM
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ssaunoqeuctsu, ue rossonkt cqenate orou+ateneuMx sMsoqos. 8o-repsMx, rorqa rcuxonoru rony+unu qauuMe o
aertax ssaunoqeuctsu, to atu aertM orasanuce uecyaectseuuMnu u ocunu nuae ueoneayk +acte pasnu+uu
usnepenMx uarpeuuu (cn., uarpunep, Cassar and Tattersall, 1998). 8o-stopMx, rar ye yrasMsanoce s rpeqMqyaen
uccneqosauuu, aertM ssaunoqeuctsu ue tonero nanM, ouu eae rposnktc uerocneqosateneuo. NA sMctyraet rar
noqepatop tonero rpu orpeqeneuuoro tura ssaunocssx ctpeccop uarpeuue. Tarou sMsoq nM noen cqenate,
ocuosMsace ua oaupuou nutepatype ro rpoeccuouaneuony ctpeccy. Tar, uarpunep, s nourutkquon uccneqosauuu
(Parkes, 1990), rposoqusaenc s te+euue roqa, ouapyunoce, +to pasnu+uMe noqenu ueratusuou aertusuoctu
cootsetctsosanu pasnu+uMn e suqan cssu neqy pao+unu ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu. aprue rorasana, +to
noqepatopua noqene ny+ae scero rpocuna ssaunocsse neqy tpeosauunu ua paote u oayaeuuen rcuxu+ecroro
narorony+u, a noqene ronexu neqy couaneuou roqqeprou u narorony+uen.
PesynetatM rocnequeu uay+uou paotM Voun (Moyle, 1995b) eae oneae ycnoukt cutyauk. /rasMsaetc, +to
uccneqosauux_uyuo eae y+ecte, raros xapartep ucrMtMsaenoro +enoseron uarpeuu. Kar otne+anoce s atou
paote, ueratusua aertusuocte snetc noqepatopon ssaunocssu neqy ctpeccopanu ua paote u oaun
rcuxonoru+ecrun narorony+uen, uo NA ue perynupyet csse tex e canMx ctpeccopos u yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou.
pyrunu cnosanu, nouo cqenate sMsoq, +to pasnu+uMe uarpeuuMe coctouu nouo rporuosuposate rpu ronoau
pasnu+uMx noqeneu ueratusuou aertusuoetu.
pyeue nodxodm e uccnedoeanuu neeamueno aekmuenocmu
|snoeuuMe sMae pesynetatM sMsnkt ueoquosua+uocte rouunauu ponu NA pasnu+uMnu uccneqosatennu. 8 tex
uenuoro+ucneuuMx uccneqosauux, s rotopMx usy+anace roteuuaneua pone ueratusuou aertusuoctu, pesynetatM
orasanuce uerocneqosateneuM; s pasuMx noqenx ueratusuou aertusuoctu qenaktc pasnu+uMe rporuosM o
ssaunocssu neqy ctpeccopon u uarpeuuen. Cutyau eae oneae ycnouetc, ecnu y+ecte qpyrue sosnouMe
noqenu ssaunocssu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuuMn coctouuen. Tar, uarpunep, Crertop u qpyrue (Spector et al,
2000), rnasuMn opason, paccnatpusakt routerct rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu u rpeqnarakt uecronero qpyrux
noqeneu. 0quaro atu nexauusnM u noqenu rora nano usy+euM.
Vexauusn otopa. cuxonoru qenakt sMsoq o ton, +to nkqu c ueratusuMn aerton +aae roraqakt ua ctpeccosyk
paoty (rurotesa sMupaenou uesaauaeuuoctu).
Vexauusn cosqauu ctpeccopa. kqu c cuneuou ueratusuou aertusuoctek noryt s qeuctsuteneuoctu cosqasate
oneae ctpeccopos. Tar, uarpunep, ouu +aae sctyrakt s rounurtM, s pesynetate +ero s cuny noryt sctyrate
qoronuuteneuMe oertusuMe ctpeccopM, u qeno ue orpauu+usaetc rpocto rpeqsstMn socrputuen. 3to eae oqua
opna rurotesM sMupaenou uesaauaeuuoctu. Ctpeccop orasMsaetc nequatopon ssaunocssu neqy ueratusuou
aertusuoctek u uarpeuuMn coctouuen.
Vexauusn uactpoeuu. lactpoeuue, a ue crnouuocte r ueratusuou aertusuoctu, snuet ua ssaunocsse neqy
ctpeccopon u uarpeuuen, tar rar s sasucunoctu ot uactpoeuu +enoser ro-pasuony cooaaet o uanu+uu uarpeuu,
ctpeccopax u ueratusuou aertusuoctu.
Vexauusn rpu+uuuoctu. Korqa +enoser ctanrusaetc c nuoro+ucneuuMnu ctpeccopanu ua paote, to ato s
qeuctsuteneuoctu seqet r pocty ueratusuou aertusuoctu (s qauuon cny+ae ueratusua aertusuocte sMctyraet
rocpequuron s otuoaeuux neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuuen).
8ce atu qoctato+uo rpasqoroqouMe nexauusnM sronue noryt ocuute ssaunocsse neqy ueratusuou
aertusuoctek, ctpeccopanu u uarpeuuen, oquaro rotpeyktc uosMe uccneqosauu, +toM route pone
ueratusuou aertusuoctu u qpyrux nu+uoctuMx repeneuuMx s rpoecce ctpecca. Kpone toro, rpeqctout usy+ute
rpartu+ecroe sua+euue atux noqeneu u ux ronesy qn rposeqeuu sneaatenects. Tar, uarpunep, +acto sMcrasMsaktc
nueuu s saauty roruutusuMx roseqeu-
+ecrux ctpateruu, passusakaux rosutusuoe nManeuue. 3tu ctpateruu +acto srnk+aktc s tpeuuuru ro opee co
ctpeccon, oquaro uan eae rpeqctout sMcuute, ro+eny atu nexauusnM noryt qasate ronouteneuMu pesynetat. Voet
Mte, atu ctpateruu rpocto ronorakt +enosery sMpaotate rosutusuMu ssrnq ua usue, a ue usneukt ero pearuu ua
ctpecc. |nu noet Mte, tarue ctpateruu qeuctsuteneuo snukt ua pearuu ua ctpecc +epes ye orucauuMe uanu
nexauusnM?
3aknueue
8 atou rnase rpeqctasneuo oaerpusuauuoe ronoeuue o ton, +to nkqu ro-pasuony pearupykt ua ctpeccopM. 0quaro
rcuxonoru eae tonero ua+uuakt pacrytMsate crpMtyk ssaunocsse neqy ctpeccopanu u coctouuen +enosera. Eae
rpeqctout sMcuute, rar uuqusuqyaneuMe otnu+u snukt ua socrputue ctpeccopos u uarpeuu, ua usu+ecroe
sqoposee u ssaunocsse neqy atunu repeneuuMnu. pu aton nM noen cqenate uecronero to+uMx sMsoqos o ton,
raroe sua+euue unekt uuqusuqyaneuMe otnu+u. 8 repsMx uay+uMx paotax o ctpecce rpeqronaranoce, +to tur A
rnasuMu artop rporuosa cepqe+uo-cocyquctMx saonesauuu. 8rocneqctsuu atu paotM roqseprnuce rputure. leqasuue
paotM ro spaqeuoctu rorasanu, +to oua uerocpeqctseuuo cssaua c cepqe+uo-cocyquctMnu saonesauunu. Ten ue
neuee ecte nano qauuMx o snuuuu atux repeneuuMx ua ssaunocsse neqy ctpeccopon u uarpeuuen.
|ccneqosatenu, usy+akaue snuuue uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu ua ssaunocsse ctpeccop uarpeuue, +aae cocpeqo-
to+usakt csoe suunauue ua ponu ueratusuoro aerta. 8qece nM suqenu, +to xot ueratusua aertusuocte ora-
sMsaet snuuue so nuorux cutyaux, ee srnaq qanero ue oquosua+eu, u rcuxonoran eae rpeqctout usy+ute nuoectso
noqeneu.
cuxonoran tare rpeqctout srnk+ute s uccneqosauu nuoro nu+uoctuMx repeneuuMx. Kar nM ye suqenu, aq, |pus
u Topusuu (Judge, Erez and Thoresen, 2000) cqenanu sMsoq o ton, +to o+eue saua crnouuocte +enosera r rosutusuony
ssrnqy ua usue. Vunnep u ronneru (Miller et al., 1996) tare cosetykt s yqyaen usy+ute oneaoe ronu+ectso
repeneuuMx u qetaneuee uccneqosate nu+uoctuMe repeneuuMe us oneaou rtepru. Vuorue us rponen u sorpocos,
cssauuMx c ueratusuou aertusuoctek, racaktc u qpyrux nu+uoctuMx repeneuuMx. n ux peaeuu rcuxonoran
rpeqctout cosqate u uccneqosate uosMe noqenu.

|nasa 7
peoqoneue cpecca
8 atou rnase rpeqctasneuM teopetu+ecrue roqxoqM r rponene rpeoqoneuu ctpecca. 8qece usnaraktc pasnu+uMe
qucrosuuouuMe roqxoqM (pasqenkaue roqasnkauu u ceucutusupykauu, a tare nouutopuurosMu u nautepuMu
ctunu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon), u orucMsaetc otuoaeuue neqy +eptanu nu+uoctu u cosnaqauuen co ctpeccon. 3tu
roqxoqM rpotusoroctasnktc tpausaruouaneuony roqxoqy asapyca, rotopMu paccnatpusaet ctpecc rar quuanu+e-
cruu rpoecc, rocpeqctson rotoporo uuqusuq pearupyet ua pasnu+uMe cutyauu. 6yqet paccnotpeuo cootuoaeuue neqy
cutyauouuMn u quc-rosuuouuMn roqxoqanu, u ux csse co sqoposeen u qpyrunu xapartepucturanu. laroue, yqyt
rpeqctasneuM eae uerotopMe anetepuatusuMe roqxoqM r cosnaqauuk co ctpeccon.
+ucno ruur, uarucauuMx r uactoaeny speneuu ua teny rpeoqoneuu ctpecca, orponuo. 8uaronctso c yuusepcutetcrou
unuoterou qaet rpeqctasneuue o pasuoopasuu usueuuMx octotenects, s rotopMx uan rpuxoqutc rarun-to
opason crpasntec co ctpeccon. VM noen uautu ruuru, rpeqnarakaue +utatenk peroneuqauu ro rosoqy toro, rar
oaatec co ctapekaunu poqutennu, rar sectu ce s cny+ae saonesauu paron unu qpyrunu xpouu+ecrunu
onesunu, rar ny+ae opaaatec c rpyMn occon u rar crpasntec c coctouuen ctpecca so spen tpaucroptuMx
reperpysor s +acM rur. Ecnu saau rponenM ue otuoctc uu r oquou us atux rateropuu, sM noete rono+e cee ryten
cosnaqauu c uccneqosauunu (Calnan, 1984). Kopo+e rosop, sre+atneuue taroso, +to rponenan, ropoqakaun
ctpecc u ueoxoqunocte ucrate crocoM cosnaqauu c uun, uet +ucna.
8 uccneqosauux ctpecca rponena cosnaqauu (coping) snetc eutpaneuou, ocoeuuo qn tpausaruouaneuoro
roqxoqa asypyca, +to yqet ocyqatec qaneae s atou rnase. apanneneuo uccneqosauun canoro ctpecca ua
rpoteuuu rocnequux 30 net sce oneaee suunauue yqennoce sorpocan cosnaqauu c uun. 6Mno rposeqeuo oneaoe
+ucno uccneqosauuu atou rponenM rpuneuuteneuo r pasnu+uMn saonesauun, usueuuMn coMtun u xpouu+ecrun
ctpeccan. 0quaro sorperu nuoectsy rposeqeuuMx uccneqosauuu, nM sce eae nano suaen o ton, rar qauuMu
rourpetuMu uuqusuq ny+ae scero nor M crpasutec c coctouuen ctpecca s tou unu uuou rourpetuou cutyauu, u nM
eae nano suaen o teparestu+ecrux sneaatenectsax, unekaux peaneuMu rosutusuMu aert (Costa, Somerfield and
McRae, 1996). leoxoquno tare otnetute, +to uccneqosauu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon orycuposanuce ro+tu
ucrnk+uteneuo ua ton, rar nM pearupyen ua te unu uuMe ueratusuMe sosqeuctsu unu tpyquMe cutyauu (Pierce, Sarason
and Sarason, 1996; Newton, 1989). +acto Msaet tar, +to, autuurupy coMtu, nM noen useate rarux-to rponen,
uo nM nano suaen o ton, ro+eny u rar uerotopMe nkqu crocouM autuuruposate tpyquoctu u ten canMn crpasutec
co ctpeccosMn coctouuen, rpeqotspaaa cano ctpeccosoe sosqeuctsue. TarosM sorpocM, r paccnotpeuuk rotopMx nM
sepuenc s atou rnase rocne toro, rar ocyqun uctopuk u cospeneuuMe teuqeuuu s uccneqosauux cosnaqauu co
ctpeccon, srnk+a roqxoqM c to+ru speuu +ept nu+uoctu u crocoos roruura, ucronesyenMx nkqenu s pasnu+uMx
cutyaux.

Pauue noqxoqs k ccneqosau cosnaqau co cpeccou
|ctoru cospeneuuMx uccneqosauuu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon nouo ouapyute s paotax, orynurosauuMx s roue XIX
ctonetu rpeqctasutennu rcuxoauanutu+ecroro uarpasneuu, u rpeqe scero s tpyqax canoro 3. 1peuqa. 6oneaa
+acte paot 1peuqa corycuposaua ua crocoax, c ronoaek rotopMx nM crpasnenc c uerputuMnu +ysctsanu u
anounu, nuo roqasn ux (tarun opason, +to repectaen ux ocosuasate), nuo ucronesy qpyrue saautuMe
nexauusnM. VexauusnM rcuxonoru+ecrou saautM srnk+akt: pauouanusauk, cynunauk (rocpeqctson rotopou
uerpuennenMe royqeuu noryt Mte uarpasneuM ua couaneuo oqopenMe enu) u rpoeruk (uarpunep,
rpurucMsauue arpeccusuMx unrynecos qpyrony +enosery) (Brown, 1964). o+e 1peuqa, Auua 1peuq, sss ua soopyeuue
u passusa uqeu ota, rpuana r cneqykaun sarnk+euun. / nkqeu noryt opnuposatec rpeqro+utaenMe saautuMe
nexauusnM unu rpeqro+utaenMe ctunu saautM (Freud, 1946) u, qanee, orpeqeneuuMe turM saautM noryt Mte cssauM
c tenu unu uuMnu creuu+ecrunu opnanu rcuxoratonoruu (Parker and Endler, 1996). larpunep, A. 1peuq
rpeqronouna, +to paota nexauusna otpuauu noet Mte cssaua c peqosMnu roctpoeuunu. Xot ato rocnequee
rpeqronoeuue ue rony+uno roqtsepqeuu, nuorue us saautuMx nexauusnos, orucauuMx rcuxoauanuturanu, uaanu
csoe otpaeuue s cospeneuuMx rpeqctasneuux o cosnaqauuu co ctpeccon.
Tepnuu cosnaqauue co ctpeccon, unu roruur, ctanu ucronesosate qn orucauu uerotopMx nexauusnos
rcuxonoru+ecrou saautM nuae c 1960-x roqos (Parker and Endler, 1996), u roctereuuo nutepatypa ro qauuou
rponenature ctana rpeqctasnte ye onee unu neuee +etro o+ep+euuyk onacte uccneqosauuu. 0quaro qo
uactoaero speneuu cyaectsyet ueorpeqeneuuocte s otuoaeuuu to+uoro pasrpauu+euu routuu cosnaqauue co
ctpeccon u rcuxonoru+ecra saauta.
1peuqoscrue uqeu orasanu snuuue ua uerotopMe rocneqykaue roqxoqM r cosnaqauuk co ctpeccon, uaaeqaue
otpaeuue, uarpunep, s paotax, sMronueuuMx s 1960-70-x roqax u rocsaeuuMx otuoaeuuk nkqeu r rpunuakaeuc
u ueotspatunou cneptu, coctseuuou unu cneptu qpyrux nkqeu (uarpunep, Kubler-Ross, 1970; Parkes, 1972). 3nusaet
Kknep-Pocc yctauosuna, +to nkqu, orasasaueec repeq peaneuou yrposou cneptu, rpoxoqt pq ctaquu, rotopMe
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
xapartepusyktc opnanu cosnaqauu, uaronuuakaunu paoty saautuMx nexauusnos. la cneuy ua+aneuou ctaquu
otpuauu rpuxoqut stopa ctaqu ctaqu ruesa, ouqM, ueroqosauu. 8cneq sa stopou uactyraet tpete ctaqu
ctaqu topra unu cqenru. larpunep, ynupakauu +enoser noet rMtatec sarnk+ute cornaaeuue, cqenry nuo c
nequuucrun repcouanon, nuo e rMtaetc qorosoputec c 6oron. 8 roue rouos +enoser orasMsaetc ue s
coctouuu otpuate peaneuocte, u torqa uactyraet +etsepta ctaqu, rotopa xapartepusyetc qerpeccueu u +ysctson
rotepu. laroue, ecnu +enoser cnor rpeoqonete +etseptyk ctaquk, sa ueu cneqyet ctaqu rpuutu u cnupeuu. Voqene
apreca srnk+aet roxoue ctaquu, xot oua sMseqeua ua ocuose uutepsek c raueutanu. 0quaro roqxoq c to+ru speuu
ctaquu ueoquorpatuo roqsepranc rputure. larpunep, Kopp (1993) ytsepqan, +to u pauuue uccneqosauu ue roq-
tsepqunu ctaquaneuyk noqene, u sa rocneqykaue 20 net ue Mno rony+euo csuqetenects, qorasMsakaux sanuquocte u
uaqeuocte atou noqenu. 0u ronaraet, +to ue cyaectsyet ocuosauuu c+utate, yqto uneetc tonero rte crocoos
cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, unu +to s rpoecce rpeoqoneuu opnupyktc atu ctaquu. 8orperu atou rputure roqouMe
noqenu +acto ucronesyktc s nutepatype qn roucynetautos u nkqeu, sauunakauxc orasauuen ronoau qpyrun nkqn.
larpotus, s rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatype, rocsaeuuou rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca, roqxoqy c to+ru speuu ctaquu yqenetc
nano suunauu. 1artu+ecru, nuorue rcuxonoru r rcuxoauanutu+ecrun uqen otuoctc pesro rputu+ecru u otseprakt
nkyk csse c atun teopetu+ecrun roqxoqon, c+uta ero s rpuuure ueqoctyruMn rposepre ctporo uay+uMnu netoqanu
(uarpunep, Eysenck, 1990). Ten ue neuee, snuuue rcuxoauanutu+ecrux uqeu Mno ctone cuneuMn, +to otpaeuue tarux
roqxoqos ueuseuo oayaaetc s cospeneuuMx rcuxonoru+ecrux teopux.
8 rcuxonoruu qonuuuposanu s ocuosuon qsa rnasuMx roqxoqa, rotopMe ocyqaktc uue. epsMu us uux, tar
uasMsaenMu qucrosuuouuMu roqxoq, uaeneu ua roucru otseta ua sorpoc o ton, cyaectsykt nu ocoMe ctunu
rpeoqoneuu ctpecca, unu qucrosuuu, rossonkaue +enosery ny+ae crpasntec c nkMnu tpyquMnu cutyaunu.
8topou, tar uasMsaenMu cutyauouuMu roqxoq, roueutpupyetc ua rpoeccax rpeoqoneuu ctpecca u usy+euuu
creuu+ecrux ctpateruu, rotopMe noryt Mte ronesuMnu s rourpetuMx cutyaux.

cnoiouus noqxoq k npeoqoneu cpecca
Ctopouuuru qucrosuuouuoro roqxoqa cocpeqoto+usakt csoe suunauue ua yctou+usMx uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuoctx
rpeoqoneuu ctpecca. Knk+esou qn atoro roqxoqa sorpoc coctout s ton, +toM sMsute ctereue aertusuoctu
orpeqeneuuMx qucrosuuouuMx teuqeuuu, oM+uo oosua+aenMx rar ctunu cosnaqauu (coping styles), s rnaue toro,
uacronero ycreauo ouu oecre+usakt rosutusuMe pesynetatM, tarue rar yny+aeuue sqopose u rcuxonoru+ecroe
narorony+ue.
onuuupykaeu s rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatype rourpetuou quxotonueu snetc pasnu+euue neqy tarunu rytnu
rpeoqoneuu ctpecca, rar userauue u rpunueuue r ucto+uuran ctpecca (ctpeccopan). Cyaectsyet uecronero
pasnu+uMx crocoos rouertyanusauu atoro pasnu+euu (Cohen, 1987), uo uue yqyt paccnotpeuM qsa ocoeuuo
rorynpuMx roqxoqa.
0odaenmu u cencumuaupymu cmunu npeodonenu cmpecca
outue roqasnkaero ctun cosnaqauu ot+etnuso cssauo c peuqoscrun routuen sMtecueuu (repression), oquun
us uauonee snuteneuMx acrertos teopuu 3. 1peuqa. 1peuq ronaran, +to sMtecueuue snetc saautuMn nexauusnon,
cyte rotoporo s sMtecueuuu uuqusuqon uerputuMx socronuuauuu s onacte eccosuateneuoro tarun opason, +to
ouu ctauostc ueqoctyruMnu ocosuauuony socronuuauuk u noryt uautu sMpaeuue nuae rocseuuMn crocoon +epes
orpeqeneuuMe cunrtonM unu +eptM xapartepa (Brown, 1964). oqasnkauu ctune rpeoqoneuu ctpecca rar
uuqusuqyaneua pasnu+uteneua xapartepuctura Mn sMqeneu 6upuon (Byrne, 1961,1964). peqctasutenu roqasnkae-
ro ctun ato nkqu, qn rotopMx xapartepeu userakauu ryte cosnaqauu co ctpeccon; tarue nkqu, rar rpasuno, rpeq-
ro+utakt roqasnte s cee ueratusuMe repeusauu. Pasnu+u neqy rpeqctasutennu qauuoro tura perpeccopa-
nu (repressors) u tenu, rto rpeqro+utaet uuou ctune ceucutusepanu (sensitisers), tare sMqeneuM 6upuon (Byrne,
1961). Cornacuo 6upuy (1964), nua, rotopMx nouo otuectu r roqasnkaeny ctunk, pearupykt ua sMsMsakaue tpesory
ctunynM u ux rocneqctsu userakaun roseqeuuen (srnk+a sMtecueuue, otpuauue u pauouanusauk).
peqctasutenu e ceucutusupykaero ctun rMtaktc peqyuposate tpesory, rpunuace r sMsMsakaun ee ucto+uu-
ran unu ctpence routponuposate yrpoakaue coMtu (uarpunep, rocpeqctson uutennertyanusauu, oceccusuMx
qeuctsuu unu uass+usou oecroroeuuoctu). 0quaro s oaen tepnuu ceucutusupykauu ctune terepe ye ue ucrone-
syetc s nutepatype, orucMsakaeu qauuMu roqxoq r rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca.
8ronue routuo, +to tpyquo usnepute sMtecueuue rocpeqctson orpocuuros, xot Mn yctauosneu sMcoruu yposeue ero
roppenuu c tpesouoctek (arana roqasneuu ceucutusauu 6upua, 1961). 3to osua+aet, +to nua c uusrun
yposuen tpesouoctu, sepotuo, Mnu M rsanuuuposauM rar otuocauec r roqasnkaeny ctunk, s to spen rar s
qeuctsuteneuoctu ouu nornu rpocto ue Mte tpesouMnu! n toro +toM rpeoqonete ato satpyqueuue, 8euueprep,
Lsap u asuqcou (Weinberger, Schwartz and Davidson, 1979) paspaotanu onee cosepaeuuMu netoq usnepeuu
sMtecueuu. pu ucronesosauuu atoro netoqa ocuosauuen qn otueceuu +enosera r roqasnkaeny ctunk snetc
uusruu rorasatene tpesouoctu, uo s to e spen sMcoruu rorasatene qeeucusuoctu (defensiveness). 8 ra+ectse rora-
saten qeeucusuoctu +acto ucronesyetc nepa enateneuoctu, oeuusakaa teuqeuuk nkqeu qasate ro ryurtan
orpocuura otsetM ue ctonero to+uMe, cronero couaneuo oqopenMe (Crowne and Marlowe, 1964). n orpeqeneuu
qeeucusuoctu ucronesyktc tarue ytsepqeuu, rar, uarpunep: F ue uaxoy ocoeuuo tpyquMn unete qeno c rpyMnu
u ropnactMnu cyertanu unu F uurorqa ue Msak ueqosoneu, ecnu neu rpoct otsetute ycnyrou sa ycnyry; pecrou-
qeut qoneu sMpasute csoe cornacue c atunu ytsepqeuunu unu uecornacue, crasate sepuo unu uesepuo. Te nua,
rotopMe cornaaaktc c oneaeu +actek roqouMx ytsepqeuuu, rsanuuupyktc rar nu+uoctu qeeucusuoro (saaut-
uoro) tura. C ronoaek atoro netoqa noryt Mte uqeutuuuposauM tpu qpyrue rpyrrM nu: nkqu c uusrun yposuen
tpesouoctu (uusrue rorasatenu tpesouoctu u saautuoctu), sMcoro tpesouMe nkqu (sMcoruu rorasatene tpesouoctu
u uusruu saautuoctu) u tpesouo-saautuMe nkqu (sMcoruu rorasatene tpesouoctu u sMcoruu saautuoctu). 6Mn
paspaotau tare anetepuatusuMu roqxoq r usnepeuuk sMtecueuu, s rotopMu srnk+anuce usnepeuu quctpecca u
canoorpauu+euu (Weinberger and Schwartz, 1990). 8 uactoaee spen ucronesyktc oa netoqa usnepeuu.
8 rposeqeuuMx uccneqosauux Mnu sMsneuM cssu sMtecueuu c pqon ueratusuMx rocneqctsuu, tarux rar
rouueuuoe unnyuuoe yuruouuposauue (O'Leary, 1990); Jamner, Schwartz and Leigh, 1988; Jamner and Leigh, 1999),
yxyqaeuue coctouu oneuMx paron (Jensen, 1987) u oneuMx actnou (Mathe and Knapp, 1971). Tare Mna ycta-
uosneua csse sMtecueuu c artopanu pucra cepqe+uo-cocyquctMx saonesauuu, tarunu rar, uarpunep, artop
rosMaeuuoro yposu xonectepuua (Niaura et al, 1992).
0quaro c to+ru speuu uccneqosateneu ctpecca, oquun us uauonee uutepecuMx artopos snetc to snuuue, rotopoe
roqasnkauu ctune cosnaqauu co ctpeccon noet orasate ua sanuquocte ucronesosauu orpocuuros canoot+etos
qn usnepeuu ctpeccopos u coctouuu rcuxu+ecroro uarpeuu. cuxonoru ctpecca s ocuosuon ocuosMsaetc ua
qoryaeuuu, +to nkqu noryt onee unu neuee to+uo cooaute o csoux +ysctsax u cunrtonax. 0quaro, rar nM suqenu,
unektc csuqetenectsa, +to roqasnkauu ctune cosnaqauu cssau c ueratusuMnu rocneqctsunu, sMpaaenMnu s
usuonoru+ecrux rorasatenx u rorasatenx sqopose. 8 to e spen canoot+etM saronuktc perpeccopanu s
rosutusuou nauepe u, tarun opason, sMpaakt neueae ueratusuMx repeusauuu u neueae cunrtonos (Myers and
Vetere, 1997; Myers, 2000). Tarun opason, ata rpyrra ocneqyenMx noet rpeqctasnte cepeesuyk yrposy sanuquoctu
uccneqosauu, ocuosauuoro ua canoot+etax, racakauxc ux rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u u cunrtonos u, rar
cneqctsue, sanuquoctu nuorux uccneqosauuu ctpecca. ua roqasnkaero ctun cosnaqauu co ctpeccon noryt Mte
tare otsetctseuuM sa cyaectsosauue teuqeuuu r tony, +to csse neqy canoot+etanu o pearux ua ctpecc u
usuonoru+ecrunu rorasatennu sMpaeua secena cnao. 3tot sorpoc ocyqaetc qaneae so spesre 7.1
|cxoq us atoro Vauepc (Myers, 2000) c+utaet, +to ocuosauuMe ua canoot+etax netoquru ue snktc yqosnetsoputene-
uMn netoqon rony+euu uuopnauu ot nu qauuoro tura, rotopMe noryt coctasute orono 10-20% rorynuu. 0ua
c+utaet, +to sMxoqon us ronoeuu noet Mte ucronesosauue ue oquoro, a uecronerux netoqos copa qauuMx, u ecte
csuqetenectsa, +to uutepsek onee penesautuo qn atou rpyrrM pecrouqeutos. Tare noet Mte sauMn usy+ute
rpeqctasuteneu roqasnkaero ctun cosnaqauu co ctpeccon rar otqeneuyk rpyrry u orpeqenute ux snuuue ua
pesynetatM uccneqosauu.

poneva dn+ uccnedoeameneu cmpecca cocmoum e mov, vmo usvepe+u+v usuonocuvec|ou a|mue+ocmu, |omopee cvumasmc+
no|asamene-+evu dn+ cmpecca, vacmo +e con,mcme,sm coomeemcme,s(ue omveme o avo(uo+ane+ex cocmo++u+x. Pae+ev
opasov, cavoomveme o nepeueaevex o(,(e+u+x cmpecca voc,m +e coomeemcmeoeame usve+e+u+v usuonocuvec|ou
a|mue+ocmu. ea p+da omeemoe (pea|(uu), |a| coeop+m, voc,m eme paccocnacoea++evu. Dd+o us eosvo+ex os+c+e+uu amou
ducco(ua(uu cocmoum e mov, vmo nodaen+s(uu cmune coenada+u+ co cmpeccov o,cnoenueaem +ecnoco+ocme u+dueuda eepasume
ceou usuonocuvec|ue pea|(uu e cavoomvemax 3ma cunomesa ena nodmeepde+a e p+de uccnedoea+uu. Ta|, +anpuvep, Asendorpf u
Scherer(1983) +aanu, vmo e cmpeccoeou cum,a(uu , npedcmaeumeneu nodaen+s(eco cmun+ +ansdaemc+ oneaee ,eenuve+ue
vacmome cepd(eue+u+ u oneaa+ mpeeo+ocme no npus+a|av nu(eeou a|cnpeccuu e cpae+e+uu c ve+ee mpeeo+evu nsdevu,
od+a|o amu noeeae++ee pea|(uu +e coomeemcmeoeanu ux cavoomvemav, ompaas(uv +us|uu ,poee+e mpeeocu. lesmo+ u
|o+mpada (i992j npoeenu uccnedoea+ue, us |omopoco cned,em, vmo e deucmeumene+ocmu deno ocmoum dane|o +e ma| npocmo. D+u
omopanu dn+ paome mpu cp,nne ,vacm+u|oe: npedcmaeumeneu nodaen+s(eco cmun+, cp,nn, nu( eeco|o mpeeo+ex u cp,nn, nu(
c +us|uv ,poe+ev mpeeocu. ene a|cnepuve+ma cocmo+na e mov, vmoe onpedenume om+oae+ue ved, nepeuea+u+vu u
usuonocuvec|uvu pea|(u+vu. Yvacm+u|oe a|cnepuve+ma nonpocunu nodcomoeume coo(e+ue o +auonee +eenamene+ex
acne|max cocmee++ou nuv+ocmu. 3amev nonoeu+a us +ux don+a ena nepec|asame codepa+ue amoco coo(e+u+ mone|o nuae
a|cnepuve+mamop,, a dp,ca+ nonoeu+a eecm,nume c amuv coo(e+uev neped cp,nnou, cocmo+(eu us mpex venoee|. 1u|cu-
poeanuce vacmoma cepd(eue+u+, |poe++oe daene+ue, a ma|e cavoomveme ucnem,evex o nepeueaevex uvu avo(u+x.
nccnedoeamenu o+ap,unu, vmo , nu( nodaen+s(eco cmun+ +ansdanuce noeeae++ee ,poe+u usuonocuvec|ou a|mue+ocmu, +o
npu amov +e +ansdanoce noeeae++ou u+me+cue+ocmu +ecamue+ex avo(uu. Dd+a|o amom ae|m uveem vecmo nuae e ,cnoeu+x
npuc,mcmeu+ a,dumopuu. Y ,vacm+u|oe uccnedoea+u+ c eeco|uv ,poe+ev mpeeo+ocmu ena ee+ene+a ducco(ua(u+
npomueonono+oco nna+a, m e. , +ux eos+u|anu noeeae++ou u+me+cue+ocmu +ecamue+ee avo(uu, +o +e +ansdanoce noeeae+u+
usuonocuvec|ou a|mue+ocmu.
/emope cvumasm, vmo peaas(,s pone e pasnuve+uu cmpamecuu coenade+u+ co cmpeccov ved, amuvu cp,nnavu voem ucpame
pasnuvue +-|o+(en(uu, |acas(eec+ avo(uo+ane+ocmu. D+u npednonacasm, vmo dn+ nu( nodaen+s(eco cmun+ xapa|mep+a
cmouvec|a+ +-|o+(en(u+, a nu(a c eeco|uv ,poe+ev mpeeo+ocmu (ce+cumusepe) onadasm avo(uo+ane+ou +-|o+(en(ueu.
0oo(e+u+ o avo(uo+ane+ex cocmo++u+x uc|aasmc+ nodo+evu +-|o+(en(u+vu. anee, aemope nonacasm, vmo ducco(ua(u+
voem uveme vecmo mone|o e ,cnoeu+x n,nuv+ocmu, nomov, vmo , nu( nodaen+s(eco cmun+ ncuxonocuvec|a+ ,cposa,
nopodaeva+ noeeae+uev cavoocos+a+u+, eesea++ev ,cnoeu+vu n,nuv+ocmu, voem cosdame onee cune+eu e+,mpe++uu
|o+nu|m ved, ux avo(uo+ane+evu pea|(u+vu u escn+dov +a cavux ce+ |a| u+dueud,,voe cmouvec|ux u +eavo(uo+ane+ex.
8pesra 7 1 Paccornacosauue neqy cnosecuMnu u usuonoru+ecrunu pearunu.

Vo+umopu+coeeu u na+mep+eu cmunu coenada+u+ co cmpeccov
Pasnu+euue nouutopuurosoro (otcneusakaero) u nautepuoro (ypesakaero) ctuneu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, ua repsMu
ssrnq, rpeqctasnetc cxoun c pasnu+euuen roqasnkaero u ceucutusupykaero ctuneu, uo ouo roueutpupyetc
onee rourpetuo ua rpoeccax opaotru nkqenu uuopnauu s ycnosux tex unu uuMx yrpoakaux cutyauu.
1artu+ecru Mno yctauosneuo, +to quxotonu roqasneuue/ ceucutusau u coctouue tpesoru neqy coou ue
cssauM (Miller and Mangan, 1983). 3tot roqxoq ocoo rpuneuun s uccneqosauuu ortunaneuMx crocoos cooaeuu
nequuucrou uuopnauu raueutan. epsoua+aneuo c+utanoce, +to nkqeu nouo rnaccuuuposate ua rpeq-
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ctasuteneu nouutopuurosoro u nautepuoro ctuneu ua ocuosauuu toro, rarun opason ouu pearupykt ua ctunynM,
curuanusupykaue yrposy; repsMe sMucrusakt (otcneusakt) cssauuyk c yrposou uuopnauk, s to spen rar stopMe
ctapaktc userate tarou uuopnauu (Miller and Mangan, 1983). Vunnep u Vaurau otne+anu, +to yposeue sosyqeuu y
raueutos Mn uue, rorqa yposeue cooaaenou un uuopnauu cootsetctsosan ctunk cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. Tarun
opason, y rpeqctasuteneu nautepuoro ctun yposeue sosyqeuu Mn uue s ycnosux neueaeu uuopnuposauo-ctu,
a y nu nouutopuurosoro ctun uaoopot, rpu ycnosuu sMcororo yposu ux uuopnuposauoctu. 0quaro qaneueuaue
uccneqosauu rorasanu, +to ato ue equuctseuuMu sapuaut (Miller, 1987), u +to qae sosnouo cosneaeuue sMcororo (unu
uusroro) yposu uuopnuposauuoctu u nkoro us qsyx ctuneu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon euoneu, rony+usauu
uauneuosauue qucrosuuouuoro rounurta (Rosenbaum and Piamenta, 1998). 3to octotenectso sua+uteneuo
ycnouet paoty s qauuou onactu u satpyquet uuteprpetauk rony+euuMx qauuMx.
|ccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to atu ctunu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, ro-suqunony, unekt sauMe rocneqctsu qn
sqopose. larpunep, Vunnep, Canneptou u 6poqu (Miller, Summerton and Brody, 1988) ouapyunu, +to y nu c onee
sMcorun yposuen nouutopuura uneetc teuqeuu opaaatec r qortopan rpu uanu+uu neuee tenMx nequuucrux
rponen, ro cpasueuuk c nkqenu, y rotopMx yposeue nouutopuura uue, rpu+en atu nua (repsMe) cooaakt o
repeusauuu taroro e, +to u y stopMx, yposu qucronopta u quctpecca, a tare ro rpoaectsuu onee qnuteneuoro,
+en y stopMx, speneuu cooaakt o yny+aeuuu sqopose unu o sMsqoposneuuu. 0uu tare oneae uactausakt ua
rposeqeuuu ocneqosauuu, tpeykt oneae uuopnauu u roucynetuposauu. 6Mte noet, ato yqusuteneuo, uo
rpeqctasutenu toro u qpyroro ctuneu pasnu+aktc tare s ton, raryk pone ouu xotenu M urpate s rpoecce ne+euu.
ua c sMcorun yposuen nouutopuura, ro-suqunony, rpeqro+utakt raccusuyk pone; roxoe, ouu xotenu M rony+ute
uuopnauk, c ten +toM yneueaute ueorpeqeneuuocte, uo ue qn toro, +toM rpeqrpuuunate rarue-nuo artusuMe
qeuctsu. Xot sosuuraet sre+atneuue, +to nuan c sMcorun yposuen nouutopuura rpucyau onee sMcorue yposuu
tpesouoctu s ueroutponupyenMx unu ctpeccosMx cutyaux, rarosMnu snktc nuorue nequuucrue cutyauu,
nouutopuur, ro-suqunony, cssau c onee xopoaun sqoposeen. larpunep, s rpocrertusuon uccneqosauuu, s rotopon
ocneqosanuce raueutM ua rpoteuuu onee +en +etMpex ueqene, Davey, Tallis u Hodgson (1993) uaanu, +to
nautepuMu ctune cssau c xyqaun rcuxonoru+ecrun sqoposeen (ro arane GHO) u c oneaeu sMpaeuuoctek (ro
canoot+etan) cunrtonos, uarpunep, rpoctyqM u rpurra. 0quaro rpu aton astopM ue ouapyunu cssu neqy
nouutopuuron u canoot+etanu o cunrtonax. AstopM rpeqronounu, +to tarou pesynetat nouo ocuute cneqykaun
opason. ua c sMcorun yposuen nautepuoctu, s otnu+ue ot nkqeu c sMcorun yposuen nouutopuura, ueqoctato+uo
pearupykt ua pauuue rpusuaru saonesauu u qyt rocneqykaux, onee sMpaeuuMx rposneuuu rcuxonoru+ecrux u
usu+ecrux uapyaeuuu, rpeqe +en opaaaktc sa nequuucrou ronoaek. 8 repcrertuse, ronarakt uccneqosatenu,
nouutopuur rpusoqut r rosutusuMn rocneqctsun. larpunep, Ctertoy u 0'Cannusau (1986) otne+akt, +to nua c
sMcorun yposuen nouutopuura u uusrun yposuen nautepuoctu onee crnouuM r pasuoro poqa ocneqosauun u
canorposepran, rpeqotspaaa onee cepeesuMe rponenM co sqoposeen s yqyaen.
8 rocnequee spen suunauue uccneqosateneu roueutpuposanoce rnasuMn opason ua rpoecce nouutopuura u
paspaotre noqenu atoro rpoecca, c ten +toM sMcuute, rar nua nouutopuurosoro ctun crpasnktc c roteuuaneuo
yrpoakaunu usuu ctpeccanu (cn., uarpunep, Schwartz at al., 1995; Miller et al., 1996). |s scero atoro cneqyet, +to
cutyau onee cnoua, +en ato rpeqctasnnoce pauee. Voqene rpeqronaraet, +to nua c sMcorun u uusrun yposunu
nouutopuura pasnu+aktc ten, rar ouu uuteprpetupykt cssauuMe c yrposou cutyauu. kqu c sMcorun yposuen
nouutopuura crnouuM otcneusate sueauue u suytpeuuue rposneuu yrposM u c oneaeu rotosuoctek, cpasuuteneuo c
nkqenu, y rotopMx yposeue nouutopuura uusruu, opaaaktc nuon r atou yrpose. 8 ycnosux uuteucusuMx, qnutene-
uo qeuctsykaux u ueroutponupyenMx ctpeccopos ouu reuepupykt tar uasMsaenyk uutpysusuyk uqeauk otuocutene-
uo ctpeccopa, to ecte rpoqyupykt yctou+usMe, yropuo repcesepupykaue nMcnu, ousnkaue cutyauk u coxpau-
kaue qonuyk quteneuocte. |n tare csouctseuua teuqeuu paccnatpusate ueoquosua+uyk uuopnauk rar yrpo-
akayk u, cneqosateneuo, rpeysenu+usate ctereue pucra. 8ce ato crococtsyet sosuuruoseuuk tpesoru u royqaet r
rosuuu userauu, srnk+a otpuauue u otrnk+euue (disengagement). Vunnep u coastopM ronarakt, +to ucronesosa-
uue roqouMx ctpateruu s roue+uon c+ete ue seqet r ycrexy scneqctsue roctouuMx +actu+uMx rpopMsos useraenoro
unu otpuaenoro natepuana s cosuauue. urn uass+usoro userauu tare noet ctanrusatec c ronuou aqartaueu u
rpuutuen cutyauu, rocronery qeno uurorqa ue qoxoqut qo artusuou roupoutauu co ctpeccopon u ero anououaneuou
rpopaotru (ctp. 217). |ccneqosatenu ronarakt, +to atot rattepu pearuposauu, sepotuo, orasMsaetc uauonee
cuneuo sMpaeuuMn s tex cny+ax, rorqa ctpeccop tpyquo routponuposate, rorqa ou qeuctsyet qnuteneuoe spen u
xapartepusyetc sMcorou uuteucusuoctek (rar, uarpunep, s cny+ae 8|+-quaruosa).
8 uccneqosauuu Vunnep u coastopos (1996) ytsepqaetc, +to xot oM+uo nua nouutopuurosoro tura rpeqro+utakt
otcneusate uuopnauk, rpu orpeqeneuuMx ycnosux, uarpunep, s cutyaux, cssauuMx c cepeesuou xpouu+ecrou, ue
roqqakaeuc routponk yrposou, ouu ctauostc onee userakaunu, +en oneauuctso nkqeu. Vunnep c coastopanu
c+utakt ueoxoqunMn qaneueuaee qetaneuoe uccneqosauue rattepuos cosnaqauu co ctpeccon s pasnu+uMx octo-
tenectsax. 0quaro s cssu c ten, +to uccneqosauue s atou onactu orasMsaetc +pessM+auuo cnouMn, ctauosutc sce
onee tpyquMn uuteprpetuposate rony+aenMe qauuMe u qenate cuMe, rpartu+ecru rpuneuenMe sMsoqM. Kpone toro,
uankqaetc cneaeuue nouutopuurosMx u nautepuMx usnepeuuu, rputon +to uerotopMe uccneqosatenu ue ucronesykt
nouutopuurosyk arany, qpyrue tpartykt sMcoruu yposeue nouutopuura rar arsusaneutuMu uusrony yposuk nautepuo-
ctu, u eae +acte paccnatpusakt atu usnepeuu rar uesasucunMe neqy coou (Rosenbaum and Piamenta, 1998). oqouo
tony rar octout qeno so nuorux qpyrux onactx rcuxonoruu, s rcuxonoruu ctpecca tar e tpyquo yctauosute anauc
neqy rotpeuoctek s rpoctou, rpartu+uou u ronesuou teopuu u rotpeuoctek s teopuu, qoctato+uo cnouou qn toro,
+toM oecre+ute to+uoe orucauue cyaectsykaux ssaunocsseu u otuoaeuuu.
Vepmm nuvnocmu u npeodonenue cmpecca
Ecnu qucrosuuu unu ctunu cosnaqauu otuocuteneuo ctauneuM so speneuu, to sosuuraet sorpoc o ton, rar ouu
cssauM c +eptanu nu+uoctu. lerotopMe xopoao ussectuMe nu+uoctuMe artopM, tarue rar ortunusn, ueratusua
aertusuocte u tur A (ocyqaenMu s rnase 6), suo noryt snute ua te crocoM, rarunu nkqu crpasnktc co
ctpeccanu s tex unu uuMx rourpetuMx cutyaux. lerotopMe astopM qae oosua+akt tarue repeneuuMe, rar ctunu
cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (uarpunep, Newton, 1989, oosua+aet tur A rar ctune cosnaqauu). 6oneauuctso uccneqosate-
neu, oquaro, rposoqt pasnu+ue neqy tpaquuouuMnu nu+uoctuMnu repeneuuMnu u ctunnu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon
(uarpunep, Carver, Scheier and Weintraub, 1989) u ctpentc usy+ute ssaunocsse neqy qsyn turanu repeneuuMx.
Hewitt u Flett (1996) otne+akt, +to uerotopMe nu+uoctuMe xapartepucturu (uarpunep: ueupotusn, noryc routpon u
ortunusn) s uccneqosauux cosnaqauu co ctpeccon rpusneranu sua+uteneuo oneaee suunauue ro cpasueuuk c
qpyrunu ocoeuuoctnu nu+uoctu, tarunu rar arctpasepcu, otrpMtocte, qopocosectuocte u rotosuocte cornaaatec
repeneuuMnu, rotopMe snecte c ueupotusnon opasykt oneayk rtepry (cn. rnasy 6). 0uu ytsepqakt, +to ueupo-
tusn oM+uo accouupyetc c qesaqartusuMn ctunen cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. larpunep, Costa el al., (1996) yctauo-
sunu, +to nua c sMcorun rorasatenen ueupotusna otnu+aktc ueaqartusuMnu crocoanu pearuposauu ua ctpeccopM,
srnk+akaunu canoosuueuu, rpuutue enaenoro sa qeuctsuteneuoe u rpeMsauue s raccusuon coctouuu. 8 aton
uccneqosauuu usy+anuce tare otrpMtocte, qopocosectuocte, uapqy c arctpasepcueu, u Mno yctauosneuo, +to
arctpasepcu, rar u cneqosano ouqate, cssaua c tarunu crocoanu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, rar otpearuposauue (s
qauuon cny+ae coctoaee s ton, +to +enoser ctpenutc sMrosoputec, roqenutec c ren-to csounu uerputuoctnu),
aytru u routartM c qpyrunu nkqenu. 0trpMtocte uosony orMty cssaua c rpeoqoneuuen ctpecca rocpeqctson roucra
uosou uuopnauu u uosMx ryteu peaeuu rponen, a qopocosectuocte cssMsaetc c uactou+usoctek u nu+uoctuMn
pocton.
Hewitt u Flett rpeqnarakt tpu noqenu cootuoaeuu neqy nu+uoctek, ctunen cosnaqauu co ctpeccon u qesaqartaueu.
3tu noqenu ye paccnatpusanuce uanu s rnase 6.
Vequatopua noqene, cornacuo rotopou nu+uocte orpeqenet ctune cosnaqauu unu ctpateruk rpeoqoneuu ctpecca,
rotopa saten orpeqenet ctereue qesaqartauu;
Aqqutusua noqene, cornacuo rotopou nu+uocte u ctune cosnaqauu ssaunouesasucuno oycnasnusakt qesaqartauk;
|uteparuouua noqene, cornacuo rotopou nu+uoctuMe repeneuuMe ssaunoqeuctsykt c repeneuuMnu ctun cosnaqa-
uu.
Pq uccneqosateneu rposepnu atu noqenu. 6onqep (19.90), uarpunep, uccneqosan ueupotusn u sMsun nequatopuMe
otuoaeuu, rpu rotopMx ueaertusuMu ctune cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (rorqa enaenoe sMqaetc sa qeuctsuteneuoe u
rorqa srnk+aetc canoosuueuue) orocpeqosan otuoaeuu neqy ueupotusnon u tpesorou (ato ocuno csMae
ronosuuM cny+aes snuuu ueupotusna ua tpesory). 0u rpeqronoun, +to s ycnosux ctpecca ueupotusn rpusoqut r
tony, +to nkqu ycsausakt ueaertusuMe ctpateruu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, rotopMe s csok o+epeqe seqyt r
ycuneuuk quctpecca.
8 atux uccneqosauux Mnu rony+euM uerotopMe roqtsepqeuu rurotesM, cornacuo rotopou nu+uocte u cosnaqauue co
ctpeccon o+eue tecuo ssaunocssauM, u qae tesuca o ton, +to cosnaqauue ato nu+uocte, qeuctsykaa s ycnosux
ctpecca (Bolger, 1990, c. 525). 0quaro uerotopMe uccneqosatenu, +eu paotM ocyqaktc s cneqykaen pasqene,
ocrapusakt rpasonepuocte roqouoro areutuposauu ponu nu+uoctu. 0uu qorasMsakt, +to ue ctonero nu+uocte
uuqusuqa, cronero cana ctpeccosa cutyau, rnasuMn opason, orpeqenet ctune cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. anee ouu
ytsepqakt, +to ctpateru cosnaqauu peanusyetc s suqe aupororo quarasoua quuanu+ecrux pearuu ua pasnu+uMe
ctpeccosMe cutyauu.
6yaouus noqxoq k npeoqoneu cpecca
0quun us rnasuMx ctopouuuros cutyauouuoro roqxoqa snetc asapyc. Ero tpausaruouaneua teopu paccnatpusaet
cosnaqauue co ctpeccon rar rpoecc u rpu aton areutupyet ero creuu+uocte s otuoaeuuu rourpetuMx cutyauu.
0oenada+ue co cmpeccov amo du+avuvec|uu npo(ecc, nocpedcmeov |omopoco u+dueud e od+ux cn,va+x, cnae+ev opasov,
ucnones,em od+, opv, coenada+u+, c|aev, sa(um+ee cmpamecuu, a e dp,cux npuecaem | cmpamecu+v peae+u+ nponeve
n,mev usve+e+u+ om+oae+u+ nuv+ocme o|p,as(a+ cpeda (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, c. 142).
le otpua toro, +to qucrosuuouuMe artopM urpakt orpeqeneuuyk pone s rpeoqoneuuu ctpecca (Lazarus, 1993),
asapyc u 1onrnau, s oaen, paccnatpusakt cosnaqauue co ctpeccon s tpaucaruouaneuMx tepnuuax, rar.
...nocmo+++o usve++s(uec+ |oc+umue+ee u noeede+vec|ue ,cunu+, +anpaene++ee +a ,npaene+ue cne(uuvec|uvu e+ea+uvu u/ unu
e+,mpe++uvu mpeoea+u+vu, |omopee o(e+ueasmc+ c mov|u spe+u+ coomeemcmeu+ pec,pcav u+dueuda (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984,
c. 141).
Areut ua ycunux yrpasneuu tare osua+aet, +to qauuoe orpeqeneuue srnk+aet ctpateruu, rotopMe noryt ue cpa-
atMsate, unu tarue, rotopMe uarpasneuM ua userauue unu nuuunusauk ctpeccopos, pasuo rar u ua cosnaqauue c
uunu.
Crasauuoe nouo rpounnkctpuposate ua rpunepe nkoro cuneuoro ctpeccopa. larpunep, rocne paspMsa nusrux
otuoaeuuu unu passoqa sM noete sua+ane ucrMtMsate aor unu +ysctso paso+aposauu la cneuy atony coctouuk
noryt rpuutu cnesM unu nuxopaqo+ua artusuocte, unu, Mte noet, rorMtru usasutec (yutu) ot rponenM rocpeq-
ctson anroron. anee noet rocneqosate coctouue qerpeccuu, rorqa sM ucrMtMsaete rotpeuocte otqanutec ot
scero, +to sac orpyaet, rocne +ero cuosa rorMtaetece copatec u ua+ate artusuMe qeuctsu u repectpausate saau
couaneuMe otuoaeuu. leconueuuo, sM rotpatute uenano speneuu u ycunuu ua oqynMsauue toro, +to cny+unoce. +to
Mno ue tar? 8 +en saaa oaura? Vornu M sM +to-uuyqe cqenate, +toM usneuute cutyauk? Karun yqet saae
yqyaee es saaero raptuepa? 3tot rpoecc noet qnutec necM u qae roqM s cny+ae o+eue nusrux otuoaeuuu u s
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
pasuMx cny+ax noet Mte o+eue pasuMn. 8 cny+ae sosqeuctsu cnaMx ctpeccopos, ronaraet asapyc, rpoecc
cosnaqauu yqet rpoterate sua+uteneuo Mctpee. 0quaro ou ytsepqaet, +to so scex cny+ax yqet rpoucxoqute
passusakauuc, quuanu+ecruu rpoecc roruutusuou oeuru, repeoeuru, cosnaqauu u anououaneuou repepaotru
(c. 143). 3to areutuposauue rpoeccyaneuoro xapartepa, oquaro, ue osua+aet, +to ua rattepu roruutusuou oeuru u
cosnaqauu, ycsoeuuMu uuqusuqon, ue noryt snute qucrosuuouuMe artopM, uo asapyc u 1onrnau (1984) ronarakt,
+to qucrosuuouuMe turonoruu, ocyqasauec sMae, rpyo yrpoaakt cnouMe rattepuM cosnaqauu.
outue oeuru snetc eutpaneuMn qn roqxoqa asapyca r rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca. 0u orucMsaet qsa tura oeuru.
epsu+ua oeura ato rpoecc, rocpeqctson rotoporo uuqusuq oeuusaet roteuuaneuMu speq, yrposy unu sMsos,
ucxoqauu ot ctpeccopa. 8topu+ua oeura ato rpoecc, rocpeqctson rotoporo uuqusuq oeuusaet, +to noet Mte
cqenauo qn toro, +toM rpeoqonete unu rpeqotspatute speq unu yny+aute rosutusuoe coctouue qen, t. e. rpu aton
oeuusaktc sosnouoctu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. Tarun opason, s rpuseqeuuon sMae rpunepe paspMsa otuoaeuuu
stopu+ua oeura noet srnk+ate cneqykaue cyqeuu:
le cset rnuuon ua uen (ueu) coaenc. laqo rar-to uanausate couaneuMe otuoaeuu, sctpe+atec c uosMnu
nkqenu.
0tuoaeuu esuaqeuo ucrop+euM. orMtakce qaneae ute oquu (oqua).
F ue crocoeu r uopnaneuMn otuoaeuun, qa, suquno, u so scen octaneuon ue nory Mte ua sMcote. F sce qenak ue
tar, rar uaqo. lu+ero qpyroro ue octaetc, rar sste u uarutec.
8ronue routuo, +to rpusM+uMu xapartep oeuor yqet snute ua tur ucronesyenou ctpateruu cosnaqauu u rpeqro+u-
taenMe anououaneuMe pearuu. 8osnoeu qaneueuauu rpoecc repeoeuru ua ocuose rarou-nuo uosou uuopnauu,
uarpunep, ecnu eae pas socronesosatec ten e rpunepon, paspMs otuoaeuuu noet Mte repeoeueu rar neuee
tenMu yqap, ecnu ycunu uuqusuqa, uarpasneuuMe ua yny+aeuue couaneuMx otuoaeuuu, orasanuce ycreauMnu.
asapyc ronaraet, +to xapartep oeuru snetc sauMn artopon, qetepnuuupykaun tur cosnaqauu co ctpeccopon u
rpoecc cosnaqauu. 8 rpoecce cosnaqauu asapyc rposoqut sauoe pasnu+euue neqy cosnaqauuen, uarpasneuuMn
ua artyaneuoe yrpasneuue, unu opaotry ctpeccopa, u cosnaqauuen, uarpasneuuMn ua rpopaotry anououaneuoro
coctouu, sMssauuoro ctpeccopon. epsMu us atux qsyx rpoeccos ou uassan corycuposauuMn ua rponene
cosnaqauuen u rpeqronoun, +to tarou tur cosnaqauu ucronesyetc +aae scero s tex cny+ax, rorqa uuqusuq
oeuusaet cutyauk rar qorycrakayk usneueuu (rar s repson us tpex sapuautos paccnotpeuuoro sMae rpunepa).
8topou rpoecc asapyc uassan cosnaqauuen, corycuposauuMn ua anouu, u rpeqronoun, +to ou ucronesyetc +aae
scero s tex cny+ax, rorqa oeura rorasMsaet: nM uu+ero ue noen cqenate qn toro, +toM usneuute ctpeccosyk cutya-
uk (rar s rocnequen sapuaute uaaero rpunepa). Cosnaqauue, corycuposauuoe ua rponene, srnk+aet pq ctpateruu
peaeuu rponenM (uarpunep ycsoeuue uosMx uasMros unu rouueuue yposu rputsauuu). Cyaectsyet oneaoe +ucno
crocoos cosnaqauu, rotopMe noryt paccnatpusatec rar ctpateruu, corycuposauuMe ua anouu, srnk+a arcrpeccuk
anouu, ucronesosauue roruutusuMx ctpateruu, tarux rar, uarpunep, rorMtru paccnatpusate cutyauk c qpyrou to+ru
speuu, unu roseqeu+ecrux ctpateruu, uarpasneuuMx ua otsne+euue suunauu ot ctpeccopa (uarpunep: usu+ecrue
yrpaueuu, xoqeuue ro narasuuan, rpuutue anroron u t. q.).
1onrnau u asapyc (1988) paspaotanu 0rpocuur crocoos cosnaqauu (WOC Ways of Coping), rpequasua+euuMu qn
usnepeuu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon s rourpetuMx cutyaux. 0rpocuur coctout us socenu cyaran, usnepkaux cosna-
qauue rocpeqctson roupoutauu, quctauuposauu, ucronesosauu canoroutpon, roucra couaneuou roqqepru, rpu-
utu otsetctseuuoctu, erctsa userauu, rnauonepuoro peaeuu rponenM u rosutusuou repeoeuru. 8 uccneqosa-
uuu, rposeqeuuon c ucronesosauuen qauuoro roqxoqa, pecrouqeutos rpocunu oosua+ute raryk-nuo cutyauk (uarpu-
nep, sMssasayk canoe cuneuoe ctpeccosoe coctouue sa rocnequkk ueqenk), saten ouu saronunu oeuo+uyk arany
rpuneuuteneuo r atou cutyauu. ony+euuMe qauuMe otuocuteneuo pasuMx cutyauu ooaanuce, c ten +toM rony+ute
oaue sMsoqM (cn., uarpunep, Folkman and Lazarus, 1980; Folkman etal., 1986).
Pasyneetc, qae s otqeneuou cutyauu, tarou rar s rpusoqusaenc sMae rpunepe paspMsa otuoaeuuu, sronue
sepotuo rpuneueuue pasnu+uMx ctpateruu, rar u repexoq ot roruutusuo-corycuposauuMx ctpateruu r anououaneuo-
corycuposauuMn. 1onrnau u asa-pyc (1985) rpoqenouctpuposanu ato s csoen uccneqosauuu anouu u cosnaqauu co
ctpeccon y ctyqeutos, cqakaux arsaneuM. 0uu rposoqunu usnepeuu repeq arsaneuon, neqy cqa+eu arsaneua u
rony+euuen pesynetatos u rocne osuaronneuu c pesynetatanu. AstopM sMcuunu, +to ua raqon us atux ataros
uankqanoce ronuuuposauuoe ucronesosauue corycuposauuMx ua rponene u corycuposauuMx ua anoux ctpate-
ruu cosnaqauu, uo so spen autuurauu u so spen ouqauu qonuuuposanu pasuMe opnM ronuuauu. Cosnaqauue,
corycuposauuoe ua rponene, qonuuuposano repeq arsaneuon, a corycuposauua ua anoux ctpateru quctauupo-
sauu urpana onee sauyk pone so spen ouqauu pesynetatos.
Kara us ctpateruu xopoaa unu rnoxa, sasucut ot cutyauu u noet usneutec ro xoqy passutu cutyauu. larpunep,
tara ctpateru, rar otpuauue, rotopa oM+uo paccnatpusaetc rar ecronesua, s orpeqeneuuMx octotenectsax
noet Mte ronesuou (Lazarus, 1993). asapyc, uarpunep, c+utaet, +to rorqa +enoser oayaaet cunrtonM cepqe+uoro
rpuctyra, otpuauue noet Mte ecronesuMn u qae oracuMn scneqctsue toro, +to ouo noet sectu r saqepre
opaaeuu sa nequuucrou ronoaek, uo s repuoq uerocpeqctseuuo rocne uuaprta ouo noet Mte ronesuMn rar
croco rpeoqoneuu ctpecca. 0uo cuosa noet ctate ecronesuMn, ecnu yqet rpoqonatec cnuaron qonro u s
pesynetate rpertctsosate tony, +toM uuqusuq usneuun csou ctune usuu, c ten +toM ue qorycrate rostopeuu
rpuctyra.
oqxoq asapyca u 1onrnaua u paspaotauuou unu orpocuur WOC, pasyneetc, ue useanu rputuru. larpunep, 0rnauq
u 0ctenn (1996) yrasMsakt, +to s pqe uccneqosauuu, rposeqeuuMx c ucronesosauuen artopuoro auanusa, ouapyu-
noce, +to otsetM ucrMtyenMx pacrpeqennuce cootsetctseuuo 3-9 artopan, +to sMsMsaet conueuu otuocuteneuo
pasnu+uteneuou rpupoqM socenu turos cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, repsoua+aneuo sMsneuuMx 1onrnauon u a-sapycon.
anee Ctoyu u coastopM (1991) yrasMsakt, +to ytsepqeuu, srnk+euuMe s orpocuur, ueoquuaroso rpuneuunM r pasuMn
coMtun. Tar, uarpunep, oneaa +acte us uux penesautua rponenan s otuoaeuux c qpysenu u roqpyranu, uo 27%
ytsepqeuuu uerpuneuunM s otuoaeuuu rponen co sqoposeen. lerotopMe ytsepqeuu s routercte orpeqeneuuMx
rponen noryt rpocto ue unete cnMcna, uarpunep ytsepqeuue opeteuue uosou sepM rar croco cosnaqauu co
ctpeccon s cny+ae astonouneuou asapuu. Kpone toro, uccneqosatenu ronarakt, +to pecrouqeutM noryt ctonruytec c
tpyquoctek uuteprpetauu uuctpyruu oeuute, s rarou ctereuu ouu oM+uo ucronesykt croco cosnaqauu co ctpecc-
con, cootsetctsykauu qauuony ytsepqeuuk. Karun opason, uarpunep, pecrouqeut qoneu oeuusate ctereue, s
rotopou ou opaaaetc c +enoseron, snkaunc ucto+uuron ero rponen? PecrouqeutM, o+esuquo, yqyt ro-
pasuony uuteprpetuposate taryk uuctpyruk, s sasucunoctu, Mte noet, ot satpa+euuoro speneuu unu rpunoeuuMx
ycunuu. Ten ue neuee, sorperu atou rputure, 0rpocuur crocoos cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (WOC) ro-rpeueny auporo
ucronesyetc uccneqosatennu.
0oeedenue unu cmuns?
Pasyneetc, sronue sepotuo, +to s nkou usueuuou cutyauu nkqu noryt ucronesosate s pasuoe spen pq pasnu+uMx
crocoos roseqeuu, uarpasneuuMx ua rpeoqoneuue ctpecca. |n tare noryt Mte rpucyau oaue qucrosuuouuMe
teuqeuuu r onee +actony ucronesosauuk orpeqeneuuMx ctpateruu, uarpunep: s tpyquou cutyauu ctapatec ue qynate
o rponene unu, noet Mte, oneae yrotpente anrorone. 3to, s csok o+epeqe, noet Mte cssauo c sMtecukaun
ctunen, xapartepusykaunc cropee userakaunu, ueenu ueuserakaunu crocoanu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca. 0rpocuur
crocoos cosnaqauu (WOC) +acto aqartupyetc tarun opason, +to pecrouqeutos orpaausakt, rar ouu oM+uo
crpasnktc co ctpeccon. Torqa sosuuraet sorpoc, +to e ua canon qene rpu aton usnepetc: cosoryruocte crocoos
roseqeuu, uarpasneuuMx ua rpeoqoneuue ctpecca (rar ronarakt uerotopMe uccneqosatenu), unu e uera opna ctun
cosnaqauu (rar c+utakt qpyrue). 0quaro, rar qorasMsaetc so spesre 7.2, ato ue noet Mte sanuquMn netoqon
usnepeuu uu roseqeuu, uu ctun cosnaqauu.
asapyc u 1onrnau, qorasMsa, +to aqartau orpocuura WOC ue oecre+usaet yqosnetsoputeneuoro usnepeuu
qucrosuuouuoro cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, snecte c ten rputurykt oquonepuMe turonoruu (tarue, rar userakauu
/ueuserakauu ctunu), ocyqasauec sMae. 0uu qorasMsakt, +to roqouMe turonoruu nano +to ocukt u ue cnua-
ron ycreauM s rpeqcrasauuu toro, rar nkqu roctyrt s rourpetuMx cutyaux (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). asapyc
(1993) c+utaet, +to ny+ae usnepte snuuue qucrosuuouuMx artopos, orpeqen ctpateruu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon
ryten ueoquorpatuoro usnepeuu s pasnu+uMx octotenectsax. Tarou roqxoq tare otrpMsaet sosnouoctu uccneqo-
sate uosMe acrertM cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, uarpunep, ctereue ruroctu unu puruquoctu, unu ucronesosauue cropee
rpoctMx, ueenu cnouMx rattepuos cosnaqauu s pasnu+uMx ctpeccosMx cutyaux.
1onrnau u coastopM (1986) ucronesosanu roqxoq asapyca, uccneqy cosnaqauue co ctpeccon s rtu pasnu+uMx
ctpeccosMx cutyaux, orucauuMx y+actuuranu uccneqosauu. 0uu rpoqenouctpuposanu, +to oaue rpoeccM cosna-
qauu Mnu cropee usneu+usMnu, ueenu ctauneuMnu (c. 578), uo pasnu+uMe ctpateruu cosnaqauu sapeuposanu ro
ctereuu ux yctou+usoctu s pasuMx cutyaux. Tar, uarpunep, s qauuon uccneqosauuu sMcuunoce, +to ctpateru rosu-
tusuou repeoeuru uauonee tecuo cssaua c nu+uoctuMnu artopanu, s to spen rar corycuposauuMe ua rponene
ctpateruu roupoutauouuoro cosnaqauu, roucr couaneuou roqqepru u ctpateru rnauonepuoro peaeuu rponenM
s uauoneaeu ctereuu sasucenu ot cutyauu
Lsap, lunu, Vapro u coastopM (1999) cqenanu cneqykauu aar, coroctasn peroneuqyenMu asapycon roqxoq ro
usnepeuuk roruur-qucrosuuu c ten roqxoqon, rotopMu asapyc rputuryet. 0uu ucronesosanu ycpequeuuMe rorasatenu
otqeneuMx cooaeuuu o ton, rar raqMu uuqusuq crpasnnc co ctpeccon s pasuoopasuMx ctpeccosMx cutyaux. 3tu
rorasatenu saten Mnu rporoppenuposauM c pesynetatanu usnepeuu, ocuosauuoro ua aqartuposauuon WOC,
orpeqenkaun, rar nkqu crpasnktc co ctpeccon s oaen. oqouo 1onrnauy c coastopanu (Folkman et al, 1986),
uccneqosatenu ouapyunu, vmo ycpequkauu roqxoq sMsun uerotopMe, xot u cnaMe, yctou+usMe teuqeuuu, unu
qucrosuuu cosnaqauu (ocoeuuo s otuoaeuuu erctsa/userauu). 0quaro ouu tare ouapyunu, +to oauu ctune
cosnaqauu co ctpeccon nuae o+eue cnao rporuoctu+eu ro otuoaeuuk r ycpequeuuony cuknuuytuony cosnaqauuk,
roqtsepqa ten canMn tesuc asapyca o ton, +to atot roqxoq ue noet Mte qeuctsuteneuo aertusuMn.
8orperu atun orpauu+euun, ucxoq us rpartu+ecrux coopaeuuu, nuorue uccneqosatenu s onactu rcuxonoruu
sqopose ue sospaakt rpotus srnk+euu rpoctMx rorasateneu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon s enx yctauosneuu cssu
neqy ctpeccopanu u sqoposeen.

3 |avecmee ecmpoco u ,do+oco vemoda usvepe+u+ coenada+u+ uccnedoeamenu vacmo ucnones,sm onpoc+u|u, e |omopex
onuceeasmc+ pasnuv+ee opve noeede+u+, u pecno+de+me don+e omeemume, |a| vacmo o+u oev+o ucnones,sm |adeu us
,|asa++ex eudoe noeede+u+. n+ocda non,vaevee ma|uv opasov da++ee mpa|m,smc+ |a| opva noeede+u+, +anpaene++oco +a
npeodone+ue cmpecca (unu |a| cmpamecuu), |omopa+ oev+o ucnones,emc+ e cne(uane+ex cum,a(u+x. lesmo+ cvumaem, vmo ma|ou
nodxod voem +a cavov dene usvep+me +evmo onee nus|oe | cmuns coenada+u+, u vmo, eepo+m+o, c,(ecme,em pasnuvue ved,
mev, |a| nsdu ocos+asm ceou cmune coenada-+u+ e (enov, u mev, |a| o+u eed,c ce+ e |o+|pem+ex cum,a(u+x D+ onupaemc+ +a
paom, /pcupuc u uo+ (1974), |omopee nonacasm, vmo |ocda pecno+de+moe cnpaaueasm o mov, |a| o+u eenu e ce+ e
onpedene++ex ocmo+menecmeax, me eedasm ceos npednovumaev,s meopus (espoused theory) noeede+u+ unu omeevasm
coomeemcmee++o mov,, vmo o+u d,vasm o mov, |a| o+u deucme,sm. Dd+a|o meopu+, |omopa+ ,npaen+em ux deucmeumene+ev no-
eede+uev, amo peane+o npuve++eva+ meopu+ (theory-in-use) 3ma meopu+ voem pas+umec+ c npednovumaevou meopueu, u
venoee| voem +e ocos+aeame +ecoevecmuvocme amux de,x nodxodoe ,+|me onpoc+u|a, |acas(uec+ oo(e++ex cum,a(uu, no
eceu eepo+m+ocmu, o(e+ueasm npednovumaevee meopuu, e mo epev+ |a| n,+|me, om+oc+(uec+ | coenada+us co cmpeccov e
peane+ex, |o+|pem+ex cum,a(u+x, c|opee, npunuasmc+ | o(e+|e deucmeumene+o npuve++evou meopuu asap,c e(e onee
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
|pumuv+o om+ocumc+ | eonpocav o mov, |a| nsdu oev+o cnpaen+smc+ co cmpeccov, +e cvuma+ ma|ou nodxod eanud+ev cnoco-
ov usvepe+u+ cmuneu coenada+u+ co cmpeccov.
F cvumas +enpaeune+ev don,c|ame, vmo venoee| deucmeumene+o cnpaen+emc+ co cmpeccov ,|asa++ev cnocoov e nsov
|o+|pem+ov cn,vae, ecnu npu usvepe+uu ucnones,emc+ cnoeo oev+o sdu voc,m eepaame ececo nuae +eonpedene++oe
enevamne+ue o mov, |a| o+u npednovumanu e deucmeoeame, eosvo+o, nod enu++uev moco, vmo o+u cvumasm co(uane+o
enamene+ev unu udeane+ev, evecmo moco, vmo o+u deucmeumene+o d,vasm unu denasm (Lazarus, 1993, c. 242).
8pesra 7 2 +to nM usnepen, rorqa crpaausaen nkqeu, rar ouu oM+uo crpasnktc co ctpeccon
7


Tarun opason, orpocuuru, orpeqenkaue, rar nkqu oM+uo crpasnktc co ctpeccon, ro-rpeueny uaxoqt rpuneue-
uue s roqouMx cutyaux 3tot roqxoq ucronesosau s oquon us uauonee rorynpuMx u auporo rpuneuenMx orpocuu-
ros, 0rpocuure cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (C0PE inventory), ocyqaenon s cneqykaen pasqene

C0PE-nodxod
|ccneqosauue Kapsep, Leup u 8eutpay (1989) roctpoeuo ua ocuose teopuu asapyca, uo ouo rpeqronaraet, +to
rposoqunoe pasrpauu+euue neqy corycuposauuMnu ua rponene u corycuposauuMnu ua anouu crocoanu
cosnaqauu co ctpeccon snetc cnuaron yrpoaeuuMn AstopM c+utakt, +to s panrax atux qsyx auporux rateropuu
sneaaktc ctpateruu, cnuaron cuneuo otnu+akauec qpyr ot qpyra u seqyaue r pasnu+uMn rocneqctsun anee ouu
otne+akt, +to ucronesosasauec pauee orpocuuru Mnu cosqauM s ocuosuon ua ase ctatuctu+ecrux qauuMx, a ue ua
ase rarou-nuo teopuu PaspaotauuMu unu 0rpocuur cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (COPE-inventory) ocuosMsaetc ua qsyx
teopetu+ecrux paotax ua teopuu ctpecca asapyca u ua ux coctseuuou noqenu canoperynuu roseqeuu (Scheier and
Carver, 1988) epsoua+aneuo orpocuur cocton us 13 otqeneuMx aran, uo rose Mnu qoasneuM eae qse, usnepkaue
ucronesosauue anroron/uaproturos u knopa (cn spesry 7 3) leoxoquno otnetute, +to couaneuyk roqqepry nouo
otuectu rar r ctpateruu, corycuposauuou ua anoux, tar u r ctpateruu, corycuposauuou ua rponene, s sasucunoctu
ot toro, rarun opason oua ucronesyetc
Kar u s cny+ae roqxoqa asapyca, uerotopMe us atux ctpateruu rpeqctasnktc onee rouctpyrtusuMnu ro cpasueuuk c
qpyrunu, uo ux uenes pasqenute ua aqartusuMe u ueaqartusuMe Kaqa us uux noet Mte ronesuou qn uerotopMx
nkqeu s uerotopMx octotenectsax larpunep, ucronesosauue otpuauu rar ctpateruu cosnaqauu c uuaucosMnu
rponenanu, ro sceu sepotuoctu, noet tonero yxyqaute ronoeuue qen 0quaro s cutyauu uuaucosoro rpaxa ot-
puauue orponuoctu rponenM ua ua+aneuMx ctaqux noet Mte ronesuMn naroqap nuuunusauu quctpecca u
oner+euuk rpeoqoneuu ctpecca 0quun us artopos, orpeqenkaux ronesuocte pasnu+uMx ctpateruu, ro-suqunony,
snetc to, s coctouuu +enoser routponuposate cutyauk unu uet (Folkman and Lazarus, 1980) Kap-sep, Leup u
8eutpay sMcuunu, +to nkqu +aae ucronesykt onee artusuMe crocoM rpeoqoneuu ctpecca, rnauuposauue u
roqasneuue rourypupykaux suqos artusuoctu uneuuo s routponupyenMx cutyaux, ueenu s cutyaux, ue
roqqakauxc routponk. 8 ueroqqakauxc routponk cutyaux +aae ucronesyktc corycuposauuMe ua anoux
ctpateruu cosnaqauu, uarpunep rpuutue unu otpuauue

Artusuoe rpeoqoneuue artusuMe aaru unu rpnMe qeuctsu, uarpasneuuMe ua rpeoqoneuue ctpeccosou cutyauu.
nauuposauue oqynMsauue toro, rar qeuctsosate s otuoaeuuu ctpeccopa paspaotra ctpateruu roseqeuu (ocyaectsnetc so
spen stopu+uou oeuru, ato ue asa cosnaqauu, a +acte corycuposauuoro ua rponene cosnaqauu)
oqasneuue rourypupykaux suqos artusuoctu userauue otsne+euu qpyrunu suqanu artusuoctu u sosnouo, uruopuposauue
qpyrux seaeu, c ten +toM aertusuee crpasntec co ctpeccon
Cqepusauue cosnaqauu ouqauue roqxoqaero qn qeuctsuu noneuta u userauue cnuaron rocreauMx qeuctsuu oucr
couaneuou roqqepru s uuctpyneutaneuMx enx ctpenneuue rony+ute coset ronoae unu uuopnauk
oucr couaneuou roqqepru ro anououaneuMn rpu+uuan ctpenneuue uautu nopaneuyk roqqepry, cunratuk unu rouunauue
Croueutpuposauuocte ua anouu u ee sMcsooqeuuu orycuposauue ua quctpecce unu uerputuoctx u sMpaeuuu +yscts
oseqeu+ecroe otrnk+euue (aisengagement) Perynuposauue ycunuu, uarpasneuuMx ua ssaunoqeuctsue co ctpeccopon
Veutaneuoe otrrk+euue (disengagement) ucronesosauue pasnu+uMx suqos artusuoctu qn otsne+euu ot nMcneu cssauuMx c
rponenou, uarpunep, rpesM cou
osutusuMe peuuteprpetauu u passutue rorMtru repeocnMcnute ctpeccosyk cutyauk s rosutusuon rnaue
0tpuauue (denial) otras sepute s cyaectsosauue ctpeccopa unu rorMtru otpuate ero peaneuocte
puutue rpuutue peaneuoctu ctpeccosou cutyauu
0paaeuue r penuruu roucru ronoau 6ora u yteaeuue s penuruu
/rotpeneuue anroron/uaproturos ucronesosauue anroron unu uaproturos rar croco userauu rponenM unu yny+aeuu
cano+ysctsu
knop cnex u aytru ro rosoqy cutyauu
8pesra 7 3 peqronaraenMe usnepeuu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (us natepuanos Carver, Scheier and Weintraub, 1989)

0rpocuur C0PE Mn rpequasua+eu qn usnepeuu rar cutyauouuMx pearuu (ctpateruu), tar u qn neaaux s ux
ocuose qucrosu-uouuMx ctuneu, s sasucunoctu ot toro, cssauM nu oeuru pecrouqeutos c ux oM+uMnu crocoanu
pearuposauu unu co creuu+ecrunu uuuqeutanu. Kar nM suqenu s rpeqMqyaen pasqene, nouo saqatec sorpocon,
+to ua canon qene oeuusaetc rpu taron usnepe-etu 8 routercte rpuneueuu orpocuura WOC nM ye suqenu, +to
roqouMe usnepeuu cnao rporuoctu+uM s otuoaeuuu ycpequeuuoro cutyauouuoro cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. Kapsep,
Leup u 8eutpay sMcuunu, rar atot roqxoq r ctunk cosnaqauu cssau c nu+uoctuMnu repeneuuMnu u c qucrosuuou-
uMn roqxoqon, ocyqasaunc s ua+ane atou rnasM. 0uu uccneqosanu csse pqa nu+uoctuMx artopos (srnk+a
paccnotpeuuMe sMae nouutopuurosMe u nautepuMe rouctpyrtM) co ctunnu cosnaqauu, usnepsaunuc rocpeqctson
orpocuura C0PE (pecrouqeutM yrasMsakt, rar ouu oM+uo crpasnktc co ctpeccon). Xot u Mnu ouapyeuM
roppenuu neqy uerotopMnu usnepeuunu, uarpunep rosutusua roppenu artusuMx crocoos roruura u tura A,
ortunusnon u canooeurou, s enon atu roppenuu Mnu ue cnuaron sMcorunu, csuqetenectsy, +to ctunu cosnaqauu
ue cosraqakt c usnepeuunu nu+uoctu. 6Mnu sMsneuM uerotopMe cssu neqy C0PE-ctunnu u nouutopuurosMn u
nautepuMn ctunnu, +to roqtsepqaet ronrneneutapuocte atux roqxoqos. Tarun opason, suose sosuuraet sorpoc, +to
e usnepet atot roqxoq. 0quaro Kapsep, Leup u 8eutpay ytsepqakt, +to oa roqxoqa r cosnaqauuk co ctpeccon
ucronesykauu C0PE-orpocuur u tpaquuouuMu roqxoq c to+ru speuu nu+uoctuMx +ept urpakt ronrneneutapuyk
pone s uccneqosauux rpeoqoneuu ctpecca.
Kapsep u Leup (1994), rar u asapyc u 1onrnau (cn. sMae) rposenu uccneqosauue cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, s rotopon
y+actsosanu ctyqeutM so spen cqa+u arsaneuos. |snepeuu rposoqunuce sa qsa qu qo arsaneua, neqy cqa+eu
arsaneua u rony+euuen pesynetatos u eae pas rocne toro, rar ctyqeutM ysuasanu csou pesynetatM. AstopM s ua+ane
uccneqosauu ucronesosanu qucrosuuouuMu C0PE-orpocuur, a saten cutyauouuyk sepcuk ua raqou ctaquu.
Auanoru+uo qauuMn, rony+euuMn 1onrnauon u asapycon, ouu uaanu, +to ctpateruu, corycuposauuMe ua rponene
(tarue rar artusuoe cosnaqa-uue, rnauuposauue, roqasneuue rourypupykaux suqos artusuoctu u ucronesosauue
uuctpyneutaneuou roqqepru) rpeonaqanu s rpeqarsaneuauouuon repuoqe. lerotopMe qpyrue pearuu, tarue rar, ua-
rpunep, ucronesosauue anououaneuou roqqepru, coxpaukt sMcoryk ctereue sMpaeuuoctu so spen cqa+u arsaneua
u s roctarsaneuauouuMu repuoq, ocnaesa nuae rocne ysuasauu pesynetatos. |cronesosauue oquou us ctpateruu,
otpuauu, ycunusanoce ro xoqy usnepeuuu u qocturano onee sMcorou ctereuu sMpaeuuoctu rocne rony+euu
pesynetatos, ro cpasueuuk c ten, +to uankqanoce repeq arsaneuon. AstopM uaanu, qanee, +to qucrosuuu cosnaqauu
Mnu ynepeuuo cssauM c cutyauouuMn cosnaqauuen, xot nuae s ueoneaon +ucne cny+aes ouu Mnu rporuoctu+uM-
nu s otuoaeuuu anouu (scerqa yqy+u cssauuMnu c ueratusuMnu anounu). lauonee ropasuteneuMn pesynetaton s
aton otuoaeuuu Mno to, +to te us pecrouqeutos, rotopMe cooaanu o qucrosuuouuou teuqeuuu r ucronesosauuk
anroron s enx cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, cooaanu o sMcorux yposux ueratusuMx anouu ua raqou ctaquu.
6yqy+u rpoctMn s ucronesosauuu u auporo qoctyruMn, C0PE-orpocuur snetc uMue oquou us uauonee auporo
rpuneuenMx netoqur; s uactoaee spen uneetc u ero corpaaeuua sepcu (Carver, 1997). Cyaectsyet, oquaro, u
oneaoe +ucno qpyrux orpocuuros; uerotopMe us uux rpequasua+euM qn uccneqosauu otqeneuMx sospactuMx rpyrr
(osop anetepuatusuMx netoqur cn. s: Schwarzer and Schwarzer, 1996). octouuoe ucronesosauue orpocuuros, tarux rar
C0PE u WOC, sce +aae roqsepraetc rputure. Kouu u lotnu (Coyne and Gottlieb, 1996), uarpunep, c+utakt, +to: 8 ton
suqe, rar ouu ucronesyktc s uactoaee spen, oM+uMe orpocuuru qakt ueronuoe u ucraeuuoe rpeqctasneuue o ton,
+to taroe rpeoqoneuue ctpecca. Kourpetuo, atu orpocuuru ocuosMsaktc ua cnuaron ysron rouunauuu cosnaqauu co
ctpeccon, +to royqaet pecrouqeutos ucronesosate cucteny otc+eta, rotopa noet ue Mte qn uux roqxoqaeu.
larpunep, ouu (orpocuuru) noryt ocuosMsatec ua tou rpeqrocMnre, +to ctanrusace c tpyquMnu cutyaunu, nkqu
qenakt oeuru u sMupakt ctpateruu cosnaqauu. 8 qeuctsuteneuoctu e nkqu cyetnuso uayt sMxoq us ronoeuu es
rarux-nuo to+uMx oeuor yrpos unu pecypcos, qo tex rop, rora un ue rpuxoqutc saronute orpocuur, rotopMu noet
royqute ux rpuneute orpeqeneuuMe cxenM r ten unu uuMn coMtun. Kouu u lotnu cooaakt, +to ouu sMsunu
pacxoqeuu neqy ten, +to nkqu cooaakt s csooquon paccrase, u ten, +to ouapyusaetc rpu saronueuuu orpoc-
uuros. larpunep, orasMsaetc, +to nkqu noryt cornaaatec c ytsepqeuunu tura: F ctapakce suqete csetnyk
ctopouy coMtuu, rocronery +ysctsykt, +to, s oaen, ato qeuctsuteneuo tar c uunu u Msaet, qae ecnu tarou roqxoq
ue snetc ux cosuateneuou ctpaterueu, ucronesyenou qn cosnaqauu co ctpeccon s tex unu uuMx rourpetuMx
cutyaux. 0tckqa cneqyet, +to qae cutyauouuMe orpocuuru cosnaqauu co ctpeccon noryt usnepte ue ctonero
qeuctsuteneuoe cosnaqauue, cronero rpeqro+utaenMe teopuu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca.
8econocte atou rputuru Mna ycuneua paotou Cnut, euurep u ta+er (1999), +ee uccneqosauue ctasut roq sorpoc
oM+uyk rpartury petpocrertusuoro usnepeuu cutyauouuoro cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (uarpunep, cn. rnasy 8, spesra
8.3). AstopM ouapyunu oneaoe pacxoqeuue neqy oeuranu cosnaqauu so spen cqa+u arsaneuos u petpocrertus-
uMnu oeuranu tou e canou cutyauu +epes cene queu rocne arsaneuos. 0uu rpuanu r sarnk+euuk, +to nkqu noryt
Mte ue crocouM qate to+uMe oeuru rocne toro, rar rpoano raroe-to spen rocne oeuusaenMx coMtuu unu sneuuu.
Tar e, rar Kouu u lotnu, ouu c+utakt: ata cutyau noet unete cneqctsuen to, +to nkqu pearupykt s cootsetctsuu c
ux coctseuuMnu teopunu otuocuteneuo toro, rar ouu crpasnktc co ctpeccanu.
Kar pesynetat roqouou rputuru, ctanu pasqasatec rpusMsM ue tonero r cosepaeuctsosauuk u paspaotre onee
to+uMx netoqos usnepeuu (cn, uarpunep, Smith, Leffingwell and Ptacek, 1999), uo u r ucronesosauuk onee
pasuoopasuMx roqxoqos s usnepeuuu, srnk+a u ra+ectseuuMe netoqM (cn., uarpunep, Coyne and Gottlieb, 1996;
Newton, 1989).
kavecmeennme nodxodm k uavepenum coenadanu co cmpeccov
Ka+ectseuuMe roqxoqM unekt to rpeunyaectso, +to ouu rossonkt uccneqosate auporuu quarasou ucronesyenMx
ctpateruu. +etMpe ytsepqeuu C0PE-orpocuura, otuocauec r artusuony cosnaqauuk, unu neutaneuoe otrnk+euue,
uarpunep, uenuoro noryt rpocuute to, +to racaetc pasnu+uMx crocoos, rarunu nkqu noryt peaate rponenM unu
otsneratec ot uerputuocteu. Ecnu tonero ue yqyt paspaotauM onee cnouMe orpocuuru, ra+ectseuuMu roqxoq, ro-
suqunony, yqet roqxoqaeu anetepuatusou s atou onactu lerotopMe pauuue uccneqosauu (cn, uarpunep, Pearlm and
Schooler, 1978; Menaghan and Merves, 1984) rpoqenouctpuposanu rpeunyaectsa ronuuuposauu ooux roqxoqos;
astopM cua+ana ucronesosanu netoq uutepsek, a saten ua ocuose rony+euuMx qauuMx crouctpyuposanu ronu+ectseuuyk
netoqury, penesautuyk usy+aenou sMopre (cn spesry 7.4)
Ka+ectseuuMe roqxoqM r usy+euuk cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, uuorqa s co+etauuu c ronu+ectseuuMnu netoqanu, tare
uaxoqt sce onee auporoe rpuneueuue s uccneqosauux ctpecca, cssauuoro c rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctek 3to,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
sosnouo, rpoucteraet us rotpeuoctu paotakaux s qauuou cepe uccneqosateneu s rony+euuu onee qetaneuou u
rourpetuou uuopnauu, cpasuuteneuo c tou, rotopa noet Mte ussne+eua c ronoaek unekauxc orpocuuros (cn ,
uarpunep, Oakland and Ostell, 1996, Bunce and West, 1994). 8 roqouMx uccneqosauux pecrouqeutan rpeqnaraktc
otrpMtMe sorpocM, qakaue sosnouocte csooquo rocute csou coctseuuMe crocoM cosnaqauu co ctpeccon,
rotopMe oM+uo saten rateropusupyktc uesasucunMnu arcreptanu.
larpunep, Oakland u Ostell uutepsekuposanu 80 ctapaux y+uteneu aurnuucrux aron, ucronesy rar ra+ectseuuMu, tar u
ronu+ectseuuMu roqxoqM. 0uu saqasanu sorpocM ue tonero ro rosoqy ctpeccosMx cutyauu u ctpateruu cosnaqauu, uo
u o ton, uacronero aertusuMnu, ro nueuuk y+uteneu, Mnu atu ctpateruu, u ro+eny ouu Mnu ueaertusuMnu, s tex
cny+ax, rorqa ato rpeqctasnnoce tarosMn pu oeure otqeneuMx ytsepqeuuu astopM ouapyunu, +to otsetM pec-
rouqeutos cootsetctsosanu tpaquuouuMn rateropun ctpateruu, corycuposauuMx ua rponene, u ctpateruu,
corycuposauuMx ua anoux.

Pa++ee uccnedoea+ue npeodone+u+ cmpecca upnu+ u u,nep (1978) +en+emc+ |naccuvec|uv u eenu|onen+ev npuvepov
npeuv,(ecme |ovu+upoea+u+ |avecmee++oco u |onuvecmee++oco nodxodoe. nccnedoea+ue eno vacama+ev no ceouv (en+v
onpedenume u |o+|pemusupoeame ocmo+menecmea, |omopee nsdu +axod+m cmpeccoce++evu, ee+eume vexa+usve coenada+u+ co
cmpeccov u o(e+ume ux ae|mue+ocme. |pove moco, cmaeunace (ene onpedenume enu++ue u+dueud,ane+ex pasnuvuu, ocoe++o
ma|ux nuv+ocm+ex a|mopoe, |a| cavoo(e+uea+ue, npeeos+ece+ue ce+ (self-mastery) u cavonpu+ue+ue (self-denigration). 5onee 100
,vacm+u|oe uccnedoea+u+ enu npou+mepeesupoea+e +a npedvem onpedene+u+ moco, c |a|uvu nponevavu unu cmpeccopavu o+u
cman|ueasmc+, u |a|ue cmpamecuu ucnones,sm dn+ npeodone+u+ cmpecca. la oc+oee non,ve++ex pes,nemamoe aemope
paspaomanu onpoc+u| dn+ usvepe+u+ cmpeccopoe u cmpamecuu coenada+u+, |omopeu en npuve+e+ e cned,s(ev uccnedoea+uu. 3
+ev npu++nu ,vacmue 2300 venoee| umeneu o|pecm+ocmeu u|aco. ocpedcmeov a|mop+oco a+anusa non,ve++ex da++ex
eedene+o 17 pasnuv+ex munoe |onu+ca, |adeu us |omopex om+ocunc+ | od+ou unu +ec|one|uv us cned,s(ux onacmeu
c,np,ec|ue om+oae+u+, eocnuma+ue demeu, dovaa+ee xos+ucmeo, u+a+ce, npoeccuo+ane+a+ de+mene+ocme. lanpuvep, csda
enu e|nsve+e eede+ue nepecoeopoe e cepe c,np,ec|ux om+oae+uu u duc(unnu+ap+o-oeu+umene+eu nodxod e eocnuma+uu
demeu. /emope nonacasm, vmo amu cnocoe coenada+u+ co cmpeccov cocmaen+sm nuae vacme ecex eosvo+ex cnocooe
peacupoea+u+, +anpaene++ex +a npeodone+ue us+e++ex mp,d+ocmeu (c. 5). /emope cmpevunuce onpedenume, +ac|one|o
ae|mue+evu enu vexa+usve coenada+u+ c ducmpeccov (+aseeaevev e da++ov uccnedoea+uu mepvu+ov cmpecc).
nccnedoea+ue no|asano, vmo pasnuv+e mune, coenada+u+ co cmpeccov enu ae|mue+evu e pasnuv+ex onacm+x. 3 npoeccuo-
+ane+ou cepe |onu+c-vexa+usve enu OTHOCnmene+o +eae|mue+evu e ped,(upoea+uu ducmpecca. 3 u+a+coeou cepe va+u-
n,nupoea+ue (en+vu (+anpuvep, ,ede+ue cavoco ce+ e mov, vmo de+ecu +e cavoe cnae+oe) o|aseeaemc+ +auonee ae|-
mue+ou cmpamecueu. 3mom e cnoco +en+emc+ ,e ve+ee ae|mue+ev e cepe c,np,ec|ux om+oae+uu; sdece od+ou us +au-
onee ae|mue+ex cmpamecuu coenada+u+ co cmpeccov, |a| ee+c+unoce, eno pene|cue+oe so+dupoea+ue {reflective probing).
Ta|e e cepe c,np,ec|ux om+oae+uu u e cepe eocnuma+u+ demeu cnoco+ocme u cmpevne+ue nonacamec+ +a cavoco ce+ enu
onee ae|mue+ou cmpamecueu, +eenu nouc| coeema , dp,cux nsdeu.
Dnpedenue ce+su ved, npeodone+uev cmpecca u u+dueud,ane+evu pasnuvu+vu e ucnones,evex cmpamecu+x, aemope o+ap,unu,
vmo ducmpecc, nepeueaeveu eo ecex cepax, oneae saeucum om cavonpu+ue+u+, vev om dp,cux nepeve++ex. 3o ecex onacm+x,
|pove npoeccuo+ane+ou de+mene+ocmu, onee ae|mue+ev eno ucnonesoea+ue coevecm+o |a| nuv+ocm+ex pec,pcoe, ma| u
penepm,apa pea|(uu coenada+u+ co cmpeccov, a +e mone|o moco unu dp,coco. Pes,nemame ceudemenecme,sm, vmo nuv+ocm+ee
pec,pce voc,m eme onee ea+e e cum,a(u+x, |ocda u+dueud pacnonacaem nuae +es+avumene+evu eosvo+ocm+vu |o+mpon+
{+anpuvep e u+a+coeou cepe), a pea|(uu coenada+u+ onee s+avuve mav, cde venoee| uveem eosvo+ocme |o+mponupoea+u+
cum,a(uu (+anpuvep e cepe c,np,ec|ux om+oae+uu). Xom+ da++oe uccnedoea+ue cmpadaem onpedene++evu ocpa+uve+u+vu,
noc|one|, aemope cmpevunuce onpedenume nuae mo, |a| nsdu, e o(ev, cnpaen+smc+ co cmpeccov, u uc+opupoeanu p+d pasnuv+ex
munoe eosvo+ex nponev u cmpamecuu, mev +e ve+e, o+o +eunoce oneauv aacov eneped u om|peno +oeee nepcne|muee dn+
,d,(ux uccnedoea+uu, |omopee e(e +e enu oc,(ecmene+e.
8pesra 7.4. Pauuuu roqxoq r rpeoqoneuuk ctpecca, ro upnuu u Lynep (1978).

0quaro rorqa y+utMsanc routerct, uay+uo u pauouaneuo rateropusuposate pearuu orasanoce qenon qanero ue
nerrun. larpunep, pearuu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon +acto srnk+akt roucr coseta unu uuopnauu y qpyrux nkqeu.
0quaro uccneqosatenu c+utakt, +to Mno M ecronesuo rateropusuposate roqouMe pearuu c to+ru speuu toro, rar
pecrouqeutM uayt coseta, rorqa peaakaun artopon c to+ru speuu pesynetatos Mno ue to, uaet nu +enoser coseta,
a roneseu nu rony+euuMu un coset. Auanoru+uMn opason, +to racaetc paspeaeuu rponen u rpnoro qeuctsu,
astopM ronarakt, +to rnasuMn s orpeqeneuuu rocneqctsuu snetc ue ctonero paspaotra u peanusau rnauos,
cronero to, paotakt nu atu rnauM. 0uu ctast roq sorpoc ronesuocte orpocuuros cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, rotopMe
cocpeqoto+euM ua ctpaterux cosnaqauu, u ctpentc orpeqenute cssu neqy ucronesosauuen atux ctpateruu u
sqoposeen u cutyauouuMnu rocneqctsunu. AstopM c+utakt, +to ra+ectseuuMe netoqM onee ronesuM qn uccne-
qosauu tarux acrertos, rar aqersatuocte nu+uoctuMx pecypcos u aertusuocte cosnaqauu, rotopMe noryt unete
peaakaee snuuue ua oeury, rcuxonoru+ecruu quctpecc u qpyrue rocneqctsu. 0uu tare qorasMsakt, +to ucroneso-
sauue tarux netoqos noet rpeqronarate ueoxoqunocte ronuuuposauu, +toM oecre+ute aqersatuyk oeury quua-
nu+ecrou, roctouuo usneukaeuc rpupoqM rpoecca rpeoqoneuu ctpecca (Oakland and Ostell, 1996, c. 152).

Kakoss nocneqcs npeoqoneu cpecca?
|s rpeqMqyaero pasqena routuo, +to pesynetatM roruura ue rpocto sasuct ot ctpateruu cosnaqauu, uo u, ro sceu
sepotuoctu, peaakaun opason orpeqenktc ee aertusuoctek (Oakland and Ostell, 1996). 0quaro ato ronoeuue
peqro rposepnoce c ucronesosauuen cospeneuuMx netoqos uccneqosauu. 3tun +actu+uo nouo ocuute otcytctsue
to+uMx qauuMx, cssauuMx c rocneqctsunu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca. Ecnu rosopute o uanu+uu yctou+usou teuqeuuu, to
rpeoqoneuue ctpecca, ro-suqunony, uneet nuo ueutpaneuMe, nuo ueratusuMe rocneqctsu. Tarun opason, roxoe,
nM nano +to suaen o aertusuon rpeoqoneuuu ctpecca, rotopoe norno M sectu r rosutusuMn pesynetatan. Kar nM
ye suqenu, ctunu cosnaqauu, tarue rar nouutopuurosMu u nautepuMu, cssauM c onesunu. Auanoru+uMn opason,
rorqa cutyauouuMe usnepeuu rposoqunuce s pasuMx octotenectsax, 1onrnau u coastopM (1986) ouapyunu uusruu
yposeue roppenuu neqy cosnaqauuen co ctpeccon u sqoposeen, a tan, rqe roppenuu Mnu sua+unMnu, to ouu Mnu
otpuateneuMnu, csuqetenectsy o ton, +to cosnaqauue co ctpeccon cssauo c xyqaun sqoposeen. 0quaro +to racaetc
rcuxonoru+ecrux cunrtonos, astopM uaanu, +to rnauonepuoe peaeuue rponen Mno cssauo c peqyuposauuMnu
cunrtonanu, s to spen rar roupoutauouuMu ctune cosnaqauu co ctpeccon Mn cssau c ycuneuuen cunrtonos.
Auanusupy uauonee uccneqosauuyk onacte arsaneuauouuoro ctpecca, 6onqep (1990) ouapyun, +to sMqasauue
enaenoro sa qeuctsuteneuoe (wishful thinking), canoosuueuue u qae ctpateruu, uarpasneuuMe ua paspeaeuue
rponenM, ycunusanu tpesory. 8 to spen ; rar Kapsep u Leup (1994) ytsepqakt, +to unektc uerotopMe qauuMe,
csuqetenectsykaue o ronouteneuMx pesynetatax roueutpuposauu ua saqa+e u pepeunuura, cyaectsyet
sua+uteneuo oneae qauuMx, rosopaux o ton, +to ctpateruu userauu ysenu+usakt quctpecc. |ccneqosauu
arsaneuauouuoro ctpecca tare roqtsepqakt uanu+ue nuae cnao sMpaeuuou cssu neqy cosnaqauuen co
ctpeccon u aertusuoctek qeteneuoctu (Bolger, 1990), sa ucrnk+euuen, sosnouo, ue sMsMsakaux oneaoro
yqusneuu qauuMx Kapsep u coastopos o ton, +to neutaneuoe otrnk+euue repeq arsaneuon orasMsaet uerotopoe
ueratusuoe snuuue ua ycreauocte rpoxoqeuu ucrMtauu.

peoqoneue cpecca: nys snepeq
8 uactoaee spen cyaectsyet uenano paot, roqseprakaux rputu+ecrony auanusy u oeure uccneqosauu s onactu
rpeoqoneuu ctpecca; oneaa +acte us uux cocpeqoto+eua ua arte, +to oneaoe ronu+ectso rposeqeuuMx
uccneqosauuu ue oecre+uno uac tarou uuopnaueu, rotopa norna M cnyute ocuosou qn teparestu+ecrou ronoau
(cn., uarpunep, Costa, Somerfield and McCrae, 1996; Coyne, 1997; Somerfield, 1997). Kputu+ecroe ocyqeuue
cyaectsykaux uccneqosauuu sMsuno nuoectso sorpocos, otsetM ua rotopMe nM eae u ue ua+uuanu ucrate. 8ot
uerotopMe us uux: Kar paotaet autuurupykaee cosnaqauue co ctpeccon? (Coyne and Gottlieb, 1996; Newton, 1989); +to
rpoucxoqut, rorqa nM ue s coctouuu ucronesosate qucrosuuouuMe ctunu cosnaqauu, rotopMe rpeqro+utaen, unu
rorqa ouu orasMsaktc ueaqersatuMnu? (Carver, Scheier and Weintraub, 1989).
Pq teopetu+ecrux u netoqonoru+ecrux rponen Mn paccnotpeu s atou rnase. 6oneaa +acte rputuru Mna uarpasneua
rpotus +pesnepuoro ucronesosauu orpocuuros s ra+ectse uuctpyneuta qn usnepeuu ctpateruu cosnaqauu co ctpecc-
con (uarpunep, Coyne and Gottlieb, 1996; Coyne, 1997; Somerfield, 1997). Coyne ytsepqaet, +to orpocuuru, tarue rar,
uarpunep. WOC u ero noquuuposauuMe sepcuu, cneqyet oeuusate rar repsMe aaru s usnepeuuu cosnaqauu co
ctpeccon. 8 qeuctsuteneuoctu e esqynuo rostopenoe ucronesosauue atux orpocuuros rpuseno r cotun uccne-
qosauuu, us rotopMx nM nano +to noen ysuate taroro, +to ue Mno M tpusuaneuMn unu ssoqaun s sanyqeuue
(Coyne, 1997, c. 153).
|ccneqosatenu ronarakt, +to ato otcytctsue rporpecca u passutu noet tare Mte oycnosneuo paspMson neqy
teopueu u netoqonorueu s uccneqosauuu rponenM rpeoqoneuu ctpecca (Somerfield, 1997).
Conepunq c+utaet, +to rouertyaneuMe noqenu, tarue rar, uarpunep, noqene asapyca (1990), orucMsakaue
cosnaqauue co ctpeccon rar uutepartusuMu quuanu+ecruu rpoecc, uactonero cnouM, +to ux tpyquo rposepute c
qoctato+uou ctereuek qorasateneuoctu. Tarun opason, s oneauuctse cny+aes uccneqosauu orycupyktc ua
orpauu+euuMx acrertax roqouMx noqeneu, tarux rar, craen, nu+uoctuMe unu cutyauouuMe artopM cosnaqauu co
ctpeccon, u nuae s uenuorux paotax qenanuce rorMtru uccneqosate cnouMe ssaunosasucunoctu s auporon
quarasoue snuuuu (cn., uarpunep, Aspinwall and Taylor, 1992).
3tu rputu+ecrue oeuru corposoqaktc rpusMsanu r usMcrauuk uosMx roqxoqos. orasMsaetc: rponenM s atou
onactu uccneqosauuu unekt tarou xapartep, +to ueoxoquna cneua rapaqurnM (t. e. ro cyaectsy paquraneuo uosMu
croco tpartosru sorpocos), a ue rarue-to uesua+uteneuMe usneueuu. 6Mn rpeqnoeu pq uosMx roqxoqos, oquu us
rotopMx onee paquraneuM, qpyrue neuee. Astopon oquoro us uosMx roqxoqos snetc Conepunq (Somerfield, 1997),
rotopMu rpeqnaraet ucronesosate onee xonuctu+ecrue noqenu, rotopMe rpuuunakt s pac+et nuoectso nu+uoctuMx u
cutyauouuMx artopos s quuanu+ecrou u uuteparuouuou cuctene otc+eta. 0quaro +toM roqouMe noqenu Mnu
rpartu+ecru rpuneuenMnu, uccneqosauu qonuM rposeptec ua nurpoauanutu+ecron yposue, t. e. uccneqosatenu
qonuM croueutpuposatec ua cosnaqauuu co creuu+ecrunu ctpeccopanu (uarpunep arsaneuauouuMu ctpecc).
Astop rpusoqut rpunep uccneqosauu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon y raueutos, repeuecaux tpaucrnautauk roctuoro
nosra.
Conepunq ytsepqaet, +to nurpoauanutu+ecruu roqxoq rossonet rony+ute uuopnauk, unekayk uerocpeqctseu-
uyk rpartu+ecryk euuocte. 0quaro roqouMu roqxoq uneet cyaectseuuMu ueqoctator, rotopMu coctout s ton, +to ou
noet rpertctsosate paspaotre auporou teopetu+ecrou roueruu (Smith and Wallston, 1997). |cxoq us atoro Cnut u
/onctou rpeqnarakt ucronesosate netaauanus s uccneqosauuu enoro pqa pasuoopasuMx ctpeccopos qn roctpoeuu
oaux teopuu.
1onrnau (Folkman, 1997), oquaro, ronaraet, +to sce eae coxpauetc ueoxoqunocte onee asosoro uccneqosauu,
copnynuposauuoro s routercte teopetu+ecrux noqeneu u rpequasua+euuoro qn paspeaeuu tarux sorpocos, rar
paspaotra rpuuuros s orpeqeneuuu aertusuoctu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca.
8 roucrax ryteu qn taroro asosoro uccneqosauu asapyc sMctyrun c rpeqnoeuuen r uccneqosatenn croueutpu-
posatec ua usy+euuu creuu+ecrux anouu. larpunep, ou rpeqronoun, +to sM+neueuue pearuu ruesa, ctpaxa unu
suuM u otqeneuoe usy+euue raqou us uux noet Mte onee uuopnatusuMn, +en rpoctoe sMsneuue pearuu ua
ctpecc (Lazarus, 1993). 0tckqa suo cneqyet sMsoq o ton, +to cosnaqauue co ctpeccon, ro sceu sepotuoctu, sasucut
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ot tura repeusaenoro anououaneuoro coctouu. larpunep, s routercte necyrpyecrux otuoaeuuu, rar ronaraet
uccneqosatene, so spen cropa ou (unu oua) noet cosnaqate co csoun rueson, atary rpotusoronouyk ctopouy, s to
spen rar s cutyaux, sMsMsakaux ctpax, +enoser noet ucrate couaneuou roqqepru. Astop c+utaet, +to uan o+eue
nano ussectuo o ton, rar cosnaqauue co ctpeccon opnupyetc anououaneuMn coctouuen, uo, ro sceu sepotuoctu,
raqa us anouu u raqa cutyau, rposoupykaa anououaneuoe coctouue, oycnosnusaet orpeqeneuuMu
creuu+ecruu rattepu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. |s scero atoro, oquaro, uarpaausaetc ueyteauteneuMu sMsoq o ton,
+to cyaectsyet ctone nuoro ronuuauu pasnu+uMx pearuu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon, +to nM eae onee qaneru ot
paspaotru ronesuou teopuu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca, rotopou nouo Mno M pyrosoqctsosatec rpu ocyaectsneuuu
teparestu+ecroro sosqeuctsu, +en qae nM qynanu.
Kocta, Conepunq u Varpau (1996) rpeqnarakt, roanyu, uauonee paquraneuMu roqxoq. 0uu ytsepqakt, +to:
pu++moe ecevu don,(e+ue, cnac+(ee, vmo cmpecc u coenada+ue c +uv +en+smc+ cne(uuvec|uvu npo(eccavu, ,npaen+evevu
ceouvu cocmee++evu sa|o+avu u eexod+(uvu sa pav|u +opvane+ou adanma(uu venoee|a, npen+mcmeoeano npocpecc, e amou
onacmu u numano +epeanucmuvec|ue ouda+u+ (c. 44).

AstopM c+utakt, +to ctpecc u ero rpeoqoneuue orpeqennuce rar ueruu creuu+ecruu acrert aqartauu +enosera,
rotopMu otnu+aetc rar ot pytuuuMx rpoeccos uay+euu u couaneuoro ssaunoqeuctsu, tar u ot rcuxoratonoru+ecrux
pearuu. onarakt, +to s qeuctsuteneuoctu ue cyaectsyet +etrou rpauuM neqy cosnaqauuen co ctpeccon u oM+uMnu
rcuxu+ecrunu rpoeccanu. larpunep, xot roucr uuopnauu paccnatpusaetc rar pearu cosnaqauu, uo cuo, +to
atot rcuxu+ecruu rpoecc snetc +actek roscequesuou usuu. AstopM ytsepqakt qanee, +to roqxoq, cornacuo
rotopony cosnaqauue co ctpeccon cneqyet paccnatpusate rar +acte onee auporou cepM uopnaneuou aqartauu,
cosnectun c rpeqnoeuuMn tesucon asapyca (1990) o ton, +to Mno M onee ronesuo saneuute roueruk
ctpecca usy+euuen anouu. 8 csete usnoeuuoro, sosnouo, yqet routuo, ro+eny uccneqosauu cosnaqauu co
ctpeccon ctone cnao rporpeccuposanu. Kar otne+akt Kocta, Conepunq u Varpau (1996),
Pec,nupoea+ue ce+sa++ex c ducmpeccov avo(uu +en+emc+ edu+cmee++ev +auonee ea+ev cpedomovuev e+uva+u+ dn+
|nu+uvec|ou ncuxonocuu u ncuxuampuu, |omopee dec+munemu+vu unuce c amou nponevou u docmucnu nuae c|pov+ex ,cnexoe.
Dudame, vmo uccnedoeamenu cmpecca u cnocooe eco npeodone+u+ cvoc,m peaume am, nponev, e nuauaue code, vo+o eno
e nuae ucxod+ us oauov+oco don,(e+u+ vem|oco pasdene+u+ ved, +opvane+evu u om|no++s(uvuc+ ncuxuvec|uvu npo(eccavu
{c. 47).
Eae onee uepeanuctu+uMn snetc qoryaeuue, cornacuo rotopony sce rpoeccM cosnaqauu co ctpeccon nouo
usy+ute u route, ucronesy oquu u tot e netoq, a uneuuo, netoq orpocuuros.
outuo, +to uosMu roqxoq cosqaet sua+uteneuMe tpyquoctu, rocronery rpu aton, ro-suqunony, pacaupetc onacte
uccneqosauu, oxsatMsa oneayk +acte rcuxonoruu. 0quaro Kocta, Conepunq u Varpau (1996) ronarakt tare, +to
uerotopMe peaeuu ye uane+aktc naroqap uarorneuuk seconMx suauuu o uopnaneuMx anououaneuMx u
roseqeu+ecrux rpoeccax. Tar, uarpunep, unekauec suauu s onactu rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu, anouu u peaeuu
rponen noryt oecre+ute sMqsueuue uosMx ronesuMx uqeu. AstopM c+utakt, +to snecto toro +toM sMcute nuorue
crocoM pearuposauu s ysrux rpauuax aqartusuMx rponen, ronesuee u rpoqyrtusuee Mno M croueutpuposatec ua
rnyuuuMx u creuu+ecrux nexauusnax cosnaqauu co ctpeccon. 0auu sMsoq us atux cyqeuuu, ro-suqunony,
cneqykauu. 8 to spen rar asosMe uccneqosauu qonuM cqenate csoun rpeqneton uuqusuqyaneuMe rpoeccM
(uarpunep rnyoro rpouuruyte s rpoeccM neutaneuoro otrnk+euu unu roucra couaneuou roqqepru), rpurnaquMe
uccneqosauu noryt orycuposatec ua o+eue rourpetuMx rponenax, tarux, uarpunep, rar cosnaqauue co
creuu+ecrunu nequuucrunu sneaatenectsanu (auanoru+uo rpeqnoeuun, sMcrasauuMn Conepunqon ((Somerfield,
1997) u ocyqasaunc sMae).

|nasa 8
6oansua noqqepka
8 atou rnase ocyqaetc pq roqxoqos r rponene couaneuou roqqepru, ot uccneqosauuu ctereuu passutu
couaneuMx csseu uuqusuqa u qo usy+euu onee rourpetuMx roqqepusakaux uuteparuu +enosera c qpyrunu
nkqenu. 8qece paccnotpeuM paotM, rocsaeuuMe uccneqosauuk sorpoca o ton, ronesua nu couaneua roqqepra qn
sqopose u cnr+aet nu oua sosqeuctsue ctpeccopos. anee paccnatpusaktc sosnouMe nexauusnM atux snuuuu. |,
uaroue, ocyqaetc cnouocte sorpocos couaneuou roqqepru s peaneuon nupe, u onee rourpetuo couaneuou
roqqepru raueutos, ctpaqakaux ouronoru+ecrunu saonesauunu.
CouaneuMe otuoaeuu urpakt secena sauyk pone s usuu nkqeu, u ue rpuxoqutc yqusntec tony, +to ux snuuue
ua rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue +enosera ua rpoteuuu nuorux net rpusnerano suunauue y+euMx. larpunep,
kprreun s csoeu rnaccu+ecrou paote, srepsMe orynurosauuou s 1897 roqy, sMqsuuyn rurotesy o ton, +to ueqoctato+-
uocte couaneuMx csseu u uusruu yposeue uuterpauu s rpyrrax cssau c rosMaeuuou +actotou canoyuucts (Durkheim,
1952). 8Mqeneuue couaneuou roqqepru rar otqeneuou onactu uccneqosauuu, oquaro, rpousoano cpasuuteneuo
ueqasuo u cssauo c qsyn paotanu: Kaccen (1976) u Ko (1976). Kaccen roq+eprusan pone couaneuou roqqepru s
rosMaeuuu corpotusnenoctu onesun. Ko paspaotan repsyk rnaccuurauk turos roqqepru. 0a uccneqo-
saten rpoqenouctpuposanu pone couaneuou roqqepru rar yepa, unu noqepatopa, ctpeccopuMx sosqeuctsuu (cn.
rnasy 6), +to uneno cyaectseuuoe sua+euue qn qaneueuaux paot.
8 rnase 6 nM suqenu, +to s uccneqosauux ctpateruu cosnaqauu co ctpeccon +acto ucronesyktc orpocuuru, tarue rar,
uarpunep, orpocuur C0PE. oqouMe orpocuuru srnk+akt oeury toro, s rarou ctereuu nkqu ucronesykt couaneuyk
roqqepry, nuo s rourpetuMx cutyaux, nuo rar oayk qucrosuuouuyk teuqeuuk. oqxoqM r couaneuou
roqqepre, ocyqaenMe s qauuou rnase, uecronero qpyrue u cssauM c ten, s rarou ctereuu pecypcM couaneuou
roqqepru qoctyruM unu rpeqnaraktc qpyrunu nkqenu. lue paccnatpusaktc rpeqctasneuu pqa astopos o
couaneuou roqqepre u rurotetu+ecrue nexauusnM ee snuuu.

+o ueec s sqy noq coansuo noqqepko?
8 auporyk rateropuk, oosua+aenyk tepnuuon couaneua roqqepra, srnk+aetc nuoectso sorpocos;
uccneqosauu racaktc nuoectsa rponen, ua+uua ot toro, cssauM nu couaneua usonu u cneptuocte, u
sasepaa usy+euuen rpupoqM creuu+ecrux opn roqqepusakaero roseqeuu, rotopMe noryt Mte ronesuMnu qn
nu, ctpaqakaux pacctpouctsanu ruae+uura. VetoqM uccneqosauu otpaakt ato pasuoopasue sorpocos, ua+uua ot
usnepeuu o+eue oaux rorasateneu, tarux rar ceneuuMe otuoaeuu unu +ucno +neuos ceneu, u sasepaa tarunu,
rotopMe oeuusakt o+eue rourpetuMe opnM roqqepusakaero roseqeuu (uarpunep sMcrasMsauue cosetos). 8 to
spen rar s uerotopMx paotax uccneqosanuce suqM roqqepru, rotopMe ue snktc +etro couaneuMnu (uarpunep
usnepeuue qoctyruoctu unu ronu+ectsa uuaucosou roqqepru), s ocuosuon ata rnasa rocsaeua roqqepusakaun
acrertan uneuuo couaneuMx otuoaeuuu.
Pq astopos rMtanuce rnaccuuuposate cyaectsykaue roqxoqM r couaneuou roqqepre. lerotopMe us uux rposoqt
pasrpauu+euue neqy ctpyrtypuMnu u yuruouaneuMnu usnepeuunu (Cohen and Wills, 1985: Uchino, Cacioppo and
Kiecok-Glaser, 1996). 8 to spen rar ctpyrt} puMe usnepeuu uarpasneuM ua usy+euue cyauoctu couaneuMx otuoaeuuu,
rotopMe, rar rpeqrktaraetc, oecre+usakt roqqepry, yuruouaneuMe usnepeuu uccneqykt roqqepusakaue
yuruu atux otuoaeuuu. lerotopMe astopM uqeutuuuposanu eae uecronero turos couaneuou roqqepru. lue
qetaneuo ocyqaktc +etMpe rateropuu, ocuosauuMe ua rnaccuuraux 6appepa (1986) u 8uuuact, 6aur u
Vapcenuseu (1988). 3to cneqykaue rateropuu: srnk+euuocte (embeddedness), ra+ectso otuoaeuu, socrpuuunaena
roqqepra u rpeqoctasnena (enacted) roqqepra.
Coquansna unmeepaqu u eknmvennocms
3tot roqxoq uarpasneu ua usy+euue ctpyrtypM roqqepru u csseu uuqusuqyyna c qpyrunu nkqenu us ero couaneuoro
orpyeuu (8arrera, 1986). 6appepa ronaraet, +to s nutepatype nouo sMqenute qsa rnasuMx roqxoqa r oeure atux
csseu. 0quu us uux ocuosMsaetc ua ucronesosauuu tarux uuquratopos, rar ceneuuoe ronoeuue, +neuctso s oprauusa-
uu unu +ucno qpyseu. 8topou roqxoq ucronesyet onee cnouMe usnepeuu couaneuMx csseu, rotopMe rpuuunakt s
pac+et tarue artopM, rar ctauneuocte u cnouocte couaneuMx otuoaeuuu. oqouMe usnepeuu qosoneuo uecosep-
aeuuM u uu+ero ue rosopt uan o ra+ectse atux ssaunootuoaeuuu. Ten ue neuee, ouu, cornacuo oaeny nueuuk, cnyat
rocseuuMn uuquratopon ronesuoctu roqqepru.
Knaccu+ecroe uccneqosauue, roqtsepqakaee sauocte couaneuMx csseu qn rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u, Mno
rposeqeuo s CLA 6eprnau u Caun (1979). Astopanu Mnu rony+euM yequteneuMe csuqetenectsa toro, +to
ueqoctato+uocte couaneuMx csseu snetc artopon pucra s otuoaeuuu sqopose. 8 aton uccneqosauuu usy+anace
cny+auua sMopra, coctoaa us ro+tu 5 000 sspocnMx pecrouqeutos (s sospacte 30-69 net), ua rpoteuuu qestu net,
ua+uua c 1965 roqa. 8 ua+ane uccneqosauu orpeqennoce uanu+ue u ctereue sMpaeuuoctu +etMpex turos
couaneuMx csseu cene, routartM c nusrunu poqctseuuuranu u qpysenu, +neuctso s eprosuMx oauuax u qpyrue
opnaneuMe u ueopnaneuMe cssu. 0euusanace rporuoctu+uocte raqou cssu s otuoaeuuu cneptuoctu s te+euue
cneqykaux qestu net, a tare orpeqennace ctereue rporuoctu+uoctu ronuuuposauuoro uuqerca cetu couaneuMx
csseu. 8Mcuunoce, +to nkqu c uusrun uuqercon ynupanu ro+tu s qsa pasa +aae, +en nkqu c sMcorun uuqercon, qae
c y+eton tarux artopos, rar couaneuMu rnacc, rypeuue, ronuota u coctouue sqopose, rarun ouo Mno ua ucxoquMu
noneut uccneqosauu osMaeuuMu pucr Mn cssau ue rpocto c rarou-to oquou rpu+uuou, a co nuorunu rpu+uuanu
cneptu. leqoctatron atoro uccneqosauu Mno ucronesosauue canoot+etos o sqoposee rpu ua+aneuMx usnepeuux.
0quaro rostopuMe uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe c ucronesosauuen usuonoru+ecrux usnepeuuu, roqtsepqunu atu
qauuMe, xot sMsneuuMe cssu orasanuce neuee sMpaeuuMnu y euauu (cn., uarpunep, House, Robbins and Metzner,
1982; Schoenbach et al., 1986). la ocuose rposeqeuuoro unu osopa pqa uccneqosauuu Xayc, auquc u /nepcou (1988)
cqenanu sMsoq: unekauec qauuMe yequteneuo qorasMsakt, +to cnaMe couaneuMe cssu cssauM c rosMaeuuMn
pucron qae rpu y+ete qpyrux artopos pucra. 0uu tare rpuanu r sarnk+euuk, +to coctouue s pare onee ronesuo
qn sqopose ny+uu, +en qn sqopose euauu, a rotep cyrpyru onee spequa. 0quaro cssu c qpysenu unu
poqctseuuuranu noryt qn euauu Mte ctone e unu qae onee narorputuo enuteneuMnu, +en qn ny+uu.
6eprnau (1995), ocuosMsace ua ueqasuen osope qauuMx o sasucunoctu sqopose u couaneuMx csseu, ytsepqaet:
qorasatenectsa sauoctu couaneuou uuterpauu s uactoaee spen ctone yequteneuM, +to ropa cqenate cneqykauu
aar s uarpasneuuu paspaotru netoqos ycosepaeuctsosauu couaneuMx csseu. Xot cosqauue rpyrr roqqepru qn
raueutos terepe ye qeno sronue oM+uoe, 6eprnau ronaraet, +to sneaatenectsa, uarpasneuuMe ua pectpyrtypu-
posauue ectectseuuMn ryten sosuurakaux ceteu couaneuMx csseu u pecypcos roqqepru yqyt onee aertusuMnu
ro cpasueuuk c tenu, rotopMe ocuosMsaktc ua rpatrospeneuuMx rpyrrax roqqepru (Berk-man, 1995, c. 251). outuo,
+to qn ycuneuu ceteu couaneuMx csseu rotpeyetc enMu pq creuaneuMx neporputuu. 0uu noryt srnk+ate
arouonu+ecrue u ronutu+ecrue uuuuatusM, a tare auporonacatauMe sneaatenectsa, roueutpupykauec ua
oprauusauu oauu unu pao+ux nect.
0quaro yny+aeuue ceteu couaneuMx csseu ue rapautupyet toro, +to uuqusuq qeuctsuteneuo rony+ut oneayk ronoae
s cny+ae ueoxoqunoctu. Koau u 8unne (1985) ytsepqakt, +to roppenu neqy ronu+ectson couaneuMx csseu,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
unekauxc y nkqeu, u qeuctsuteneuou yuruouaneuou roqqeprou, rotopyk ouu rony+akt, orasMsaetc oM+uo
qosoneuo uusrou. AstopM rpeqronarakt s ra+ectse sosnouou rpu+uuM to, +to oqua xopoaa couaneua csse noet
oecre+ute uuorqa +enosery onee aertusuyk roqqepry, ueenu nuorue rosepxuoctuMe cssu s qpyrux cny+ax.
kavecmeennm acnekm coquansno noddepaku
8 otnu+ue ot sMaeorucauuoro roqxoqa, rotopMu ocuosMsaetc ua ronu+ectse nkqeu, c rotopMnu sosnouM couaneuMe
cssu, qauuMu roqxoq paccnatpusaet couaneuyk roqqepry c to+ru speuu cyertusuo repeusaenoro ra+ectsa
couaneuMx csseu uuqusuqa (Win-nubst, Buunk and Marcelissen, 1988, c. 513). 3tot roqxoq cootsetctsyet uqee o ton,
+to oqua rnyora csse noet Mte sauee, +en aupora cete couaneuMx csseu.
8 uccneqosauuu, rotopoe noet cnyute rpunepon taroro roqxoqa, Xoann u uepnau (1987) usy+anu ra+ectseuuMu
acrert snuuu cyrpyecrux ssaunootuoaeuuu ua pearuu ua ctpeccopM, cssauuMe c poqanu. AstopM ocneqosanu
rpyrry euauu, unesaux uopnaneuMe poqM, u rpyrry c pasuoro poqa ctpeccoreuuMnu poqanu, rar, uarpunep, rpeqes-
peneuuMe poqM, recapeso ce+euue u sMruqMa. 0rpeqennoce, s rarou ctereuu nusocte otuoaeuuu c cyrpyron, a tare
yposeue canoysaeuu cnyunu noqepatopanu cssu neqy ctpeccopon u qerpeccueu. AstopM uaanu, +to rar nusrue
otuoaeuu, tar u sMcoruu yposeue canoysaeuu, cuuakt qerpeccuk so spen ctpeccoreuuoro coMtu, xot ux qoron-
uuteneuoe narotsopuoe snuuue u uesenuro. 0quaro tpu neca cryct sMcora cuna (self-efficacy) cnr+ana
qerpeccuk, s to spen rar sMcora ctereue nusoctu c cyrpyron roqouoro snuuu ue orasMsana. AstopM ronarakt, +to
sMcoroe canoysaeuue rossonet +enosery rpotusoctote +ysctsan ueyqa+u u roqasneuuoctu. oqqepusakaue cssu
noryt orasMsate roqouoe snuuue ua ua+aneuon atare. 0quaro rocne rpoxoqeuu +epes ua+aneuMu rpusuc u cuueuu
couaneuou roqqepru euauuM, rotopMe sasucenu ot csoux nusrux otuoaeuuu, qonuM Mnu cuosa ronaratec ua
coctseuuMe rcuxonoru+ecrue pecypcM.
Eae oquu rpunep peanusauu atoro roqxoqa rnaccu+ecroe couonoru+ecroe uccneqosauue, rposeqeuuoe s ouqoue
6payuon u Xappu-con (Brown and Harris, 1978). 6onee 400 euauu Mnu rpouutepsekuposauM ua rpeqnet sauMx
coMtuu ux usuu, unesaux necto sa rpoaeqauu roq. |x rpocunu tare uassate nkqeu, rotopMn ouu nornu M
paccrasate o csoux rponenax unu ropectx. 8aten uccneqosatenu rnaccuuuposanu pecrouqeutos s cootsetctsuu c
ten, unenuce nu y uux nusrue, uutunuMe, qoseputeneuMe cssu c ren-nuo us orpyakaux. 8 sasucunoctu ot
xapartepa otuoaeuuu y+actuuM uccneqosauu Mnu pasqeneuM ua +etMpe rpyrrM: a) euauuM, y rotopMx unenuce
nusrue, uutunuMe u qoseputeneuMe otuoaeuu c nyen unu qpyron, unu uuorqa c rarou-nuo euauuou us +ucna
nusrux poqctseuuu; ) euauuM, ue unekaue otuoaeuuu c ren-nuo, tarux rar y euauu us repsou rpyrrM, uo
cooausaue o ton, +to y uux ecte +enoser, rotopony ouu noryt qoseputec (uarpunep: poqctseuuur unu qpyr) u c
rotopMn ouu sctpe+aktc, ro rpauueu nepe, pas s ueqenk; s) euauuM, unekaue +enosera, rotopony ouu nornu M
qoseputec, u c rotopMn sctpe+aktc pee oquoro pasa s ueqenk; r) euauuM, y rotopMx otcytctsykt sce sMae-
orucauuMe sosnouoctu otuoaeuuu c orpyakaunu.
ony+euuMe qauuMe roqtsepqunu, +to uanu+ue qoseputeneuMx otuoaeuuu snetc rnasuMn saautuMn artopon. 8
tex cny+ax, rorqa euauuM cooaanu o ueratusuMx usueuuMx coMtux unu cepeesuMx rponenax, ua raqMe qecte
euauu us repsou rpyrrM rpuxoqunace oqua, y rotopou passusanace qerpeccu; so stopou rpyrre qerpeccu passusa-
nace y oquou us raqMx +etMpex euauu, a s tpeteeu u +etseptou rpyrrax qerpeccu passusanace y qsyx euauu us
raqMx rtu.
0quun us ueqoctatros qauuoro uccneqosauu snetc to, +to ero y+actuuM orucMsanu coMtu u sosnouoctu
roqqepru petpocrertusuo. 3tot ueqoctator Mn yctpaueu s cneqykaen uccneqosauuu, s rotopon rpuunu y+actue 303
euauuM (sce unekaue qeteu, rpousakaux snecte c uunu), y rotopMx ua noneut ua+ana uccneqosauu ue Mno
qerpeccusuoro coctouu (Brown et al., 1986). 8 te+euue 12 neces rocne repsoua+aneuou quaruocturu onee +en y
ronosuuM us uux rpousoanu tenMe ueratusuMe coMtu unu sosuurnu cepeesuMe rponenM. / oneauuctsa us tex, y
roro passunace qerpeccu (y 91 % euauu), ueratusuMe coMtu rpousoanu sa aecte neces qo ua+ana qerpeccuu.
PesynetatM s cssu c couaneuou roqqeprou orasanuce cnouMnu. / sanyuux euauu artu+ecru ue Mno ouapy-
euo uurarou cssu neqy nusrun, qoseputeneuMn otuoaeuuen c ux nyenu s ua+ane uccneqosauu u passutuen
qerpeccuu rocne ueratusuoro coMtu. 0quaro roqqepra co ctopouM nya so spen rpusuca (ro petpocrertusuMn
oeuran) Mna cssaua c rouueuuen pucra qerpeccuu. +to racaetc oquuorux euauu, to cano uanu+ue qoseputeneuMx
otuoaeuuu cssauo c neuee sMpaeuuou qerpeccueu. pu+uua, ro-suqunony, sarnk+aetc s ton, +to euauuM, rotopMe
unenu sosnouocte rony-to qoseputec, uo s qaneueuaen ue nornu rony+ute roqqepry so spen rpusuca, t. e. Mnu
roruuytM s eqe raptuepon unu qpyron, orasMsaktc roqsepeuuMnu qerpeccuu s tou e nepe, +to u te, rto uurorqa
ue unen yrasauuou sMae sosnouoctu. Kar uu re+aneuo, uo 40% natepeu us +ucna coctoaux s pare Mnu octasneu-
uMnu s eqe csounu raptuepanu s ton cnMcne; +to ouu ue rony+anu ot uux roqqepru so spen rpusuca. Pasyneetc, s
uerotopMx cny+ax, uarpunep s cny+ae cyrpyecrou uesepuoctu co ctopouM nya, ny orasMsaetc sosne+euuMn s
ctpeccoreuuMe coMtu. 8 qpyrux cny+ax euauua, pacc+utMsa ua roqqepry, norna sce e ee ue rony+ute. 6payu
(Brown et al., 1986) rpusoqut rpunep euauuM c suenato+uou epeneuuoctek. /suas o aton, ee ny sasun, +to ato
ero ue racaetc. |utepecuo otnetute, +to qn oquuorux euauu uanu+ue qoseputeneuMx otuoaeuuu s ucxoquMu
noneut Mno cyaectseuuo onee rporuoctu+uMn s otuoaeuuu rony+euu roqqepru s rputu+ecruu noneut, rorqa s ueu
sosuurna ueoxoqunocte, t. e. sepotuocte toro, +to ouu yqyt octasneuM s eqe, Mna sua+uteneuo uue. 3tu euauuM,
ro-suqunony, snounu s passutue tarux otuoaeuuu oneae speneuu, u atu otuoaeuu rpoanu rposepry so spen qpyrux
rpusucos (Brown et al). 8 oaen, rony+euuMe qauuMe roqtsepqakt sauocte nusrux, qoseputeneuMx otuoaeuuu, uo
tare u qenouctpupykt ux cnouocte u tpyquoctu ux usy+euu. Auanoru+uo uccneqosauuk Xoann u uepnau, s
qauuou paote tare Mno yqeneuo suunauue ponu canoysaeuu. AstopM sMsunu ssaunocsse atoro rorasaten c
rorasatennu couaneuou roqqepru u ero rporuoctu+uocte s otuoaeuuu sosuuruoseuu rocneqykaeu qerpeccuu.

ocnpuuaeua coansua noqqepka
3tot roqxoq xapartepusyetc ten, +to uccneqyetc socrputue uuqusuqon couaneuou roqqepru, rony+aenou un ot
cetu couaneuMx csseu; pecrouqeutos, uarpunep, rpoct oeuute ue ctonero cano uanu+ue couaneuMx routartos,
cronero yqosnetsopeuuocte unu, ux aqersatuocte u ronesuocte roqqepusakaux csseu. +ucno y+actsykaux nkqeu u
ronu+ectso rpeqnaraenMx unu routartos oM+uo rpu aton ue usnepetc. larpunep, s oquon nourutkquon uccneqo-
sauuu usy+anuce roqqepusakaue otuoaeuu y+actuuros rar s cenee, tar u ua paote. |snepeuue otuoaeuuu rposoqu-
noce qsaqM c uutepsanon s oquu roq. |ccneqosatenu rpocunu pecrouqeutos oeuute csou ceneuuMe otuoaeuu,
ucronesy ytsepqeuu, tarue rar, uarpunep: +neuM noeu ceneu qeuctsuteneuo roqqepusakt qpyr qpyra. Aua-
noru+uMn opason oeuusanuce otuoaeuu ua paote c ucronesosauuen tarux ytsepqeuuu, rar, uarpunep: Paotuuru
+acto pasrosapusakt qpyr c qpyron o csoux nu+uMx rponenax unu Paotuuru ocyqakt csou nu+uMe rponenM c
ua+anectson. 8 aton uccneqosauuu oeuusanuce rar couaneua uuterpau (netoqon, orucauuMn sMae), tar u yposuu
qonaaueu u ceneuuou roqqepru. ony+euuMe qauuMe s orpeqeneuuou ctereuu roqtsepqunu rurotesy o ton, +to
[yneueaeuue socrpuuunaenou roqqepru s cenee u ua paote ua rpoteuuu uutepsana neqy qsyn usnepeuunu
Mno cssauo c ycuneuuen qerpeccuu u rcuxoconatu+ecrunu cunrtonanu.
Tarou roqxoq +acto ucronesyetc rpu uccneqosauuu socrpuuunaenou roqqepru, unekaeuc co ctopouM ua+anectsa u
cotpyquuros. (euctsuteneuo, s uactoaee spen oqua us uauonee ussectuMx noqeneu ctpecca ua pao+en necte
noqene tpeosauu routpone Kapacera (Karasek's demand control model) +acto ucronesyetc s pacaupeuuon
sapuaute, rorqa srnk+aetc oeura socrputu cssauuMx c paotou roqqepusakaux otuoaeuuu (Johnson and Hall,
1988). |neetc oneaoe +ucno uccneqosauuu, ucronesykaux atot suq repeneuuMx s routercte rpoussoqctseuuMx
otuoaeuuu. larpunep, s uccneqosauuu 1net+ep u ouc (1993) Mno rorasauo, +to couaneua roqqepra ua rpousso-
qctse ocuet oneae pasnu+uu rorasaten tpesouoctu, +en sce qpyrue cssauuMe c paotou repeneuuMe (tpeo-
sauu u routpone), sstMe snecte.
Xot sMcueuue toro, rar nkqu socrpuuunakt roqqepusakaue otuoaeuu, snetc qosoneuo rpoctMn u uutyutusuo
routuMn netoqon usy+euu couaneuou roqqepru, qeno ue oxoqutc es netoqonoru+ecrux rponen, ocoeuuo ecnu
saten rony+euuMe rorasatenu cootuocute c rorasatennu rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u, usnepeuuoro c ronoaek
canoot+etos. 8ronue sepotuo, +to rpu aton yqet sMsneua rosutusua roppenu (cn., uarpunep, Holahan and Moos,
1981; Fletcher and Jones, 1993), uo uarpasneuue rpu+uuuou oycnosneuuoctu noet Mte uecuMn. 8osnouo, +to
ueqoctator couaneuou roqqepru seqet r qerpeccuu, uo qeno noet coctote u s ton, +to qerpeccu unu tpesouocte
oycnasnusakt ueratusuoe oeuusauue nkqenu ux otuoaeuuu c qpyrunu u tou roqqepru, rotopyk te rpeqnarakt. le
ucrnk+euM u qpyrue rponenM, cssauuMe c oM+uMnu netoqanu (rotopMe ocyqanuce s rnase 2). Xot qpyrue ocuo-
sauuMe ua canoot+etax netoqM, tarue rar, uarpunep, usnepeuu rpeqoctasnenou couaneuou roqqepru, ocyqae-
nMe s cneqykaen pasqene, ue yctpaukt atu rponenM ronuoctek, ux rpeunyaectson snetc onee creuu+ecra
u uuorqa onee oertusua rpupoqa ytsepqeuuu, rotopMe srnk+euM s orpocuuru.
0pedocmaeneva coquansna noddepaka
3tun routuen oosua+aetc couaneua roqqepra s tepnuuax toro, +to nkqu qeuctsuteneuo qenakt, rorqa ouu
orasMsakt roqqepry qpyrony +enosery (Barrera, 1986). Vuorue astopM paspaatMsanu tarcouonuu rpeqoctasnenou
roqqepru, u atu tarcouonuu +acto srnk+akt tarue artopM, rar anououaneua /oeuo+ua roqqepra, uuctpyneuta-
neua (unu peaneua) roqqepra u uuopnauouua roqqepra (cn., uarpunep, Cohen and Wills, 1985). 0euo+ua, unu
anououaneua, roqqepra osua+aet rpusuauue u rpuutue +yscts. |uopnauouua roqqepra srnk+aet cosetM u
pyrosoqctso, a uuctpyneutaneua peaneuyk rpartu+ecryk ronoae. Koau u 8unne srnk+akt tare qoronuuteneuyk
rateropuk cosnectuoe rposeqeuue qocyra.
|ccneqosatenu oM+uo ucronesykt qauuMu roqxoq r couaneuou roqqepre s tex cny+ax, rorqa ouu ctpentc to+uo
orpeqenute, rarou suq roqqepru yqet roneseu rpuneuuteneuo r creuu+ecrony tury ctpeccopa. larpunep, aro u
Teunop (1990) uutepsekuposanu oneuMx paron ua rpeqnet toro, rar ouu socrpuuunakt orasMsaenyk un roqqepry
+to ouu c+utakt uauonee ronesuMn, a +to ecronesuMn us toro, +to un rosopt unu qn uux qenakt. 0tsetM raueutos
Mnu rnaccuuuposauM cootsetctseuuo turan roqqepru ua tpu rateropuu: a) oeuo+ua unu anououaneua roqqep-
ra, ) uuopnauouua roqqepra, s) peaneua roqqepra. |ccneqosauue rorasano, +to oeuo+ua/anououaneua
roqqepra Mna uauonee ronesuMn suqon roqqepru, rony+aenou ot ceneu u qpyseu, a uuopnauouua u peaneua
uauneuee euuMnu. lusrue yposuu anououaneuou roqqepru unu ueroqxoqaue opnM roqqepru ot nusrux
poqctseuuuros tare paceuusanuce rar ocoeuuo ecronesuMe, uarpunep, rorqa cyrpyru cnuaron uuteucusuo sMpaa-
nu csou +ysctsa. +to racaetc roqqepru, ucxoqaeu ot qpyrux oneuMx u ot spa+eu, to nuorunu nkqenu rpusuaetc
ronesuocte uuopnauouuou roqqepru.
Cneqykaee uccneqosauue, sMronueuuoe Vaptuu u coastopanu (1994), pacaupuno roqxoq aro u Teunop, rpuneuus ero
r usy+euuk xpouu+ecrux saonesauuu, ue uecyaux yrposM usuu. AstopM ucronesosanu tarou e netoq ctpyrtypuposau-
uoro uutepsek, rar u orucauuMu sMae, uo y+actuuranu ux uccneqosauu Mnu raueutM, ctpaqakaue cuuqponon
pasqpaeuu ruae+uura (irritable bowel syndrome IBS), u nua, ctpaqakaue roctouuMnu ronosuMnu onnu. Pesyne-
tatM, rony+euuMe ua atux qsyx rpyrrax, Mnu coroctasneuM c pesynetatanu sMae orucauuoro uccneqosauu, y+actuu-
ranu rotoporo Mnu oneuMe paron. peqronaranoce, +to nua, ctpaqakaue IBS u ronosuMnu onnu, yqyt otnu+atec
ot oneuMx paron s ton, rar ouu socrpuuunakt ronesuyk u ecronesuyk roqqepry. 8 +actuoctu, ouqanoce, +to scneq-
ctsue oycnosneuuoro paron ctpaxa oeuo+ua/anououaneua roqqepra noet paceuusatec parosMnu oneuMnu
rar onee saua. C qpyrou ctopouM, qucronopt, cosqasaenMu ronosuMnu onnu u cuuqponon IBS, rar ouqanoce,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
noet sectu r tony, +to peaneua roqqepra yqet paccnatpusatec oneuMnu, ctpaqakaunu tarunu pacctpouctsanu,
rar onee saua. 0quaro uccneqosatenu tare rpeqronaranu, +to s otnu+ue ot raueutos, ctpaqakaux ronosuMnu
onnu, raueutM c IBS, scneqctsue toro, +to ato pacctpouctso cssauo c +ysctson ctMqa, yqyt paceuusate peaneuyk
roqqepry rar neuee ronesuyk.
lnasuMu pesynetat atoro uccneqosauu cocton s ton, +to, rar u rpeqcrasMsanoce, raueutM, ctpaqakaue ronosuMnu
onnu u cuuqponon pasqpaeuu ruae+uura, s otnu+ue ot oneuMx paron, oneaee sua+euue rpuqasanu peaneuou
ronoau u neueaee oeuo+uou/ anououaneuou roqqepre. 0quaro uankqanoce neueae pasnu+uu neqy raueu-
tanu us rpyrr ronosua one u cuuqpon pasqpaeuu ruae+uura; ouu oquuaroso +acto paceuusanu sce tpu tura
roqqepru rar ronesuMe. aueutM, ctpaqakaue ronosuMnu onnu u IBS, rar u parosMe oneuMe, scronuuanu oneae
cny+aes ronesuou roqqepru, +en ecronesuou, xot cooaeuu o rorMtrax ecronesuou roqqepru ue Mnu +en-to
ueoM+uMn. 3tu qsa uccneqosauu qenouctpupykt crocoM, rocpeqctson rotopMx noryt Mte peanusosauM rourpetuMe
roqxoqM r couaneuou roqqepre, otrpMsakaue uosMe sosnouoctu orasauu onee aertusuou ronoau nkqn,
ctpaqakaun usnatMsakaunu saonesauunu.
havepenu u ceau veady paanuvnmvu nokaaa men vu
Cootsetctseuuo pasuoopasuk roqxoqos, paspaotauo nuoectso rorasateneu couaneuou roqqepru, orpeqenenMx
rocpeqctson uutepsek nuo orpocuuros. 0rynurosauuMe pesynetatM uccneqosauuu ocuosauM ua usnepeuuu oneaoro
pasuoopasu rorasateneu, rotopMe ue noryt Mte +etro otueceuM r rarou-nuo us yrasauuMx sMae rateropuu (uarpu-
nep, cn. uccneqosauue, orucauuoe qanee so spesre 8.2). 3to octotenectso cosqaet oneaue tpyquoctu s rnaue
cpasueuu qauuMx, rony+euuMx s pasuMx uccneqosauux. Xeutcnau u Karnau (1988) rpoauanusuposanu 23 netoquru, u
ytsepqakt, +to so nuorux cny+ax otcytctsykt qauuMe o sanuquoctu u uaqeuoctu, a sMop tou unu uuou us uux,
sepotuo, sasucut ot rourpetuoro rouunauu roqqepru, rpeqro+utaenoro uccneqosatenen. larpunep, uccneqosatene,
uutepecykauuc socrpuuunaenou roqqeprou, noet ucronesosate 0rpocuur couaneuou roqqepru (SSQ Social
Support Questionnaire; Sarason et al.,1983), coctoaeu us 27 ytsepqeuuu, raqoe us rotopMx coqeput qse +actu.
Pecrouqeutos rpoct cua+ana uassate nkqeu, rotopMn ouu nornu M qoseputec u ua roqqepry rotopMx ouu nornu M
pacc+utMsate s qauuMx octotenectsax, u saten oeuute csok oayk yqosnetsopeuuocte tarou roqqeprou.
|ccneqosatene, uutepecykauuc peaneuou roqqeprou, noet ucronesosate 0rpocuur rpeqoctasnenMx roqqepusa-
kaux qeuctsuu 6appepa (1981). 0rpocuur coctout us 40 ytsepqeuuu, u pecrouqeutM oeuusakt, rar +acto qpyrue nkqu
sMronunu qn uux orpeqeneuuMe roqqepusakaue qeuctsu s te+euue rpoaeqaero neca. 8ot qsa rpunepa tarux
qeuctsuu: oqonunu 8an onee $25 unu roqqepanu 8ac, sMpasus ueuyk rpussauuocte u ternMe +ysctsa.
pyrou roqxoq Mn paspaotau Tkpuep u lou+ (1983). AstopM ucronesosanu suueetru (rpatrue orucauu) nkqeu, a
pecrouqeutM qonuM Mnu crasate, ua roro us orucauuMx repcou ouu canu oneae scero roxou. C ronoaek atou
netoquru orpeqenetc rar ronu+ectseuuMu rorasatene roqqepru, tar u rotpeuocte s ueu, enauue ee rony+ute. 8o
spesre 8.1 rpusoqutc rpunep roqouou suueetru, ucronesosauuou unnott u Vaqnopu (1988).
Pouuu Ctkapt utep
kqu rpeqauuM Pouuu u kqu oM+uo nkt Ctkapta. kqu ue qenouctpupykt
nkt ero. 0uu scerqa Voryt cunratusuposate eny, eny csoeu rpeqauuoctu.
roqqepusakt ero, rotosM

0uu ue orasMsakt eny
ero sMcnyaate, sMpaakt uo ue scerqa sMcnyausakt oqqepru.
eny csok cunratuk. u roqqepusakt ero. 0uu ue saottc u ue

nkt ero.



F tarou, F +to-to cpequee F tarou, F +to-to cpequee F tarou
rar Pouuu neqy Pouuu u rar Ctkapt neqy Ctkapton rar utep
Ctkapton u utepon

8pesra 8.1. 8uueeto+uMu roqxoq r oeure couaneuou roqqepru. (Jemmortand Magloire, 1988)

oqouMe suueetru ucronesyktc rpu usy+euuu rpeqro+utaenou couaneuou roqqepru, uarpunep: Kesuu sce spen
ucrMtMsaet rotpeuocte s ton, +toM nkqu rocsaanu ce eny u nkunu ero. 0u roctouuo +ysctsyet rotpeuocte s
ton, +toM nkqu sMpaanu eny csou cunratuu u saotunuce o uen. sa ytsepqeuu saten noryt ronuuuposatec c
ten, +toM rony+ute oeury socrpuuunaenou roqqepru otuocuteneuo tou, rotpeuocte s rotopou +enoser ucrMtMsaet.
0rpocuuru, rossonkaue rposectu ronuyk oeury couaneuou roqqepru, ueuseuo srnk+akt cnuaron nuoro sorpo-
cos, +to noet rpertctsosate ux ucronesosauuk s usy+euuu ctpeccosMx cutyauu (uarpunep s ycnosux rpoussoqctseu-
uMx otuoaeuuu), rqe ueoxoquno oeuute tare oneaoe +ucno qpyrux rapanetpos. oatony uccneqosatenu ctpecca
+acto rpuerakt r ucronesosauuk qpyrux, onee yqouMx netoqur, uarpunep, ocuosauuMx ua rpatrux oeurax socrpuuu-
naenou roqqepru co ctopouM ronner, ua+anectsa u t. q. (cn., uarpunep, Parkes, Mendham and von Rabenau, 1994;
Fletcher and Jones, 1993). 0quaro sosnouoctu tarux netoqur, ro-suqunony, onee orpauu+euM.
8cneqctsue pasuoopasu unekauxc roqxoqos u otcytctsu ux arsusaneutuoctu uesosnouo uerocpeqctseuuo
uuteprpetuposate qauuMe, rony+euuMe s pasuMx uccneqosauux. euctsuteneuo, pesynetatM usnepeuu couaneuou
srnk+euuoctu, socrpuuunaenou couaneuou roqqepru u rpeqoctasnenou couaneuou roqqepru +acto ouapyusakt
nuae cnaMe roppenuu (Barrera, 1986). +ucno qpyseu u +neuos ceneu us uaaero crucra noet nano otpaate uaae o-
aee socrputue toro, rar nuoro roqqepru nM rony+aen, +to, s csok o+epeqe, noet nuae s cnaou ctereuu
cootuocutec c peaneuou rpeqoctasnenou roqqeprou, rotopyk nM oayaaen.
se rateropuu roqqepru, a uneuuo, socrpuuunaena roqqepra u socrpuuunaenoe ra+ectso otuoaeuuu, rar
rpeqctasnetc, onee tecuo cssauM neqy coou. 0quaro upc, Capacou u Capacou (1991) cpasuunu pesynetatM
usnepeuu oaero socrputu couaneuou roqqepru (s ton +ucne ro orpocuury SSG) c pesynetatanu usnepeuu roq-
qepru, rony+aenou ot rourpetuMx nkqeu. 0uu ouapyunu, +to yposeue socrpuuunaenou roqqepru ot natepeu u
qpyseu rossonet rporuosuposate sosuuruoseuue s qaneueuaen +ysctsa oquuo+ectsa (opatuMu xapartep cssu) c
cyaectseuuo oneaeu qoctosepuoctek, +en oauu yposeue socrpuuunaenou couaneuou roqqepru. AstopM rpuanu r
sMsoqy, +to cyqeuu nkqeu o rourpetuMx otuoaeuux pasutc c ux oaun socrputuen couaneuou roqqepru, u +to
rocnequee noet otpaate ux nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu. 8 +actuoctu, ro ytsepqeuuk astopos, ouo otpaaet +ysctso
roqqepru, rotopoe
...e|nsvaem ,ede+u+ venoee|a e mov, vmo eco ns+m, (e++m u saom+mc+ o +ev, u vmo dp,cue nsdu ececda pade cdename ece,
vmo voc,m, vmoe ev, novove, +esaeucuvo -om ceoux nuv+ex ocmo+menecme (Pierce, Sarason and Sarason, 1991, c. 1037).
Tarun opason, rar rpeqctasnetc, pasnu+uMe turM roqqepru ueoxoquno paccnatpusate otqeneuo, u ouu noryt
snute ua rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue rocpeqctson pasnu+uMx rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos. lerotopMe us atux
nexauusnos paccnatpusaktc uue.

Kak coansua noqqepka sne ua iqoposse?
Cyaectsyet nuoectso sorpocos otuocuteneuo nexauusnos, rocpeqctson rotopMx couaneua roqqepra snuet ua
sqoposee u rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue, u otsetM eae rpeqctout uautu uccneqosatenn. larpunep, qeuctsyet nu
couaneua roqqepra tonero s ycnosux ctpecca (yepuMu aert) unu e oua orasMsaet ronesuoe qeuctsue rpu
nkMx ycnosux? 0rasMsakt nu pasuMe suqM roqqepru pasnu+uMe snuuu? la rarue usuonoru+ecrue cuctenM snu-
et couaneua roqqepra? /ny+aaet nu oua sqoposee rocseuuMn ryten, +epes opnuposauue tarux crocoos roseqe-
uu, rotopMe crococtsykt coxpaueuuk sqopose? Cyaectsykt nu uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u s aertax, sMsMsaenMx
couaneuou roqqeprou? 8cerqa nu couaneua roqqepra ronesua? 3tu sorpocM paccnatpusaktc uue.
Modepupymue unu npvme aekmm?
Koau u 8unne (1985) sMqenkt qsa pasnu+uMx rpoecca, rocpeqctson rotopMx couaneua roqqepra narotsopuo
snuet ua rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue. 0qua us rpeqnaraenMx unu noqeneu paccnatpusaet rpnou aert
couaneuou roqqepru, uesasucuno ot toro, uaxoqtc nkqu s ycnosux ctpecca unu uet. 8topa noqene ocuosMsaetc
ua ton, +to roqqepra cssaua c rcuxonoru+ecrun narorony+uen tonero nkqeu, uaxoqauxc s ctpeccosMx cutyaux,
t. e. couaneua roqqepra yuruouupyet s ra+ectse noqepatopa unu yepa (ocyqeuue atux tepnuuos cn. s rnase
6). Koau u 8unne uasMsakt aty noqene yepuou rurotesou.
+to racaetc noqenu rpnMx aertos, astopM ronarakt, +to rosutusuoe sosqeuctsue couaneuou roqqepru noet
unete necto uesasucuno ot uanu+u ctpeccopa, rotony +to
...aupo|ue cemu co(uane+ex ce+seu oecnevueasm u+du-- euda pec,n+p+ev nosumue+ev onemov u (enev p+dov cmaune+ex,
co(uane+o eos+acpadaevex co(uane+ex poneu. 3mom eud noddep|u voem eme ce+sa+ c o(uv ncuxonocuvec|uv
naconon,vuev, noc|one|, o+ oecnevueaem nosumue+ee avo(uu, v,ecmeo npedc|as,evocmu e us+e++ou cum,a(uu u+dueuda u
npus+a+ue (e++ocmu eco F (c. 311).

AstopM, tarun opason, c+utakt, +to couaneua roqqepra noet Mte cssaua co sqoposeen +epes rcuxonoru+ecrue
nexauusnM, auanoru+uMe ten, rocpeqctson rotopMx ctpeccopM noryt sosqeuctsosate ua sqoposee, t. e. nuo +epes
anououaneuo uuqyuposauuMe snuuu ua ueupoauqorpuuuyk unu unnyuuyk cuctenM (cn. rnasy 3), nuo +epes snuuue
ua cssauuMe co sqoposeen opnM roseqeuu (cn. uue).
n ocueuu nexauusna, rocpeqctson rotoporo noet qeuctsosate yepua noqene, Koau u 8unne ucronesykt
tpausaruouane-uMu roqxoq asapyca u 1onrnaua (1984). AstopM rpeqronarakt, +to qeuctsue couaneuou roqqepru
roteuuaneuo noet srnk+atec s qsyx cny+ax s xoqe oeuru ctpeccopa u cosnaqauu co ctpeccon (puc. 8.1). 8o-
repsMx, oua noet cpaatMsate ua ctaquu oeuusauu ctpeccopa. larpunep, ecnu uuqusuq cosuaet, +to pqon ecte
nkqu, rotosMe rono+e eny s peaeuuu ero rponen, to ou noet oeuusate coMtue rar neuee tenoe, a canoro ce
rar onee crocouoro crpasutec co ctpeccon. 8o-stopMx, couaneua roqqepra noet srnk+atec ua ctaquu rpeoqo-
neuu ctpecca u cpaatMsate rocpeqctson peqyuposauu sosqeuctsu ctpeccopa ua uuqusuqa, uarpunep, naroqap
peaeuuk rponenM unu, noet Mte, oecre+euuk uuopnauouuou unu anououaneuou roqqepru, nuuunusupykaeu
nkMe ueratusuMe aertM (cn. tare rnasy 7).
Koau u 8unne rpoauanusuposanu unekauec qauuMe pauuux uccneqosauuu (qo 1983 toqa), c ten +toM orpeqenute,
rara us qsyx noqeneu to+uee: noqene rpnMx aertos unu noqene yepuMx aertos. 0uu ouapyunu, +to
unektc csuqetenectsa s roqqepry
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Puc. 8.1. sa cny+a, rpu rotopMx couaneua roqqepra noet sMronute yuruk yepa neqy ctpeccon u onesuek, (us
natepuanos: Cohen and Wills, 1985)
noqenu rpnMx aertos, rorqa ucronesyktc repsu+uMe ctpyrtypuMe usnepeuu (oeuusakaue uuterpauk s cetu
couaneuMx csseu), xot uuorqa ouapyusanc u yepuMu aert, rorqa uccneqosanuce nusrue otuoaeuu. 3tot
rocnequuu noneut Mn ueqasuo roqtsepqeu s osope, sMronueuuon /+uuo, Kacuoro u Keeront-lna-sep (1996). A
uneuuo, Mnu roqtsepqeuM yepuMe aertM snuuue ceneuuMx otuoaeuuu (uarpunep, neqy cyrpyranu unu
patenu u cectpanu) ua yuruouuposauue cepqe+uo-cocyquctou cuctenM.
0quaro s oneaen +ucne uccneqosauuu Mnu ouapyeuM csuqetenectsa s ronesy yepuoro aerta couaneuou
roqqepru, rorqa ucronesosanuce yuruouaneuMe usnepeuu (uarpunep rpeqoctasnena roqqepra), oeuusakaue
ocyaectsneuue rourpetuMx roqqepusakaux qeuctsuu. Koau u 8unne ronarakt, +to ycnosuen yepuoro aerta s-
netc cootsetctsue neqy rotpeuoctnu, cssauuMnu c rourpetuMn ctpeccopon, u qoctyruou couaneuou roqqeprou.
0uu yrasMsakt, +to uccneqosauu oqopeuu u uuopnauouuou roqqepru Mnu ocoeuuo ycreauMnu s qenouctpauu
yepuMx aertos, rpeqronara, +to s to spen rar atu suqM roqqepru penesautuM s pqe ctpeccosMx octotene-
cts, y+actue s cosnectuon rposeqeuuu qocyra u uuctpyneutaneua roqqepra noryt tpeosate onee rourpetuoro
cootsetctsu.
8ooae-to atu sasucunoctu rpeqctasnktc uutyutusuo routuMnu. erro cee rpeqctasute, +to unete nuoro qpyseu u
cenek ny+ae qn sqopose u rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u, +en Mte otuocuteneuo usonuposauuMn. 0quaro s
rourpetuMx ctpeccosMx octotenectsax, rar, uarpunep, s cny+ax tenou rotepu unu ceneuuoro pasnaqa, +to noet
Mte peaneuo ronesuMn tar ato roqqepra oquoro unu qsyx nusrux u uaqeuMx qpyseu unu +neuos ceneu u orasauue
rourpetuou rpartu+ecrou ronoau. Cepeesua rponena qn uccneqosateneu coctout s ton, rarun opason uqeutuuu-
posate rourpetuMe suqM roqqepusakaero roseqeuu, rotopMe noryt Mte roqxoqaunu s pasuoopasuMx ctpeccoreu-
uMx cutyaux. Kar oquu us ryteu, seqyaux r qoctueuuk atou enu, Mn rpeqnoeu roqxoq c to+ru speuu cootsetctsu
roqqepru.
Coomeemcmeue noddepaku
PasuMe astopM roq+eprusanu ueoxoqunocte uccneqosauu cootsetctsu roqqepru rourpetuMn ctpeccopan (Hobfall,
1986; Cutrona and Russell, 1990). 3to sua+ut, +to ueoxoquno uccneqosate ue tonero pasnu+uMe turM roqqepru, uo u
o+eue creuu+ecrue ctpeccopM; ato saqa+a, rotopa ue peaanace s oneauuctse uccneqosauuu, orucauuMx pauee s
atou rnase. /+utMsa senuroe nuoectso sosnouMx ctpeccopos, ata saqa+a rpeqctasnetc ryrakae cnouou, ten ue
neuee uerotopMe rorMtru ee paspeaeuu ye qenanuce.
larpunep, Katpoua u Paccen (1990) rpeqnounu teopuk ortunaneuoro cootsetctsu roqqepru u ctpeccopa, ronara,
+to cootsetctsue roqqepru ctpeccopy rossonut uan onee ycreauo paspaatMsate u ocyaectsnte roqqepusakaue
sneaatenectsa. AstopM rorMtanuce rnaccuuuposate ctpeccopM s cootsetctsuu c ten, r rarou us +etMpex onacteu
ouu otuoctc: natepuaneuMe euuoctu, otuoaeuu, qoctueuu u couaneuMe ponu. anee ouu rpeqnarakt rnaccu-
urauk ctpeccopos cootsetctseuuo senu+uue, enateneuoctu, routponupyenoctu u qnuteneuoctu qeuctsu. Pq uccne-
qosateneu rpuunu atot roqxoq u rorMtanuce orpeqenute aertM pasnu+uMx suqos roqqepru rpuneuuteneuo r
creuu+ecrun ctpeccopan. larpunep, upc c coastopanu (1996) uccneqosanu csse neqy creuu+ecrun ctpeccopon
(ctpecc, cssauuMu c uuaucosMn ronoeuuen) u yrotpeneuuen anroron u sMsunu, +to tonero peaneua roqqepra
unu natepuaneua ronoae cosqasanu yepuMu aert. octyruocte nua, rotopony nouo qoseputec unu c rotopMn
nouo oaatec, taroro aerta ue oecre+usana.
8nunue coquansno noddepaku na uauonoeuveckoe ynkquonupoeanue
|ccneqosauu rpoqenouctpuposanu csse neqy couaneuou roqqeprou u enMn pqon saonesauuu, srnk+a par,
onesuu cepqa u uueruouuMe saonesauu. o-suqunony, nouo rpeqronarate snuuue couaneuou roqqepru ua
cepqe+uo-cocyquctyk, unnyuuyk u auqorpuuuyk cuctenM (ocyqeuue nexauusnos atux snuuuu cn. s rnase 3). 8nuuue
couaneuou roqqepru ua yuruouuposauue auqorpuuuou cuctenM usy+euo nano (Uchino, Cacioppo and Kiecolt-Glaser,
1996); sosqeuctsu couaneuou roqqepru ua cepqe+uo-cocyquctyk u unnyuuyk cuctenM rpatro paccnotpeuM uue.
Cepdevno-cocyducma cucmeva
6oneauuctso uccneqosauuu ctpecca u usuonoru+ecroro yuruouuposauu Mno rocsaeuo snuuuk repsoro ua
cepqe+uo-cocyquctyk cucteny, u s ra+ectse uuquratopa oM+uo ucronesosanoce rposuoe qasneuue (Uchino, Cacioppo
and Kiecolt-Glaser, 1996). 8o nuorux us atux paot rpuneunc roppenuouuMu roqxoq, a uccneqosauu rposoqunuce ua
sMoprax nkqeu c uopnaneuMnu yposunu rposuoro qasneuu. /+uuo, Kacuoro u Keeront-lnasep (Uchino, Cacioppo u
Kiecolt-Glaser) cqenanu osop 28 tarux uccneqosauuu, s rotopMx ucronesosanuce uecronero rorasateneu roqqepru,
srnk+a cete couaneuMx csseu, socrputue roqqepru u rpeqoctasnenyk roqqepry. AstopM rpuanu r sMsoqy, +to s
to spen rar ro qauuMn 23 us atux uccneqosauuu, couaneua roqqepra Mna cssaua c onee uusrun rposuMn qasne-
uuen, s +etMpex uccneqosauux ue Mno ouapyeuo roqouou cssu, a s oquon rony+euuMe qauuMe rorasanu opat-
uyk sasucunocte. 8 enon, ucronesy netaauanutu+ecrue rpoeqypM qn oeuru pesynetatos ctpyrtypuMx u yuruo-
uaneuMx usnepeuuu (ro otqeneuoctu), astopM ouapyunu ueoneaue, uo yctou+usMe snuuu roqqepru ua cepqe+uo-
cocyquctoe yuruouuposauue s ooux cny+ax. 3tu aertM uankqanuce rar y ny+uu, tar u y euauu. 0quaro osop
rorasan, +to ny+uuM u euauuM noryt ussnerate ronesy us pasnu+uMx turos roqqepru. A uneuuo, rposeqeuuMu neta-
auanus sMsun, +to couaneuMe pecypcM noryt Mte rporuoctu+uM-nu s otuoaeuuu rposuoro qasneuu y ny+uu, s to
spen rar , euauu s otuoaeuuu rposuoro qasneuu onee rporuoctu+uou orasMsaetc uuctpyneutaneua roqqepra.
8 tpex us +etMpex uccneqosauuu, ue ouapyusaux ucronou cssu, rpeqneton usy+euu Mna roqqepra ro necty
paotM; ro sceu sepotuoctu, tara roqqepra orasMsaetc neuee ronesuou. Kaynau u 8up Kaufmann u Beehr (1986)
rpeqnarakt s ra+ectse oquoro us ocueuuu atoro arta to, +to s qauuon cny+ae ucto+uur roqqepru noet ue Mte
uesasucunMn ot ctpeccopa. larpunep, ecnu roqqepra rpeqnaraetc co ctopouM aea, rotopMu s to e spen u Mn
ucto+uuron ctpecca, to tara roqqepra noet, s csok o+epeqe, socrpuuunatec
rar ucto+uur ctpecca. Eae oquo ocueuue cssauo c otcytctsuen raputeta s rpoussoqctseuuMx otuoaeuux (cn.
spesry 8.2 uue), cneqctsuen +ero noet Mte to, +to paotuuru noryt ucrMtMsate +ysctso suuM unu yuueuuoctu,
rpuuuna roqqepry ot ua+anectsa.
pocrertusuMe uccneqosauu tare roqtsepqakt ronesuocte couaneuou roqqepru (Uchino, Cacioppo and Kiecolt-
Glaser, 1996). larpunep, esuu u coastopM (1979) rpuneunu r 400 raueutan, ctpaqakaun rurepteusueu, orpeqene-
uuMe sosqeuctsu, rotopMe srnk+anu eceqy, ceneuuyk roqqepry, oaeuue s nanMx rpyrrax, ronuuauk atux
sosqeuctsuu, u uankqanu sa routponeuou rpyrrou. lauonee aertusuMn orasanoce ronuuuposauuoe sosqeuctsue
tpex suqos roqqepru; +ucno raueutos c routponupyenMn qasneuuen rposu ysenu+unoce ua 28% (c 38 qo 66%). 0quaro
sosqeuctsue tonero oquou ceneuuou roqqepru rouusuno quactonu+ecroe rposuoe qasneuue ua 11%. poseqeuuMe
sosqeuctsu Mnu cssauM tare c onee rosutusuMn otuoaeuuen r ne+euuk u co cuueuuen seca. ony+euuMe aer-
tM coxpaunuce ua rpoteuuu rocneqykaux tpex net (Morisky et al.,1985).
PaccnotpeuuMe sMae uccneqosauu rposoqunuce ua asosMx yposux cepqe+uo-cocyquctoro yuruouuposauu. 0quaro
naopatopuMe uccneqosauu rossonkt usy+ute csse neqy couaneuou roqqeprou u cepqe+uo-cocyquctou peartusuo-
ctek s ycnosux ctpecca (t. e. teuqeuueu pearuposate ua ctpeccop ycuneuuen rapquosacrynpuMx pearuu, tarux rar
rosMaeuue rposuoro qasneuu u +actotM cepqeueuu). 3tot roqxoq ocuosMsaetc ua tou to+re speuu, +to roqoua
peartusuocte crococtsyet passutuk rurepteusuu u cepqe+uMx saonesauuu, t. e. ua rurotese, rony+usaeu orpeqeneu-
uoe roqtsepqeuue (Light etal., 1992).
aopatopuMe arcrepuneutM oecre+usakt oneaue sosnouoctu routpon u rossonkt orpeqenute uarpasneuue
qetepnuuauu tarun crocoon, rotopMu uesosnoeu s uccneqosauux tenMx saonesauuu u cneptuoctu (rotopMe
uepeqro noryt sectu cropee r peqyuposauuk couaneuou roqqepru, a ue r ee ycuneuuk). 8 roqouMx uccneqosauux
repeq ucrMtyenMnu ctast raryk-nuo saqa+y, uarpunep, peaeuue apunetu+ecrux rpunepos s yne unu rynu+uoe sM-
ctyrneuue, rotopMe sMronuktc s ycnosux roqqepru (arcrepuneutaneua rpyrra) nuo s oquuo+ry unu s rpucytctsuu
ue roqqepusakaux nkqeu (routponeua rpyrra) (Thorsteinsson and James, 1999). larpunep, s uccneqosauuu lepuu u
coastopos (1995) ucrMtyenMe qonuM Mnu urpate s ronrektepuMe urpM s ycnosux sMcororo unu uusroro ctpecca, c
couaneuou roqqeprou u es tarosou. 8 ycnosux sMcororo ctpecca arcrepuneutatop pasqpaan ucrMtyenMx roctou-
uMnu tpeosauunu urpate Mctpee. 8 ycnosux couaneuou roqqepru pqon c ucrMtyenMn cuqen ero tosapua u
sMpaan eny csok roqqepry, xot u ue rpousuocun uurarux cnos AstopM ouapyunu, +to y tex ucrMtyenMx, rotopMe
uaxoqunuce s ycnosux sMcororo yposu ctpecca u couaneuou roqqepru, uankqanace onee uusra, cpasuuteneuo co
scenu qpyrunu rpyrranu ucrMtyenMx, rapquosacrynpua peartusuocte (oeuusasaac ro rorasatenn rposuoro
qasneuu). 8 osope, rposeqeuuon Topcteuucou u eunc (1999), Mnu roqsepruytM netaauanusy 22 naopatopuMx
uccneqosauu couaneuou roqqepru, s oneauuctse us rotopMx usnepnuce rar +actota cepqeueuu, tar u rposuoe
qasneuue. AstopM ouapyunu sua+uteneuMe sapuauu senu+uuM aerta roqqepru, rotopMe, sosnouo, ocuktc
pasnu+unu netoqonoruu, tarunu rar, craen, pasnu+u s turax unu yposux roqqepru. AstopM ronarakt, +to s uero-
topMx cny+ax ycnosu routponeuou rpyrrM noryt sMsMsate conueuu, tar rar roctopouuux nkqeu, ue sMpaakaux roq-
qepru, ucrMtyenMe noryt socrpuuunate cropee rar spaqeuo uactpoeuuMx, ueenu rar rpocto ue roqqepusakaux.
lankqaenMe pasnu+u neqy rpyrranu ucrMtyenMx c roqqeprou u es roqqepru noryt ocutec cropee ueratus-
uMn snuuuen non+aaero uankqaten, +en rosutusuMn sosqeuctsuen roqqepusakaero nua. Xot, s oaen,
sarnk+akt Topcteuucou u eunc, couaneua roqqepra orasMsaet qoctato+uo sua+uteneuoe snuuue ua cuueuue
peartusuoctu s otuoaeuuu ctpeccopa.
hvvynna cucmeva
|ccneqosauu unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu tare s orpeqeneuuou ctereuu roqtsepqakt ronesuocte couaneuou
roqqepru, xot netoqonoru+ecrue cnouoctu s atou onactu uccneqosauuu satpyqukt uuteprpetauk u coroctasne-
uue rony+euuMx pesynetatos. Kar nM suqenu s rnase 3, ue cyaectsyet equuoro oaerpuutoro netoqa usnepeuu
unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu, u uerotopMe ucronesosasauec netoquru uMue c+utaktc ueaqersatuMnu. larpunep,
ennout u Varnopu (1988) uccneqosanu arsaneuauouuMu ctpecc u ouapyunu, +to y ctyqeutos, unekaux, ro ux
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
cooaeuun, onee sua+uteneuyk roqqepry, uankqanoce ny+aee unnyuuoe yuruouuposauue ^ro rorasatenk
coqepauu unnyuornoynuua A slgA). 0quaro astopM ucronesosanu usnepeuue slgA s oaeu nacce cnkuM roqxoq,
rotopMu ue y+utMsaet usneueuu s cnkuootqeneuuu u rotony roqsepraetc rputure (cn rnasy 3)
/+uuo, Kacuoro u Keeront-lnasep (1996) rpoauanusuposanu 19 uccneqosauuu cssu neqy couaneuou roqqeprou u
unnyuuMn yuruouuposauuen, srnk+a paotM, rotopMe, roqouo uccneqosauuk ennout u Varnopu, oeuusaktc
rar unekaue orpeqeneuuMe usuM. AstopM ronarakt, +to qauuMe 12 us atux uccneqosauuu roqtsepqunu csse
couaneuou roqqepru c yny+aeuuen unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu larpunep, s uccneqosauuu, rposeqeuuon Keeront-
lnasep (1991), rpuuunanu y+actue nkqu, yxausakaue sa poqctseuuuranu, ctpaqakaunu rcuxu+ecrunu pacctpouctsa-
nu. |ccneqosauue rposoqunoce ua rpoteuuu 13 neces, u rony+euuMe pesynetatM coroctasnnuce c qauuMnu ro
qenorpau+ecru cootsetctsykaeu sMopre. kqu, yxausakaue sa rcuxu+ecru oneuMnu poqcrseuuuranu, s oaen,
unenu neueae couaneuMx csseu cpasuuteneuo c routponeuou sMoprou, u rony+anu neueae couaneuou roqqepru.
AstopM sMcuunu, +to y nkqeu, ocyaectsnkaux yxoq sa rcuxu+ecru oneuMnu poqctseuuuranu, uankqanoce yxyqae-
uue unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu, oneaee ro cpasueuuk c routponeuou rpyrrou, u ouu +aae ctpaqanu uueruouuMnu
u rpoctyquMnu saonesauunu. / tex us atux nkqeu, rto c canoro ua+ana cooaan o uauonee uusrux yposux unekaeu-
c y uux couaneuou roqqepru, uankqanoce uauoneaee cuueuue unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu. 8 to spen rar
tarue uccneqosauu qenouctpupykt sMpaeuuoe roqtsepqeuue cssu couaneuou roqqepru c unnyuuMn yuruouu-
posauuen, s cenu us rpoauanusuposauuMx Kacuoro u Keeront-lnasep uccneqosauuu roqoua csse ue Mna yctauos-
neua. AstopM rpeqronarakt, +to otcytctsue atou cssu s uerotopMx uccneqosauux noet ocutec rpu+uuanu
netoqonoru+ecroro xapartepa
poseqeuuMu atunu astopanu netaauanus pqa uccneqosauuu rpoqenouctpuposan sua+uteneuyk sMpaeuuocte
ocyqaenoro aerta u, s oaen, ouu roqtsepqakt, +to cyaectsykt otuocuteneuo secrue qorasatenectsa cssu
couaneuou roqqepru c pasnu+uMnu acrertanu unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu, rpu+en ocoeuuo suo rpocneusaetc
tara csse s cny+ae anououaneuou roqqepru. AstopM qanee ytsepqakt, +to, rar u s cny+ae cepqe+uo-cocyquctoro
yuruouuposauu, ocoeuuo sauMnu noryt Mte nusrue ssaunootuoaeuu, tarue rar, uarpunep, neqy +neuanu
ceneu. 8ce e octaetc uecuMn, orasMsaet nu couaneua roqqepra s cny+ae unnyuuoro yuruouuposauu rpnoe
unu e yepuoe snuuue. 8 oaen, roqouMe sosqeuctsu couaneuou roqqepru roteuuaneuo noryt snute rar ua
rpu+uuuyk oycnosneuuocte, tar, sepotuo, u ua te+euue ue tonero rpoctyquMx u uueruouuMx saonesauuu, uo u ua
nuoectso qpyrux cssauuMx co sqoposeen rponen. larpunep, Cruqen c coastopanu (1998) ronarakt, +to couaneua
roqqepra noet ycunusate corpotusnenocte ouronoru+ecrun saonesauun, crococtsy socctauosneuuk unnyuuMx
nexauusnos.
3dopoesecepeeamue cnocom noeedenu kak veduamopm
0quo us sosnouMx ocueuuu snuuu couaneuou roqqepru, rar ua unnyuuyk, tar u ua cepqe+uo-cocyquctyk
cucteny, coctout s ton, +to tara roqqepra crococtsyet onee sqoposony opasy usuu. larpunep, nkqu, unekaue
xopoayk couaneuyk roqqepry, c oneaeu sepotuoctek noryt pocute rypute (Barrera, 1986) unu ua+ate neueae
yrotpente cruptuoro (Steptoe at al.,1996). 0quaro uerotopMe uccneqosatenu yctauosunu sua+unMe cssu neqy
couaneuou roqqeprou u usuonoru+ecrunu rorasatennu rar unnyuuoro, tar u rapquosacrynpuoro yuruouuposa-
uu, qae u sue sasucunoctu ot repeneuuMx, racakauxc coxpaueuu sqopose (cn. osop s: Uchi-ro, 1996).
Kpone toro, qauuMe o narotsopuon snuuuu couaneuou roqqepru ua cssauuoe co sqoposeen roseqeuue uuorqa
Msakt rpotusope+usMnu. 3to noet ocutec ten, +to s uerotopMx octotenectsax couaneua roqqepra noet
roqqepusate uuqusuqa rar s ero qucyuruouaneuMx, tar u s ronesuMx qn sqopose crocoax roseqeuu (Burg and
Seeman, 1994). larpunep, 6ypr u Cunau ouapyunu, +to couaneuMe cssu uuorqa ropoqanu uecornacue c ne+euuen.
AstopM ronarakt, +to s atux cny+ax +neuM ceneu u qpyrue sua+unMe nua orasMsanu snuuue ua usueuuMu ctune
+enosera, rar s ra+ectse noqeneu u uopnatusuMx opasos, tar u rocpeqctson rpnoro routpon, rotopMu noet
qeuctsosate rar s rosutusuon, tar u s ueratusuon uarpasneuux.
Tarun opason, rpeqctasnetc eqsa nu sosnouMn, +toM snuuue couaneuou roqqepru ua sqoposee nouo Mno M
ocuute equuctseuuo ee sosqeuctsuen ua cssauuMe co sqoposeen crocoM roseqeuu.
Brxznxe xnxsxyarsnmx pasrxvxx
Veqy nkqenu, orpeqeneuuo, cyaectsykt pasnu+u s ton, rar ouu ucronesykt couaneuyk roqqepry, u raryk ronesy us
uee ussnerakt. lerotopMe uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, tarue rar, uarpunep, cssauuMe c sospacton u ronon, tare
uenerro otqenute ot cosoryruoro sosqeuctsu couaneuo-rynetypuMx artopos. attepuM qoctyruMx couaneuMx cs-
seu, oeuusaenMx s ra+ectse couaneuo rpuennenMx, qn ny+uu u euauu pasnu+uMx sospactuMx rpyrr, ro-suqunony,
o+eue cuneuo sapeupykt s pasnu+uMx oaectsax u sapeuposanu s pasnu+uMe uctopu+ecrue repuoqM. esu (1983) rpeq-
ronaraet, +to couaneuMe cssu onee sauM qn euauu, +en qn ny+uu, u +to euauuM oneae ucronesykt coua-
neuyk roqqepry (cn. tare spesry 8.2). 0quaro tare sMsneuo, +to couaneua uuterpau u par neuee sMroquM qn
euauu, +en qn ny+uu.
8ce ato satpyquet uuteprpetauk teuqepuMx u sospactuMx pasnu+uu. auuMe, rar nM suqenu, rpotusope+usM, uo tarue
ueqoctato+uo touro orpeqeneuuMe ssaunocssu uruopupykt ctoaue sa uunu cnouMe artopM, uarpunep pasnu+uMe
ponu u ouqauu ny+uu u euauu s ceneuuMx otuoaeuux u qpyrux couaneuMx ctpyrtypax, a tare pasnu+uMe xapar-
tepucturu ny+uu u euauu, rotopMe sctyrakt s par, u tex, rotopMe s par ue sctyrakt. Cpasueuu qauuMx ucrMtye-
nMx pasuoro sospacta u rona, tarun opason, noryt Mte ueuuopnatusuMnu. 6onee rouctpyrtusuMu roqxoq, rpuutMu
nuorunu uccneqosatennu, coctout s ton, +toM orpeqente rattepuM ssaunocsseu s panrax otqeneuMx roqsMopor.
Tarun opason, rosunoce, uarpunep, nuoro paot, rocsaeuuMx usy+euuk couaneuou roqqepru y euauu u rounMx
nkqeu. etaneuoe ocyqeuue taroro poqa natepuanos sMxoqut sa panru qauuou rnasM, uo rpeqctasneuuMe sqece
paotM ronoryt s rouunauuu u oeure atou oaupuou nutepatypM.
u+uoctuMe artopM u nu+uMe rpeqro+teuu, ueconueuuo, tare snukt ua to, uacronero artusuo nkqu srnk+aktc s
cetu couaneuMx csseu, ua ra+ectso ux otuoaeuuu c qpyrunu nkqenu, ua to, rar ouu ucronesykt couaneuyk roqqep-
ry, u rar ata roqqepra unu socrpuuunaetc. VM ye ocyqanu sosnouocte toro, +to +ysctso roqqepru noet
Mte nu+uoctuou repeneuuou, snukaeu ua to, rar nkqu socrpuuunakt rony+aenyk unu couaneuyk roqqepry.
lerotopMe uccneqosatenu tare cooaanu, +to canooeura (uarpunep, Brown et al., 1986; Hobfall and Liebermann, 1987)
u ueupotusn (uarpunep, Parkes, Mendham and von Rabenau, 1994) cssauM c couaneuou roqqeprou. 8McrasMsanoce
rpeqnoeuue o ton, +toM atu repeneuuMe, a tare u uerotopMe qpyrue, uarpunep: arctpasepcuk u noryc routpon,
srnk+ute s uccneqosauue couaneuou roqqepru (Cohen and Wills, 1985; Parkes, Mendham and von Rabenau, 1994). 3tu
sasucunoctu tare usy+anuce s uccneqosauuu, orucauuon so spesre 8.2. 0quaro Koau u 8unne

Xanava+dapuc u a,ann uccnedoeanu co(uane+o-ncuxonocuvec|,s adanma(us | ,+ueepcumemc|ou us+u +a eeop|e 182
cm,de+moe od+oco us puma+c|ux ,+ueepcumemoe. 0m,de+me sanon++nu onpoc+u|u +esadonco do o|o+va+u+ nepeoco coda
o,ve+u+. Dnpoc+u| e|nsvan a|ane dn+ onpedene+u+ +eupomusva, a|cmpaeepcuu u vomuea(uu docmue+uu, 0oenada+ue co
cmpeccov usvep+noce nocpedcmeov onpoc+u|a WOC (Folkman and Lazarus, 1980), |omopeu sanon++nc+ e nepuod a |save+a(uo++oco
cmpecca e meve+ue +ec|one|ux npedaecme,s(ux +edene. (cv, cnae, 7). n+ onpedene+u+ ,+|(uo+ane+ou co(uane+ou noddep|u
cm,de+moe npocunu o(e+ume ux eocnpu+mue +anuvu+ om+oc+(euc+ uve++o | +uv, peane+ou odop+s(eu noddep|u /emope ma|e
npuve+unu onpoc+u| dn+ usvepe+u+ v,ecmea odu+ovecmea u cmene+u adanma(uu | ,+ueepcumemc|ou us+u. 5ena ma|e
ucnonesoea+a u+opva(u+ o a|adevuve-c|ou ,cneeaevocmu vacmu cm,de+moe
/emope uccnedoea+u+ o+ap,unu doeone+o eeco|,s ompu(amene+,s |oppen+(us ved, co(uane+ou noddep|ou u v,ecmeov
odu+ovecmea (-0,82).v+ocm+ee nepeve++ee, no ux da++ev, ma|e enu s+avuvo ce+sa+e c co(uane+ou noddep|ou.
3|cmpaeepcu+, |a| o|asanoce, ce+sa+a c onee eepae++ou co(uane+ou noddep|ou (0,53), a +eupomusv c ve+ee eepae++ou (-
0,43). 3 om+oae+uu vomuea(uu docmue+uu eno ,cmaoene+o, vmo dn+ cm,de+moe c eeco|uv ,poe+ev co(uane+ou noddep|u u
+us|uv ,poe+ev odu+ovecm-ea enu xapa|mep+e onee eepae++ee +adede +a ,cnex. D(a+ adanmupoea++ocme ena ce+sa+a c
co(uane+ou noddep|ou (0,63), v,ecmeov odu+ovecmea (-0,74), a|cmpaeepcueu (0,46) u u+mpopcueu (- 0,41), a ma|e c +adedavu +a
,cnex (0,31). nsvepe+u+ coenada-
+u+ co cmpeccov no|asanu ve+ee s+avuvee |oppen+(uu.
Xom+ +e eno ,cma+oene+o nuv+ocm+ex pasnuvuu ce+sa++ex c nonov, e+(u+e coo(anu o ve+ee eepae++ov v,ecmee
odu+ovecmea, onee eeco|ov ,poe+e co(uane+ou noddep|u u npeeocxodunu v,vu+ no napavemp, o(eu adanmupoea++ocmu |
,+ueepcumemc|ou us+u. pu amov me us e+(u+, |mo uven cavee +us|ue no|asamenu adanmupoea++ocmu, xapa|mepusoeanuce
cavevu +us|uvu no|asame-n+vu co(uane+ou noddep|u u a|cmpaeepcuu u cavevu eeco|uvu +eupomusva. Dd+a|o ceemnou
cmopo+ou non,ve++ex pes,nemamoe +eunoce mo, vmo ece amo +e ompaanoce +a a|adevuvec|ux ,cnexax. 0o(uane+a+ noddep|a
os+c++em s+avumene+,s vacme eapua(uu no|asamen+ adanmupoea++ocmu, dae nocne moco, |a| enu ,vme+e nuv+ocm+ee
nepeve++ee, vmo noseon+em ,meepdame, vmo co(uane+a+ noddep|a +e os+c++emc+ mone|o ocoe++ocm+vu nuv+ocmu.
8pesra 8 2. Aqartau r repsony roqy yuusepcutetcrou usuu: uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, couaneua roqqepra u rpeoqoneuue
arsaneuauouuoro ctpecca.

(1985) qenakt cneqykauu aar u ytsepqakt, +to couaneua roqqepra cnyut, Mte noet, ronuono+uMn rpeqctasu-
tenen (proxy) nu+uoctuMx repeneuuMx (tarux, rar, uarpunep, couaeneuocte unu couaneua ronreteutuocte), roto-
pMe tecuo cssauM c roqqeprou. 8 roqtsepqeuue atoro ssrnqa, 8uuuact c coastopanu (1988) yrasMsakt, +to coua-
neua roqqepra, roqouo nu+uoctuMn repeneuuMn, rposnet teuqeuuk octasatec ctauneuou s te+euue pqa net,
u +to nkqu c uusrun yposuen couaneuou roqqepru oeuusaktc rar neuee rpusnerateneuMe u couaneuo ronreteut-
uMe, cpasuuteneuo c nkqenu c onee sMcorun yposuen couaneuou roqqepru. (Hansson, Jones and Carpenter, 1984).

cerqa n coansua noqqepka xopoma noneiua?
Xot couaneua roqqepra rouunaetc o+eue auporo, srnk+a ceneuuMe u uuMe couaneuMe ssaunootuoaeuu,
rpeqctasnetc sronue o+esuquMn, +to roqouMe cssu noryt orasMsate ua +enosera tare u qectpyrtusuoe snuuue 8
rnase 4 nM paccnatpusanu sosnouMe sosqeuctsu rnoxux otuoaeuuu neqy cyrpyranu ua unnyuuoe yuruouuposa-
uue, a tare ueratusuMe rocneqctsu, rotopMe couaneua roqqepra noet unete qn nkqeu, yxausakaux sa raueu-
tanu, ctpaqakaunu onesuek AnMrreunepa (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 1995). 8 qauuou rnase nM tare suqenu, +to couane-
ua roqqepra noet orasMsate ueratusuoe (rar u rosutusuoe) snuuue ua crocoM roseqeuu, cssauuMe co sqopo-
seen. Porr (1984) ytsepqaet, +to autysuasn ro rosoqy couaneuou roqqepru u teuqeuu rpupasuusate couaneuoe
ssaunoqeuctsue r couaneuou roqqepre noet roneaate ocosuauuk roteuuaneuMx ueratusuMx aertos couaneuMx
otuoaeuuu. 8 uccneqosauuu Porr Mnu rpouutepsekuposauM 120 sqosMx euauu s sospacte ot 60 qo 89 net. Xeuauu
paccrpaausanu o ux roqqepusakaux u rponenatu+uMx couaneuMx cssx. cuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue usnep-
noce c ronoaek oeuo+uMx aran usueuuou yqosnetsopeuuoctu, rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u u +ysctsa oquuo+ect-
sa. Astop ouapyuna, +to ronu+ectso rponenatu+uMx csseu Mno cssauo co cuueuuen narorony+u, uo, +to
yqusuteneuo, ronu+ectso roqqepusakaux csseu ue Mno cssauo c ycuneuuen +ysctsa narorony+u. 3tu pesynetatM,
ro-suqunony, uenes ocuute uuqusuqyaneuMnu pasnu+unu s nu+uoctuMx xapartepucturax neqy euauuanu c
onee unu neuee rponenatu+uMnu cssnu, xot y euauu c rponenatu+uMnu cssnu u uankqanace teuqeuu r
neuee pasuorpasuMn otuoaeuun, +to, Mte noet, cssauo c onee uusrou couaneuou ronreteuueu tarux euauu.
Xot routuo, +to couaneuMe cssu noryt orasMsate ueratusuoe sosqeuctsue, sosnouo, neuee o+esuquo to, +to
peaneuMe rpequanepeuuMe rorMtru orasMsate roqqepry tare noryt unete ueratusuMe rocneqctsu. Kar nM ye
suqenu, s uerotopMx uccneqosauux Mnu rony+euM qauuMe, csuqetenectsykaue o ton, +to couaneua roqqepra ue
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
scerqa Msaet ronesuou (cn., uarpunep, Dakof and Taylor, 1990; Kaufmann and Beehr, 1986). 0quo us ocueuuu atoro
aerta cn. so spesre 8.3.
|ccneqosauu, uarpasneuuMe ua usy+euue crocoos ycosepaeuctsosauu couaneuou roqqepru, cneqosateneuo,
qonuM rpuuunate so suunauue sosnouocte ue tonero rosutusuMx, uo tare u ueratusuMx aertos couaneuou
roqqepru. 3to ronoeuue unnkctpupyetc s cneqykaen pasqene, rqe qetaneuo paccnatpusaetc uccneqosauue,
rocsaeuuoe usy+euuk couaneuou roqqepru nu, ctpaqakaux ot arctpenaneuoro ctpeccopa parosoro saonesauu.

6oansua noqqepka s peansuou upe naeuos, cpaqamx pakossu ia6onesauu
0cyqeuue ronoeuu +enosera, onekaero paron, ronoraet rpounnkctpuposate o+eue cnouMe sorpocM,
sosuurakaue rpu usy+euuu couaneuou roqqepru s peaneuon nupe. 0uo ronoraet orpeqenute uerotopMe us
orpauu+euuu roqxoqa, orycupykaeroc tonero nuae ua turax orasMsaenou roqqepru u uruopupykaero routerct, s
rotopon peanusyetc roqqepusakaee roseqeuue, u pearuu rar cyerta, orasMsakaero roqqepry, tar u +enosera,
rony+akaero ee.
/ctauosneuue quaruosa parosoro saonesauu, ueconueuuo, otuocutc r +ucny cuneueuaux ctpeccopos, rarue
oneauuctso us uac noet cee soopasute. | uetpyquo cee rpeqctasute, +to uan xotenoce M qynate, yqto s
roqouou cutyauu +enoser rony+ut canyk oneayk couaneuyk roqqepry. 0quaro s uccneqosauuu 8optnau u au-
ren-Cettep (1987) Mno rorasauo, +to nkqn, ctpaqakaun parosMnu saonesauunu, rony+ute aqersatuyk couaneuyk
roqqepry ua canon qene qosoneuo tpyquo. ony+euuMe qauuMe rorasMsakt, +to ron nyuurau neqy oneuMnu
paron u qpyrunu nkqenu ocoeuuo rponenatu+ua.

3 uccnedoea+u+x npo(eccoe co(uane+ou noddep|u, moco, npu |a|ux ,cnoeu+x o+a eeaem nones+ou, a npu |a|ux +e npu+ocum
enaevou nonese, ena ucnonesoea+a meopu+ co(uane+oco ove+a. 0ocnac+o amou meopuu, nsdu o(e+ueasm ceou om+oae+u+ c
dp,cuvu nsdevu c mov|u spe+u+ ceoux e|nadoe, unu sampam (inputs), u non,vaevex pes,nemamoe, nodo+o mov,, |a| amo
+ansdaemc+ e a|o+ovuvec|ux esauvodeucmeu+x. sdu ma|e cpae+ueasm cocmee++ee e|nade u non,ve++ee pes,nemame co
e|nadavu u pes,nemamavu nsdeu, c |omopevu o+u esauvodeucme,sm. Ydoenemeope+ue om esauvodeucmeu+ vo+o oudame mav,
cde uveemc+ om+ocumene+oe paee+cmeo (unu pe(unpo|+ocme) ved, e|nadavu co cmopo+e ooux ,vacm+u|oe u non,ve++evu uvu
pes,nemamavu. 5a+| u coaemope (1993) nonacasm, vmo xom+ cum,a(u+: non,vun ve+eae, vev e+ec, eepo+m+o, o(e+ueaemc+
u+dueudov onee +ecamue+o cpae+umene+o c cum,a(ueu: e+ec nnam, oneae, vev non,vun, e ooux cn,va+x vo+o oudame
oneae +ecamue+ex nepeuea+uu, vev npu pe(unpo|+ex esauvodeucmeu+x. pu us,ve+uu npouseodcmee++ex om+oae+uu aemope
o+ap,unu, vmo om+oae+u+ ved, |onnecavu enu onee pe(unpo|+evu, vev om+oae+u+ c +avanecmeov. Dcos+a+ue moco, vmo
om+oae+u+ +e +en+smc+ pe(unpo|+evu (nuo nomov,, vmo o|aseeaeva+ noddep|a oneae non,vaevou, nuo +aoopom), eno
ce+sa+o c onee cune+evu +ecamue+evu v,ecmeavu. 3mom pes,nemam +e saeucen om npouseodcmee++ex cmpeccoe. Dd+a|o
omc,mcmeue pe(unpo|+ocmu dn+ +e|omopex u+dueud,,voe, no-euduvov,, onee ea+o, vev dn+ dp,cux nsdeu e vacm+ocmu, ce+se
ved, pe(unpo|-+ocmes u avo(u+vu vodepupoeanace eosdeucmeuev ma|ou ce+sa++ou c u+dueud,ane+evu pasnuvu+vu nepeve++ou,
|omopa+ non,vuna +asea+ue opue+ma(uu ove+a (o(ee ouda+ue +enocpedcmee++ou pe(unpo|+ocmu).
8pesra 8.3. Teopu couaneuoro oneua u couaneua roqqepra.

Pes,nemame uccnedoea+u+ no|aseeasm, vmo one+ee pa|ov (e++m eosvo+ocme npo+c+ume ceoe nonoe+ue e xode oc,de+u+ u
noddepueas(ux u+mepa|(uu c dp,cuvu nsdevu. Dd+a|o dp,cue nsdu npu amov vacmo ucnemeeasm ,cpos, dn+ ce+, o+s+e u
o(,(e+ue duc|ovopma, ce+sa++ee c ones+es ma|ux na(ue+moe. 5onee moco, xom+ v,ecmea, eeseeaevee na(ue+mavu, cmpada-
s(uvu pa|oeev saoneea+uev, oneaeu vacmes uvesm +ecamue+eu xapa|mep, nsdu d,vasm, vmo o+u don+e ocmaeamec+ onmu-
vucmuv+evu u eecenevu eo epev+ o(e+u+ c one+ev. |o+nu|m ved, peane+evu v,ecmeavu u ,ede+u+vu voem eecmu |
+eenamene+ev u eped+ev dn+ one+oco cnocoav noeede+u+; amo voc,m eme usuvec|oe useca+ue, useca+ue om|pemou
|ovv,+u|a(uu, +anp+e++ee u duc|ovopm+ee u+mepa|(uu. 5one+ee vacmo u+mepnpemup,sm nodo+oe noeede+ue |a| omeepe-
+ue ux dp,cuvu nsdevu e mom caveu vove+m, |ocda noddep|a co cmopo+e dp,cux dn+ +ux ocoe++o ea+a (Wortman and Dunkel-
Shetter, 1987, c. 67).

Tarun opason, astopM c+utakt, +to couaneuMe cssu s cny+ae oneuMx paron noryt ue tonero ue sMronute yepuou
yuruu, uo u sntec qoronuuteneuMn ucto+uuron ctpecca aro u Teunop (1990) s csoen uccneqosauuu oneuMx
paron rony+unu qauuMe, roqtsepqakaue aty to+ry speuu; astopM rorasanu, +to userauue routarta co ctopouM nkqeu
oM+uo o+eue teno socrpuuunaetc oneuMnu. 0quaro tar Msaet tonero s otuoaeuux c qpysenu u suaronMnu, uo
ue c +neuanu ceneu. 8 rocnequen cny+ae rorMtru rpeyneueaute cepeesuocte onesuu unu rputurosate tpartosry
raueuton csoero ronoeuu Mnu onee rponenatu+uMnu.
8optnau u auren-Cettep roq+eprusanu ueoxoqunocte uccneqosate to, rarue turM roqqepru ronesuM rpu pasnu+uMx
turax rponen. Tar, uarpunep, s cssu c roctauosrou quaruosa noet Mte saua uuopnauouua roqqepra; s repuoq
rocrutanusauu ocoeuuo euuou noet Mte peaneua roqqepra, uo s cny+ae cepeesuoro saonesauu uauonee
euuou noet Mte anououaneua roqqepra. aro u Teunop (1990) qanee ytsepqakt, +to pasnu+uMe turM roqqep-
ru noryt socrpuuunatec rar ronesuMe s sasucunoctu ot xapartepa otuoaeuuu c +enoseron, orasMsakaun roqqepry.
larpunep, s cny+ae nusrux otuoaeuuu uauonee euuou noet Mte anououaneuo-oeuo+ua roqqepra. pyrue
raueutM u spa+u uauonee ronesuM s rnaue uuopnauouuou roqqepru. 0tcytctsue e atux turos roqqepru co
ctopouM yrasauuMx rateropuu nu socrpuuunaetc raueutanu rar artop, orasMsakauu ueratusuoe sosqeuctsue.
Pasyneetc, couaneuyk roqqepry sauo oeuute tare u c to+ru speuu nua, orasMsakaero roqqepry, ocoeuuo s
cny+ae oneuMx paron, rqe noryt unete necto otcytctsue rouunauu unu ctpax repeq sosuuraeu cutyaueu. 8optnau u
auren-Cettep otne+akt, +to qeuctsu, notusuposauuMe enauuen orasate ronoae, noryt socrpuuunatec peurueu-
ton cosepaeuuo ro-qpyrony. 3to ronoeuue Mno pro rpoqenouctpuposauo s rposeqeuuon etepc-lonqeu (1982) uc-
cneqosauuu socrputu couaneuou roqqepru raueutanu, ctpaqakaunu paron rpyqu. Astop rpouutepsekuposana 100
raueutor, ctpaqakaux paron rpyqu, u 100 sqoposMx euauu. 61% us +ucna rocnequux rosopunu, +to ouu nornu M
sctyrate s routart, uo nornu M u userate routarta c euauuanu, onekaunu paron. 0quaro 66% us uux tare crasanu,
+to ouu rpeqro+nu M ue sauunatec ten, +toM roqqepusate oqpoe uactpoeuue y oneuMx paron. XeuauuM, one-
kaue paron, roqtsepqunu, +to qpyrue nkqu qeuctsuteneuo uruopuposanu ux unu qenouctpuposanu nuunyk secenocte.
3to sactasnno ux +ysctsosate ce neuee uopnaneuo u neaano ocyqeuuk ux onesuu. 8qoposMe nkqu ronaranu,
+to ato yqet tonero xye qn raueutor, ecnu ocyqate ux +ysctsa, uo oneuMx pacctpausano taroe userauue
oaeuu c uunu. 8 oaen, uankqanoce uecootsetctsue neqy ssrnqanu sqoposMx nkqeu u rotpeuoctek s roqqep-
re, repeusaenou oneuMnu. 0quaro sqoposMe euauuM sMpaanu ysepeuuocte s ton, +to ecnu M ouu saonenu
paron, to ux rotpeuocte s roqqepre Mna M yqosnetsopeua. 0qua tpete oneuMx, c qpyrou ctopouM, cooaanu, +to
un ue r rony Mno opatutec sa roqqeprou.
Couaneua roqqepra oneuMx paron rpusnerana ocoMu uutepec, u cyaectsykt csuqetenectsa toro, +to oua cssaua
c sMusauuen. larpunep, s oquon rpocrertusuon uccneqosauuu Mno sMsneuo, +to tarue artopM, rar +ucno qpyseu u
ronu+ectso couaneuMx csseu ua noneut roctauosru quaruosa, rossonkt rporuosuposate coxpaueuue usuu s
rocneqykaue roqM (Waxler-Morrisonetal., 1991). osMaeuue yposu roqqepru, orasMsaenou euauuan, oneuMn paron
rpyqu, otrpMsaet uutepecuyk sosnouocte rpoqneuu usuu. 8 pqe ueqasuux uccneqosauuu Mnu rony+euM nuorooe-
aakaue pesynetatM, uo s uux e Mnu ouapyeuM u orpeqeneuuMe rpotusope+u. larpunep, s uccneqosauuu Cruqen
c coastopanu (1989) oeuusanoce snuuue roqqepusakaux sneaatenects ua raueutor c netactasanu para rpyqu. 86
raueutor Mnu s cny+auuon ropqre pasqeneuM ua qse rpyrrM: rpyrry y+actsykaux ua rpoteuuu roqa s eeueqene-
uMx cosnectuMx teparestu+ecrux sctpe+ax u routponeuyk rpyrry. 8osqeuctsu s repsou rpyrre Mnu uarpasneuM ua
ctunynuposauue qucryccuu u sMpaeuue +yscts, ua rpeoqoneuue couaneuou usonuu ryten passutu csseu neqy
+neuanu rpyrrM, a, rpone toro, raueutor oy+anu canoruruosy, c ronoaek rotoporo ouu nornu yneueaute oayaeuue
onu. 8 te+euue rocneqykaux qectu net us scex raueutor s usMx octanuce tonero tpoe, uo us tou rpyrrM oneuMx, s
rotopou rparturosanuce orucauuMe sosqeuctsu, raueutru rpounu sua+uteneuo qoneae (s cpequen 36,6 neces,
cpasuuteneuo c 18,9 necanu s routponeuou rpyrre). 0quaro 1orc (1998) ronaraet, +to atu pesynetatM noryt ocu-
tec artopanu rpeqpacronoeuuoctu. 8 uactoauu noneut sMuocute orou+ateneuMu sepqurt ro qauuony sorpocy eae
pauo.
3aknueue
8 atou rnase Mna srpate oxapartepusosaua oaupua u cnoua onacte uccneqosauuu, rotopa srnk+aet nuoectso
rponen, ua+uua ot oaeu uuterpauu s cetu couaneuMx csseu u sasepaa snuuunu o+eue creuu+uMx couane-
uMx ssaunootuoaeuuu. 8 oaen, unekauec qauuMe uccneqosauuu, rposoqusauxc s panrax pasnu+uMx roqxoqos r
qauuou rponenature, roqtsepqakt narotsopuoe snuuue couaneuou roqqepru. 0quaro pasnu+uMe turM couane-
uou roqqepru, ro-suqunony, pasnu+aktc ro csoun rcuxonoru+ecrun nexauusnan sosqeuctsu ua +enosera.
|ccneqosauu couaneuou roqqepru +acto rputurosanuce, rar u qpyrue paotM, rpeqctasneuuMe s qauuou ruure,
uarpunep, sa otcytctsue rouertyaneuou cuoctu u crsosuMx netoqos. 0quaro usy+euue couaneuou roqqepru uneet
qonryk uctopuk u rpusnerano suunauue uccneqosateneu, rpeqctasnkaux auporuu quarasou uay+uMx tpaquuu. 8
pesynetate Mno sMronueuo oneaoe +ucno cepeesuMx rpocrertusuMx paot, oecre+usakaux yequteneuMe qorasate-
nectsa narotsopuoro snuuu couaneuou roqqepru ua usu+ecroe u rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue +enosera. 0quaro
nuorue uccneqosauu ue rpuuunanu so suunauue cnouocte rpoeccos, rocpeqctson rotopMx couaneua roqqepra u
ctpeccopM noryt ssaunoqeuctsosate u snute ua sqoposee, tparty couaneuyk roqqepry rar ueusneukauuc artop,
rotopMu can ro cee ue sasucut ot ctpeccopa. larpunep, 6payu c coastopanu otne+akt, +to
...otuoaeuu noryt rpetepresate paquraneuMe usneueuu u... atu usneueuu noryt rouuate aertusuocte rporuosos, qenaenMx s
rpocrertusuMx uccneqosauux, rorqa uneet necto sua+uteneuMu speneuuou uutepsan neqy usua+aneuou oeurou roqqepru u
rocneqykaun rpusucon (Brown et al., 1986, c. 827).
8 uerotopMx cny+ax qeno noet qae oepuytec tarun opason, +to uuqusuq, oecre+usakauu couaneuyk roqqep-
ry s ua+ane uccneqosauu, s qaneueuaen ctauosutc rnasuMn ucto+uuron ctpecca, rar, uarpunep, rpu uec+actuMx
cny+ax unu paspMse ceneuuMx otuoaeuuu. 8 qaneueuaux uccneqosauux ueoxoquno usy+ute rpoeccM, rocpeqctson
rotopMx couaneuMe cssu snukt ua rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue c te+euuen speneuu.
8 uccneqosauuu couaneuou roqqepru uneetc nuoro uosMx u uutepecuMx uarpasneuuu. 8ce onee pacaupktc
sosnouoctu qn ronnyuurauu u yctauosneuu otuoaeuuu +epes oneaue pacctouu rocpeqctson |utepueta u qpyrux
uosMx texuonoruu, rar, uarpunep, nouneua suqeocsse. ora eae uenuoroe ussectuo o rocneqctsux ucronesosauu
tarux texuonoruu qn couaneuou roqqepru u otuoaeuuu neqy nkqenu sooae. |cronesosauue qonaauero ronrek-
tepa uuorqa paceuusaetc rar usonuposauua u ue cssauua c oaectson artusuocte, rotopa, sosnouo, crococt-
syet oequeuuk suytpuceneuuMx otuoaeuuu. 0quaro sce sospactaet +ucno rpyrr roqqepru u qucryccuouuMx rpyrr s
|utepuete, rotopMe oecre+usakt nkqn sosnouocte qenutec cxounu rponenanu u rpeqnarate ronoae s yctauo-
sneuuu couaneuMx routartos oquuorun nkqn. uae coscen ueqasuo uccneqosatenu sauutepecosanuce ponek
|utepueta s orasauuu couaneuou roqqepru. larpunep, s panrax uccneqosauu Koqu c coastopanu (1999) Mno
oprauusosauo oy+euue nu ctap+ecroro sospacta (cpequuu sospact orono 80 net) ronesosauuk |utepueton. 0y+euue
coctono us eeueqeneuMx sautuu c rperoqasatenen ua rpoteuuu onee +en +etMpex neces. |ccneqosatenu
yctauosunu, +to y+actue s atux sautux sua+uteneuo cuuano ctpax repeq ronrektepon, rosMaano oeuru
socrpuuunaenou y+actuuranu couaneuou roqqepru u crococtsosano onee rosutusuou yctauosre r ctapeuuk.
Xapartep roqqeper, oecre+usaenMx c ronoaek |utepueta, u rpoeccM, rocpeqctson rotopMx ouu peanusyktc,
oquaro, ro-suqunony, cyaectseuuo otnu+aktc ot tex, +to unekt necto rpu uerocpeqctseuuMx routartax neqy
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
nkqenu. larpunep, uutepuetcrue rpyrrM noryt sua+uteneuo ysenu+ute uuopnauouuyk roqqepry u qae
oecre+usate uerotopyk anououaneuyk roqqepry, uo ouu ropasqo neuee ronesuM s orasauuu uuctpyneutaneuou
roqqepru. peqctasnetc eccropuMn, +to uosMe texuonoruu s yqyaen rpuseqyt r paquraneuony usneueuuk
couaneuMx csseu, a ux rocneqctsu qn rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u, rar rosutusuMe, tar u ueratusuMe, nM eae
tonero ua+uuaen uccneqosate.
+acs 4
eupe suuau cpecc ua pa6oueu uece
ponena ctpecca, cssauuoro c paotou, sacnyusaet otqeneuoro pasqena, rocronery sce oneae uccneqosauuu
rocsaaetc snuuuk paotM ua rcuxonoru+ecroe u usu+ecroe narorony+ue, u y auporou rynuru qauua tena
sMsMsaet sua+uteneuMu uutepec. 0 aton csuqetenectsyet u ronu+ectso rynurauu s rpecce, uarpunep, s otuoaeuuu
toro, +to suose sosuurakaue rpoeccuu oycnasnusakt rputu+ecruu yposeue ctpecca.
8 lnase 9 rpeqctasneuM ocuosuMe noqenu u roqxoqM r uccneqosauuk rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca. 8 ueu ocyqaktc
canMe sauMe pesynetatM pqa uccneqosauuu u paccnatpusaktc qoctouuctsa pasnu+uMx uay+uMx roqxoqos. 0quou us
rorynpuMx opn rpartu+ecroro uccneqosauu snetc rposeqeuue s oprauusauu ayquta ctpecca oatony s qauuou
rnase ocooe suunauue yqenetc sorpocan, cssauuMn c rnauuposauuen tarou rposepru ua yposeue rpoeccuouane-
uoro ctpecca, a tare paccnatpusaktc qoctouuctsa u ueqoctatru pasnu+uMx roqxoqos.
lnasa 10 stopa rnasa pasqena rocsaeua ssaunoqeuctsuk paotM c qpyrunu acrertanu usuu +enosera. 8 ueu
paccnatpusaetc sosnouoe snuuue paotM ua qonaaukk usue, u uaoopot. anee paccnatpusaetc snuuue paotM
ua otuoaeuu c qono+aqanu u ua narorony+ue raptuepos.
|nasa 9
poqeccouansus cpecc
3ta rnasa rocsaeua ucrnk+uteneuo rpoeccuouaneuony ctpeccy. 8 ueu rpeqctasneuM noqenu atoro euoneua u
auanus pasnu+uMx roqxoqos r ero tpartosre. 8 ueu tare ocyqaktc rpartu+ecrue acrertM taateneuoro usy+euu
ctpecca uerocpeqctseuuo ua pao+en necte.
poqeccouansus cpecc: poc uepeca k npo6neue
|s natepuana, usnoeuuoro s rpeqMqyaux rnasax, cuo, +to ocuosuoe suunauue uccneqosateneu rpoeccuouaneuoro
ctpecca cocpeqoto+euo ua cpeqosMx ocoeuuoctx rpoterauu tpyqosou qeteneuoctu. orynpua nutepatypa u nuorue
araqenu+ecrue rynurauu pasqenkt ty to+ry speuu, +to ctpecc ua pao+en necte ctauosutc sce onee u onee
pacrpoctpaueuuMn sneuuen. 8ueqpeuue uosMx texuonoruu, rosMaeuuoe suunauue r aertusuoctu tpyqa, sospacta-
kaee +ucno rpatrocpo+uMx routpartos sce ato, es conueuu, crocouo rpespatute nkoe pao+ee necto s ueesora-
cuyk u Mctpo usneukaykc cpeqy. 0quaro ytsepqeuue, +to ua cospeneuuon saraquon rpeqrputuu oneae arto-
pos ctpecca, +en Mno s rpoanon, uarpunep, s yroneuMx aaxtax unu ua trarux apurax, rpeqctasnetc tpyquo qora-
syenMn.
VM ye ocyqanu rponenM, cssauuMe c canun routuen ctpecc, u suqenu, rar nkqu, rosopaue o ton, +to
uaxoqtc s coctouuu ctpecca, srnaqMsakt s csou cnosa pasuMu cnMcn. 0quaro ue sMsMsaet conueuu, +to nuorue
qeuctsuteneuo repeuarpeuM u rpasuneuo oeuusakt csoe coctouue. | sce e r ytsepqeuuk o ton, +to uaau
cospeneuuuru ucrMtMsakt onee cuneuMe ctpeccM, ueenu s rpoanon, rorqa cano routue ctpecc eae ue Mno ctone
sua+uno, cneqyet otuocutec c octopouoctek. 8 rnase 1 nM ye rosopunu o tpyquoctx, rotopMe sosuurakt rpu
uuteprpetauu ctatuctu+ecrux qauuMx, csuqetenectsykaux o ysenu+euuu cny+aes uetpyqocrocouoctu s cssu co
ctpeccanu; a tare o tpyquoctx rpu rorMtrax cqenate sMsoqM o ton, s rarou nepe uneuuo ctpecc snetc rpu+uuou
uetpyqocrocouoctu. oatony xot uaau oeuru u snktc, ro cnosan Korca, ue onee +en qoraqranu opasosauuMx
nkqeu, ouu, ro rpauueu nepe, csuqetenectsykt o sospactakaen suunauuu r narorony+uk nkqeu rpu sMronueuuu unu
rpoeccuouaneuMx osauuocteu (Cox, 1993). Kar Mno rorasauo s rnase 1, uuopnau o sMcorux yposux ctpecca
crocoua tare roqtsepqute crpaseqnusocte to+ru speuu, cornacuo rotopou paota snetc ero ucto+uuron, u rono+e
rpusne+e suunauue r atou rponene.
Pasyneetc, secena sepotuo u to, +to uerotopMe oprauusauouuMe repeneuM, rpousoaeqaue sa rocnequee spen,
orasanu ua nuorux ronouteneuoe snuuue, uo cosqanu uosMe sosnouoctu u ctunynM u usasunu nkqeu ot rpsuou u
ytonuteneuou paotM. 8nuuuk atux acrertos paotM uu rorynpua, uu uay+ua nutepatypa ue yqenkt qoctato+uoro
suunauu. uae uenuorue uccneqosatenu sanetunu rosutusuMe rcuxonoru+ecrue usneueuu, orpauu+usauce oaun
ytsepqeuuen o ton, +to qn rcuxonoru+ecroro sqopose, s rpuuure, ny+ae unete paoty, ueenu Mte espaotuMn
(Warr, 1987). 0quaro s xoqe rpyruonacatauoro uccneqosauu sspocnMx uteneu 6putauuu uutepsekepM crpaausanu o
ton, rarue +ysctsa, rosutusuMe unu cssauuMe c uarpeuuen, pecrouqeutM ucrMtMsanu uarauyue (Warr & Payne, 1982).
0+eue qosoneuMnu, rar nuuunyn s te+euue ronosuuM rpeqMqyaero qu, Mnu 69% orpoaeuuMx ny+uu u 68%
orpoaeuuMx euauu. pu aton 24% qosoneuMx ny+uu u 19% qosoneuMx euauu cssanu csou ronouteneuMe
anouu c paotou. n cpasueuu nouo rpusectu cneqykaue qauuMe: tonero 13% pecrouqeutos-ny+uu u 18%
pecrouqeutos-euauu crasanu o ton, +to s te+euue, rar nuuunyn, ronosuuM qu ucrMtMsanu uerputuMe anouu, uo
oneauuctso us uux ue cssanu ueratusuMe repeusauu c paotou. A ato sua+ut, +to xot paota u socrpuuunaetc rar
sosnouMu ucto+uur uarpeuu, orasanoce, +to oua qae s oneaeu ctereuu snetc ucto+uuron yqosonectsu, ro
rpauueu nepe, tar Mno s ua+ane 80-x roqos. lecnotp ua ato, roq+eprusanuce u usy+anuce rpeunyaectseuuo uneuuo
ueratusuMe acrertM paotM.
lapqy c oneaeu rnacuoctek u rosMaeuuMn suunauuen r spequMn rocneqctsun tpyqa, so nuorux ctpauax
artususuposanace qeteneuocte, cssauua c tpyqosMn sarouoqatenectson, u y+actunuce cny+au paccnotpeuu s cyqe
ucros r rpeqrputun. Tar, s 8enuroputauuu s 1974 roqy Mn rpuut 8arou o texuure esoracuoctu u oxpaue sqopose
repcouana (Health and Safety at Work Act), osMsakauu paotoqaten oecre+ute ua pao+ux nectax ycnosu,
rapautupykaue sceny repcouany narcunaneuo sosnouyk esoracuocte, sqoposee u narorony+ue. Ceu+ac ye sce
cornacuM c ten, +to s 8aroue pe+e uqet o tpeosauux, rpeqsnenMx paotou, o ton, rar ata paota oprauusosaua, u
o ton, rar nkqu ssaunoqeuctsykt qpyr c qpyron (HSE, 1995).
+toM paotoqatenu nornu oecre+ute cootsetctsue yecto+akaunc tpeosauun, cssauuMn c oeurou yposu
ctpecca u c pearueu ua uero, un uyuM usuecrocouMe u rpuneuunMe ua rparture teopuu u netoquru. Vuorue
uccneqosauu, rotopMe yqyt orucauM uue u rotopMe sMronueuM rcuxonoranu tpyqa, paotakaunu s yuusepcutetax u
s ronnep+ecrux oprauusaux, rocsaeuM sMsneuuk oprauusauouuMx ctpeccopos. 0quaro rorqa qeno qoxoqut qo
sneaatenectsa c enek cuueuu yposu ctpecca, qonuuupykaun ctauosutc rnuuu+ecruu roqxoq, t. e. s eutpe
suunauu orasMsaetc orasauue ronoau rourpetuony uuqusuqyyny. 8a rocnequue 20 net sospocno ronu+ectso
oprauusauu, oecre+usakaux csou repcouan roucynetuposauuen unu oy+akaux cotpyquuros crpasntec co
ctpeccon. 0 ton, uacronero ycreauM atu qeuctsu, nM paccraen s rnase 11. le ucrnk+euo, +to rpeqoctasneuue
roqouMx ycnyr neuee qoporoctoaee u onee rpoctoe qeno, +en cepeesuoe suunauue r yny+aeuuk sceu cpeqosou
octauosru ua paote. 0quaro orasauue ronoau uuqusuqyyny, repeusakaeny ctpecc, unu ucrpasneuue ye
rpu+uueuuoro speqa ue yctpaukt rponen, cyaectsykaux s canon pao+en orpyeuuu, a rotony ue crocouM rosnute
ua rpu+uuM uarpeuuu.
8 atou rnase orucauM pasnu+uMe teopetu+ecrue roqxoqM, rpeqnoeuuMe uccneqosatennu rpoeccuouaneuMx ctpeccos
rpu rorMtre sMsute oaue artopM, rpucyaue oprauusaun pasuMx turos. 8 ueu tare orucauM rpuneuenMe ua
rparture netoquru usy+euu ctpecca, s eutpe suunauu rotopMx rourpetua oprauusau, epyaac sa peaeuue
csoux rponen.
poqeccouansus cpecc: eopeuecke noqxoqs k npo6neue
TpaquuouuMn rcuxonoru+ecrun roqxoqan r rpoeccuouaneuony ctpeccy rpucya uutepec r ten ocoeuuoctn pao+eu
octauosru (ctpeccopan), rotopMe rpusoqt r uarpeuuk, rposnkaenyc s suqe yxyqaeuu rcuxu+ecroro u
usu+ecroro sqopose, a s uerotopMx cny+ax u s cuueuuu rpoussoquteneuoctu tpyqa. Pesynetaton atoro sunoce co-
sqauue pasnu+uMx quarpann, rpeqctasnkaux csse +epes pasnu+uMe rponeyto+uMe repeneuuMe neqy
pasuoopasuMnu ctpeccopanu, rotopMe, cyq ro sceny, otpaakt oneauuctso acrertos pao+eu cpeqM, u ctone e
pasuoopasuMnu yposunu uarpeuu. punepon roqouoro roqxoqa snetc quarpanna, cosqauua Kyrepon u ero
coastopanu u rpeqctasneuua qanee ua puc. 9.3 (Cooper, Sloan & Williams, 1988). 3tu quarpannM otpaeuue oaero
roqxoqa, u ronesuM ouu cropee s ra+ectse unnkctpauu toro, +to sxoqut s routue ctpecca rar sneuu (roqouo tony,
rar ato cqenauo so spesre 1.1 s rnase 1 qauuou ruuru), ueenu s ra+ectse teopuu, rotopMe nouo rposepute ua rparture.
oqouMu roqxoq Mn roqsepruyt rputure 6puuepon u Peuuoneqcon sa rpusuauue cyaectsosauu cssu neqy
+pessM+auuo oneaun +ucnon pasnu+uMx sneuuu unu sa qoryaeuue sosnouoctu ee cyaectsosauu (Briner & Reynolds,
1993). AstopM ruayt:
3mu vodenu v,cop+ee |opsu+e, e |omopee poae+o ece unu |oe-vmo us moco, veco, e npu+(une, +e ns+m nsdu unu opca+usa(uu
{+anpuvep, ones+u unu npoc,ne), u |oe-vmo us moco, +a vmo ve voev eosnoume eu+, sa ns,s us amux +enpu+m+ocmeu
{+anpuvep: nuv+ocm+ee |avecmea, ocoe++ocmu paome) (c. 3).
o rpu+uue rpauueu ooaeuuoctu atux noqeneu ux uenes ucronesosate s ra+ectse +etroro pyrosoqctsa s rpartu+ecrou
paote. larpotus, sce noqenu, rotopMe yqyt orucauM uue, xot u unekt orpauu+euu, oquaro rpunuakt uac r
rpoctMn u rposepenMn rurotesan o rpupoqe csseu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu.
0quun us rpocteuaux roqxoqos snetc sutanuuua noqene 8oppa (Warr's vitamin model), repsa noqene, rotopa
yqet orucaua uanu. Astop ucxoqut us cyaectsosauu 9 rnk+esMx rpusuaros orpyakaeu cpeqM u sMcrasMsaet
rurotesy o cyaectsosauuu qsyx pasnu+uMx turos cssu neqy atunu rpusuaranu u rcuxonoru+ecrun narorony+uen.
0quaro noqene 8oppa ue y+utMsaet uu sosnouoro ssaunoqeuctsu ctpeccopos, uu toro, +to pasuMe nkqu noryt ro-
pasuony pearuposate ua uux. 8saunoqeuctsu neqy pasnu+uMnu ctpeccopanu u uuqusuqyaneuMnu ocoeuuoctnu
+enosera uaxoqtc s eutpe suunauu uuteparuouaneuMx teopuu - stopou rpyrrM roqxoqos, o rotopou yqet
paccrasauo s atou rnase.
oqxoqM ooux turos rputurosanuce ctopouuuranu tpausaruouaneuou to+ru speuu ua ctpecc tpeteero sauoro
roqxoqa, ocyqaenoro s atou rnase. 8Msoset nu coMtue ctpecc ato sasucut ot xapartepa tpausaruu uuqusuqyyna u
pao+eu cutyauu. Tar, asa-pyc u 1onrnau opaaakt ocuosuoe suunauue ua roruutusuMu u anououaneuMu acrertM
toro, rar +enoser oeuusaet ctpecc u crpasnetc c uun (Lasarus & Folkman, 1984). |uMnu cnosanu, tpaquuouuMu
roqxoq usy+aet socrputue uuqusuqyynon pao+eu uarpysru u rytu cssu atoro socrputu c tarunu pesynetupykaunu
rorasatennu, rar tpesora. A roqxoq, rpeqnaraenMu asapycon, cocpeqoto+eu ua ton, c+utakt nu nkqu, +to ux pao+a
uarpysra +pesnepua u rpesocxoqut ux usu+ecrue u rcuxu+ecrue sosnouoctu (cn. tare rnasy 7).
0pocmme vodenu cpedoemx xapakmepucmuk eumavunna vodens 8oppa
poseq yuqaneutaneuoe usy+euue nutepatypM, 8opp uqeutuuuposan pq cpeqosMx artopos, snukaux ua
rcuxu+ecroe sqoposee (Warr, 1987). lue repe+ucneuM rpusuaru, pone rotopMx Mna usy+eua rpeqe scero s routercte
oecre+euuoctu paotou u espaotuM, xot atu rpusuaru u penesautuM scen turan cpeq.
1. 8osnouocte routponuposate. Cyq ro sceny, rcuxu+ecroe sqoposee sasucut ot toro, s rarou nepe cutyau
rpeqoctasnet +enosery sosnouocte nu+uo routponuposate qeuctsu unu coMtu. o nueuuk 8oppa, sosnouocte
ocyaectsnte routpone uneet qse saueuaux coctasnkaux: sosnouocte rpuuunate peaeuu u qeuctsosate s
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
cootsetctsuu c uunu u roteuuaneuyk sosnouocte rporuosuposate rocneqctsu atux qeuctsuu (Warr, 1987, c. 4).
2. 8osnouocte ucronesosate unekauec uasMru. cuxu+ecroe sqoposee, sepotuo, sasucut ot toro, s rarou nepe cpeqa
rossonet +enosery ucronesosate te uasMru, rotopMnu ou snaqeet, u rpuopetate uosMe.
3. leuepupyenMe ussue enu. cuxu+ecroe sqoposee uuqusuqyyna, cropee scero, sasucut ot toro, s rarou nepe cpeqa
rpeqsnet r ueny tpeosauu unu reuepupyet enu.
4. Pasuoopasue (sosnouocte sMopa). cuxu+ecroe sqoposee uuqusuqyyna sasucut tare ot toro, s rarou nepe
octauosra rpeqoctasnet eny rpaso sMopa.
5. Fcuocte octauosru. 3tun tepnuuon oosua+aktc tpu cpeqosMx artopa:
pearu ua rocneqctsu qeuctsuu, rpeqrpuuunaenMx uuqusuqyynon (opatua csse);
ctereue rpeqcrasyenoctu qeuctsuu qpyrux nkqeu u octotenects, xapartepusykaux cpeqy;
ponesa orpeqeneuuocte.
6. 8osnouocte nenu+uoctuMx routartos. 3to sauo qn yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuoctu s qpye u couaneuou
roqqepre. Kpone toro, nuorue enu noryt Mte qocturuytM tonero +epes +neuctso s rarou-nuo rpyrre.
7. lanu+ue qeuer. outuo, +to uanu+ue qeuer snetc artopon, crocouMn rosnute ua rcuxu+ecroe sqoposee, ecnu
+enoser ue ysepeu s csoeu crocouoctu oecre+ute yqosnetsopeuue coctseuuMx asosMx rotpeuocteu unu asosMx
rotpeuocteu csoeu ceneu. Kpone toro, ueqoctator qeuer, cropee scero, crocoeu rosnute ua to, s rarou nepe +enosery
oraytc qoctyruMnu s qonuou ctereuu qpyrue artopM, uarpunep, sosnouocte sMopa unu sosnouocte
routponuposate cutyauk.
8. 1usu+ecra esoracuocte. 8 rpoeccuouaneuon routercte atun tepnuuon oosua+aktc tarue artopM, rar
esoracuocte tpyqa u ero ycnosu.
9. 8ua+una couaneua rosuu. 8auMn qn rcuxu+ecroro sqopose snetc to, uneetc nu taroe ronoeuue
uuqusuqyyna s couaneuou rpyrre, rotopoe oecre+usaet eny ysaeuue co ctopouM orpyakaux.
+toM ocuute, rarun opason atu rpusuaru pao+eu octauosru snukt ua rcuxu+ecroe sqoposee, 8opp cpasuun ux c
sutanuuanu. To+uo tar e, rar ueqoctator sutanuuos s oprauusne rpusoqut r usu+ecrun ueqyran, ueqoctator raqoro
us repe+ucneuuMx cpeqosMx artopos sMsMsaet yxyqaeuue rcuxu+ecroro sqopose. o nueuuk 8oppa, rar u s cny+ae c
sutanuuanu, yposeue toro unu uuoro artopa, rpesMaakauu orpeqeneuuMu rpeqen, ue crocoeu orasate rosutusuoro
snuuu ua rcuxu+ecroe sqoposee. Tar, ysenu+euue ronu+ectsa qeuer unu nenu+uoctuMx routartos s rarou-to noneut
oneae ue sMsMsaet yny+aeuu rcuxu+ecroro sqopose. +to e racaetc sutanuuos, to usMto+uMe qosM uerotopMx us
uux, uarpunep sutanuuos A unu D, qae spequM qn sqopose, s to spen rar qpyrue, s +actuoctu sutanuuM C unu E,
rotpenktc oprauusnon s oneaon ronu+ectse. |cxoq us atoro, 8opp rpeqronoun, +to uerotopMe cpeqosMe arto-
pM, ecnu ux yposeue cnuaron sMcor, crocouM rpu+uuute speq rcuxu+ecrony sqoposek. Crasauuoe otuocutc r arto-
pan, repe+ucneuuMn sMae roq uonepanu 1-6. 8Mcoruu yposeue octaneuMx tpex aneneutos ue speqeu qn +enosera.
|uMnu cnosanu, qauua noqene rporuosupyet cneqykaee: cnuaron oneaoe ronu+ectso qeuer unu sMcoruu yposeue
usu+ecrou esoracuoctu esspequM, uo cnuaron sMcoruu yposeue routpon uaq cutyaueu unu sosnouoctu sMupate
noryt cMrpate ueratusuyk pone.
6oneauuctso uccneqosateneu ucxoqt us toro, +to neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu cyaectsyet nuueuua ssauno-
csse, scneqctsue +ero uenuueuuMu xapartep cssu, rpoucterakauu us rpeqnoeuuou 8oppon noqenu, paccnatpusaetc
peqro. Can 8opp oquu us uenuorux uccneqosateneu, ouapyusaux uneuuo taryk sasucunocte neqy ctpeccopanu u
uarpeuunu (Warr, 1991). 8epotuo, roqouoe cny+aetc ue+acto, rotony +to uccneqosauu peqro oxsatMsakt qoc-
tato+uo auporuu uaop suqos paotM u te suqM, rotopMe rpeqoctasnkt ucronuutenn cnuaron nano sosnouocteu
routponuposate csok pao+yk cpeqy, u te, rotopMe qakt cnuaron nuoro tarux sosnouocteu.
Voqene 8oppa asupyetc ua rpeqctasneuuu o ton, +to repeneuuMe qeuctsykt uesasucuno qpyr ot qpyra. 8 qeuctsute-
neuoctu e, auanoru c sutanuuanu tpeyet uuoro roqxoqa, rocronery qeuut qae oquoro us uux noet sMssate
cepeesuMe rponenM c usu+ecrun sqoposeen. 8opp rpusuaet, +to s aton rnaue ero auanoru ue sMqepusaet rputuru,
u +to to, rarun opason cpeqosMe artopM ssaunoqeuctsykt qpyr c qpyron u c nu+uoctuMnu ra+ectsanu uuqusuqyyna,
roue+uo e, uneet oneaoe sua+euue. osquee 8opp qoronuun csok noqene rpeqctasneuunu o ton, rar ua ee ocuose
nouo ocuute ssaunoqeuctsue neqy cpeqosMnu artopanu u uuqusuqyaneuMnu pasnu+unu (Warr, 1994). |neuuo
atu acrertM u uaxoqt csoe otpaeuue s uuteparuouaneuMx noqenx.
hnmepakquonansnme vodenu
|ssectuM u onee cnouMe roqxoqM r rponene rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, opaaakaue rpuctaneuoe suunauue ua
cpeqosMe artopM, uo qorycrakaue rar sosnouocte ssaunoqeuctsu neqy uunu, tar u y+utMsakaue uuqusuqyaneuMe
pasnu+u, xot so nuoron astopM octaktc s panrax onee rpoctMx, tpaquuouuMx noqeneu ctpeccop uarpeuue.
lue orucauM qsa tarux roqxoqa. epsMu us uux noqene ssaunuoro cootsetctsu uuqusuqyyna u cpeqM (the person-
environment fit model) oquu us roqxoqos, uauonee rorynpuMx s CLA. 8topou noqene Kapacera orasan
uauoneaee snuuue ua uccneqosateneu s 8enuroputauuu, s Espore s enon, a tare s Asctpanuu.
Hoqens siauuoro coosecs uqsqyyua cpeqs. Voqene ssaunuoro cootsetctsu uuqusuqyyna u cpeqM
oqua us noqeneu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, ua rotopMe ccMnaktc ocoeuuo +acto (French, Caplan & Van Harrison,
1982). AstopM ucxoqt us toro, +to tarue ocoeuuoctu paotM, rar ponesa ueorpeqeneuuocte unu ponesou rounurt,
roteuuaneuo oracuM scneqctsue uecootsetctsu crocouocteu +enosera tpeosauun, rpeqsnenMn r ueny
paotou, unu rotpeuocteu +enosera - sosuarpaqeuun, rony+aenMn un sa csou tpyq. Cneqosateneuo, y nkqeu uyuo
crpaausate o ton, rar ouu socrpuuunakt csok pao+yk uarpysry u rarou yposeue qn uux rpeqro+tuteneu. Kar u nuorue
qpyrue roqxoqM r ctpeccy, ata teopu uocut cnuaron ooaeuuMu xapartep, u uecuo, rarue e uneuuo nu+uoctuMe
ra+ectsa uuqusuqyyna unekt peaakaee sua+euue u rarun cpeqosMn artopan ouu qonuM cootsetctsosate. 0quaro
oua uneet u uerotopoe arcrepuneutaneuoe roqtsepqeuue: pe+e uqet o uccneqosauux, astopM rotopMx cocpeqoto+uu-
nuce ua tex rourpetuMx ssaunocssx, qn rotopMx nouo copnynuposate rurotesM. larpunep, yctauosneuo, +to
yuusepcutetcrue aqnuuuctpatopM, +eu coctseuuMu ctune pyrosoqctsa cootsetctsyet ocoeuuoctn octauosru (tarou
sMsoq cqenau ua ocuosauuu teopuu 1uqnepa sepotuoctuou teopuu aertusuoctu nuqepa) neuee roqsepeuM
ctpeccan, u y uux neueae rponen co sqoposeen (Chelmers et al, 1985; Fiedler, 1967).
3nepr, /urnu u 6xarat usy+unu aty teopuk u cpasuunu ee c uerotopMnu qpyrunu teopetu+ecrunu roqxoqanu (Eulberg,
Weekley & Bha-gat, 1988). AstopM rpuanu r cneqykaeny sMsoqy: noqenu, opaaeuuou r auporun rouertyaneuMn
rponenan, ue xsataet cuoctu u rourpetuoctu, u oua, ro cyaectsy, ue roqqaetc rposepre. Voqene Kapacera noqene,
paspaotauua s tex e tpaquux, uo otnu+akaac rposepenoctek u sua+uteneuo oneaeu rourpetuoctek. |neuuo
roatony oua u yqet orucaua uanu onee roqpouo.
Hoqens Kapaceka, ocuosauua ua pe6osaux, npeqLsneusx pa6oo, koupone uaq ueu (Karasek's demand -
control model). Voqene Kapacera oquu us canMx ussectuMx roqxoqos r rponene rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca,
orasasauu sanetuoe snuuue ua ee usy+euue. |uorqa noqene paccnatpusakt rar +actuMu cny+au roqxoqa, ocuosauuoro
ua cootsetctsuu nu+uoctu u cpeqM (Edwards & Cooper, 1990), xot crpaseqnusocte roqouou tpartosru secena conuute-
neua, uo ocuosuoe suunauue Kapacera cocpeqoto+euo ua artopax, snkauxc ro csoeu cytu rpeunyaectseuuo
cpeqosMnu. Pe+e uqet tonero o qsyx ocuosuMx acrertax paotM o rpeqsnenMx ek tpeosauux (roq rotopMnu
astop rouunaet oen paotM u cropocte, c rotopou oua qonua Mte sMronueua, a tare sosqeuctsue ua uuqusuqyyna
ssaunoucrnk+akaux, unu rounurtykaux, tpeosauuu) u routpone uaq pao+eu cutyaueu.
o nueuuk Kapacera, snuuue tpeosauuu, rpeqsnenMx paotou, noqenupyetc csooqou s rpuutuu peaeuuu (+to
osua+aet rpunepuo to e canoe, +to u sosnouocte qeuctsosate ro coctseuuony ycnotpeuuk, unu routponuposate
cutyauk). la puc. 9.1 rpau+ecru rpeqctasneua turonoru paot, sosuurakaa s pesynetate pasnu+uMx ronuuauu
artopos tpeosauuu u routpon.
Voqene Kapacera rporuosupyet cneqykaee: co+etauue sMcorux tpeosauuu, rpeqsnenMx paotou, u uusrux yposueu
routpon uaq ueu rpusoqut r oneaony usu+ecrony u rcuxonoru+ecrony uarpeuuk r o+eue uarpeuuou paote.
larpotus, ronuuau uesMcorux tpeosauuu u sMcorux sosnouocteu routponuposate csok paoty ucto+uur
ueuarpeuuou paotM. 8Mcorue tpeosauu s co+etauuu c sMcorun yposuen routpon cosqakt rpeqrocMnru qn
artusuou paotM, rotopa ue yqet +pesnepuo ctpeccosou, rocronery tarue cutyauu rossonkt paotuuran rpeqr-
puute aqersatuMe nepM saautM, s +actuoctu qeneruposate uerotopMe csou ronuono+u roq+uueuuMn.


Puc. 9. 1. Voqene Kapacera. (|cto+uur: Karasek, 1979)

+to e racaetc paot, qn rotopMx xapartepuo co+etauue uusrux tpeosauuu u uusroro yposu routpon, to ouu
crococtsykt raccusuoctu +enosera, pesynetaton +ero ctauostc narorpuopeteuuMe ecronoauocte u rouueuua
artusuocte. C to+ru speuu ctpeccosoctu, artusua u raccusua paotM paccnatpusaktc rar uerue rponeyto+uMe
cutyauu u usy+aktc cpasuuteneuo peqro. 0cuosuou otnu+uteneuou +eptou noqenu Kapacera snetc oosua+euue
noqepupykaero aerta rpu uanoeuuu qsyx artopos sMcorux tpeosauuu, rpeqsnenMx paotou, u uesos-
nouoctu routponuposate ee, pesynetaton rotoporo ctauosutc +pesnepuoe uarpeuue. Kar rpasuno, qn oeuru
atoro aerta s ypasueuue nuoectseuuou perpeccuu, rporuosupykaee rocneqctsu uarpeuu, ssoqutc
roauueut, otpaakauu nyneturnuratusuoe ssaunoqeuctsue (auanoru+uo tony, rar orucauo s rnase 6 qn oeuru
qeuctsu noqepatopos).
Vuorue paotM Kapacera rocsaeuM qorasatenectsy toro, +to nkqu, sautMe ua o+eue uarpeuuou paote, onee
qpyrux pucrykt saonete cepqe+uo-cocyquctMnu saonesauunu (Karasek et al, 1982; Pieper, LaCroix & Karasek, 1989; cn.
rnasy 8). 0quaro ero noqene Mna tare ucronesosaua u qn rporuosuposauu sosqeuctsu ctpecca ua rcuxonoru+ecroe
sqoposee u yqosnetsopeuuocte paotou, tar rar rocneqctsu taroro sosqeuctsu rposnktc onee Mctpo. Voqene
noet rono+e ocuute, ro+eny rpu usy+euuu enoro pqa oprauusauu, srnk+a u te, rotopMe sxoqt s cucteny
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
locyqapctseuuou CnyM 8enuroputauuu (British Civil Service), uepeqro orasMsaetc, +to ctpaqakaux cepqe+uo-
cocyquctMnu saonesauunu oneae cpequ tex, rto uaxoqutc ua uusaux ctyreux uepapxu+ecrou nectuuM, a ue cpequ
yrpasneues (Marmot et al., 1991). Xot, roue+uo e, pyrosoqaun qonuoctn rpucyau csou coctseuuMe ctpeccopM, ux
sosqeuctsue, cropee scero, cnr+aetc oneaeu sosnouoctek routponuposate pao+yk cutyauk u qeneruposate +acte
csoux yuruu roq+uueuuMn. 0quu us o+esuquMx rpartu+ecrux sMsoqos, sMterakaux us noqenu Kapacera, sarnk+aetc
s ton, +to paoty nouo cqenate neuee ctpeccosou qn ucronuuteneu, ue cuua tpeosauuu r uun: qoctato+uo nuae
rpeqoctasute un oneae ctereueu csooqM. euctsuteneuo, pesynetatM uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuoro canun
Kapaceron, csuqetenectsykt: ecnu paotuuru y+actsykt s peoprauusauu, cneqctsuen rotopou ctauosutc opeteuue
unu oneaero routpon uaq csoeu paotou, cunrtonM, csuqetenectsykaue o ctpecce, srnk+a qerpeccuk, uctoaeuue
usu+ecrux u qyaesuMx cun, cepqe+uMe onesuu, ronosorpyeuue u ronosuMe onu, rposnktc y uux s sua+uteneuo
neueaeu ctereuu (Karasek, 1990). 8 to spen rar ato uccneqosauue snetc yequteneuMn qorasatenectson sauoctu
routpon uaq pao+eu cutyaueu, ouo ue satparusaet qpyrux acrertos noqenu ctpecca, rpeqnoeuuou astopon, u, s
+actuoctu uqek o cyaectsosauuu ctatuctu+ecru sua+unoro aerta ssaunoqeuctsu neqy tpeosauunu u routponen.
Vuorue uccneqosatenu, ucronesosasaue pasnu+uMe netoquru, rMtanuce rpotectuposate sck noqene enuron, oquaro
nuae uerotopMn us uux yqanoce sMsute rporuosuposasaeec ssaunoqeuctsue neqy tpeosauunu u routponen. 8
oaen, crnaqMsaetc taroe sre+atneuue, +to uqe Kapacera o sauoctu routpon uaana sua+uteneuo onee yequte-
neuoe arcrepuneutaneuoe roqtsepqeuue, ueenu sc ero noqene enuron (cn. Ganster & Fusilier, 1989; Jones & Fletcher,
1996b).
puctaneuoe suunauue Kapacera r tpeosauun u routponk u r ux ssaunoqeuctsuk rpuseno r tony, +to ero noqene
otuocuteneuo nerro rposepetc u noet Mte es scrux usneueuuu ucronesosaua ua rparture. 8osnouo, uneuuo atun
u ocuetc qonuuuposauue ero roqxoqa rar s rcuxonoru+ecrou, tar u s nequuucrou nutepatype (cn. rnasy 4). 0quaro
xot noqene Kapacera u orasana ucrnk+uteneuo oneaoe snuuue, ronous ua+ano nuorun uccneqosauun, ee sua+euue
qn rparturu ue ctone senuro. pu+uua, sosnouo, s ton, +to rnk+esMe repeneuuMe noqenu cnuaron oaue u
ueqoctato+uo orpeqeneuuM qn toro, +toM rosopute o ee rpartu+ecron rpuneueuuu. 3tu repeneuuMe tare ue supakt
s ce nuoro sauMx artopos, s ton +ucne ueysepeuuocte s sastpaauen que unu acrertM, cssauuMe c sueqpeuuen
uosMx texuonoruu (Jones et al., 1998).
punepon, qenouctpupykaun orpauu+euuocte noqenu Kapacera, snetc uccneqosauue, sMronueuuoe rpu y+actuu
orepatopos yctauosru ro o+uctre cto+uMx soq (Wright & Cordery, 1999). PesynetatM cuo rorasMsakt, uacronero sauo
rpuuunate s pac+et ctereue texuonoru+ecrou ueorpeqeneuuoctu, rar rnk+esyk routerctyaneuyk repeneuuyk s ypasue-
uuu, orucMsakaen sasucunocte neqy tpeosauunu, rpeqsnenMnu paotou, u sosnouoctek routponuposate ee.
AstopM uccneqosauu yctauosunu, +to s ycnosux uesua+uteneuou texuonoru+ecrou ueorpeqeneuuoctu paotuuru,
onaqasaue sosnouoctek nuae otuocuteneuoro routpon, Mnu onee yqosnetsopeuM csoeu paotou, ueenu te, y
roro Mno oneae roqouMx sosnouocteu. 8 cutyauu, rorqa texuonoru+ecra ueorpeqeneuuocte Mna sMcora, sosuu-
rana opatua raptuua. Auanoru+uMe pesynetatM Mnu rony+euM u rpu auanuse notusauu, u s ooux cny+ax uauneuee
yqosnetsopeuuMnu paotou orasanuce te, rony Mna rpeqoctasneua sosnouocte artusuo routponuposate cutyauk
naroqap cosqauuk canoyrpasnenMx puraq, uo y roro Mno o+eue nano sosnouocteu socronesosatec atun rpason,
uo texuonoru+ecra ueorpeqeneuuocte Mna cnuaron uusrou. 3tu pesynetatM csuqetenectsykt o ton, +to sneaate-
nectsa s oprauusauk paotM ue+to onee cnouoe, +en y+et tpeosauuu, rpeqsnenMx paotou, u routpone uaq
ueu, u +to otukqe ue scerqa rpeqoctasneuue rpasa ua oneauu routpone rpuuocut ronesy, ecnu s peaneuou usuu nkqu
rpartu+ecru ue unekt aaucos socronesosatec un. Tar, cosqauue canoyrpasnenMx puraq qn ocnyusauu rouseu-
epa noet orasatec ecronesuMn qenon, uo ua rparture u rocneqosateneuocte orepauu, u cropocte ux sMronueuu
qurtyktc rouseuepon, u ot paotuuros rpartu+ecru nano +to sasucut. 8 roqouMx cutyaux yrpasneu+ecrue rpeopa-
sosauu noryt nuae scenute s paotuuros uaqeqM, rotopMe ueuseuo pyxuyt cpasy e, rar tonero ctauet cuo, +to
uurarou peaneuou ronesM ouu ot atoro ue rony+at.
PaspaotauM u rpotectuposauM pasnu+uMe pacaupeuuMe sepcuu noqenu Kapacera. Tar, s uaau quu oaerpusuauo, +to
ueqoctator couaneuou roqqepru snetc oquou us saueuaux rpu+uu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, u atot artop
uepeqro ssoqutc s noqene (Johnson & Hall, 1988). Kpone toro, can Kapacer (s coastopctse c Tepennon) ssen s csok
noqene u tarue artopM, rar ueysepeuuocte s ctauneuoctu paotM u usu+ecra uarpysra (Karasek & Theorell, 1990).
0quaro uecnotp ua ato s oneauuctse uccneqosauuu s ra+ectse rapanetpos, orpeqenkaux yposeue ctpeccosoctu
paotM, qo cux rop ucronesyktc tonero tpeosauu u routpone, t. e. ucronesyetc roqxoq, nuae orpauu+euuo rpuroq-
uMu qn rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu.
8aua rorMtra cosqauu teopuu, rotopa Mna M onee rpuennenou c rpurnaquou to+ru speuu u rotopou nornu M
pyrosoqctsosatec u uccneqosatenu, u neueqepM, rpeqrpuuta /onnon u ero ronneranu (Wall et al, 1990 a, b). 0cuosou
atou teopuu snetc noqene Kapacera, oquaro astopM c+utakt ueoxoqunMn pasnu+ate uecronero cosepaeuuo ue
roxoux qpyr ua qpyra opn routpon. 0uu rosopt o cyaectsosauuu tpex opn routpon: routpon uaq netoqon (rout-
pone uaq ten, rar sMronuetc paota), routpon uaq speneuen (routpone sa speneuuMnu rapanetpanu sMronueuu
paotM) u corytctsykauu routpone (boundary control) (routpone uaq pqon tarux scronorateneuMx qeuctsuu, rar yxoq sa
oopyqosauuen unu saras ucxoquoro cMpe u natepuanos). AstopM tare pasnu+akt u roruutusuMe tpeosauu, rpeq-
snenMe paotou, c+uta, +to r uun otuoctc rar tpeosauu, cssauuMe c uankqeuuen sa paotou oopyqosauu, tar
u tpeosauu, cssauuMe c peaeuuen rponen (Wall et al., 1990 a). AstopM sMronuunu pq rourpetuMx usnepeuuu, rpu-
neuunMx qn rpoussoqctseuuMx ycnosuu (Jackson et al., 1993). 3tu usnepeuu rpequasua+euM qn ucronesosauu rar s
teopetu+ecrux, tar u s rpurnaquMx uccneqosauux; ux nouo tare rpuneute u rpu rposepre rurotesM Kapacera. Tar,
/onn u coastopM ronarakt, +to rporuosupyenMu Ka-paceron aert ssaunoqeuctsu rotony peqro uankqaetc, +to uc-
ronesyenMu rorasatene csooqM rpuutu peaeuuu ueqoctato+uo rourpeteu (Wall et al., 1996). 0uu cpasuunu rorasatenu
routpon uaq netoqon u uaq speneuen c tpaquuouuMn rorasatenen csooqM s rpuutuu peaeuuu, ro natepuanan
uccneqosauu, ene rotoporo rporuosuposauue rcuxonoru+ecroro uarpeuu. 0rasanoce, +to sua+unMn aert
ssaunoqeuctsu tpeosauuu u routpon Mn tonero s ton cny+ae, rorqa ucronesosanuce creuu+ecrue rorasatenu, ro
Ka-pacery, a ue oaerpuutMe. AstopM ocoo otnetunu, +to u s qpyrux uccneqosauux, s rotopMx Mn saurcuposau
aert ssaunoqeuctsu, toe ucronesosanuce pesynetatM onee corycuposauuMx usnepeuuu, +en tpeyetc ucxoq
us roueruu Kapacera (cn. Dwyer & Ganster, 1991; Fox, Dwyer & Ganster, 1993).
pyrue uccneqosatenu ctpenunuce pacaupute noqene Kapacera u srnk+ute s uee tarue uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, rar
nu+uoctuMe xapartepucturu, rotopMe, rar Mno rorasauo, uarnaqMsaktc ua rpoeccuouaneuMu ctpecc (cn. spesry 9.1
u rnasy 6). larpunep, rpu ocneqosauuu rocyqapctseuuMx cnyaaux sMcuunoce, +to uutepartusua noqene tpeosa-
uuroutpone qaet sosnouocte rporuosuposate tpesouocte y nkqeu c sueauun norycon routpon u ue rporuosupyet
ee qn tex, rto uneet suytpeuuuu noryc routpon (Parkes, 1991). 6onee toro, cana rpupoqa noqenu Kapacera, rar noqenu,
cocpeqoto+euuou ua oprauusauu paotM, osua+aet, +to so suunauue ue rpuuunaetc to, +to cssauo c uuqusuqyane-
uMnu pasnu+unu s oeurax nkqenu xapartepuctur paotM. |neuuo atot sorpoc uaxoqutc s eutpe suunauu astopos
tpausaruouaneuMx roqxoqos, o +en yqet paccrasauo uue.
7panaakquonansnm nodxod
TpausaruouaneuMu roqxoq, rpeqnoeuuMu asapycon u qonuuupykauu s nutepatype o ctpecce, neuee scero rosnun
ua paotM s cepe rpoeccuouaneuMx rponen. 8osnouo, ato rpousoano rotony, +to rcuxonoros tpyqa rpeqe scero
uutepecyet sMsneuue oaux arto-

D mov, |a|ou e|nad e+oc+m e cmpecc u+dueud,ane+ee pasnuvu+, pacc|asa+o e cnaee 6, npuvev oc+oe+oe e+uva+ue ,dene+o ponu
+ecamue+oco ae|ma/+eupomusva u noeede+u+ no mun, /. 3nu++ue ooux amux nepeve++ex eno us,ve+o e noneeex ,cnoeu+x.
Dd+a|o us,ve+ue ponu +ecamue+oco veane+u+ e |o+me|cme oc,(ecmene+u+ npoeccuo+ane+ou de+mene+ocmu eno npodone+o
uccnedoeamen+vu, cocpedomovueauvu oc+oe+oe e+uva+ue +a me+de+(uu | cavo|pumu|e unu +a cmpevne+uu coomeemcmeoeame
eeco|uv cma+dapmav.
Ta|, 1upm-|ose+c e nouc|ax |a| opca+usa(uo++ex, ma| u u+dueud,ane+ex napavempoe, npoc+osup,s(ux eocnpu+uvaeveu paovuu
cmpecc, npoeena no+cucsd+oe ocnedoea+ue 170 vnadaux do|mopoe (Firth-Cozens, 1992 b) D+a cocpedomovuna e+uva+ue +a
me+de+(uu ,vacm+u|oe eme cavo|pumuv+evu u saeucuvevu. lempadu(uo++ocme nodxoda uccnedoeamene+u(e npo+eunace e mov,
vmo o+a cmana uc|ame oc+oeononacas(ue vexa+usve amux ducnosu(uo++ex me+de+(uu e pa++ev demc|ov oneme ceoux nodo-
nev+ex. 3eeod, | |omopov, npuana 1upm-|ose+c, sa|nsvaemc+ e mov, vmo ea+e |a| opca+usa(uo++ee, ma| u u+due-d,ane+ee
a|mope. 1a|mope demcmea ma|e o|aseeasm enon+e o(,muvoe enu++ue. lanpuvep, ,poee+e cmpecca, eeseeaevoco cmapauv
epavov, en npedc|asa+ |a| +a oc+oea+uu muna cocnuman+, ma| u +a oc+oea+uu om+oae+uu c om(avu.
Te+de+(ueu | cavo|pumu|e u+mepecoeanuce ma|e ad u o|, us,vaeaue coeo|,n+ocme xapa|mepucmu|, +asea++,s uvu
duc,+|(uo+ane+ee vecnumene+ee npo(ecce (Judge & Locke, 1993.) /emope ee+eunu nsdu, o(,(as(ue ceos cocmee++,s
(e++ocme e saeucuvocmu om moco, |a| ux o(e+ueasm dp,cue, nsdu, cvumas(ue, vmo ux paoma don+a eme cdena+a es,npev+o,
nsdu, c|no++ee | oo(e+u+v +a oc+oea+uu |a|ux-nuo edu+uv+ex coemuu (Ecnu + cdenas vmo-+u,de +e ma| s+avum, + nnoxou
venoee|), npo+en+sm me+de+(us | mov,, vmoe eme ve+ee ,doenemeope++evu paomou u npeeeame e onee ,c+eme++ov
cocmo++uu.
8pesra 9. 1. Pone uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu

pos, rotopMe uyuo usneuute qn toro, +toM yny+aute ra+ectso usuu paotakaux nkqeu. |neuuo roatony ouu
ctapanuce nuo uruopuposate nacrupykaee snuuue uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu ua socrputue ctpeccopos, nuo
rpeyneueaate ero sua+euue, a ue paccnatpusate tarue pasnu+u, rar canoctoteneuMu u sacnyusakauu suunauu
oert uccneqosauuu. 0quaro asapyc ytsepqaet, +to xot suauue rpoeccuouaneuMx ctpeccopos u uneet sua+euue,
uenes yrycrate us suqa canoe sauoe, a uneuuo to, +to ctpeccopM scerqa, s ussectuou nepe, uuqusuqyaneuM, rar u
crocoM, r rotopMn rpuerakt nkqu, +toM crpasutec co ctpeccon... +toM orucate u route ctpecc ua pao+en necte,
ueoxoquno usy+ute atu uuqusuqyaneuMe rattepuM (Lazarus, 1995, c. 8). 6onee toro, asapyc c+utaet, +to rocronery
coctouue ctpecca usneuetc so speneuu s sasucunoctu ot octotenects, ero uesosnouo aqersatuo oeuute ua
ocuosauuu oquoro-equuctseuuoro usnepeuu. 0cuosuMe ocoeuuoctu oaero roqxoqa asapyca r ctpeccy orucauM s
rnasax 2 u 7. Cyte atoro roqxoqa sarnk+aetc s cneqykaen: tpausaru neqy cpeqou u uuqusuqyynon yqet socrpu-
uunatec rocnequun rar ctpeccosa s tou nepe, s rarou ou oeuusaet orpyakayk ero octauosry rar +pesatyk
uerputuoctnu, yrposanu u rponenanu (Lasarus, 1995). Pesynetat roqouou arcreptusM sasucut rar ot oeuru
uuqusuqyynon octauosru, tar u ot ero oeuru csoeu crocouoctu crpasutec c ueu. Lrana satpyqueuuu u roqenos (the
hassles and uplifts scale) ocuosuou uuctpyneut, tpaquuouuo ucronesyenMu asapycon u ero ronneranu qn oeuru
socrputu uuqusuqyynon orpyakaeu octauosru, ue aqartuposau qn ucronesosauu s tpyqosMx ycnosux (Lazarus &
Folkman, 1989) 0quaro uerotopMe uccneqosatenu ucronesosanu ee qn rony+euu ra+ectseuuou uuopnauu o
rpoeccuouaneuMx ctpeccopax (Caspi, Bolger and Eckenrode, 1987; Dewe, 1992).
larpunep, eks usy+an to, rar nkqu oeuusakt rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM u crpasnktc c uunu (Dewe, 1992).
+toM sMcuute, rarue cutyauu nkqu socrpuuunakt rar ctpeccosMe, u ysuate ux repsu+uyk oeury tarux cutyauu,
astop sua+ane ucronesosan ra+ectseuuMe roqxoqM, a saten qn rony+euu uuopnauu o stopu+uou oeure u o ton,
rar nkqu crpasnktc co ctpeccanu, onee tpaquuouuMe netoqM, ocuosauuMe ua orpeqeneuuu peutuuros (cn. rnasy
2). 0rasanoce, +to uauonee pacrpoctpaueuuMnu ctpeccopanu ua paote snktc nenu+uoctuMe otuoaeuu (47%) u
reperpyeuuocte paotou (39%). 8 xoqe repsu+uou oeuru orpeqennoce, s rarou nepe +enoser ucrMtMsaet qucron-
opt, rpeMsaet s saneaatenectse unu oayaaet uexsatry couaneuou roqqepru. 8topu+ua oeura srnk+ana oeury
toro, s rarou nepe nkqu +ysctsosanu, +to un neaakt qenate to, +to ouu xott. CynnapuMe cseqeuu, rony+euuMe s
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
pesynetate atux oeuor, otnu+anuce cnouoctek u qetaneuoctek. larpunep, ecnu rponena oeuusaetc +enoseron
cropee c to+ru speuu ueqoctatra couaneuou roqqepru, +en c rosuuu ueqoctatra routpon, onee sepotuo ucrone-
sosauue ctpateruu rpotusoctouu ctpeccy, ocuosauuou ua ton, +toM roctapatec ue rossonute eny qopatec
qo neu. 8 cuny csoeu octoteneuoctu roqouMe uccneqosauu noryt ronoute ua+ano onee rnyorony rouunauuk
rpoeccos, naroqap rotopMn nkqu +ysctsykt, +to uaxoqtc s coctouuu ctpecca. ^ 0quaro uccneqosauu roqouoro
tura, srnk+akaue rposeqeuue uutepsek u/unu eequesuMx usnepeuuu, uenerru qn sMronueuu, uo ouu tpeykt
oneaux satpat speneuu, a ux pesynetatM cnouo auanusuposate u uuteprpetuposate, scneqctsue +ero un u ue yqanoce
sasoesate rorynpuocte y creuanuctos. 8rocneqctsuu 6pu u opq otne+anu, +to noqene asapyca, s eutpe
rotopou uaxoqutc uuqusuqyyn, uruopupyet ocuosuyk saqa+y uccneqosauuu s cepe tpyqa -paspaotry teopuu,
rossonkaeu sMsnte ycnosu tpyqa, roteuuaneuo crocouMe orasate ueratusuoe snuuue ua rcuxonoru+ecroe
sqoposee oneauuctsa us tex nkqeu, ua rotopMx atu ycnosu sosqeuctsykt (Brief & George, 1995). To+ra speuu
astopos sarnk+aetc s cneqykaen: ocosuasa to, +to ctpecc, ro cytu, rpeqctasnet coou sneuue uuqusuqyaneuoe,
uccneqosatenu +ysctsykt ce otsetctseuuMnu repeq oaectson s ton, +to racaetc sMsneuu tarux acrertos paotM,
rotopMe s rpuuure crocouM sMssate ctpecc u rpu+uuute speq usu+ecrony u rcuxu+ecrony sqoposek. |neuuo
roatony uccneqosatenn, sauutepecosauuMn s uqeutuurauu tarux ocoeuuocteu rpoeccuouaneuou octauosru,
rotopMe crocouM sMssate ctpecc y oneauuctsa paotakaux nkqeu, cneqyet peroneuqosate ucronesosate rpoctMe
unu uuteparuouaneuMe teopuu. Ten e, rto xo+et rnye suuruyte s rpoeccM, cssauuMe c oeurou u repeusauuen
ctpecca uuqusuqyynon, oneae roqouqet tpausaruouaneua noqene.
Teop npoqeccuansuoro cpecca: uo qansme? lerotopMe us rpeqctasneuuMx uanu teopuu ue rpotusope+at qpyr
qpyry, oquaro ux nouo rputurosate sa to, +to ouu otpaakt qanero ue sce acrertM rponenM. oatony uet uu+ero
yqusuteneuoro s ton, +to Mnu rpeqrpuutM rorMtru cosqauu sceoennkaeu, ooaakaeu teopuu. punepon
snetc roqxoq 6upa u lekneua, ocuosauuMu ua auanuse scex acrertos rponenM (facet analytic approach) (Beehr &
Newman, 1978). AstspM rorMtanuce oxsatute ue tonero sce repeneuuMe, usy+euuMe ctopouuuranu pasuMx roqxoqos r
rpoeccuouaneuony ctpeccy, uo, ro cytu, u sce otuocauec r ueny teopuu (Beehr, 1995, ctp.12). 8 utore noqene 6upa u
lekneua srnk+aet onee 150 repeneuuMx, otpaakaux 7 acrertos rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, a tare aneneutM
uuteparuouaneuoro u tpausaruouaneuoro roqxoqos (puc. 9.2).
3nepr, /urnu u 6xarat rputurosanu aty noqene sa to, +to oua cnuaron cnoua, a rotony ue noet Mte auporo
ucronesosaua ua rpartu-


Puc. 9.2. 0aa noqene rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca. (|cto+uur: Beehr& Newman, 1978)

re, u sa to, +to oua ueqoctato+uo rourpetua qn toro, +toM nouo Mno sMcrasMsate rpeqronoeuu o ssaunocssx,
cyaectsykaux s peaneuMx ycnosux tpyqa (Eulberg, Weekley & Bhagat, 1988). +to e racaetc astopos atou noqenu, to
ouu rpusuanu uesosnouocte ee tectuposauu u cocpeqoto+unuce ua rposepre onee orpauu+euuou sepcuu.
|snoeuuoe cuo rorasMsaet, +to cosqauue rpuennenou noqenu ctpecca, rotopa Mna M oquospeneuuo u qoctato+uo
ronuou, u ronesuou qn rpartu+ecrux uyq, snetc uerpoctMn qenon. 3nepr, /urnu u 6xarat sMcrasanu nMcne o
cyaectsosauuu opatuou sasucunoctu neqy aupotou oxsata rponenM, rpeqnaraenou tou unu uuou noqenek, u
snuuuen rocnequeu ua ty onacte uayru u rparturu, r rotopou oua otuocutc. AstopM rpeqronounu, +to auporuu
oxsat, auanoru+uMu rpeqnoeuuony 6upon u lekneuon, qocturaetc sa c+et rpuueceuu s eptsy rouertyaneuou
ctpouuoctu u rposepenoctu. le ucrnk+euo, +to atun nouo tare ocuute, ro+eny noqene Ka-pacera, ocuosauua ua
tpeosauux, rpeqsnenMx paotou, u ua sosnouoctu routponuposate ee, orasana sua+uteneuo oneaee snuuue,
ecnu y ue ua rpartury, to ua uccneqosauu. Xot eu, esycnosuo, ue xsataet aupotM oxsata rponenM, oua snetc
oquou us uenuorux otuocuteneuo xopoao rourpetusuposauuMx noqeneu, u ee nouo roqsepruyte rposepre.
|tar, ro+eny paspaotra teopuu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca orasanace tarou tpyquou saqa+eu? Cyq ro sceny, oqua us
rpu+uu sarnk+aetc s ton, +to, rMtace ocuute ctpecc, nM ten canMn rMtaenc ocuute sneuue, rotopoe
cnuaron auporo u pacrnMs+ato qn toro, +toM nouo Mno M cosqate yqosnetsoputeneuyk teopuk. 3nepr, /urnu u
6xarat (Eulberg, Weekley & Bhagat, 1988) ronarakt, +to peaeuue rponenM, sosnouo, neut s paspaotre cpequux
(rponeyto+uMx) teopuu, rotopMe ue ctpentc ocuute ctpecc, a uccneqykt snuuue socrputu ctpecca ua uero-
topMe onee rourpetuMe seau, uarpunep ua ucronueuue cnyeuMx osauuocteu (McGrath, 1976). 0quu us sosnouMx
crocoos rpoqsuuytec srepeq, rotopMu u yqet orucau uue, sarnk+aetc s ton, +toM usy+ate ue ctpecc, a cre-
uu+ecrue anouu paotakaero +enosera.
Ansepuass nou cpecc. Tpyquoctu, cssauuMe c orpeqeneuuen rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca u c paspaotrou
nuaeuuMx ueqoctatros teopuu, sactasunu uerotopMx astopos rputu+ecru otuectuce r enecoopasuoctu ucronesosauu
canoro routu ctpecc rpuneuuteneuo r ycnosun, crnaqMsakaunc s pasuMx oprauusaux. 8 +ucne tex, rto sMpa-
an conueuu otuocuteneuo routu ctpecc, usnoeuuMe s rnase 1 (cn. Pollock, 1988), orasanuce rpeunyaectseuuo
rcuxonoru tpyqa.
o nueuuk 6puuepa u Pauuoneqca, ytsepqa, +to +enoser uaxoqutc s coctouuu ctpecca, nM ten canMn ue
rpunuaenc r rouunauuk atoro coctouu, uo cano orpeqeneuue ctpecca cnuaron pacrnMs+ato (8rrer & Reynolds,
1993). |utepec creuanuctos cnectunc s ctopouy anouu, ucrMtMsaenMx +enoseron ua paote, uo atot roqxoq nor
oecre+ute onee rnyoroe rouunauue cytu sneuu, +en taroe routue, rar ctpecc (Ashforth & Humphreys, 1995;
Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). Tar, 3aopt u Xanpuc rputurykt uccneqosateneu sa rosMaeuuoe suunauue r tarun
cpasuuteneuo oaun u yctou+usMn anououaneuMn coctouun, rar ctpecc u yqosnetsopeuuocte, u sMcrasMsakt
nueuue, +to anouu snktc ueotennenou +actek oprauusauouuou usuu, u ux uesosnouo otqenute ot uee.
AstopM tare ronarakt, +to paota uacMaeua anounu, u +to otuocuteneuoe uesuunauue r ponu raqoquesuMx
anouu s oMqeuuou usuu oprauusauu sMsMsaet yqusneuue (c. 98). AstopM ue cornacuM c tenu, rto c+utaet, +to
anouu cneqyet paccnatpusate rpeunyaectseuuo rar autarouuctos pauouaneuoctu, snkaeuc ocuosou oprauusa-
uouuou aertusuoctu, a ux sMpaeuue rar ue+to, uyqakaeec s perynuposauuu u s routpone. o nueuuk
3aopta u Xanpuca, anouu ueuseuM, u s uerotopMx cny+ax c to+ru speuu aertusuoctu ronesuee ue rMtatec
roqasnte ux, a qate un sosnouocte rposutec. /+utMsa pasuoopasue anouu, cssauuMx c tpyqosou qetene-
uoctek, nka rorMtra usy+euu ctpecca u yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou, rpeqrpuuta qn sMsneuu ycnosuu,
ucrnk+akaux repsMu u rosMaakaux stopyk, noet Mte ocropeua rar uausua u yrpoaeu+ecra, uo rpu aton ue
y+utMsaetc sauocte ronrnercuMx anououaneuMx repeusauuu.
8 rocnequee spen asapyc toe ua+an conuesatec s ton, +to routue ctpecc nouo tpartosate rar oquonepuyk
repeneuuyk. Ceu+ac ou toe c+utaet, +to nM rony+un sua+uteneuo oneae uuopnauu o rcuxu+ecron coctouuu
paotakaero +enosera, ecnu cocpeqoto+unc ue ua oquon ctpecce, a ua anoux (Lazarus, 1995) 8 rnase 1 ye yronu-
uanace to+ra speuu asapyca o cyaectsosauuu 15 pasnu+uMx anouu. asapyc sMqenet 9 rpeunyaectseuuo ueratu-
suMx anouu (rues, ctpax, tpesora, suua, ctMq, rpycte, sasucte, pesuocte u otspaaeuue) u 4 rosutusuMx anouu (c+actee,
ropqocte, oner+euue u nkose). Kpone toro, ou rosoput eae o tpex anoux, rotopMe, sosnouo, cneqyet paccnatpusate
rar onee cnouMe +ysctsa, o uaqeqe, coctpaqauuu u naroqapuoctu (Lazarus, 1993).
Vuorue pasqpaakaue rpertctsu u pyctpau snktc s ycnosux tpyqosou qeteneuoctu roctouuo qeuctsykau-
nu artopanu, u ot uux noet ucxoqute ocuosua yrposa aertusuoctu paotM. 0uu tare noryt Mte ocuosuou rpu+u-
uou toro, +to nkqu socrpuuunakt csok paoty rar +pessM+auuo ctpeccosyk, oquaro uneuuo ctpeccopM u sMsMsaenMe
unu anouu peqro ctauostc rpeqneton uccneqosauuu. +to e racaetc octotenects, ot rotopMx sasuct rosutusuMe
anouu, narorony+ue u roqen, to ouu eae pee rpusnerakt suunauue creuanuctos, usy+akaux yqosnetsopeuuocte
paotou. losMu roqxoq, rpeqnoeuuMu asapycon, otpaaet rorMtry yctpauute atot ueqoctator. VM uneen qeno uneu-
uo c tarou cutyaueu, rorqa cyaectsykaue y uac rpeqctasneuu ue cnornu oecre+ute rony+euu oquosua+uMx pesyne-
tatos. 8 oaen, crnaqMsaetc sre+atneuue, +to cssu neqy tarunu uuquratopanu uarpeuu, rar tpesouocte unu
rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue, u usu+ecrun saonesauuen cnuaron touru. Xo+etc uaqetec, +to usy+euue anouu
yqet crococtsosate opnuposauuk onee orpeqeneuuMx u rourpetuMx teopuu. Ecnu yqet cua csse neqy uaqeuo
sMsneuuMnu xapartepucturanu paotM u ux rourpetuMnu rocneqctsunu qn roseqeuu u usu+ecroro coctouu,
nouo yqet rpeqcrasate rosneuue uosou sonuM onee ronesuMx c rpurnaquou to+ru speuu teopuu paotM u naro-
rony+u. lo sosnouo u qpyroe, a uneuuo rosneuue nuoectsa +pessM+auuo cnouMx teopuu, rotopMe tpyquo yqet
repesectu ua sMr rparturu. ' ora e uccneqosatenu oqynMsakt cnousaykc cutyauk, cyaectsyet paspMs neqy
teopunu, rpuneuenMnu rpeunyaectseuuo qn uccneqosatenecrux eneu, t. e. qn onee cuoro rouunauu ctpecca, u
rotpeuoctnu rparturos, uayaux uuopnauk, rotopyk nouo Mno M ucronesosate qn yny+aeuu cutyauu s
pasuMx oprauusaux. lue yqet paccrasauo o uerotopMx roqxoqax, rotopMe noryt uautu rpartu+ecroe rpuneueuue.

0euka npoqeccouansuoro cpecca
Vatepuan, usnoeuuMu s rnase 2, u rpeqctasneuua sMae qucryccu, ueqsycnMcneuuo csuqetenectsykt o cyaectso-
sauuu enoro crertpa pasnu+uMx rpotusope+aaux qpyr qpyry roqxoqos r oeure ctpecca, otpaakaux pasnu+uMe
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
teopetu+ecrue rpeqro+teuu ux ctopouuuros. oqoua cutyau ocoeuuo ycnouet ronoeuue tex creuanuctos,
rotopMe ue rpuuaqneat r araqenu+ecrou uayre u xott usy+ate rpoeccuouaneuMu ctpecc s pasnu+uMx oprauusaux
qn toro, +toM oner+ute ronoeuue paotakaux s uux nkqeu. Vuorue orynurosauuMe uccneqosauu, cocpeqoto-
+euuMe ua rponenax, rotopMe sonuykt nuae ysruu rpyr teopeturos, uepeqro roqsepraktc rputure sa ueqoctato+uoe
suunauue r uyqan rparturu (Jones, 1998). 0quospeneuuo oprauusauu rputuryktc sa ocyaectsneuue tarux roqxoqos r
peaeuuk rponenM ctpecca, rotopMe ue unekt qoctato+uou qorasateneuou asM (Briner, 1997). auuMu pasqen rpeqc-
tasnet coou rpatroe pyrosoqctso ro ten roqxoqan r oeure ctpecca, rotopMe noryt orasatec penesautuMnu qn
ctyqeuta unu qn rpartura, y+actsykaero s oeure rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, unu s ayqute ctpecca, u rotopMe
noryt rono+e ny+ae oocuosate ronutury oprauusauu s otuoaeuuu ctpecca u roppertupykaux sneaatenects.
8a rocnequue roqM routue ayqut ctpecca rony+uno qosoneuo auporoe pacrpoctpaueuue. /+utMsa otcytctsue
cornacu otuocuteneuo rpu+uu, sMsMsakaux ctpecc, u cyaectsosauue rpotusope+aaux qpyr qpyry roqxoqos, ue rpuxo-
qutc yqusntec tony, +to nka rorMtra rposeqeuu oprauusauouuoro ayquta ctpecca corpeua c tpyquoctnu.
+toM sMronuute taryk paoty, uccneqosatene qoneu +etro orpeqenute, +to uneuuo ou yqet usnepte, tpeso-
uocte,
rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue, uactpoeuue u anouu u t. q. Xot orucauuMe sMae noqenu u roqxoqM o+ep+usakt
orpeqeneuuMe rpauuM, nuorue astopM rpurnaquMx uccneqosauuu rpeqro+tyt ucronesosate te rorasatenu, rotopMe
sMxoqt sa panru rposepenMx teopetu+ecrux roqxoqos (off the peg measures). To, +to cyaectsykt u qoctyruM
usneputeneuMe uuctpyneutM, ra+ectso rotopMx pasnu+uo, ue sMsMsaet conueuu. |x nouo oeuute s csete toro, +to
ocyqanoce s rnasax 1 u 2 atou ruuru. Tar, oqua us netoqur uccneqosauu ctpecca ua pao+en necte (The Job Stress
Survey) ocuosaua ua tpausaruo-uaneuon roqxoqe r ctpeccy, a rotony opueutuposaua ua orpeqeneuue toro, s rarou nepe
nkqu oeuusakt xapartepucturu paotM rar ctpeccosMe (Spielberger, 1994; Spielberger & Reheiser, 1995). kqeu rpoct
oeuute tecte ctpecca u +actoty rposneuu pasnu+uMx ctpeccopos (cn. spesry 2.1). pyrue usneputeneuMe uuctpy-
neutM rMtaktc rpeqctasute onee oertusuMu ssrnq ua socrputue cyaectsosauu rpoeccuouaneuMx ctpeccopos
(uarpunep, nkqeu rpoct oeuute ue ctereue cepeesuoctu ctpecca, sMsMsaenoro y uux rauenpcrou paotou, a to, s
rarou nepe ouu oayaakt ouuaneuMe tpeosauu, rpeqsnenMe tarou paotou). 8aten sMronukt roppenuposauue
cynnapuMx annos, rony+euuMx s otuoaeuuu orpeqeneuuMx ctpeccopos, c rorasatennu rcuxonoru+ecroro unu usu+e-
croro narorony+u. ene roqouou rpoeqypM sarnk+aetc s ton, +toM rony+ute pesynetatM, sasucaue ue ctonero
ot uuqusuqyaneuMx oeuor, cronero ot toro, s rarou nepe noet Mte rpoqenouctpuposauo uanu+ue cssu neqy
rpoeccuouaneuMnu ctpeccopanu u uenarorony+uen, uesasucuno ot toro, socrpuuunakt nkqu qauuMu acrert csoeu
paotM rar ctpeccosMu unu uet. lue yqet paccrasauo o oquon us canMx ussectuMx u uauonee rorynpuMx s 8enuro-
putauuu uuctpyneutos usnepeuu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca o |uquratope rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca
(Occupational Stress Indicator).
havepenue ene pavok onpedenennoeo nodxoda hndukamop npoeccuonansnoeo cmpecca (OSI)
|uquratop rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca rpeqctasnet coou usneputeneuMu uuctpyneut osopuoro xapartepa (Cooper,
Sloan & Williams, 1988). 0u auporo ucronesyetc s 8enuroputauuu qn usnepeuu ctpecca ua paote, u ropoqun nuo-
ectso rynurauu, a rotony ctout paccrasate o uen onee roqpouo. OSI asupyetc ua noqenu ctpecca, sopasaeu s
ce auporuu pq pasnu+uMx acrertos usuu (unu ucto+uuros ctpecca), uuqusuqyaneuMx snuuuu u sosqeuctsuu co
ctopouM oprauusauu, a tare u nuoro+ucneuuMe rponeyto+uMe repeneuuMe, s ton +ucne nu+uoctuMe artopM, socr-
putue routpon u ctpateruu rpeoqoneuu ctpecca. Cyaectsosauue nuorux ssaunocsseu? srnk+euuMx s aty noqene s
uesuon suqe, arcrepuneutaneuo ue qorasauo. onuoctek noqene rpeqctasneua ua puc. 9.3. OSI rpeqctasnet coou
yuqaneutaneuMu orpocuur, coqepaauu onee 150 ryurtos, oeuusaenMx ro 28 pasnu+uMn cyaranan, usnepkaun
rnk+esMe rapanetpM noqenu.
0rynurosauo uenano paot, sMronueuuMx c ucronesosauuen 0V (Bogg & Cooper, 1995; Bradley & Sutherland, 1995;
Brown, Cooper & Kirkcadly, 1996). |ccneqosauu Mnu rposeqeuM s pasuMx ctpauax, srnk+a Asctpanuk (Langan-Fox &
Poole, 1995), lepnauuk (Kirkcadly & Cooper, 1992), |uquk (Tharakan, 1992), optyranuk (Cunha, Cooper, Moura et al.,
1992) u 6pasunuk (de Moraes, Swan & Cooper, 1993), u coqepat uuopnauk o pasuMx ssaunosasucunoctx neqy
repeneuuMnu u o cpasueuuu pasnu+uMx suqos paot. 0tcytctsue onee rourpetuou teopuu satpyquet ooaeuue atux
ue coroctasunMx qpyr c qpyron pesynetatos.
Voqenu roqouoro tura nouo rputurosate sa to, +to s uux srnk+euM sasucunoctu neqy xapartepucturanu paotM u
ocoeuuoctnu oprauusauu, xot cyaectsosauue tarux ssaunocsseu ue Mno ueorposepuno qorasauo. Kpone toro, ro
nueuuk lektoua, roq+eprusa tarue nu+uoctuMe xapartepucturu, rar tur A, ata noqene roqtanrusaet r sMsoqy o ton,
+to rpoeccuouaneuMu ctpecc ecte rpeqe scero cneqctsue uuqusuqyaneuMx qeertos paotakaero +enosera (New-
ton, 1995, c. 87). 0u c+utaet roqouMu roqxoq rpequanepeuuo roucepsatusuMn, otsnerakaun suunauue ot ronnertus-
uoro xapartepa rpoeccuouaneuou usuu u ot rponen, unekaux otuoaeuue r snactu u r rounurtan. Pasyneetc,
roqouMe yrperu nouo aqpecosate nkou noqenu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca, ctpenaeuc y+ecte uuqusuqyaneuMe
xapartepucturu unu socrputu.
|sy+euue uaqeuoctu u sanuquoctu canoro OSI rar uuctpyneuta usnepeuu snetc rpeqneton pqa rynurauu,
oneauuctso us rotopMx rpuuaqneut Kapu Kyrepy u ero ronneran. syn rourpetuMnu acrertanu OSI sauunanc asuc
(Davis, 1996). Ero pesynetatM tarosM: so-repsMx, ou uaaen, +to suytpeuu sanuquocte nuorux aran uusra (ryurtM,
otuocauec r oquou u tou e arane, ue scerqa oeuusakt oquo u to e routue), a so-stopMx, ro ero nueuuk, rar
uaqeuocte, tar u rouctpyrtua sanuquocte aranM, rpequasua+euuou qn oeuru tura A u noryca routpon,
rponenatu+uM. 0t+actu ato no-

Puc. 9.3 Voqene Kyrepa ( |cto+uur: Cooper, Sloan & Williams, 1988)

et Mte cssauo c uerourpetuoctek u rpeteuuosuoctek canoro usnepeuu. Vouo qorasate, +to rMtace usnepute sce,
uuctpyneut uu+ero ue usnepet qoctato+uo uaqeuo. larpunep, tpyquo roseputM s sosnouocte rony+ute ronesuyk
uuopnauk o rpuuaqneuoctu uuqusuqyyna r tury A ua ocuosauuu scero nuae aectu sorpocos. 0quaro auporuu oxsat,
rpucyauu OSI, noet Mte ronesuMn qn sMsneuu rponenuMx sou oprauusauu, raqa us rotopMx saten noet
Mte usy+eua c ucronesosauuen onee rourpetusuposauuMx roqxoqos.
Ecnu rossonet spen, ny+ae ronesosatec oeuo+uMn uuctpyneuton, paspaotauuMn u cosqauuMn creuaneuo qn
qauuou oprauusauu u y+utMsakaun ee rourpetuMe uyqM. |neuuo o taron roqxoqe u yqet paccrasauo uue.
Coadanue uncmpyvenma uavepenu cmpecca na ocnoeanuu cyecmeymux mkan: uavepumensnme
uncmpyvenmm muna emupa u kovnony
8 uerotopMx cny+ax onee rpuennenMn snetc paspaotra netoqa usnepeuu ctpecca ua ocuosauuu cyaectsykaux
aran, cosqauuMx, sosnouo, s panrax tarux teopuu, rar sutanuuua noqene 8oppa. larpunep, so nuorux oprauusaux
noryt cyaectsosate tarue ctpeccopM, rotopMe uenerro oeuute c ronoaek rotosMx usneputeneuMx uuctpyneutos; sos-
nouM u cutyauu, rpu rotopMx uccneqosatene xo+et cocpeqoto+utec ua raron-to orpeqeneuuon ctpeccope u ucrone-
sosate qn atoro onee ropotruu u rourpetuMu orpocuur. 8 roqouMx cny+ax y uccneqosateneu-rparturos sa+actyk ecte
sosnouocte uautu sanuquMe u uaqeuMe u rpu aton uerponosqrue uuctpyneutM qn usnepeuu uutepecykaux ux
rouctpyrtos. lenano ronesuMx aran orynurosauo s ypuaneuMx ctatex, uarpunep aranM qn usnepeuu sosnouoctu
routponuposate paoty (Jackson et al., 1993) u ponesoro rounurta u ponesou ueorpeqeneuuoctu (Rizzo, House & Lirtz-
man, 1970). 8a+actyk ecte ueoxoqunocte s orucauuu qoronuuteneuMx ryurtos unu rorasateneu qn oeuru ctpecc-
copos, xapartepuMx tonero qn rourpetuoro suqa paotM unu qn orpeqeneuuou oprauusauu.
|ccneqosatene, cosqakauu usneputeneuMu uuctpyneut, oM+uo xo+et srnk+ute s uero rorasatenu qn oeuru sosuu-
rakaux ua paote uarpeuuu, u, ro sosnouoctu, qpyrux rocneqctsuu, s +actuoctu yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou
(Mullarkey et al., 1999). |ccneqosateneu noryt uutepecosate u tarue rocneqctsu rpoeccuouaneuMx ctpeccos qn
oprauusauu, rar rpoussoquteneuocte tpyqa, aceuteusn unu tery+ecte raqpos. 0quaro rocronery uautu yqosnetsopu-
teneuMe uuctpyneutM oeuru atux rapanetpos tpyquo, uccneqosatenu +acto sMuyqeuM otctyrate u ronesosatec
usnepeuuen rorasateneu c ronoaek canoot+etos pecrouqeutos. lepeqro rpu rposeqeuuu usy+euu rpoeccuouaneuoro
ctpecca ucronesyktc tarue cpeqctsa usnepeuu tpesouoctu unu narorony+u, qn rotopMx ussectuM uopnM
(uarpunep GHQ, cn. rnasy 2). 0quaro nouo ucronesosate u uuctpyneutM usnepeuu narorony+u, paspaotauuMe
creuaneuo qn orpeqeneuuoro poqa rpoeccuouaneuMx ycnosuu, s +actuoctu Maslach Burnout Inventory epe+eue
sMropauu Vacna+ (Maslach & Jackson, 1981; cn. spesry 9.2).

3ecopa+ue opva ncuxonocuvec|ou pea|(uu, cne(uuv+a+ dn+ mp,doeou de+mene+ocmu. lauonea,s non,n+p+ocme amom
mepvu+ npuopen e 0u/ npu o(e+|e cmpeccoe paom+u|oe cepe ocn,uea+u+ o++mue eecopa+u+ +en+emc+ paovuv npu
a+anuse epev++ eecopa+u+ Vacnav (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), cocmo+(eco us 22 n,+|moe, e om+oae+uu |omopex pecno+de+me
don+e o(e+ume, |a| vacmo o+u ucnemeeasm pasnuv+ee v,ecmea (+anpuvep <F v,ecme,s, vmo vo+ paoma avo(uo+ane+o
on,cmoaaem ve++) epeve+e cocmoum us a|an, usvep+s(ux avo(uo+ane+oe ucmo(e+ue, denepco+anusa(us u +enon+om,
cavopeanusa(uu 3vo(uo+ane+oe ucmo(e+ue xapa|mepus,emc+ +edocmam|ov a+epcuu u o(,(e+uev, vmo avo(uo+ane+ee pec,oce
non+ocmes ucvepna+e (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993) |nsveeev aneve+mov denepco+anusa(uu +en+emc+ v,ecmeo omcmpa+e++ocmu,
|omopoe npo+en+emc+ e om+oae+uu | |nue+mav c|opee |a| | +eod,aeene++ev npedvemav, vev |a| | nsd+v pus+a|ov +edocma-
mov+ou cavopeanusa(uu voem eme o(,(e+ue |paxa, npoeana 3vo(uo+ane+oe ucmo(e+ue +eped|o paccvampueaemc+ |a| nepea+
cmadu+ eecopa+u+ u npedcmaen+em coou npeuv,(ecmee++o pea|(us venoee|a +a vpesvep+ee mpeoea+u+ | +ev,, eos+u|as(ue s
pes,necame nepecp,e++ocmu paomou, venuv+ocm+ex om+oae-+uu, poneeoco |o+nu|ma, a ma|e ecnedcmeue +epeanucmuv-
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
+ex, saeeae++ex ouda+uu, |a| e om+oae+uu nuv+ocmu, ma| u opca+usa(uu- (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993, c 644).
Ycma+oene+o, vmo eecopa+ue vpeeamo v+ocuvu +ecamue+evu nocnedcmeu+vu, e|nsva+ ,x,dae+ue cocmo++u+ usuvec|oco u
ncuxuvec|oe sdopoee+, ,x,dae+ue co(uane+ex |o+ma|moe u ceveu+ex om+oae+uu, +ecamue+oe om+oae+ue | |nue+mav,
eospacma+ue me|,vecmu |adpoe u c+ue+ue npouseodumene+ocmu mp,da. Dd+a|o mpexvep+a+ vodene eecopa+u+ ena nodeepc+,ma
|pumu|e (Garden, 1989), u eno npednonoe+ue o TDv, vmo dn+ o+ap,e+u+ eecopa+u+ +e o+samene+o o(e+ueame ece mpu |ovno-
+e+ma, uo |nsveeevu npus+a|avu eecopa+u+ +en+emc+ ucmo(e+ue usuvec|ux u vopane+ex cun. o v+e+us lapde+a, ce+se
denepco+anusa(uu u +edocmamo| cavopeanusa(uu c eecopa+uev voem eme cnedcmeuev moco, vmo cepa ocn,uea+u+
npuene|aem nsdeu ma|oco muna, |omopee voc,m uveme oco,s npedpacnonoe++ocme | +uv.
1e+ove+, eecopa+u+ noce+(e+o +evano paom, on,nu|oea++ex e 0u/, +o eco o(e+|a eeceva vacmo e|nsvaemc+ u e uccnedoea+u+
cmpecca, npoeoduvee e 3enu|opuma+uu u e dp,cux cmpa+ax.
8pesra 9. 2. epe+eue sMropauu Vacna+.

8Mae nM ye rosopunu o ton, +to uccneqosateneu ctpecca rputurosanu sa rosMaeuuoe suunauue r orpauu+euuony
+ucny ero ueratusuMx rocneqctsuu, u asapyc roperoneuqosan un opaaate suunauue ua onee auporuu crertp
anouu, cssauuMx c paotou, s ton +ucne u ua ronouteneuMe anouu (Lazarus, 1995). 0quun us crocoos oeuru
ctpecca s routercte paotM snetc roqxoq r oeure cssauuoro c paotou anououaneuoro narorony+u, rpeqnoeu-
uMu 8oppon u orucauuMu so spesre 9.3, snecte c ero roxoqon r oeure narorony+u, ue cssauuoro c paotou. Ctone e
+acto ucronesyktc u crocoM oeuru yqosnetsopeuuoctu paotou, s +actuoctu crocoM, paspaotauuMe Xarneuon u
0nqxanon (Hackman & Oldham, 1980) unu 8oppon, Kyron u /onnon (Warr, Cook & Wall, 1979).

3oppov paspaoma+e vemode o(e+|u avo(uo+ane+oco naconon,vu+, |a| ce+sa++oco c paomou, ma| u +e ce+sa++oco c +eu. 3
omnuvue om MHOI ux dp,cux aemopoe, o+ npu+uvaem eo e+uva+ue +e mone|o +ecamue+ee, +o u nosumue+ee avo(uo+ane+ee pea|(uu.
podona+ mpa-du(uu ceoux npedaecmee++u|oe (Watson & Tellegen, 1985; Thayer, 1989), 3opp paccvampueaem ncuxonocuvec|oe
naconon,vue |a| covema+ue de,x opmoco+ane+ex napavempoe (,doeonecmeue u eos,de+ue), npedcmaene++oe +a mpex oc+x,
,doeonecmeue +e,doeo-necmeue, mpeeo+ocme ,doenemeope++ocme u denpeccu+ a+m,suasv (cv. puc. 9.4). moe o(e+ume
ce+sa++oe c paomou avo(uo+a-ne+oe sdopoeee no vemod,, npednoe++ov, 3oppov, ucnones,sm dee duaco+ane+ee ocu (mpe-
eo+ocme ,doenemeope++ocme u denpeccu+ a+m,suasv). Pecno+de+mav npednacasm cnuco| us 12 npunacamene+ex, 6
nosumue+oco u 6 +ecamue+oco xapa|mepa.

Puc 9.4 0cu 8oppa qn usnepeuu anououaneuoro narorony+u

Pecno+de+moe cnpaaueasm, +anpuvep, o mov, |a| vacmo nacodap+ paome o+u ucnemeeasm +anp+e+ue, ,doenemeope++ocme,
mpeeoc, unu d,aee+eu nodsev. 3mom nodxod ucnonesoea+ e +ec|one|ux uccnedoea+u+x dn+ o(e+|u enu++u+ pas+ex a|mopoe +a
ce+sa++oe c paomou cocmo++ue ncuxonocuvec|oco sdopoee+. Ta|, 3opp us,vun saeucuvocme ved, eospacmov paom+u|a u
ce+sa++ev c paomou naconon,vuev +a npuvepe onee 1600 npedcmaeumeneu pas+ex npoeccuu (Warr, 1992). D|asanoce, vmo
cpauvec|u ama saeucuvocme onuceeaemc+ U-opas+ou |pueou, m. e. paom+u|u cped+eco eospacma ve+ee doeone+e ceouv
nonoe+uev u ucnemeeasm ve+eauu d,aee+eu nodsev, vev onee vonodee u nounee pecno+de+me. Dd+a|o omvevaemc+
+edocmamo| cocnacoea++ocmu ved, mov+ou a|mop+ou cmp,|m,pou u+cmp,ve+ma u npunacamene+evu, |omopee don+e eme
ucnonesoea+e dn+ o(e+|u |adoco napavempa. Dd+u uccnedoeamenu npednovumasm save++me +e|omopee npunacamene+ee
(Sevastos, Smith & Cordery, 1992), dp,cue cvumasm nodxod, oc+oea++eu +a ucnonesoea+uu de,x napavempoe, cnua|ov
,npo(e++ev. o v+e+us a+uaneca u eco |onnec, vmoe oxeamume ece pas+oopasue avo(uu, ce+sa++ex c paomou, +,+a onee
cno+a+ v+ocovep+a+ vodene (Daniels et al., 1997)
8pesra 9 3. VetoqM 8oppa: oeura rcuxu+ecroro sqopose s cssu c paotou u sue cssu c ueu.

0quaro uccneqosatenk, ucronesykaeny roqxoq sMupau u ronrouyu, cropee scero, rpeqe +en sstec sa paspaotry
coctseuuou netoquru, rpuqetc rpeqsaputeneuo usy+ute oprauusauouuMe ctpeccopM. PenesautuMnu atou saqa+e
noryt orasatec orucauuMe uue roqxoqM, ocuosauuMe ua uutepsek.
hnmepesm
enecoopasuocte ucronesosauu uutepsek qn usy+euu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca rpusuaetc nuorunu astopanu
(Dewe, 1989; Keenafi & Newton, 1985). eks c+utaet, +to tpaquuouuMe orpocuuru, ucronesyenMe qn oeuru ucto+uu-
ros ctpecca, crocouM ucrasute raptuuy: sauMnu noryt orasatec sorpocM, ye ytpatusaue csok sua+unocte, a qpyrue
noryt Mte rpouruopuposauM (Dewe, 1989). Kuueu u lektou tare yctauosunu, +to ucronesosauue uutepsek s uccneqo-
sauuu, oerton rotoporo Mnu uueuepM, sMsuno rpucytctsue ctpeccopos, ua rotopMe turu+uMe orpocuuru ue opatu-
nu qonuoro suunauu, a uneuuo nenu+uoctuMe rounurtM u tarue tpeosauu, rpeqsnenMe paotou, rotopMe
corpeuM c uarpacuou rotepeu speneuu. Ponesa ueorpeqeneuuocte u rounurt, rotopMn orpocuuru yqenkt oneaoe
suunauue, peqro yronuuanuce pecrouqeutanu. 0rasanoce tare, +to coMtu unu cutyauu, rotopMe cotpyquuru one-
aou ctpaxosou ronrauuu uauonee +acto orucMsanu rar ctpeccosMe, Mnu cssauM c nenu+uoctuMnu otuoaeuunu
(Dewe, 1992). |utepsek ue tonero sMsnkt art cyaectsosauu ctpeccopos, uo noryt ctate ucto+uuron uuopnauu
o uuteucusuoctu u +actote ctpeccosMx cutyauu u o ton, raryk pone un rpurucMsakt nkqu (Dewe, 1989).
onesuo u atot roqxoq rparturyetc rpu ucronesosauuu uutepsek rpocute pecrouqeutos cocpeqoto+utec ua
rourpetuon coMtuu, cny+usaenc ua paote. larpunep, eks ucronesosan tarou sorpoc: Voete nu sM rpuronuute
rourpetuyk cutyauk ua paote, rorqa sM ro+ysctsosanu qasneuue, uarpeuue unu ctpecc? le nornu M sM paccrasate
nue o ton, +to torqa rpousoano?. anee cneqosanu sorpocM o uuteucusuoctu u +actote tarux cutyauu u o ux
snuuuu rosutusuon unu ueratusuon. oqouMu netoq uepeqro uasMsakt netoqon uuuqeutos. outuo, +to tarue
uutepsek rpuuuruaneuo otnu+aktc ot uerpuuyqeuuou ontosuu, s rotopyk uuorqa rpespaaaktc uutepsek, rposo-
qunMe ua paote. Kar rpasuno, uutepsekep rpuqepusaetc ctauqaptuou cxenM sorpocos, uo y uero ecte u sosnouocte
rposute uerotopyk rurocte, +toM roqtonruyte pecrouqeuta r otsetan. Tarue uutepsek rossonkt uccneqosatenn
rony+ate ot pecrouqeutos turosyk uuopnauk, rotopyk nouo rateropusosate u oeuute ronu+ectseuuo (cn. rnasy 2).
Pasyneetc, ucronesosauue uutepsek snecto orpocuuros uneet csou cuneuMe u cnaMe ctopouM. 0euru, rony+aenMe
rpu ucronesosauuu orpocuuros, rossonkt uccneqosatenk, unekaeny qeno c perpeseutatusuou sMoprou, ucroneso-
sate ctauqaptusuposauuMu uuctpyneut u nerro rony+ate qauuMe. n ux opaotru noryt Mte ucronesosauM yequte-
neuMe ctatuctu+ecrue netoqM. +to e racaetc uutepsek, to ouu xot u rossonkt rnye route usy+aenoe sneuue,
tpeykt oneaux satpat speneuu, a ctporo uay+uMu auanus ux pesynetatos satpyqueu. peqrpuuunanuce rorMtru
rpnoro cpasueuu qsyx netoqos oeuru pao+ux ctpeccopos. ere u ero ronneru cpasuunu netoqM, ocuosauuMe ua
ucronesosauuu cuaeuuMx arananu orpocuuros, c ruceneuuMnu orucauunu uuuqeutos, s enx oeuru ponesou
ueorpeqeneuuoctu, ponesoro rounurta u nenu+uoctuoro rounurta (Jex et al., 1997). PecrouqeutM orucMsanu
ueqasuue uuuqeutM c y+actuen raqoro us atux ctpeccopos. /poseue ctpecca oeuusanu tpu creuaneuo oy+euuMx,
uesasucunMx arcrepta. 0uu sMsunu, +to pesynetatM, rony+euuMe qsyn uassauuMnu netoqanu, s sua+uteneuou
ctereuu cosraqakt. 0quaro ouapyunuce u pasnu+u qauuMx. Tar, rorqa qn orpeqeneuu cssu neqy ctpeccopanu u
uarpeuunu ucronesosanuce netoqM, ocuosauuMe ua aranax, orasanoce, +to uauonee sauMn rporuosupykaun
rapanetpon snetc ponesou rounurt, a rorqa ucronesosanuce orucauu rputu+ecrux uuuqeutos, tarosMn orasanc
nenu+uoctuMu rounurt. AstopM tare rorasanu, +to s to spen rar otsetM ua ryurtM orpocuura Mnu cssauM c
canooeurou, s orucauux uuuqeutos atoro ue Mno, t. e. pesynetatM ocneqosauu c ucronesosauuen orpocuuros
oneae sasuct ot qucrosuuu pecrouqeutos. 8Msoq, r rotopony rpuanu ere u ero coastopM, sarnk+aetc s cneqy-
kaen: raqMu netoq ro-csoeny xopoa u noet uautu csoe rpuneueuue, uo canMu ny+auu sMxoq us ronoeuu ato
co+etauue pasnu+uMx netoqos.
havepenue cmpecca na npakmuke: unmeepupoeannm nodxod
Terepe +utatenk ye qonuo Mte routuo, +to scen netoqan usnepeuu ctpeccopos u uarpeuuu rpucyau csou
qoctouuctsa u ueqoctatru, u +to co+etauue netoqos noet sutec uauny+aun crocoon rpoqsueuu srepeq rpu
peaeuuu atou rponenM. |neuuo ua taron co+etauuu ocuosau roqxoq, rotopMu rpeqnoeu Korcon u lpuut-con u
rotopMu cootsetctsyet sarouoqatenectsy 8enuroputauuu rocnequux net (Cox & Griffiths, 1996). AstopM paccnatpusakt
ctpeccopM rar rcuxonoru+ecrue artopM pucra u roqxoqt r uun c rosuuu sMpaotru ctpateruu oeuru ctereuu pucra.
1artopM pucra, cssauuMe c rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctek, repe+ucneuM so spesre 9.4.
Korc u lpuute sMcrasMsaktc s ronesy tpaquuouuoro roqxoqa r oeure artopos pucra, rotopMu rpeqronaraet
cop uuop-

Kateropu: 0odepa+ue mp,da. Coqepauue paotM
0quoopasue unu ropotruu rpoussoqctseuuMu urn, parneutapuMu unu nuaeuuMu ocosuauuoro cnMcna tpyq,
ueqoctato+uoe ucronesosauue unekauxc uasMros, sMcoruu yposeue ueorpeqeneuuoctu
Kateropu: Pao+a uarpysra/putn paotM
eperpyeuuocte unu uesarpyeuuocte paotou, uesosnouocte routponuposate cropocte ee sMronueuu, rpeMsauue s
coctouuu eutuota
Kateropu: Pao+uu rpaur
Cneuua paota, uerurue pao+ue rpauru, uerporuosupyena rpoqonuteneuocte pao+ero qu, cnuaron qnuuuMu
pao+uu qeue, uo+ua cneua
Kateropu: Venu+uoctuMe otuoaeuu ua paote
Couaneua unu usu+ecra usonu, rnoxue otuoaeuu c ua+anectson, nenu+uoctuMe rounurtM, ueqoctato+ua
couaneua roqqepra
Kateropu: Koutpone
leqoctato+uoe y+actue s rpuutuu peaeuuu, otcytctsue sosnouoctu routponuposate csok paoty(routpone, ocoeuuo s
opne y+actu s rpuutuu peaeuuu,snetc tare routerctyaneuMn u onee auporun oprauusauouuMn acrerton)
Kateropu: 0on,mcme,s(ue ocmo+menecmee 0prauusauouuMe rynetypa u yuru
6equocte ronnyuuratusuMx csseu, uusruu yposeue roqqepru paotuuros s ton, +to racaetc peaeuu ux rponen u
rpoeccuouaneuoro pocta, otcytctsue +etro oosua+euuMx oprauusauouuMx eneu
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Kateropu: Pore s oprauusauu
Ponesa ueorpeqeneuuocte u ponesou rounurt, otsetctseuuocte sa nkqeu


Passutue rapeepM Ctaruau u ueorpeqeneuuocte rapeepM,
cnuaron Mctpoe unu cnuaron neqneuuoe
rpoqsueuue ro cnye, uusruu sapaotor,
ueysepeuuocte s ctauneuoctu paotM,
uusra couaneua oeura paotM
Csse neqy ceneeu u paotou potusope+u neqy tpeosauunu,
rpeqsnenMnu paotou, u
tpeosauunu, rpeqsnenMnu ceneeu,
ueqoctato+ua roqqepra co ctopouM
+neuos ceneu, rponenM, cssauuMe c ten,
+to cyrpyr (cyrpyra) toe qenakt rapeepy
8ocrpoussoqutc c paspeaeuu John Wiley & Sons Limited

8pesra 9 4 Paota rcuxonoru+ecrue artopM pucra (|cto+uur Shabracq, Winnubst & Cooper, 1996)

nauu, ro neueaeu nepe, us tpex ucto+uuros u ee reperpectuyk reperposepry. 8 ra+ectse atux tpex ucto+uuros noryt
cnyute (Cox & Griffiths, 1996)-
canoot+etM paotuuros o ton, rar ouu socrpuuunakt csok paoty, u o ton, rarue anouu ouu ucrMtMsakt rpu ctpecce.
Tara uuopnau noet srnk+ate s ce oeuru paotuuron csoero socrputu yposu, +actotM u rpoqonuteneuoctu
tpeosauuu, rpeqsnenMx paotou, oeuru socrputu routpon u roqqepru, a tare socrpuuunaenou crocouoctu
crpasntec co ctpeccon,
oertusuMe rpeqrocMnru taroro socrputu;
usneueuu s roseqeuuu paotuura, s ero usuonoruu u s coctouuu ero sqopose.
Korc orucMsaet sece rpoecc oeuru, rotopMu ua+uuaetc co suaronctsa c oprauusaueu u, sosnouo, srnk+aet
qucryccuu c neueqepanu, uankqeuue sa ten, rar paotakt nkqu, u cop uuopnauu o xapartepe neueqneuta. 8a
atou ua+aneuou ctaqueu cneqykt taateneuo rpoqynauuMe uutepsek c perpeseutatusuou sMoprou cotpyquuros
oprauusauu, s xoqe +ero qonuM Mte copauM rar artu+ecra uuopnau, tar u cseqeuu o socrputuu nkqenu ux
paotM u coctouu coctseuuoro sqopose. 3tu uutepsek ocuosa qn paspaotru orpocuuros, rpequasua+euuMx qn
rony+euu uuopnauu u o rpoeccuouaneuMx artopax pucra, u o coctouuu sqopose paotuuros. 3ta rpoeqypa
noet sarnk+atec s rpuseqeuuu cyaectsykaeu, teopetu+ecru oocuosauuou u rpuroquou qn roqouMx eneu
netoquru s cootsetctsue c rourpetuMnu rotpeuoctnu qauuou oprauusauu. 8asepaakauu atar opnaneua oeura
aqnuuuctpatusuoro yrpasneuu rposoqutc qn sMqa+u rpartu+ecrux peroneuqauu. |tar, roqouMu roqxoq
rpeqronaraet ucronesosauue rar ra+ectseuuMx, tar u ronu+ectseuuMx netoqos, u taroe pacrpeqeneuue osauuocteu
neqy rpeqctasutennu pasuMx creuaneuocteu, rpu rotopon oeura rcuxonoru+ecrux artopos pucra snetc
rpeporatusou rcuxonoros, a s oeure coctouu sqopose y+actsyet nequuucruu repcouan.

Memodm uavepenu: peamve
Fcuo, +to aqersatua oeura rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca tpeyet yuqaneutaneuou teopetu+ecrou asM u uaqeuMx u
sanuquMx netoqos usnepeuu. Ctone e o+esuquo u otcytctsue cornacu otuocuteneuo toro, rara teopu u rarou netoq
uauonee rpuennenM. 8 ussectuou nepe, ene uccneqosateneu peaute, rarunu uneuuo netoqanu ronesosatec, +to, s
csok o+epeqe, noet sasucete ot xapartepa rpeqctasneuuu o rpupoqe ctpecca u o ton, rto uneuuo otsetctseueu sa
ero rocneqctsu +enoser unu oprauusau. 8 roue+uon utore, atu artopM uauqyt csoe otpaeuue s sMope crocoa
opeM co ctpeccon.

3aknueue
8 qauuou rnase rpeqctasneu osop teopetu+ecrux roqxoqos r usy+euuk ctpecca u ocyqeuM pasnu+uMe acrertM ux
rpartu+ecroro ucronesosauu rar qn usnepeuu ctpecca, tar u qn toro, +toM rorMtatec cuusute ero yposeue. 0aee
sre+atneuue taroso, +to, rar u s qpyrux pasqenax rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu, s usy+euuu ctpecca uepeqro sosuuraet
rpotusope+ue neqy ctpenneuuen araqenu+ecrou uayru r cosqauuk esyrpe+uou teopuu u uacyauMnu rotpeuoctnu
rparturos, uyqakauxc s uuopnauu, crocouou cosqate asy qn oocuosauuMx sneaatenects. larpunep, tarue
roqxoqM, rar OSI, rorMtra yqosnetsopute tpeosauu rparturos, sauutepecosauuMx s oeure pasnu+uMx ctpeccopos u
uarpeuuu; ato rorMtra, ocuosauua ua teopuu, rotopa ucxoqut us cyaectsosauu ssaunocssu neqy o+eue oneaun
+ucnon repeneuuMx. 8osnouo, roqouMu roqxoq u roneseu c to+ru speuu usy+euu pasnu+uMx oprauusauouuMx
sorpocos, uo s ra+ectse rporpeccusuou teopuu ou uneet nuae orpauu+euuoe rpuneueuue: uarpunep, ou ue rpeqnaraet uu
oquosua+uo rposepenMx rurotes, uu rourpetuMx nexauusnos ssaunoqeuctsu repeneuuMx. octyruMe rposepre teopuu,
qn rotopMx noryt Mte cosqauM uaqeuMe usneputeneuMe uuctpyneutM, coqepat sua+uteneuo neueaee +ucno
repeneuuMx (rpunepon tarosMx snetc noqene Kapacera). 0quaro tarue teopuu noryt ue oxsatMsate sce acrertM, s
usy+euuu rotopMx sauutepecosauM oprauusauu, u s peaneuou usuu +pesnepuoe suunauue r ux tectuposauuk
petectuposauuk crocouo otsne+e suunauue uccneqosateneu ot toro, +to ua canon qene rpoucxoqut s oprauusaux s
uoson sere. Cyaectsyet tare u rotpeuocte s yrnyneuuon usy+euuu (uarpunep, c ucronesosauuen ronu+ectseuuMx
netoqos) tpeosauuu, rotopMe canu paotuuru socrpuuunakt rar ctpeccosMe. 6naroqap uosMn texuonorun,
suptyaneuMn oucan, suptyaneuMn pao+un ronauqan u pasnMsauuk rpauu neqy qonon u paotou, qn nuorux
nkqeu cutyau tpyqosou qeteneuoctu usneuunace qo ueysuasaenoctu. Cneqosateneuo, uenes c+utate, +to
rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM, orucMsaenMe uerotopMnu noqennu u usnepenMe netoqanu, rpeqctasneuuMnu s
qauuou rnase, octaktc canMnu sauMnu artopanu s neukaeuc oprauusauouuou usuu. lanetunace teuqeuu
otctasauu cospeneuuMx teopuu ot oprauusauouuou rparturu. 8cneqctsue atoro rcuxonoru tpyqa rnoxo roqrotosneuM r
usy+euuk nuorux usneueuuu, rpoucxoqaux s nupe rpoeccuouaneuou sautoctu. Ecnu rcuxonoru xott cootsetctsosate
tpeosauun, rpeqsnenMn r uun tarou rponenou, rar yrpasneuue ctpeccon u narorony+ue paotuuros, un
ueoxoquno pacaupute cepy csoux teopetu+ecrux u rpurnaquMx uutepecos.

|nasa 10
iauuoe snue ceus pa6os
len kunven u 4uona aonc Gail Kinman and Fiona Jones
8 qauuou rnase auanusupyetc to+ra speuu, cornacuo rotopou ctpeccM, repeusaenMe ua paote, noryt snute ua
ceneuuyk usue, u uaoopot. 0cuosuoe suunauue yqeneuo uccneqosauun ro sorpocy, crocoeu nu rpoeccuouaneuMu
ctpecc, repeusaenMu oquun us cyrpyros, rosnute ua coctouue qpyroro u qae otpasutec ua octaneuMx +neuax
ceneu.
6pecc s painuusx cqepax iu
lerotopMe uccneqosatenu, usy+akaue snuuue ctpeccopos ua +enosera, c+utakt ronesuMn pasqeneuue usuu uuqusu-
qyyna ua yuruouaneuo otnu+uMe qpyr ot qpyra cepM. CanMn ussectuMn rpunepon roqouoro roqxoqa snetc
pasrpauu+euue rpoeccuouaneuou cepM u ceneuuou usuu. 6oneauuctso nkqeu eequesuo yxoqt us qona ua paoty,
sosspaaaktc c paotM qonou, a, sosnouo, uqyt ryqa-nuo otqMxate unu passneratec. 8 rpeqenax raqoro us atux
sautuu paota, qon, otqMx unu passne+euu raqMu noet sMctyrate onee +en s oquou ponu. larpunep, qona
+enoser noet sMctyrate u s ponu cyrpyra, u s ponu poquten, ua paote ou tare noet oquospeneuuo ucronute
uecronero poneu.
CreuanuctM s atou onactu ucxoqt us qoryaeuu, +to raqa us cep u poneu noet Mte ucto+uuron ctpeccopos u
uarpeuuu, roteuuaneuo crocouMx otpasutec ua qpyrux cepax u ponx. Tar, ecnu ua paote +enoser rpeMsaet s
coctouuu tpesoru, rotony +to r ueny rpeqsnkt cnuaron sMcorue tpeosauu, secena sepotuo, +to qae sepuys-
auce qonou, ou ue cnoet paccnautec. To+uo tar e u tpesouocte, sMssauua qonaauunu rponenanu, uarpunep
ueoxoqunoctek saotutec o poqctseuuurax unu cnouoctnu so ssaunootuoaeuux c nusrunu, noet rposutec ua
paote. CreuanuctM, usy+akaue ctpecc, uepeqro uruopupykt ato octotenectso, u nuae scronese yronuuakt o sue-
oprauusauouuMx ctpeccopax. A neqy ten auanusupyenMu ssrnq ua ctpecc ropoqaet nuoro sorpocos.
Pacrpoctpauetc nu snuuue rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca u ua cano+ysctsue +enosera qona? 8nukt nu qonaauue
ctpeccopM ua ocyaectsneuue rpoeccuouaneuMx osauuocteu? Cyaectsyet nu rpotusope+ue neqy ponnu, ucronu-
enMnu nkqenu qona u ua paote, u ren roqouMe rounurtM tenee repeusaktc: ny+uuanu unu euauuanu?
8nukt nu rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM ua cyrpyecrue otuoaeuu u ua narorony+ue qpyrux +neuos ceneu? Cneqyet
nu pasqente ctpeccopM, cssauuMe c pasuMnu cepanu qeteneuoctu +enosera, unu qn rporuosuposauu suytpeuuero
uarpeuu enecoopasuee paccnatpusate cosoryruocte scex ctpeccopos, qeuctsykaux ua +enosera? 8 atou rnase
yqyt paccnotpeuM uerotopMe teopetu+ecrue roqxoqM u paotM, rocsaeuuMe roucry otsetos ua atu rnk+esMe
sorpocM.
Teopeuecke noqxoqs k iyueu siauocsi ueqy ceuse pa6oo
lue yqet paccrasauo o qsyx rpuuuruaneuMx uarpasneuux s usy+euuu ctpecca, cssauuoro c pasuMnu cepanu
+enose+ecrou usuu. Ctopouuuru oquoro ucxoqt us ssaunuoro snuuu oquou cepM ua qpyryk u orucMsakt ato
snuuue s tepnuuax pacrpoctpaueuu aertos unu ronreucauu; +to e racaetc ctopouuuros qpyroro uarpasneuu, to
ux suunauue cocpeqoto+euo rpeunyaectseuuo ua rounurte neqy pasuMnu cepanu.
Pacnpocmpanenue, kovnencaqu u ceevenmaqu
Cyaectsykt qse uauonee sanetuMe rurotesM, ocukaue ssaunocsse neqy ceneeu u paotou. Cosqatenu
rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu (spillover hypothesis) ronarakt, +to neqy pasuMnu cepanu +enose+ecrou usuu uet +etrux
rpauu, u +to neqy rpoeccuouaneuMn u suepao+un orMton cyaectsyet rpna csse. |uMnu cnosanu, nkqu, unek-
aue uutepecuyk paoty, rotopa ux ctunynupyet u rpuuocut +ysctso yqosnetsopeuu, u s qpyrux cepax usuu yqyt
oayaate ce to+uo tar e. Auanoru+uo, u uarpeuue, sMssauuoe rpoeccuouaneuMnu unu qonaauunu ctpeccopanu,
rpusoqut r tony, +to +enoser ucrMtMsaet ueratusuMe anouu ue tonero tan, rqe atu ctpeccopM qeuctsykt, uo u s qpyrux
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
cutyaux. Cneqosateneuo, ctpeccosMe coMtu, rpoucxoqaue ua paote, rpusoqt r tony, +to sepuysauce qonou,
+enoser ue s coctouuu usasutec ot nMcneu u repeusauuu, cssauuMx c paotou, a rotony ue noet aertusuo
y+actsosate uu s ceneuuon qocyre, uu s couaneuou usuu. 8 ronesy crpaseqnusoctu tarou tpartosru csuqetenectsykt
pauuue rynurauu, rpeqctasnkaue coou orucauu usy+euu rourpetuMx cny+aes (Young & Wi-mott, 1973; Piotrkowski,
1978).
Ctopouuuru ronreucatopuou rurotesM (compensatory hypothesis), uarpotus, ucxoqt us cyaectsosauu opatuou cssu
neqy ceneeu u paotou u ronarakt, +to +enoser, sautMu oquoopasuMn, nuaeuuMn ctunynos tpyqon, qona u ua
otqMxe qoneu ctpenutec r uutepecuMn u ctunynupykaun qeuctsun, crocouMn ronreucuposate ueratusuoe snuuue
paotM (Wilensky, 1960; Rousseau, 1978). Cornacuo atou rurotese, +enoser, rornoaeuuMu csoeu paotou, pasuoqyaeu r
tony, +to rpoucxoqut y uero qona, u uaoopot.
Ctopouuuru tpeteeu u neuee sua+uteneuou rurotesM cerneutauouuou (segmentation hypothesis) ucxoqt us toro,
+to rpoeccuouaneua u suepao+a cepM, ro cyaectsy, ue sasuct qpyr ot qpyra, rcuxonoru+ecru canoctoteneuM u
cssauM c ucronueuuen pasuMx yuruu (Blood & Wolfe, I960; Dubin, 1973). 3tot roqxoq uauonee pauuuu us rorMtor
route ssaunocssu neqy ceneeu u paotou, oquaro nu o ton, +to cene u paota snktc otqeneuMnu nupanu,
Mn orposepruyt oneauuctson uccneqosateneu (Kanter, 1977), u ceu+ac cerneutauouua noqene c+utaetc uecocto-
teneuou.
posepra atux rurotes rponenatu+ua, ue s rocnequkk o+epeqe us-sa oneaoro ronu+ectsa repeneuuMx, rotopMe
cneqyet rpuuunate so suunauue, u us-sa toro, +to uet equuoqyau s roqxoqe r orpeqeneuuk tarux routuu, rar paota
u ceneuua usue (Kabanoff, 1980).
lu oqua us orucauuMx sMae tpex noqeneu ue otnu+aetc +etroctek opnynuposor. Tar, s raqou us uux ecte orosopru,
cssauuMe c ten, s rarou nepe roseqeuue (uarpunep, sosne+euuocte s pucrosauuMe qeuctsu) s oquou onactu rpusoqt
r auanoru+uony unu rpotusoronouony roseqeuuk s qpyrou cepe, unu c ten, s rarou nepe yqosnetsopeuuocte, uarpu-
nep, paotou, cssaua c yqosnetsopeuuoctek +en-nuo qpyrun (Staines, 1980).
|sy+euue rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu u ronreucatopuou rurotesM uepeqro asupyetc ua rorepe+uo-cpesosMx uccneqo-
sauux, s rotopMx, s +actuoctu, +ysctsa, ucrMtMsaenMe ua paote, u pearuu ua uee, orasMsaktc cssauuMnu c
qonaauunu +ysctsanu u pearunu. 0quaro r ytsepqeuuk o ton, +to ronouteneuMu xapartep cssu neqy repeneu-
uMnu, otuocaunuc r paote, u repeneuuMnu, cssauuMnu c ceneuuou usuek, roqtsepqakt crpaseqnusocte rurote-
sM pacrpoctpaueuu, ro pqy rpu+uu cneqyet otuocutec c octopouoctek:
ue ucrnk+euo, +to qn usnepeuu pao+ux u qonaauux repeneuuMx s sorpocuurax ucronesosanuce auanoru+uMe
ytsepqeuu, scneqctsue +ero ouapyeuuMe cssu noryt Mte +actu+uo ocueuM ocoeuuoctek rpuneueuuou
netoquru (cn. rnasy 2 o rponene oaero netoqa);
teopuu couaneuou rcuxonoruu ucxoqt us toro, +to yctauosru nkqeu s pasuMx cutyaux cropee qenouctpupykt
crnouuocte r cornacosauuoctu, ueenu r usneu+usoctu (Festinger, 1957). A neqy ten tectuposauue ronreucatopuou
noqenu tpeyet, +toM nkqu qenouctpuposanu pasuoe otuoaeuue r pasuMn ctopouan usuu;
roppenuu noryt Mte cneqctsuen uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu. larpunep, rpu+uuou usonuposauuoctu +enosera, rar ua
paote, tar u qona, noryt Mte ero nu+uoctuMe ra+ectsa, a ue pacrpoctpaueuue aertos oquou cepM usuu ua
qpyryk.
oqouMe artopM netoqonoru+ecroro xapartepa crocouM tar ucrasute pesynetatM, +to rony+ute csuqetenectsa s
ronesy rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu yqet ner+e, +en qorasate crpaseqnusocte ronreucatopuou noqenu. lue ata nMcne
usnoeua onee roqpouo.
Poneeo konnukm
8topou teopetu+ecruu roqxoq ou usy+aet rpotusope+u neqy ceneeu u paotou asupyetc ua ponesou teopuu,
cornacuo rotopou s pasuMx cepax qeteneuoctu nkqu urpakt pasuMe ponu (unu sauunakt pasuMe couaneuMe
rosuuu). Kaqa pone accouupyetc c orpeqeneuuMn rattepuon ouqaenMx qeuctsuu, t. e. +enoser, urpakauu ty unu
uuyk pone, onaqaet orpeqeneuuMnu rpasanu, uneet orpeqeneuuMe osauuoctu, u ot uero ouqakt orpeqeneuuoro
roseqeuu. lepeqro +enoser, ucronukauu qse ponu unu onee, orasMsaetc s cutyauu, rorqa tpeosauu, cssauuMe c
oquou us uux, sctyrakt s rpotusope+u c tpeosauunu, rpeqsnenMnu qpyrunu ponnu. Ponesou rounurt ato
taroe ctonruoseuue ouqauuu, cssauuMx c qsyn unu oneaun +ucnon poneu, rpu rotopon cootsetctsue tpeosauun
oquou ponu satpyquet uaqneaaee ucronueuue tpeosauuu, rpeqsnenMx qpyrunu ponnu (Katz & Kahn, 1978, c.
204). Vuorue us pauuux uccneqosauuu ponesoro rounurta u ponesou ueorpeqeneuuoctu rocsaeuM rpeunyaectseuuo
suytpuponesony rounurty (intra-role conflict) (s +actuoctu rounurty suytpu ponu, ucronuenou ua paote). 0quaro s
rocnequue roqM rosunoce nuoro rynurauu, rocsaeuuMx neponesony rounurty (inter-role conflict), u rpeqe scero
rounurty neqy ceneeu u paotou. Veponesou rounurt ato tarou rounurt, rotopMu rposnetc s suqe
ctonruoseuu rpotusoronouMx tpeosauuu, cssauuMx c ucronueuuen pasuMx poneu. Kounurt neqy ceneeu u
paotou rpeqctasnet coou ponesou rounurt, s rotopon uecosnectunMe tpeosauu socrpuuunaktc rar rpeqs-
nenMe oquospeneuuo ponnu, ucronuenMnu ua paote u qona (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985, c. 77). 8ospocauu uutepec
r neponesony rounurty nouo ocuute qsyn rpu+uuanu. 8o-repsMx, sanetuoe ysenu+euue +ucna paotakaux
euauu rpuseno r tony, +to ponu, ucronuenMe ua paote u s cenee, rar canunu euauuanu, tar u ny+uuanu, ytpatu-
nu Mnyk orpeqeneuuocte. 8o-stopMx, sospocno +ucno nkqeu, paotakaux qona, u qn nuorux creuanuctos rpauuM
neqy paotou u qonon orasanuce pasnMtMnu. 0a atux octotenectsa roteuuaneuo crocouM ysenu+ute sepot-
uocte rounurta.
Xot ucronueuue uecronerux poneu noet qate uuqusuqyynan sauMe rcuxonoru+ecrue rpeunyaectsa (Gove, 1972;
Repetti & Crosby, 1984; Baruch & Barnett, 1986), pesynetatM nuorux uccneqosauuu csuqetenectsykt, +to ponesou rou-
nurt repeusakt rpeunyaectseuuo ceneuuMe unu usyaue s rpaqaucron pare ny+uuM u euauuM, qn rotopMx ou
ctauosutc ucto+uuron rcuxonoru+ecroro uarpeuu (Wort-man, Biernat & Lang, 1991) PesynetatM uccneqosauuu
rossonkt tare rosopute o ton, +to uarpeuue scneqctsue ucronueuu uecronerux poneu uauonee senuro torqa,
rorqa otsetctseuuocte, sosnaraena oeunu cnyeuou u ceneuuou ponnu, cnuaron senura (Emmons et al., 1990),
u rorqa +enosery raetc, +to sosuarpaqeuue, rotopoe ou rony+aet sa csou tpyq, ue cootsetctsyet rpeqsnenMn eny
tpeosauun (Piotrkowski, 1978).
0cuosuMe rpu+uuM, crocouMe sMssate rounurt neqy ceneeu u paotou, u opnM ero rposneuu cneqykaue
(Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985):
lexsatra speneuu. Pe+e uqet o cutyaux, rpu rotopMx ucronueuue osauuocteu, cssauuMx c oquou ponek, otuunaet
uactonero nuoro speneuu, +to ua ucronueuue qpyrux osauuocteu ero rpartu+ecru ue octaetc. punepanu noryt
cnyute cnuaron rpoqonuteneuMu pao+uu qeue unu ronauquposru, neaakaue +enosery y+actsosate s usuu ceneu.
larpeuue. larpeuue, rpu+uuou rotoporo ctauosutc oqua us poneu, snuet ua ucronueuue qpyrux. punepanu
noryt cnyute cutyauu, rpu rotopMx sonueuu, cssauuMe c paotou, ue octasnkt +enosera u torqa, rorqa ou sosspa-
aaetc qonou, unu cutyauu, rpu rotopMx cnuaron rorpyeuuoro s paoty +enosera pasqpaakt u +neuM ceneu, u
qpyse, u ou otqanetc ot uux.
pusM+uoe roseqeuue. Pe+e uqet o cutyaux, rpu rotopMx roseqeuue, ycsoeuuoe naroqap ucronueuuk oquou ponu,
uecosnectuno c tpeosauunu, rpeqsnenMnu ucronueuuen qpyrux poneu. punepon taroro rounurta noet Mte
cutyau, rpu rotopou roseqeuue +enosera, rpusMraero ronauqosate oneaun ronnertuson roq+uueuuMx, orasMsaetc
cosepaeuuo uerpuennenMn s cenee.
Xot uerotopMe uccneqosauu rocsaeuM rounurtan, sosuurakaun tonero s cssu c uexsatrou speneuu, oneauuctso
cospeneuuMx creuanuctos paccnatpusakt rounurt neqy ceneeu u qonon rar cneqctsue qsyx rpu+uu uexsatru
speneuu u uarpeuu. Kounurt, rpu+uuou rotoporo snetc ueaqersatuoe roseqeuue, usy+eu ueqoctato+uo.
|ssectuM qsa roqxoqa r oeure rpotusope+uu neqy ceneeu u paotou: ctereue snuuu paotM ua cenek (rounurt
neqy paotou u ceneeu) unu ceneu ua paoty (rounurt neqy ceneeu u paotou) oeuusaetc nuo ro otqeneuoctu,
nuo snecte c ronoaek qsyuarpasneuuMx rorasateneu. Kar rpasuno, onee ronesuMn orasMsaetc repsMu roqxoq
(Kossek & Ozeki, 1998).
8cneqctsue pasnu+uu s rouunauuu rponenM rounurtos neqy paotou u ceneeu u ceneeu u paotou, u us-sa
otcytctsu ronuou cuoctu s ucronesosauuu canux atux tepnuuos, uuteprpetau pesynetatos uccneqosauuu unu ux
cpasueuue corpeuM c pqon tpyquocteu. larpunep, xot uerotopMe astopM paccnatpusakt rounurtM neqy
paotou u ceneeu rar pesynetupykaue rorasatenu u usy+akt ux rporuoctu+ecroe sua+euue (Williams & Alliger, 1994),
qpyrue c+utakt atu rounurtM nequatopanu neqy ctpeccopanu u uarpeuunu (Frone, Russell & Cooper, 1992a; Cooke
& Rousseau, 1984). 8 atou onactu, rocronery oeuru rounurta ueuseuo secena cyaectseuuo sasuct ot socrputu
u noryt unete to e coqepauue, +to u rorasatenu rcuxonoru+ecroro sqopose, ocoeuuo artyaneua rponena ucraeuu
pesynetatos scneqctsue ucronesosauu oaero netoqa (cn. rnasy 2). Cyaectsykt yuqaneutaneuMe teopetu+ecrue
pasnu+u neqy ponesou teopueu u rurotesou pacrpoctpaueuu. epsa crnouua tpartosate otuoaeuu neqy paotou u
ceneeu rar onee ctauneuMe u ctpyrtypuposauuMe, +to rposnetc s socrputuu pasuMx poneu rar ue sasucunMx
qpyr ot qpyra cyauocteu (xot u snukaux qpyr ua qpyra). 8topa e ucxoqut us cyaectsosauu onee quuanu+uMx cs-
seu neqy pasuMnu cepanu. Paueae ponesou rounurt u pacrpoctpaueuue aertos uepeqro usy+anuce roposue,
oquaro qn onee rosquux uccneqosauuu xapartepuo ctpenneuue cnusute oa roqxoqa. Tar, Xurruuc u yrcepu
cpasuunu c to+ru speuu roteuuaneuou sosnouoctu neponesoro rounurta u ueratusuoro pacrpoctpaueuu
ny+uu, +eu euM sauunaktc qonaauun xosuctson, u ny+uu, +eu euM qenakt rapeepy (Higgins & Duxbury, 1992).
Xot s cospeneuuMx anrupu+ecrux uccneqosauux uanetunoce rpeonaqauue rpeqctasneuuu, ocuosauuMx ua poneson
rounurte, nouo ytsepqate, +to usy+euue pacrpoctpaueuu orasano ucrnk+uteneuo oneaoe snuuue, uo ronorno
route, +to paota u cene ue snktc uesasucunMnu cyauoctnu, a rcuxonoru+ecru tecuo cssauM qpyr c qpyron.
hiyueue csi ueqy ceuse pa6oo
3anuvammc nu nmdu cxodnmvu eudavu demensnocmu dova u na paome?
epsMe uccneqosauu, sMssauuMe r usuu rurotesou pacrpoctpaueuu u ronreucatopuou rurotesou, Mnu rpeunyaect-
seuuo rocsaeuM usy+euuk cssu neqy ten, +en +enoser sauunaetc ua paote u qona. 8 aton routercte rurotesa
pacrpoctpaueuu sMpaaet ty csse, +to nkqu, sautMe ro poqy qeteneuoctu uarpeuuou u tsop+ecrou ynctseuuou
paotou, ctpentc u sue cnyM sauunatec +en-nuo roqouMn, a ronreucatooua rurotesa ty csse, +to tarue
nkqu otqaqyt rpeqro+teuue neuee openeuuteneuMn sautun, uarpunep rpocnotpy tenerepeqa+. PesynetatM
oquoro ux canMx pauuux anrupu+ecrux uccneqosauuu atou rponenM, sMronueuuoro rpu y+actuu 400 pao+ux oquou
apuru s etpoute, roqtsepqakt crpaseqnusocte rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu, uo csuqetenectsykt o ton, +to nkqu,
sautMe pytuuuMn tpyqon, u csooquoe spen rocsaakt pytuuuMn u uetsop+ecrun qenan (Kornhauser, 1965).
Veuccuep (Meissner, 1971), usy+asauu paotuuros oquoro rauaqcroro necuu+ectsa, passun teopuk pacrpoctpaueuu,
rpeqronous, +to ueoxoquno rourpetuo yrasMsate cepM, s rotopMx noet uankqatec cootsetctsue neqy qeu-
ctsunu ua paote u s +acM qocyra.
Cepa sMcorouuusrou csooqM qeuctsuu. Cornacuo rurotese pacrpoctpaueuu, nkqu, onaqakaue ua cnye
oneaou csooqou qeuctsuu, u sue paotM otqaqyt rpeqro+teuue sautun, rpeqoctasnkaun un rpaso sMopa,
uarpunep ouu cropee cornactc y+actsosate s ra+ectse qoposonees s narotsoputeneuMx neporputux, +en
cnotpete tenesusop.
Cepa uuctpyneutaneua unu anououaneua artusuocte. Tepnuuon uuctpyneutaneua artusuocte oosua+aktc
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
qeuctsu, uarpasneuuMe ua rony+euue raroro-nuo pesynetata, s ton +ucne u te, rotopMe noryt Mte otueceuM r
paspqy cqenau can. enek e anououaneuou artusuoctu, uarpunep artusuoctu, cssauuou c penuruosuMnu
yeqeuunu, snetc oua cana. Cneqosateneuo, cornacuo rurotese pacrpoctpaueuu, texuapu, uarpunep, cropee
scero, qonuM otqasate rpeqro+teuue uuctpyneutaneuou artusuoctu.
Cepa couaneuMx routartos. 8 ton, +to racaetc atoro rapanetpa, us rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu cneqyet, +to
usonu ua paote qonua rpusoqute r usonuu s qonaauux ycnosux, u uaoopot.
Veuccuep roqtsepqun crpaseqnusocte csoux rpeqronoeuuu rpuneuuteneuo ro scen tpen rapanetpan. 0u c+utaet, s
+actuoctu, +to
...nsdu, paomas(ue e ,cnoeu+x co(uane+ou uson+(uu, cmapasmc+ pee nonadame e cum,a(uu, npu |omopex o+u ee+,de+e
pascoeapueame, u npoeod+m ve+eae epeve+u, sa+uva+ce |a|ou-nuo opca+usoea++ou u (ene+anpaene++ou de+mene+ocmes
(Meissner, 1971, c. 260).
0quaro ato nuae osua+aet, +to paota s usonuu ecte rpu+uua toro, +to nkqu u csooquoe spen rposoqt s oquuo+e-
ctse a ue uaoopot, t. e. nM uneen qeno ue c ten sMsoqon, rotopMu nor M Mte cqenau, ecnu M atot euoneu
usy+anc rorepe+uo-cpesosen netoqon. 8Msoq, r rotopony rpuaen Veuccuep, ue y+utMsaet toro, +to nu+uoctuMe ra-
+ectsa uuqusuqyyna crocouM rosnute rar ua sMop un paotM, tar u ua sMop sautuu s csooquoe spen.
Auanoru+uMu roqxoq, tare roqtsepqakauu crpaseqnusocte rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu, ucronesosau u Pycco
(Rousseau, 1978), rotopMu aqartuposan orpocuur, rpequasua+euuMu qn usy+euu xapartepuctur paotM, qn usnepeuu
cneqykaux rapanetpos paotM u qocyra: astouonuoctu, opatuou cssu, pasuoopasu uasMros, uqeutu+uoctu saqa+u u
sua+unoctu saqauuu u nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). PesynetatM usnepeuuu csuqetenectsykt o
ronouteneuMx ssaunocssx neqy qauuMnu ro pao+un u qonaauun rapanetpan. 0quaro o+esuquo (u can astop
ato rpusuaet), +to ua pesynetatM nornu rosnute netoqonoru+ecrue ueqoctatru, rocronery sorpocM, usnepkaue
pao+ue u qonaauue yctauosru, sstMe us oquoro u toro e orpocuura, Mnu o+eue roxou qpyr ua qpyra. lasepuoe,
roatony u uenes Mno ouqate qpyroro pesynetata: oeuru, rotopMe y+actuuru uccneqosauu qasanu ro atun ryurtan,
ue nornu Mte uactonero otnu+uMnu qpyr ot qpyra, +toM pesynetatM roqtsepqunu ronreucatopuyk rurotesy.
la ocuosauuu "sMronueuuoro s 1980 roqy osopa nutepatypM, rocsaeuuou atou rponene, Ctauuc rpuaen r sMsoqy, +to
oneauuctso arcrepuneutaneuMx qauuMx csuqetenectsyet s ronesy rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu, u +to equuctseuuoe
sauoe ucrnk+euue s ton, +to nkqu, sautMe ua rpoussoqctse tenMn usu+ecrun tpyqon, ue crnouuM r usu+e-
crou artusuoctu s csooquoe spen (Bishop & Ikeda, 1970; Staines & Pagnucco, 1977). 8 rocnequue roqM, oquaro,
roqouMe uccneqosauu ro+tu coscen sManu us noqM, +to, sosnouo, cssauo c netoqonoru+ecrunu tpyquoctnu u
orpauu+euuMn rpuneueuuen ux pesynetatos ua rparture.
Cyecmeyem nu ceas veady oqenkavu, komopme dammc nmdsvu e omnomenuu
ydoenemeopennocmu paanmvu acnekmavu ceoe auanu?
AstopM pauuux uccneqosauuu usy+anu ue tonero to, +en nkqu sauunaktc ua paote u s csooquoe spen; ux tare
uutepecosano, cyaectsyet nu csse neqy socrputuen pasuMx ctopou usuu, s +actuoctu cssaua nu yqosnetsopeu-
uocte paotou c yqosnetsopeuuoctek ceneuuou usuek. | s qauuon cny+ae ussectuMe pesynetatM rpeunyaectseuuo
csuqetenectsykt s ronesy rurotesM pacrpoctpaueuu. 8 oquou us pauuux paot Xaasuo-Vauuuna yrasMsaetc ua
sua+unyk roppenuk neqy yqosnetsopeuuoctek paotou u yqosnetsopeuuoctek ceneuuou usuek, xot roauueu-
tM roppenuu qn euatMx ny+uu u sanyuux euauu Mnu uesMcoru 0,20 u 0,24 cootsetctseuuo (Haavio-Mannila,
1971). 0sop, sMronueuuMu lua, Paucon u Xauton, tare roqtsepqaet art cyaectsosauu cnaMx ronouteneuMx
csseu (Near, Rice & Hunt, 1980). 0quaro, rar nM ye suaen, uneet necto ucraeuue pesynetatos rpu rpuneueuuu oaero
netoqa. Ecnu s qauuon cny+ae nM uneen qeno uneuuo c atun, ua ocuosauuu rony+euuMx pesynetatos uenes qenate
uurarux sMsoqos. Tarue pesynetatM nouo Mno M ouqate, ecnu M unenc ueruu uaop rpotusoronouMx rpouneu
yqosnetsopeuuoctu qn pasuMx nkqeu, rotopMe (rpounu) rpu paccnotpeuuu snecte csoqt ua uet qpyr qpyra.
|ccneqy taryk sosnouocte, Laep rpoauanusuposan uecronero roqrpyrr u ouapyun, +to canyk oneayk roq-
rpyrrry coctasunu nkqu, qosoneuMe u paotou, u qpyrunu ctopouanu csoeu usuu. 0quaro uenano orasanoce u tex, y
roro Mnu sua+uteneuo otnu+akauec qpyr ot qpyra rpounu yqosnetsopeuuoctu pasnu+uMnu ctopouanu usuu, u roro
nouo Mno paccnatpusate rar nkqeu, otuoaeuu rotopMx r paote u r uuMn cepan ux usuu cootsetctsykt ronreuca-
topuou noqenu (Shaffer, 1987).
AstopM uerotopMx uccneqosauuu sauutepecosanuce oneae cssek neqy yqosnetsopeuuoctek paotou u oaeu
yqosnetsopeuuoctek usuek, ueenu ee cssek c uepao+unu acrertanu usuu. 8Mronuus netaauanus pesynetatos
atux uccneqosauuu, Taut, aqett u 6onqyuu sMcuunu, +to roauueut roppenuu (neqy yqosnetsopeuuoctek
paotou u oaeu yqosnetsopeuuoctek usuek) paseu 0,44, +to rossonet sMcrasate rpeqronoeuue o sauou ponu
paotM s yqosnetsopeuuoctu usuek (Tait, Padgett & Baldwin, 1989). AstopM tare yctauosunu, +to sa rocnequue roqM
csse neqy yqosnetsopeuuoctek csoeu paotou u s enon usuek y euauu sooae ctana sua+uteneuo onee tecuou.
| xot, ro qauuMn uccneqosauuu, sMronueuuMx qo 1974 roqa, y euauu ata csse Mna sMpaeua neuee sanetuo, +en y
ny+uu, s uccneqosauux, rposeqeuuMx rocne 1974 roqa, ue Mno sMsneuo uurarou pasuuM. 0sop aqa u
8atauae roqtsepqun cyaectsosauue rpeunyaectseuuo ronouteneuou cssu neqy yqosnetsopeuuoctek paotou u
yqosnetsopeuuoctek usuek, oquaro ouu, rar u Laep (cn. sMae), sMcrasanu rpeqronoeuue, +to qn sua+unoro
neueauuctsa csse nuo uneet otpuateneuMu xapartep, nuo sosce otcytctsyet Qudge & Watanabe, 1994). 3to
rossonuno astopan copnynuposate cneqykauu sMsoq: xot rurotesa pacrpoctpaueuu crpaseqnusa qn oneauuctsa
cny+aes, s uerotopMx cny+ax crpaseqnusMnu orasMsaktc ronreucatopua rurotesa u rurotesa, ocuosauua ua
cerneutauu.
8osnouo, uet uu+ero yqusuteneuoro s ton, +to pauuue rorMtru sMsneuu rarux-nuo rpoctMx csseu neqy ceneeu u
paotou Mnu, ro oneaeu +actu, ecrnoquMnu. 8ocrputue paotM u ceneu cnuaron cnouMu euoneu, +toM ero
nouo Mno orucate c ronoaek oeuru oquou tonero yqosnetsopeuuoctu. 6Mno tare sMcrasauo rpeqronoeuue, +to
canu routu yqosnetsopeuuocte paotou u yqosnetsopeuuocte ceneuuou usuek otpaakt nuae oquy rpaue tarux
nuororpauuMx euoneuos, rarun snktc narorony+ue s rpoeccuouaneuou cepe u s ceneuuou usuu (Kline &
Cowan, 1988). oqouMe uccneqosauu qonuM Mte pacaupeuM sa c+et srnk+euu oeuru socrpuuunaenoro ra+ectsa
pao+eu u ceneuuou usuu, rotopMe snecte, rar Mno rorasauo, rossonkt rporuosuposate yqosnetsopeuuocte usuek
(Higgins & Duxbury, 1992). 6onee toro, ua atu sasucunoctu noet uarnaqMsatec u snuuue qpyrux repeneuuMx (uarpu-
nep tarux nu+uoctuMx artopos, rar ueratusua aertusuocte), rotopMe sronue crocouM crasatec rar ua
rpoeccuouaneuou, tar u ua ceneuuou usuu (cn. rnasy 6).
Vmo vae cmanoeumc ucmovnukov cmpecca paoma unu cevena h3hb?
/+actuuru uccneqosauuu, o rotopMx paccrasauo sMae, oeuusanu ctereue yqosnetsopeuuoctu pasuMnu acrertanu csoeu
usuu paotou, ceneuuou usuek, qocyron u/unu csoeu usuek sooae, a uccneqosatenu oquospeneuuo ucranu u
otset ua sorpoc: rarue ctopouM usuu snktc ocuosuMnu ucto+uuranu tpesoru u qerpeccuu. 0quaro rponenatu+uo,
+toM nouo Mno orpeqenute, +to uneuuo paota u/unu cene otsetctrseuuM sa rnoxoe uactpoeuue u rcuxono-
ru+ecryk cunrtonatury. /rueteuuoe coctouue u tpesora noryt coxpautec s te+euue qnuteneuoro speneuu u rposn-
tec s pasuMx cepax, t. e. rar rpu+uuM, tar u cneqctsu ctpecca spq nu nouo cssate c rarou-nuo oquou cepou
usuu. A ato sua+ut, +to +enosery noet Mte tpyquo cqenate rpasuneuMu sMsoq o ton, +to e ua canon qene snetc
ucto+uuron ero rnoxoro uactpoeuu. oatony uet uu+ero yqusuteneuoro s ton, +to uccneqosatenu, ucronesosasaue
pasuMe rorasatenu qn oeuru tpesouoctu u qerpeccuu ua paote u qona, rpuanu r sMsoqy o cyaectsosauuu ronou-
teneuMx csseu neqy pesynetatanu usnepeuuu s oeux cepax. Tar, ro qauuMn 8oppa, roauueut roppenuu
neqy tpesouoctek, cssauuou c paotou, u tpesouoctek uecssauuou c ueu, paseu 0,34, a auanoru+uMu rorasatene
qn qerpeccuu paseu 0,58 (Warr, 1990).
Xot nuae uenuorue uccneqosatenu rMtanuce orpeqenute, s rarou nepe rourpetuMe cepM usuu snukt ua rcuxonoru-
+ecroe narorony+ue, rpeqrpuuunanuce rorMtru oeuute socrputue uuqusuqyynanu oaeu ctpeccoreuuoctu ux
pao+eu u ceneuuou usuu u ucto+uuros uarpeuu, ucrMtMsaenoro unu ua paote u qona. PesynetatM uccneqosauu,
rposeqeuuoro 8oppon u auuon, csuqetenectsykt, +to us 3 077 orpoaeuuMx unu sspocnMx putaues 14% ny+uu u
19% euauu otnetunu, +to uarauyue, s te+euue, rar nuuunyn, ronosuuM qu, ucrMtMsanu uerputuoe anououaneuoe
uarpeuue (Warr & Payne, 1982). |s +ucna tex, rto Mn saut ronuyk pao+yk ueqenk, 40% ny+uu u 28% euauu s
ra+ectse rpu+uuM csoero uarpeuu uassanu paoty. AstopM onee rosquero uccneqosauu oeuusanu rcuxonoru+e-
croe sqoposee 308 y+actuuros c ronoaek 0rpocuura oaero coctouu sqopose (GHQ). Pecrouqeutos rpocunu cssate
nkMe usneueuu s coctouuu csoero sqopose, rpousoaeqaue sa rocnequee spen, nuo rpeunyaectseuuo c pao+u-
nu artopanu, nuo rpeunyaectseuuo c artopanu, ue cssauuMnu c paotou, nuo c co+etauuen tex u qpyrux
(Payne, Lane & Leahy, 1989). 0rasanoce, +to sce cunrtonM, sa ucrnk+euuen cssauuMx co cuon, socrpuuunanuce y+a-
ctuuranu uccneqosauu rar cneqctsue snuuu pao+ux artopos unu cnecu cssauuMx u ue cssauuMx c paotou
artopos. 6onee rosquue uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe c y+actuen rpeqctasuteneu pasuMx creuaneuocteu, roqtsep-
qakt atu pesynetatM: tar, orono 75% couaneuMx paotuuros (Jones, Fletcher & Ibbetson, 1991) u ctonero e rperoqasa-
teneu yuusepcuteta (Abouserie, 1996) c+utakt paoty ocuosuMn ucto+uuron nkoro ucrMtMsaenoro unu uarpeuu.
3tu oeuru, es conueuu, otpaakt peaneuo cyaectsykaue rpeqctasneuu o paote rar o ctpeccope u ucto+uure
uarpeuu, oquaro Mnu sMcrasauM u rpeqronoeuu o cyaectsosauuu pqa ucraakaux artopos, rotopMe nornu
sactasute ucrMtyenMx osuuute so scex csoux eqax paoty u ucrycctseuuo rpeysenu+ute ctereue ssaunocssu. Tar,
auu, auu u uxu rpeqronarakt, +to roqouMe pesynetatM noryt Mte cneqctsuen rpo+uo yropeuusaeuc teuqeuuu
c+utate sce rnoxoe cneqctsuen sosqeuctsu sueauux artopos (Payne, Lane & Leahy, 1989). kqu noryt paccnatpusate
paoty rar ue+to onee sueauee ro otuoaeuuk r uun, ueenu octotenectsa, cssauuMe c qonon u ceneeu. lenes
ucrnk+ate qae u toro, +to rpoucxoqaee s uaau quu rynu+uoe ocyqeuue rpoeccuouaneuoro ctpecca norno
rpespatute paoty s uauonee sepotuoro rauquqata ua pone suuosuura scex pacctpoucts u uarpeuuu (Briner, 1996).
kak paoma u dov enumm dpye na dpyea?
lerotopMe astopM cssMsakt rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM c pqon ueratusuMx rocneqctsuu, snuuue rotopMx ua
qpyrue ctopouM usuu secena sepotuo. K +ucny tarux ueratusuMx rocneqctsuu otuoctc rnoxoe uactpoeuue,
tpesouocte u cunrtonM qerpeccuu (Doby & Caplan, 1995; Leiter & Dump, 1996); qesaqartusuMe opnM rpeoqoneuu
ctpecca, srnk+a anroronusn (Frone, Russell & Cooper, 1997; Steptoe, Lipsey & Wardle, 1998); yxyqaeuue coctouu
usu+ecroro sqopose (cn. rnasM 4 u 9) u yctanocte (Chan & Margolin, 1994; Rystedt & Johansson, 1998). Tar, Pycteqt u
|oxauccou, s te+euue 18 neces usy+asaue csse neqy pao+eu uarpysrou u coctouuen sqopose soquteneu
ropoqcrux astoycos, sMsunu pq ueratusuMx rocneqctsuu, rotopMe u ato secena sepotuo crocouM orasate
sanetuoe snuuue ua ux ceneuuyk usue (Rystedt & Johansson, 1998). +pesnepua reperpyeuuocte paotou tecuo
cssaua c pacrpoctpaueuuen sMssauuMx ek yctanoctu u usu+ecroro u nopaneuoro uctoaeuu ua ceneuuyk usue u
qocyr. 0ua cssaua u c ten, +to rocne paotM +enoser ue noet paccnautec, u c ten, +to eny tpyquo cootsetctsosate
tpeosauun, rpeqsnenMn ceneeu, a tare c tarunu rcuxoconatu+ecrunu anoanu, rar eccouuua, ronosorpye-
uu u ronosuMe onu.
8 to spen rar oneauuctso uccneqosateneu pacrpoctpaueuu uutepecosanuce rpeunyaectseuuo ero rcuxonoru+ecrunu
acrertanu, 1paureuxaysep u ero ronneru sMsunu u rattepu usuonoru+ecrux rposneuuu (unwinding process
rpoecc pasnatMsauu), rotopMu uneet necto qona rocne uarpeuuoro pao+ero qu (Frankenhaueser et al., 1989).
3to sMpaaetc s cuueuuu cerpeuu aqpeuanuua. AstopM ouapyunu, +to tarue xapartepucturu paotM, rar reperpy-
euuocte, uesarpyeuuocte paotuura u rpotusope+aaue qpyr qpyry tpeosauu r ueny rpusoqt r saneqneuuk usuo-
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
noru+ecrou penarcauu, +to noet rpeqctasnte yrposy qn sqopose.
8ua+uteneuo neueae uccneqosauuu rocsaeuo usy+euuk snuuu qonaauux ycnosuu ua paoty. 0quaro uerotopMe
csuqetenectsa s ronesy cyaectsosauu pacrpoctpaueuu qonaauux aertos rony+euM Xappannon u Puqnu. 0uu
sMsunu ronouteneuyk csse neqy yqosnetsopeuuoctek euauu-natepeu csoeu paotou u ux yqosnetsopeuuoctek
ten yxoqon, rotopMu oecre+usaetc ux qetn s qetcrux y+peqeuux rpu oprauusauu (Harrell & Ridley, 1975). 0quaro_
xot euauua, qetu rotopou oecre+euM uaqneaaun yxoqon, u noet Mte onee yqosnetsopeua paotou, euauuM,
otqakaue rpeqro+teuue ponn, rotopMe ouu urpakt ue ua paote, a s csoux cenex, noryt c+utate, +to us-sa atoro ouu
rpoqsuraktc ro cnye neuee ycreauo, +en nornu M (Sekaran, 1986). leoxoqunocte orerate rpectapenMx poqct-
seuuuros toe noet otpuateneuo crasatec ua paote (Lee, 1997). u cpasuun paotuuros, unekaux tarue osate-
nectsa, u tex, y roro ux uet, ro pqy rapanetpos, unekaux otuoaeuue r pesynetatusuoctu tpyqa. ony+euuMe qauuMe
csuqetenectsykt o ton, +to oreryuM +aae otcytctsykt ua paote u neuee suunateneuM s ocuosuon us-sa toro, +to
yctakt u ue sMcMraktc.
AstopM qsyx nourutkquMx uccneqosauuu, usy+asaue rar snuuue paotM ua cenek, tar u snuuue ceneu ua paoty,
ouapyunu, +to neqy repeneuuMnu, otuocaunuc r paote, u qonaauunu repeneuuMnu cyaectsyet cnoua
ssaunocsse. 0quaro, c+utakt astopM, rpocnatpusaetc teuqeuu, sarnk+akaac s ton, +to paota snuet ua qon
cuneuee, +en qon ua paoty (Leiter & Dump, 1996; Chan & Margolin, 1994).

0 kakx xapakepck pa6os iasc ee snue ua ceus?
8 te+euue qsyx rocnequux qectunetuu uccneqosatenu rMtanuce uqeutuuuposate xapartepucturu paotM u ceneu,
narorputctsykaue pacrpoctpaueuuk aertos c paotM ua cenek, u uaoopot. let uu+ero yqusuteneuoro s ton, +to
rpoeccuouaneuMe saqauu, sMronuenMe qona ro se+epan unu s sMxoquMe quu, orasanuce cssauuMnu c socrputuen
paotM rar ronexu qn ceneuuou usuu (Kinman, 1996; Doyle & Hind, 1998). Ecte tare u csuqetenectsa s ronesy toro,
+to ctereue socrputu paotM rar ronexu qn ceneuuou usuu sasucut ot ctereuu ruroctu pao+ero rpaura, ot
pacrucauu u rpoqonuteneuoctu pao+ero qu. To ecte ot toro, s rarou nepe +enosery rpuxoqutc rposoqute nuoro
+acos es couaneuMx routartos, sauunace oquoopasuou paotou, rotopyk ou rpartu+ecru ue noet routponuposate
(Staines & Pleck, 1983; Spitze & South, 1985). 6apnuur ronaraet, oquaro, +to y+actusaeec ucronesosauue rurux pao+ux
rpauros s pqe oprauusauu ocuetc sepou s to, +to paota orasMsaet ueratusuoe snuuue ua nu+uyk usue nuae
s tou nepe, s rarou oua yqepusaet nkqeu sue qona u sue ux ceneu (Barling, 1994). C+uta roqouyk tpartosry oauo-
+uou, astop sMcrasMsaet nMcne o ton, +to rnyoroe rouunauue ssaunocssu paotM u ceneuuou usuu uesosnouo es
usy+euu socrputu paotakaunu nkqenu rpupoqM u otnu+uteneuMx ocoeuuocteu ux paotM rar tarosou.
Xot nuae pesynetatM uenuorux uccneqosauuu rossonkt cqenate oquosua+uMe sMsoqM, creuanuctM ua+anu sMs-
nte te creuu+ecrue ocoeuuoctu paotM, rotopMe crocouM orasate rocseuuoe snuuue ua ue cssauuMe c ueu
ctopouM usuu uuqusuqyyna. 8 tan. 10.1 repe+ucneuM uerotopMe xapartepucturu paotM u ycnosuu, s rotopMx oua
sMronuetc, rotopMe, rar Mno rorasauo, crocouM rosnute ua ceneuuyk usue.
o qauuMn tan. 10.1, cuo, +to cyaectsykt paotM, rpusoqaue r sMropauuk u/unu r anououaneuony uctoaeuuk, a
tare rpeqronarakaue oneaou anououaneuMu tpyq (Hochschild, 1983). Tepnuuon anououaneuMu tpyq oosua-
+aetc yneuue yrpasnte coctseuuMnu +ysctsanu: tarun ra+ectson, s +actuoctu, qonuM onaqate qeypuMe aqnuuu-
ctpatopM oteneu; atu cnyaaue sMuyqeuM ynMatec u Mte ueusneuuo senusMnu uesasucuno ot toro, rarosM ux
uctuuuMe +ysctsa. PesynetatM rorepe+uo-cpesosoro uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuoro ou u Karnauon (Doby and Caplan,
1995), rossonkt rpeqronoute cneqykaee. Tarue rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM, rotopMe socrpuuunaktc rar yrposa
perytauu paotuura s rnasax pyrosoquten (uarpunep oeura yrpasnkaun crocouocteu paotuura u pesynetatusuo-
ctu ero tpyqa), c oneaeu sepotuoctek, +en qpyrue ctpeccopM, crocouM sMssate +ysctso tpesoru u rpusectu r ytpate
canoysaeuu, +to uerpeneuuo otpasutc u ua ceneuuou usuu. AstopM ronarakt, +to tarue xapartepucturu paotM, rar
otcytctsue uaqneaaeu opatuou cssu, ueaqersatuoe oy+euue, ponesa reperpyeuuocte u ponesa ueorpeqeneu-
uocte, roteuuaneuo toe crocouM ycunute pacrpoctpaueuue anououaneuoro qucronopta ua ceneuuyk usue. A
tarue xapartepucturu paotM, rar ueqoctato+uMu routpone uaq ueu, otcytctsue sosnouoctu ysuqete roue+uMu
pesynetat csoero tpyqa u ponesou rounurt, roqouoro snuuu ue orasMsakt.
0m kakux xapakmepucmuk cevsu aaeucum ee enunue na paomy?
Xapartepucturu suerpoeccuouaneuou cepM usuu uuqusuqyyna, crocouMe rosnute ua ero cano+ysctsue ua paote,
usy+euM sua+uteneuo xye. Xot par oneauuctson uccneqosateneu paccnatpusaetc rar artop, urpakauu
rosutusuyk pone s usuu ny+uu, pauuue uccneqosauu rocsaeuM rpeunyaectseuuo ueratusuony snuuuk para u
qeteu ua rpoeccuouaneuyk usue euauu u ten tpyq-
Tanua 10.1.
Xapartepucturu paotM, crocouMe sMssate ctpecc u orasate ueratusuoe snuuue ua qonaaukk usue
Xapakepck pa6os pueps ccneqosau
poqonuteneuMu pao+uu qeue Spitze & South (1985); Alexander &

Walker (1996)
eperpyeuuocte paotou Repetti(1989)
1 Cneuua paota Alexander & Walker (1996)
I 0quoopasua paota Kanter(1977)
I 0tcytctsue uaqneaaeu roq-

I qepru co ctopouM pyrosoquten Bowen(1998)
I 0tcytctsue uaqneaaeu

opatuou cssu Doby & Caplan (1995)
leqoctato+ua couaneua

roqqepra Greenhaus, Bedeian & Mossholder

(1987); DeLongis, Folkman & Lazarus

(1988)
lusruu yposeue astouonuoctu Kanter(1977)
leysepeuuocte s ctauneuoctu

paotM Piotrkowski & Crits-Christoph (1981)
0racuMe ycnosu tpyqa Long &Voges( 1987)
leaqersatua sapaotua rnata Pleck(1985)
Ponesa ueorpeqeneuuocte Burke & Weir (1981); Doby & Caplan

(1995)
6Mctpo rpoucxoqaue repeneuM Burke &Weir( 1981)
Venu+uoctuMu rounurt Bolgeretal. (1989); Repetti (1994)
leaqersatuoe oy+euue Doby & Caplan (1995)
Paota snecte c nkqenu,

ucrMtMsakaunu quctpecc Jackson & Maslach (1982)
+pesnepua anououaneua

uarpysra Wharton & Erickson (1995)
8Mropauue (uctoaeuue

usu+ecrux u nopaneuMx cun) Jackson & Maslach (1982)
/rposa rpoeccuouaneuou

perytauu Doby & Caplan (1995)
lusra oeura rpoeccuouaneuou

aertusuoctu Leiter&Durup(1996)
lesua+unocte pao+eu ponu Schwartzberg & Dytell (1996)


uoctn, rotopMe ouu ucrMtMsakt, co+eta pao+ue u ceneuuMe osauuoctu. 0cuosuoe suunauue creuanuctM yqenkt
cneqykaun sorpocan:
0coeuuoctu ceneu. K tarosMn otuoctc: ouuaneuMu ctatyc cyrpyectsa, ssaunorouunauue cyrpyros, ronu+ectso
qeteu u ux sospact, saota o qetx u rounMx +neuax ceneu;
Xapartepucturu cyrpyra (cyrpyru) unu raptuepa (raptuepau), s ton +ucne u tarue, rar otuoaeuue oquoro cyrpyra unu
raptuepa r paote qpyroro; to, s rarou nepe paotakauu oecre+eu anououaneuou u rpartu+ecrou roqqeprou; raroso
ee ra+ectso u snuuue ua cssauuMe c paotou octotenectsa (uarpunep ua rpoussoquteneuocte u yposeue ornatM
tpyqa) u ua ctpeccM, sMssauuMe +pesnepuMn ronu+ectson osatenects unu uarpeuuoctek ua paote.
punepM tarux uccneqosauuu rpeqctasneuM s tan. 10.2.
Cevs u paoma: npoenenu poneeoeo konnukma
Xot repe+ucneuuMe s tan. 10.2 rynurauu u ronesuM qn orucauu uerotopMx acrertos ssaunocssu paotM u ceneu,
ouu nano rosopt uan o nexauusnax ux ssaunoqeuctsu. 0quaro usy+euue ponesoro rounurta rponusaet uerotopMu
cset ua rpoeccM, rocpeqctson rotopMx paota u cene snukt qpyr ua qpyra. lpuuxayc u 6etenn, orynurosasaue
osop pqa pauuux uccneqosauuu, roqtsepqakt cyaectsosauue rounurta, rotopMu snetc cneqctsuen uexsatru
speneuu u roteuuaneuo crocoeu rpusectu r ueratusuMn rocneqctsun (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). o nueuuk
astopos, uexsatra speneuu noet sMssate rounurt nuo rotony, +to nuaaet +enosera usu+ecrou sosnouoctu
ucronute osauuoctu, cssauuMe c ero stopou ponek, nuo rotony, +to xot +enoser usu+ecru u rpucytctsyet, nMcnu
ero sautM coscen qpyrun. 0quaro osop, sMronueuuMu s onee rosquee spen, ue roqtsepqaet sMsoqa o ton, +to
ucto+uuron rounurta neqy ceneeu u paotou snetc rpoqonuteneuMu pao+uu qeue (Barnett, 1998). 8osnouo, ato
cssauo c ten, +to tpyq, rotopMu +acto accouupyktc c ueuopnuposauuMn pao+un quen, xopoao sosuarpaqaetc, s
+actuoctu sMcoro orna+usaetc.
Ctauet nu uexsatra speneuu ucto+uuron ctpecca unu uet, sepotuo, sasucut s ussectuou nepe ot uuqusuqyaneuMx
pasnu+uu. 0quun us sMsneuuMx rnk+esMx artopos snetc ctereue sosne+euuoctu uuqusuqyyna s paoty unu s
ceneuuyk usue (Frone & Rice, 1987). PesynetatM usy+euu snuuu sosne+euuoctu s paoty u s ce-

Tanua 10. 2.
Xapartepucturu ceneuuou usuu, crocouMe rosnute ua pasuMe acrertM ronoeuu ua paote
Xapakepck Xapakepck 6csnka
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ceus pa6os

6par poeccuouaneuMe Housenecht, Vaughan &

qoctueuu Stratham(1987)
Xopoaee ssauno- /qosnetsopeuuocte Barring & Rosenbaum
rouunauue neqy paotou (1986)
cyrpyranu

lanu+ue qeteu u 6onee uusruu Olson & Frieze (1987)
ux ronu+ectso sapaotor

/qosnetsopeuuocte /qosnetsopeuuocte Harrell& Ridley (1975)
yxoqon sa qetenu paotou

8aota o rpectapenMx 6onee uusra Lee(1997)
poqctseuuurax pesynetatusuocte


tpyqa

Crno+euuocte ceneu 6narorputuMu Repetti(1987)

couaneuMu rnunat


ua paote

8atpatM speneuu ua Veqneuuoe rpoqsu- Sekaran(1986)
ucronueuue ceneuuMx euue ro cnye

osauuocteu

osutusuoe otuoaeuue poeccuouaneuMu Secaran (1986)
cyrpyra (cyrpyru) poct u (unu)rpusep-

r paote euM (nya) euuocte paote

lanu+ue anououaneuou Crocouocte crpas- Repetti(1987)
u (unu) rpartu+ecrou ntec c rpoeccuo-

roqqepru uaneuMnu ctpeccanu


neuuyk usue cnouM, ue s rocnequkk o+epeqe rotony, +to cano usnepeuue sosne+euuoctu uerpocta saqa+a. Tar,
1poyu u Paue pasnu+akt qse ponu, ucronuenMe uuqusuqyynon s cenee: pone cyrpyra u pone poquten. A ato sua+ut,
+to sosnouM ponesMe rounurtM qsyx turos neqy ponnu paotuura u cyrpyra u neqy ponnu paotuura u
poquten. 8 onee rosqueu rynurauu 1poyua, Paccenna u - JCynepa orucaua noqene, cornacuo rotopou rounurtM
neqy paotou u ceneeu, a tare ceneeu u paotou sMctyrakt s ra+ectse rocpequuros neqy ctpeccopanu/ponesou
sosne+euuoctek u rcuxonoru+ecrun uarpeuuen (Frone, Russell & Cooper, 1992 a).
8unene u Annurep passunu aty uqek, ucronesosas texuury copa opasos usueuuMx sre+atneuuu (cn. rnasy 2)
(Williams & Alliger, 1994). AstopM oneae uutepecosanuce uactpoeuuen y+actuuros uccneqosauu u ten, +to ouu
ucrMtMsakt s qauuMu noneut_ speneuu, ueenu ux petpocrertusuMnu ot+etanu. |crMtyenMe cooaanu o csoen
coctouuu ro curuany rpeqsaputeneuo orpeqeneuuMn opason sarporpannuposauuoro taunepa (curuan roqasanc 8 pas
s qeue s te+euue 7 queu). Xournuposauue ponesMnu osauuoctnu oeuusanu ro otsetan ucrMtyenMx o ton, s rarou
nepe s te+euue rocnequero rony+aca qo curuana ux rpepMsanu, sactasn oquospeneuuo qenate qsa qena. |crMtyenMx
tare rpocunu crasate, ot +ero uneuuo ux otsneranu ot ucronueuu cnyeuMx unu qonaauux osauuocteu unu ot
ucronueuu u tex, u qpyrux. Tarun opason, Mna rony+eua secena rpasqoroqoua raptuua ponesoro rounurta. 8
roue qu ucrMtyenMx rpocunu oeuute ux oaee socrputue rounurta neqy paotou u ceneeu u ctereuu
sosne+euuoctu. PesynetatM csuqetenectsykt, +to rporuos oeuru rounurta neqy ceneeu u paotou, qasaenou s roue
qu, sosnoeu ua ocuosauuu quesuMx yposueu sosne+euuoctu s oe ponu. Astopanu rony+euM u uerotopMe csuqete-
nectsa s ronesy cyaectsosauu qsyuarpasneuuoro pacrpoctpaueuu. Xot pesynetatM u csuqetenectsosanu o repeuoce
rnoxoro uactpoeuu c paotM ua cenek u uaoopot, uo snuuue paotM ua qon socrpuuunanoce oneauuctson y+act-
uuros rar onee cuneuoe. To ecte cutyauu, rpu rotopMx uactpoeuue u roseqeuue ua paote socrpoussoqutc u qona,
onee sepotuM. 0quaro euauuM onee crnouuM r rposneuuk aerta pacrpoctpaueuu (uarpunep r repeuocy
rnoxoro uactpoeuu us qona ua paoty), ueenu ux nye unu raptuepM.
8 ton, +to racaetc enee cuneuoro snuuu paotM ua qon, +en qona ua paoty, pesynetatM usy+euu ponesou
sosne+euuoctu u rounurta s enon cornacyktc c pesynetatanu usy+euu pacrpoctpaueuu. leconueuuo, ctereue
sosne+euuoctu s pone snetc artopon, rotopMu cneqyet y+utMsate rpu usy+euuu ponesoro rounurta. PesynetatM
uccneqosauuu csuqetenectsykt o ton, +to nkqn, rornoaeuuMn ucronueuuen oquou ponu, noet Mte uenerro
otsne+ec ot cssauuMx c ueu nMcneu u +yscts qae torqa, rorqa ouu orasMsaktc s uuou cutyauu.
nue pa6os ua ceus
kak paoma enuem na omnomenu veady cynpyeavu
8 rocnequue roqM uccneqosatenu, rMtakauec yctauosute rpu+uuuo-cneqctseuuMe cssu u usy+ute nexauusn snuuu
paotM ua cenek, ua+anu ucronesosate onee cnouMe netoqM, r +ucny rotopMx otuoctc u eequesuMe orpocuuru
(quesuuru), rorynpuocte rotopMx roctouuo pactet (cn. rnasy 2). apM saronukt ux s te+euue uecronerux ueqene unu
qae neces. |cronesy atot netoq, uccneqosatenu sMsunu cssu neqy nenu+uoctuMnu rponenanu unu rou-
nurton ua paote u yrnyneuuen ceneuuoro rounurta (Bolger et al., 1989). PesynetatM uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuoro c
y+actuen ctyqeutos, rotopMe unu s rpaqaucron pare u s te+euue onee +en 4 neces senu quesuur (+toM
orpeqenute snuuue ponesou reperpyeuuoctu ua ux ssaunootuoaeuu), rossonkt rosopute ue tonero o cyaectsosauuu
cssu neqy ponesou reperpyeuuoctek u tpesouoctek, uo u o tecuou roppenuu repsou c qerpeccueu; tpesouocte
rossonet rporuosuposate otqaneuue ot raptuepa, a qerpeccu rposneuu ruesa (puc. 10.1) (MacEwen, Barling &
Kelloway, 1992).


Puc. 10.1. 8nuuue ponesou reperpyeuuoctu (|cto+uur. MacEwen, Barling & Kelloway, 1992)

oqxoq, ocuosauuMu ua seqeuuu quesuuros, esycnosuo, eueu, oquaro eny rpucyau uerotopMe ueqoctatru. Kar cneqyet
us paotM Va-rusaua, 6apnuura u Kennoya, pesynetatM roqouMx uccneqosauuu uepeqro cnouM, a ctatuctu+ecruu
auanus tpeyet orpeqeneuuMx ycunuu. leqoctatron atoro netoqa, rotopMu, roue+uo e, qenaet ero rpuneueuue ue ctone
+actMn, snetc tare u to, +to ou rpeqsnet cnuaron sMcorue tpeosauu r ucrMtyenMn, xot eequesuoe saron-
ueuue quesuuros (t. e. to, +to qenanu y+actuuru uccneqosauu, o rotopon paccrasauo sMae), cropee ucrnk+euue, ueenu
rpasuno. le rpuxoqutc yqusntec tony, +to tpyquo uautu enakaux rpuute y+actue s roqouMx uccneqosauux, u
yqepate ux, a nkqu, ussnkaue rotosuocte qenate eequesuMe quesuurosMe sarucu, sronue noryt ue Mte turu+-
uMnu rpeqctasutennu uaceneuu. 8o spesre 10.1 orucauo uccneqosauue, sMronueuuoe Kpytepon u ero ronneranu u
rocsaeuuoe snuuuk cssauuMx c paotou ctpeccopos ua cyrpyecrue otuoaeuu u ua roseqeuue cyrpyros (Crouter et
al., 1989). +utatene es tpyqa rounet, +to y+actue s taron uccneqosauuu openeuuteneuoe sautue.

Paoma, eenon+e++a+ |p,mepov u eco |onnecavu, npe|pac+a+ unnscmpa(u+ mex mp,d+ocmeu, c |omopevu voc,m cmon|+,mec+
,vacm+u|u npodonumene+ex uccnedoea+uu, oc+oea++ex +a eede+uu d+ee+u|oeex sanuceu. /emope us,vanu enu++ue eesea++ex
paomou ncuxonocuvec|ux cocmo++uu (cmpecca, ,cmanocmu, eos,de+u+ u denpeccuu) +a om+oae+u+ ved, c,np,cavu, ucnon+e+ue
dovaa+ux o+sa++ocmeu u doc,c. 3 uccnedoea+uu npu++nu ,vacmue 29 vonodex c,np,ec|ux nap, npedcmaen+eaux
npeuv,(ecmee++o mex, |oco npu++mo +aseeame cu+uvu eopom+uv|avu.
n+opva(us om +ux non,vanu nocne eosepa(e+u+ v,a c paome. 3e+c+unoce, vmo coo(e+u+ v,eu o ,cmanocmu u cocmo++uu
cune+oco cmpecca enu ce+sa+e c eec|aseea+u+vu e+ o mov, vmo ux v,e+ ove+e vano denasm no dov,. odo+ev opasov, |ocda
v,e+ eocnpu+uvanu npouseodcmee++eu cmpecc |a| cune+eu, e+e coo(anu o ,vacmueauxc+ cn,va+x +ecamue+oco noeede+u+
v,eu, |omopoe npo+en+noce e opve om|asa om co(uane+ex |o+ma|moe, pae+od,au+, omc,mcmeu+ u+mepeca | o|p,as(uv u
pacce+++ocmu, a ma|e c+eea, eepaaeaecoc+ e |pu|e, cap|asve u |pumu|e. moe aemope uccnedoea+u+ vocnu copame am,
u+mepec+,s u+opva(us, eco ,vacm+u|av npuanoce nompamume +evano epeve+u u npo+eume usp+d+oe mepne+ue. la +avane+ou
cmaduu npo(ecca copa u+op- va(uu c,np,ec|ue nape omeevanu +a eonpoce pasnuv+ex onpoc+u|oe u ,vacmeoeanu e meneo+-
+ex u+mepees u e nuv+ex ecedax:
aemopav uccnedoea+u+ +,+a ena u+opva(u+ devocpauvec|oco xapa|mepa, a ma|e ceede+u+ o cmune us+u c,np,ec|ux nap,
o ux esauvoom+oae+u+x u o pasdene+uu dovaa+ux o+sa++ocmeu. 3amev e eevep+ee epev+ e meve+ue de,x unu mpex +edene
uccnedoea-menu 9 pas seo+unu |adov, us c,np,coe: ma| +a|annueanace u+opva(u+ o mov, vev |adeu us +ux sa+uvanc+ dova e
meve+ue npeded,(ux c,mo|. Dmdene+o coupanace u+opva(u+, +eoxoduva+ dn+ o(e+|u pacnpocmpa+e+u+ ncuxonocuvec|oco
cocmo++u+: eep+,eauce c paome dovou, v,e+, ucnones,+ cne(uane+ee onpoc+u|u, omeevanu +a eonpoce o ux ncuxonocuvec|ov
cocmo++uu 3mo denanoce dn+ moco, vmoe vo+o eno conocmaeume ux ncuxonocuvec|oe cocmo++ue nocne paome c mev, vmo
coo(asm o ux +acmpoe+uu u noeede+uu e+e. D mov, |a|oe enu++ue amom uccnedoeamenec|uu npo(ecc o|asan +a esauvoom-
+oae+u+ c,np,coe, vo+o mone|o docadeeamec+!
Ta|, nacodap+ mpadu(uo++ov, (eem, paovux p,aae|, +aseeasm paovux, sav+mex +a npoveane++ex npednpu+mu+x, u, e
nepe,s ovepede, uves(ux +eeeco|,s |eanuu|a(us u +e|eanuu(upoea++ex. puvev. nepee.
8pesra 10.1. Tpeosauu, rpeqsnenMe r y+actuuran rpoqonuteneuMx uccneqosauuu c ucronesosauuen quesuuros

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )

kak paoma enuem na omnomenu podumene u deme?
8nuuue rpoeccuouaneuMx ctpeccopos ua otuoaeuu neqy cyrpyranu usy+euo ropasqo ny+ae, +en ux snuuue ua
otuoaeuu neqy poqutennu u qetenu. 0quaro s rocnequee spen Mno sMronueuo uecronero nourutkquMx uccneqo-
sauuu, astopM rotopMx sauutepecosanuce snuuuen pao+ero ctpecca poquteneu, repeusaenoro unu ponesoro rou-
nurta u/unu ponesou reperpyeuuoctu ua qeteu pasuoro sospacta. 0coo cneqyet otnetute paotM Perettu u ee ronner.
8 te+euue rtu pao+ux queu roqpq Perettu u 8yq uankqanu rocne sosspaaeuu natepu c paotM sa 30 rapanu
(paotakaa nate u ee peeuor qoaroneuoro sospacta) (Repetti & Wood, 1997). Ka+ectso otuoaeuuu neqy uunu u
qetenu natepu oeuusanu canu, uo y uccneqosateneu Mnu u onee oertusuMe oeuru, cqenauuMe uesasucunMnu
uankqatennu. PesynetatM csuqetenectsykt o ton, +to s te quu, rorqa euauuM rosopunu o reperpyeuuoctu paotou
unu o ton, +to ua paote rpousoaen nenu+uoctuMu rounurt, ouu ue rposnnu crnouuoctu r anououaneuony unu
roseqeu+ecrony routarty c qetenu. lauonee sanetuo ato Mno y euauu, rotopMe ucrMtMsanu ueratusuMe anouu, u y
euauu, rotopMe ro csoeny roseqeuuk nusru r tury A. Auanoru+uMe pesynetatM, csuqetenectsykaue o snuuuu
cnyeuoro nenu+uoctuoro rounurta ua roseqeuue s cenee, Mnu rony+euM Perettu u rpu rposeqeuuu onee pauuero
uccneqosauu, rorqa oua s te+euue tpex queu roqpq usy+ana ra+ectso ssaunootuoaeuuu otos c onee sspocnMnu
qetenu (Repetti, 1994). 6Mno tare rorasauo, +to s te quu, rorqa ote uaxoqutc s coctouuu ctpecca scneqctsue
nenu+uoctuoro rounurta ua paote, ou +aae snutc ua peeura u +aae uarasMsaet ero. lecnotp ua to, +to u sMopry
uenes uassate perpeseutatusuou (s uccneqosauuu rpuunu y+actue scero 15 rap), u sospact qeteu roneanc ot 4 qo
20 net, ato uccneqosauue ocoeuuo euuo rotony, +to otoscrue oeuru couaneuoro rnunata ua paote cosranu c
oeuranu, rotopMe Mne qauM ux ronneranu uesasucuno ot uux.
Xot uan eae nano ussectuo o snuuuu poqutenecrou paotM qeteu, rpeqctasneuuMe sMae qauuMe sMsMsakt tpesory.
0+esuqua rotpeuocte s qoronuuteneuou uuopnauu o snuuuu rpoeccuouaneuMx ctpeccos poquteneu ua qeteu scex
sospactos u s rposeqeuuu rpoqonuteneuMx uccneqosauuu c onee perpeseutatusuMnu sMopranu.

nue pa6os ua qpyrx uneuos ceus paucucc, n nepexoq uanpeu
Ecnu rpoeccuouaneuMu ctpecc crocoeu snute ua cyrpyros u ua qeteu tar, rar orucauo sMae, secena sepotuo, +to ou
snuet u ua qpyrux +neuos ceneu, usyaux roq oquou rpMaeu c uocutenen ctpecca. 3tot rurotetu+ecruu euoneu
rony+un uassauue sapaeuu ctpeccon (stress contagion) (Wilkins, 1974), repexoqa ctpecca (crossover) (Bolger et al, 1989),
unu tpaucnuccuu (transmission) (Fletcher, 1991), u Mn uassau /actneuon uerpequanepeuuMn repeuocon ctpecca ot
oquoro +enosera r qpyrony, us oquou cepM usuu s qpyryk, rposnkaunc s pasuMx opnax (Westman, 1997, c. 3).
|s atoro orpeqeneuu cneqyet, +to ctpeccopM u uarpeuu uuqusuqyyna, rpuuaqneaaue rarou-to oquou cepe ero
usuu (uarpunep paote), rosnukt ua qpyrux nkqeu, ue cssauuMx c atou cepou (uarpunep ua +neuos ceneu).
3ta rponena usy+eua sua+uteneuo xye, +en pacrpoctpaueuue unu ponesou rounurt, sosnouo, rotony, +to uaqeuo
rpotectuposate rurotesy tpaucnuccuu tpyquo. n atoro noet rouaqoutec, s +actuoctu, qorasate, +to oeura
ctpeccopos oquoro raptuepa cssaua c oeurou suytpeuuero uarpeuu, ucrMtMsaenoro qpyrun raptuepon. Xot ue
scerqa nerro uautu rapM, s rotopMx oa raptuepa rotosM otse+ate ua sorpocM auret (sa+actyk s te+euue qnuteneuoro
repuoqa speneuu), ata netoqonoru rpeqoctasnet sosnouocte rpeoqonete pq tpyquocteu, c rotopMnu cssauo
rposeqeuue rorepe+uo-cpesosMx uccneqosauuu, u c rotopMnu ctanrusaktc creuanuctM, usy+akaue pacrpoctpaueuue
u ponesou rounurt. K coaneuuk, sMsoqM uepeqro qenaktc ua ocuosauuu uuopnauu, rony+euuou tonero ot oquoro
raptuepa (Pavett, 1986). |sy+a euoneu tpaucnuccuu, enecoopasuo routponuposate coctseuuMu ctpecc raptuepa
pao+uu unu suepao+uu. To, +to roqouMu roqxoq saeu, yequteneuo qorasauo uccneqosauuen, rposeqeuuMn
Vut+ennon, Kpourauton u Vycon (Mitchell, Cronkite & Moos, 1983). AstopM sMcuunu, +to aert tpaucnuccuu coctouu
cyrpyra-y+actuura uccneqosauu ua stopyk ronosuuy (s +actuoctu repexoq qerpeccuu) ue otne+aetc, ecnu
routponupyktc tarue repeneuuMe, rar roruur-pearuu, ctereue roqqepru, orasMsaenou ceneeu, usueuuMe coMtu u
uarpeuue, socrpuuunaenoe stopou ronosuuou.
8nunue paomm vyavun na ux napmnepoe aenun
|ccneqosauu tpaucnuccuu rocsaeuM rpeunyaectseuuo snuuuk paotM ny+uu ua ux eu. Tar, ro qauuMn oura u
8orca, euM ouepos, paotakaux s tkpenax, rpasuneuo socrpuuunakt ucto+uuru ctpeccos, repeusaenMx ux
nyenu, u rcuxonoru+ecroe coctouue rar nyeu, tar u eu uue uopnM (Long & Voges, 1987). 6oneauuctso roqouMx
uccneqosauuu sMronueuo rpu y+actuu rpeqctasuteneu creuu+ecrux rpoeccuu, rotopMe (rpoeccuu) snktc
rpeunyaectseuuo nycrunu, roteuuaneuo crocouM sMssate cuneuMe ctpeccM u/unu corpeuM c pucron. 3to,
uarpunep: ronueucrue u paotuuru reuuteuuapuou cuctenM (Burke, Weir & Duwors, 1980; Jackson & Maslach, 1982),
soeuuMe (Westman & Etzion, 1995; Morrison & Clements, 1997) u asuaqucret+epM (Repetti, 1989). 8 to spen rar sMsoqM,
cqenauuMe ua ocuosauuu pesynetatos roqouMx uccneqosauuu, ue roqneat ooaeuuk u ue noryt Mte repeueceuM ua
sce uaceneuue, ussectuM u paotM, astopM rotopMx ucronesosanu onee pasuopoquMe sMopru Qones & Fletcher, 1993;
Crossfield, 1999).
ynurau 6epra, 8eupa u eksopca - oqua us repsMx paot, s rotopMx qn uerocpeqctseuuou oeuru tpaucnuccuu
snuuu pao+ux ctpeccopos usy+anuce rapM (Burke, Weir & Duwors, 1980). AstopM yctauosunu, +to creuu+ecrue
tpeosauu, rpeqsnenMe paotou r ny+uuan - pyrosoqutenn ucrpasuteneuMx y+peqeuuu, cssauM c rosMaeuuMn
yposuen ueyqosnetsopeuuoctu u ueratusuMx anouu, ucrMtMsaenMx ux euanu, u +to euauuM, nye rotopMx
uaxoqtc roq sosqeuctsuen cuneuMx ctpeccopos, neuee crnouuM r rouctpyrtusuou pearuu: ouu qenouctpupykt
rosMaeuuyk try r rypeuuk u r yrotpeneuuk anroron u roe. 6esycnosuo, ata pauu paota cMrpana o+eue sauyk
pone; oquaro 6apnuur c+utaet, +to r uuteprpetauu pesynetatos, rony+euuMx 6epron u ero ronneranu, cneqyet otuo-
cutec c octopouoctek, uo csse uesenura, +ucno ssaunocsseu orponuo, a qauuMe otuoctc tonero r oquony
orpeqeneuuony noneuty speneuu, ot+ero sepotuocte oauru sospactaet (Barlmg, 1990).
6onee rosqu rorMtra sMsute rpu+uuuyk csse neqy paotou oquoro raptuepa u ueratusuMnu anounu qpyroro
Mna rpeqrpuuta Voppucouon u Kneneutcon, ucronesosasaunu nourutkquyk noqene uccneqosauu rpu y+ete
xapartepuctur paotM s enx routpon nyrtyauu (Morrison & Clements, 1997). 8 sMopry soanu 82 rapM, s rotopMx
nye, nopru, so spen rposeqeuu uccneqosauu uaxoqunuce s nope. 8 routponeuyk rpyrry sxoqunu rapM, s rotopMx
nye s ato spen Mnu ua epery. 3to rossonuno oeuute rar oertusuMe xapartepucturu paotM (rpeMsauue sue
qona), tar u cyertusuMe (socrputue raptuepaeu ny+uuM ero ponesou ueorpeqeneuuoctu, ponesoro rounurta u
reperpyeuuoctu paotou). Coctouue euauu oeuusanoce qo yxoqa s nope ux nyeu (raptuepos), so spen ux
otcytctsu u rocne ux sosspaaeuu. PesynetatM tarosM, +to ecnu ucrnk+ute snuuue ua octakauxc qona euauu
nkoro pao+ero ctpecca, usu+ecrou onesuu u usueuuMx coMtuu, crocouMx cMrpate pone ctpeccopos, to oraetc,
+to ux rcuxonoru+ecroe narorony+ue nyrtyupyet s rpnou cssu c ten, rar socrpuuunanu ux yaeqaue s nope nye
csou ctatyc u xapartepucturu csoeu paotM. Xot ecte sce ocuosauu yrperuyte astopos sa ucronesosauue ueturu+uou
sMopru, ux paota rpeqoctasnet yuuraneuyk sosnouocte usy+ute rpoecc tpaucnuccuu s otuocuteneuo routponu-
pyenMx ectectseuuMx ycnosux. 0ua tare roquunaet uecronero uutepecuMx sorpocos, rotopMe noryt ctate rpeqnetanu
qaneueuaux uccneqosauuu, s ton +ucne u tarou: ro+eny rocne sosspaaeuu qonou yxoqusaux s nope ny+uu ronu+e-
ctso ano ux raptuepa ua usu+ecroe coctouue ysenu+usaetc, xot ux nopaneuoe coctouue yny+aaetc?

eycmoponn mpancvuccu e cevsx, e komopmx paomamm oa cynpyea
Xot oneaa +acte rynurauu o tpaucnuccuu rocsaeua snuuuk paotM ny+uu ua ux eu unu raptuepa, ecte u
paotM, astopM rotopMx ua rpunepax paotakaux rap usy+anu qsyctopouukk tpaucnuccuk. ouc u 1net+ep rposenu
rorepe+uo-cpesosoe uccneqosauue, s rotopon usy+anu snuuue paotM raqoro us cyrpyros ua rcuxu+ecroe coctouue
qpyroro (Jones & Fletcher, 1993). 0uu sMcuunu, +to s to spen rar rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM nya snukt ua ypo-
seue qerpeccuu u tpesouoctu, rotopMe ucrMtMsaet eua (ee coctseuuMe pao+ue ctpeccopM rpu aton routponuposa-
nuce), neqy uarpeuuen, ucrMtMsaenMn nyenu, u rpoeccuouaneuMnu ctpeccopanu ux eu cyaectsyet secena
cnaa csse.
Xot, ro qauuMn ouca u 1net+epa, paota eu unu raptuepa orasMsaet nuae uesua+uteneuoe ueratusuoe snuuue ua
ny+uu, onee pauuue rynurauu csuqetenectsykt o ton, +to roqouoe snuuue sce e uneet necto. AstopM ueroto-
pMx uccneqosauuu rpuanu r sMsoqy o ton, +to cnyeuoe ronoeuue euauu uneet xot u ueoneaue, uo sce e
sua+unMe ueratusuMe aertM s otuoaeuuu rcuxonoru+ecroro sqopose ux nyeu unu raptuepos (Burke & Weir, 1976;
Staines, Pottic & Fudge, 1986; Parasuraman et al, 1989; Kessler & McRae, 1982). Tar, lananoc u /ontepe rpuanu r sMsoqy,
+to cnuaron rpoqonuteneuoe pao+ee spen y eu cssauo c qerpeccueu u tpesouoctek y nyeu, oquaro rpoqonu-
teneuocte pao+ux queu nyeu u otcytctsue y uux ruroro pao+ero rpaura ue uneno cssu c rcuxonoru+ecrun sqopo-
seen eu (Galambos & Walters, 1992).
Kara tpaucnuccu oraetc rpeonaqakaeu s rape ot ny+uuM r euauue unu ot euauuM r ny+uue cropee
scero, xot M ot+actu, sasucut ot ctatyca uuqusuqyynos s sMopre. Kar rpasuno, euauuM sauunakt onee crponuMe
(c to+ru speuu sapaotra u rpectua) qonuoctu, a rotony ux cnyeuoe ronoeuue uneet neueaee sua+euue qn
uuaucosoro ronoeuu ceneu u ee ysepeuuoctu s sastpaauen que. A ato sua+ut, +to rponenM, sosuurakaue ua
paote y ny+uuM, ueuseuo orasMsakt ua cenek oneaee snuuue. |neuuo atun octotenectson u nouo ocuute
sMsoq o rpeonaqauuu tpaucnuccuu ot ny+uu r euauuan, r rotopony rpuanu, s +actuoctu, ouc u 1net+ep (Jones &
Fletcher, 1993): s ux uccneqosauux atot rapanetp ue routponuposanc. leqasuaroqouMu ceuapuu socrpoussen
Kpoccunq, rposeq uccneqosauue c y+actuen 40 paotakaux rap, rpu+en ato Mnu rapM, s rotopMx ny+uua u euau-
ua sauunanu qonuoctu, coroctasunMe rar ro ctatycy, tar u ro sapaotry (Crossfield, 1999). Xot, rar u rpeqronaranoce,
unena necto ssaunocsse neqy ponesMnu tpeosauunu paotM y ny+uu u tpesouoctek y ux eu, ata csse Mna
ynepeuuou. 0quaro Kpoccunq s otnu+ue ot astopos onee pauuux paot ouapyun, +to tpaucnuccu ot euauuM
r ny+uue-raptuepy Mna sua+uno onee sMpaeuuou. PonesMe tpeosauu ua paote y euauu unenu ronouteneuyk
ssaunocsse c yposunu tpesoru, qerpeccuu u oaero ueratusuoro anououaneuoro oua y ux raptuepos-ny+uu, a
ueratusuoe socrputue euauuanu nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu ua paote Mno cssauo c qerpeccueu y ny+uu. 6onee
toro, Mnu rony+euM u csuqetenectsa s ronesy cyaectsosauu rosutusuou tpaucnuccuu, a uneuuo, astopM sMsunu
csse rpusepeuuoctu euauu csoeu paote u yqosnetsopeuuoctu ek c onee ortunuctu+uMn oaun uactpoeuuen ux
nyeu.
/actneu u 3tuou usy+anu tare u tpaucnuccuk ot oquoro cyrpyra r qpyrony cunrtonos sMropauu u crocouoctu
rpotusoctote atony (Westman & Etzion, 1995). ony+euuMe pesynetatM rossonkt rpeqronoute, +to neqy cyrpyranu
cyaectsyet qsyctopouuuu oneu tarunu repeusauunu, rar oayaeuue routpon uaq cutyaueu u sMropauue.
epeusaenMe oquun cyrpyron routpone u sMropauue (rocnequee rouunaetc rar usu+ecroe, anououaneuoe u ynct-
seuuoe uctoaeuue) ronouteneuo cssauM c auanoru+uMnu repeusauunu qpyroro cyrpyra (rpu aton s uccneqosauuu
routponuposanuce tarue repeneuuMe, rar coctseuuMe rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM qpyroro cyrpyra u pecypcM
rpotusoctouu atun ctpeccopan s suqe couaneuou roqqepru co ctopouM paotM u ceneu).
syctopouu tpaucnuccu Mna tare sMsneua +euon u VapronuuMn, rotopMe usy+anu pacrpoctpaueuue u rurotesy
tpaucnuccuu rar ocueuue cyaectsosauu cssu neqy yctanoctek u ueratusuMnu anounu, ucrMtMsaenMnu ua
paote u qona (Chan & Margolin, 1994). 8 uccneqosauuu rpuunu y+actue 529 paotakaux rap, rotopMe ro rpocee
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
astopos repeq yxoqon c paotM otse+anu ua sorpocM o csoen uactpoeuuu (saronunu orpocuuru), a se+epon rucanu
ot+etM o csoux ssaunootuoaeuux. PesynetatM, rony+euuMe uccneqosatennu, roqtsepqunu ux rpeqronoeuu:
cyaectsosauue pacrpoctpaueuu aertos ctpecca ua qpyrue cepM usuu nu+uoctu (within-person spillover) Mno
qorasauo rar ronouteneuou ssaunocssek neqy yctanoctek, sMssauuou paotou, u yctanoctek, ucrMtMsaenou roton
qona, tar u ten, +to repeusaenMe qona anouu rossonnu rporuosuposate rocneqykaee uactpoeuue ua paote. Csu-
qetenectsanu s ronesy cyaectsosauu tpaucnuccuu sunuce cssu neqy yctanoctek u uactpoeuuen eu, rpuueceuuMx
unu c paotM, u qonaauunu anounu nyeu.
n usy+euu nexauusnos tpaucnuccuu ouc u 1net+ep tare ucronesosanu eequesuo saronusauec quesuuru
(Jones & Fletcher, I 1996 b). AstopM qeue sa quen usy+anu roneauu s socrputuu rpoeccuouaneuMx u qonaauux
ctpeccopos, usu+ecroro u rcuxonoru+ecroro narorony+u u uactpoeuu. Xot astopM u sMcuunu, +to uactpoeuue
raptuepos uneet teuqeuuk nyrtyuposate cxoquMn opason, qorasatenects cyaectsosauu rpnou ssaunocssu
neqy rpoeccuouaneuMnu ctpeccopanu oquoro uuqusuqyyna u coctouuen ero raptuepa ouu ue ouapyunu. 0cuosua
tpyquocte, pro rposusaac s aton uccneqosauuu, sarnk+aetc s cyaectsosauuu oneaoro +ucna roteuuaneuMx
csseu, tpeykaux usy+euu, srnk+a u speneuuMe cssu (uarpunep: sce nu rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM snukt ua
uuqusuqyynos u ua ux raptuepos s oquu u tot e qeue unu s uerotopMx cny+ax snuuue rposnetc rosquee?). Kpone
toro, ouc u 1net+ep otne+akt, +to tpaucnuccu noet Mte cneqctsuen xpouu+ecrux ctpeccopos (uarpunep reper-
pyeuuoctu paotou), rotopMe, orasMsa qonrocpo+uoe snuuue ua narorony+ue raptuepa, ue uaxoqt otpaeuu s
eequesuMx nyrtyaux uactpoeuu.
3to uccneqosauu unnkctpau toro, +to pesynetatM tectuposauu rurotesM sasuct ot yposu rposepru u ot toro,
rarue pesynetatM usy+aktc uerocpeqctseuuMe unu otqaneuuMe (cn. rnasy 2). 8saunocssu noryt ue rposutec s
eequesuMx nyrtyaux uactpoeuu, uo atu cssu noryt ctate o+esuquMnu, ecnu ctpeccopM u rcuxonoru+ecroe
uarpeuue oeuusaktc rar uera cosoryruocte sa onee qnuteneuMu repuoq speneuu. 8o spesre 10.2 orucauM
uerotopMe secena qucryccuouuMe uccneqosauu, rocsaeuuMe qoctato+uo otqaneuuMn cssn neqy paotou oquoro
us raptuepos u ee qonrocpo+uMn snuuuen ua sqoposee u rpoqonuteneuocte usuu qpyroro raptuepa.
7pancvuccu e omnomenuu dpyeux vnenoe cevsu
|ssectuo uecronero paot, rocsaeuuMx rpoeccan tpaucnuccuu, s rotopyk sosne+euM qpyrue +neuM ceneu, s +actuo-
ctu qetu. 0quou us tarux paot snetc usy+euue tpaucnuccuu ctpecca suytpu ceneu, sMronueuuoe Toncouon u 8o
(Thomson & Vaux, 1986). 8Mopra coctona us 113 rap, unesaux ro oquony uecosepaeuuonetueny peeury. Xot astopM
creuaneuo ue usy+anu rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpeccopM, ouu roqpasqennu ctpeccopM ua sueauue, t. e. neasaue sue
ceneu (s ux +ucno sxoqunu paota, arona u t. r.), u suytpeuuue, t. e. sosuurasaue s canou cenee. Toncou u 8o ouapy-
unu, +to sueauue ctpeccopM unroptuposanuce s cenek u repeqasanuce qpyrun ee +neuan: ctpeccopM, o rotopMx
rosopun oquu +neu ceneu, ctauneuo accouuposanuce c rcuxonoru+ecrun qucronopton qpyrux, rpu+en nurpoctpec-

1nemvep aemop a|cmpevane+ou eepcuu cunomese mpa+cvuccuu (Fletcher, 1988, Jones & Fletcher, 1992) D+ npednonoun, vmo
paoma voem +e mone|o o|asame +ecamue+oe enu++ue +a usuvec|oe sdopoeee cavoco paomas(eco u+dueud,,va u +a eco
ncuxuvec|oe cocmo++ue, +o u npueecmu | ones+u eco napm+epa u noenu+me +a npodonumene+ocme us+u nocned+eco /emop
npuaen | amov, eeeod,, us,vue cmamucmu|, cvepm+ocmu npedcmaeumeneu pas+ex npoeccuu, us |omopou cned,em, vmo
cvepm+ocme cpedu npedcmaeumeneu od+ux npoeccuu (|a| o(a+, ma| u ecnedcmeue cne(uuvec|ux saoneea+uu) eeae, vev
cvepm+ocme cpedu npedcmaeumeneu dp,cux npoeccuu. ncmopuvec|u cnounoce ma|, vmo e ceudemenecmeax o cvepmu e+
,|aseeaemc+ npoeccu+ ux v,eu. 3mo noseonuno npoa+anusupoeame e+c|,s cvepm+ocme c ma|ou mov|u spe+u+ D|asanoce, vmo
e+av v,vu+, dn+ npoeccuu |omopex xapa|mepe+ eeco|uu ,poee+e cvepm+ocmu, moe ,cpoaem eeco|uu ,poee+e cvepm+ocmu
om a+anocuv+ex ones+eu. n+ os+c+e+u+ amoco e+ove+a eno npednoe+o +ec|one|o anemep+amue+ex cunomes, om |omopex
samev om|asanuce. lanpuvep, am, ce+se mp,d+o os+c+ume npu+adne+ocmes | onpedene++ou co(uane+ou cp,nne unu ma|uvu
a|mopavu, |a| odu+a|oeeu cmune us+u, o+a npueodum uccnedoeameneu e saveaamenecmeo u ocmaemc+ e oc+oe+ov
+eos+c+e++ou (Jones & Fletcher, 1992) oamov, 1nemvep npednoun cnop+oe os+c+e+ue, c,me |omopoco sa|nsvaemc+ e mov, vmo
c,(ecme,sm ncuxonocuvec|ue vexa+usve nepedavu npoeccuo+ane+ex puc|oe c,np,cav vepes npouea+ue nod od+ou |peaeu
(Fletcher, 1988). Dd+uv us vexa+usvoe nodo+ou mpa+cvuccuu +en+emc+ pacnpocmpa+e+ue. Dd+a|o amo os+c+e+ue ,vospumene+o,
uo npupoda a+anusup,evou u+opva(uu ma|oea, vmo us,ve+ue |a|ux e mo +u eno ncuxonocuvec|ux vexa+usvoe +eeosvo+o
a++ee o cvepm+ocmu, ucnonesoea++ee e amux uccnedoea+u+x, sapecucmpupoea+e e ma|ou opve, vmo +eeosvo+o npoeepume,
c,(ecme,em nu ce+se u ved, v,c|ou cvepm+ocmes u podov de+mene+ocmu ux e+. Dd+a|o, +a oc+oea+uu u+opva(uu,
non,ve++ou e od+ov us uccnedoea+uu (Framingham Heart Study), eno eec|asa+o npednonoe+ue, vmo npoeccuo+ane+ee cmpeccope
e+ voc,m enu+me +a cocmo++ue sdopoee+ v,eu (Haynes, Eaker & Femleib, 1983). D|asanoce, vmo v,vu+e, e+e |omopex
sa+uvasm ve+edepc|ue u ,npaene+vec|ue don+ocmu, onesm cepdev+evu saoneea+u+vu onee vev e mpu pasa va(e, +eenu
v,vu+e, e+e |omopex nuo paomasm |nep|avu unu paovuvu, nuo eoece +e paomasm (+esaeucuvo om co(uane+oco cmam,ca
cavux v,vu+ u cma+dapm+ex a|mopoe puc|a cepdev+o-coc,ducmex saoneea+uu). |pove moco, Xeu+c, n|ep u 1eu+neu ee+c+unu,
vmo onee opasoea++ee e+(u+e us vucna mex, veu v,e+ cmpadanu cepdev+o-coc,ducmevu saoneea+u+vu, |a| npaeuno, uvenu
occa, |omopeu +e o|aseean uv +adnea(eu noddep|u, u vedne++o npodeucanuce no cn,e. o v+e+us aemopoe, ma|ue e+(u+e,
don+o eme, cmpadanu om cmpeccoeou u eeseeas(eu p,cmpa(us paoveu ocma+oe|u, vmo u noenu+no +a ceveu+,s us+e u +a
cocmo++ue sdopoee+ ux v,eu. Dd+a|o eanud+ocme amux pes,nemamoe ena nodeepc+,ma |pumu|e (Fletcher, 1991).
3eeode, cdena++ee +a oc+oea+uu amux uccnedoea+uu, ocmaen+sm +evano eosvo+ocmeu dn+ u+ex os+c+e+uu u, es,cnoe+o,
,vospumene+e. D+u npednonacasm c,(ecmeoea+ue s+avumene+o onee mec+ex esauvoce+seu, +eenu me, |omopee enu ee+ene+e
dp,cuvu uccnedoeamen+vu mpa+cvuccuu. Dd+a|o, ecnu amu eeeode e ,d,(ev nodmeepd+mc+, npudemc+ npus+ame, vmo paoma
o|aseeaem +a sdopoeee s+avumene+o onee cepees+oe enu++ue, vev npu++mo eno cvumame pa+eae.
8pesra 10.2. Voet nu saaa paota ctate rpu+uuou onesuu saaero raptuepa?

copM (raqoquesuMe tpyquoctu) orasMsanu s aton rpoecce onee cuneuoe snuuue, ueenu narpoctpeccopM
(usueuuMe coMtu). AstopM tare rorasanu, +to, cyq ro sceny, ctpecc artusuee repeuocutc ot qeteu r poqutenn,
+en uaoopot, u +to anououaneuo onee yssunM s aton otuoaeuuu natepu. 6anaucuposauue neqy qerpeccueu u
aerton tarosa pearu euauu ua ctpeccopM ux nyeu u qeteu; +to e racaetc ny+uu, to yqy+u secena
+ysctsuteneuMnu r ctpeccopan csoux eu, ouu sua+uteneuo pasuoqyauee socrpuuunakt ctpeccopM qeteu.
osquee Anneuqou u Varouanqon, usy+usaunu 48 rap (Almeida & McDonald, 1998), Mnu rony+euM uecronero uuMe
pesynetatM. EequesuMe quesuurosMe sarucu, ro rotopMn qeue sa quen s te+euue 42 queu oeuusanace quuanura
rounurta neqy poqutenen u peeuron-roqpoctron, rossonunu astopan ytsepqate", +to uarpeuuocte s ux
otuoaeuux s sMcorou ctereuu cssaua c natepuucrunu ctpeccanu ua paote u qona, rotopMe rossonkt
rporuosuposate tare uarpeuuocte neqy oton u roqpoctron. 0quaro cpasuute pesynetatM atux qsyx uccneqosauuu
uenerro: s to spen rar Toncou u 8o rony+anu uuopnauk ot scex tpex +neuos ceneu (t. e. ot natepu, ota u peeura),
Anneuqa u Varouanq rony+anu uuopnauk o ctpeccopax u uarpeuuoctu tonero ot poquteneu u ue oeuusanu
socrputue peeura.
8oavoanme vexanuavm mpancvuccuu
8 aton roqpasqene rpeqctasneuM ooaeuuMe qauuMe o pasnu+uMx nexauusnax tpaucnuccuu, rpeqnoeuuMx astopanu
orucauuMx sMae uccneqosauuu.
Co+ysctsue/corepeusauue. 0quo us rpeqronoeuuu sarnk+aetc s ton, +to suytpeuuee uarpeuue noet
uerocpeqctseuuo repeqasatec ot oquoro raptuepa qpyrony +epes ueryk opny co+ysctseu- -uou pearuu, unu
corepeusauu, rotopa qenaet onee uuteucusuMnu socrpuuunaenMe suytpeuuee uarpeuue unu anououaneuMu
qucronopt (Riley & Eckenrode, 1986; Pavett, 1986). puus roqouoe ocueuue, cneqyet cornacutec u c ten, +to +en
tecuee ssaunootuoaeuu, ten oneae cootsetctsue so suytpeuuen uarpeuuu ooux raptuepos.
3nououaneuoe sapaeuue. o nueuuk Xaptunqa u ero coastopos, uuqusuqyynM s xoqe raqoquesuoro oaeuu
astonatu+ecru, uerpequanepeuuo u rpeunyaectseuuo ueocosuauuo repeqakt qpyr qpyry csoe uactpoeuue, t. e. uneet
necto ueroe sapaeuue couaneuMn supycon (Hartfield, Caccioppo & Rapson, 1994). Crocouocte sapaate anounu
u sapaatec unu sasucut ot teuqepa. PesynetatM uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuoro lonnepon, rossonkt rosopute o ton,
+to c+actnusMe cyrpyru snaqekt ucrycctson rocMnate qpyr qpyry anououaneuMe rocnauu (rpeunyaectseuuo c
ronoaek nunuru unu ectos) (Noller, 1982,1987). 0quaro lonnep otne+aet, +to euan ner+e rocMnate curuanM, +en ux
nyen; rocnequue r tony e u neuee socrpuun+usM r tarun curuanan. /actneu ronaraet, +to sapaeuue ueratusuMn
aerton ocoeuuo pro rposnetc s rpoecce tpaucnuccuu (Westman, 1997), a /actneu u 8uuoryp c+utakt, +to
ocoeuuo sua+una s aton cnMcne cutyau ua paote, rorqa ronneru rorakt roq +enosera (Westman & Vinokur, 1997).
3to osua+aet roseqeuue, uarpasneuuoe rpotus cosepaeuuo orpeqeneuuoro +enosera u sMpaakaee rar ueratusuoe
otuoaeuue r ueny, tar u ero ueratusuyk oeury (c. 4); taroe roseqeuue orpyakaux crocouo sMssate y ux eptsM
qerpeccuk (Vinokur & Van Rijn, 1993).
Voqenuposauue. /actneu u 3tuou ronarakt, +to uenes ucrnk+ate u taroe ocueuue tpaucnuccuu, rar noqenupo-
sauue, t. e. unutuposauue oquun raptuepon pearuu qpyroro (Westman & Etzion, 1995).
Tpaucnuccu rar cneqctsue ctun oaeuu. Ctopouuuru atou tpartosru nexauusna tpaucnuccuu ucxoqt us toro, +to
rpoeccuouaneuMu ctpecc, ucrMtMsaenMu oquun us raptuepos, rpusoqut r suytpeuueny uarpeuuk, rotopoe rpos-
netc s ueratusuon (a sosnouo, u s rounurtuon) ctune oaeuu unu pasrosopa, a ato, s csok o+epeqe, ycunusaet
ctpecc u uarpeuue, repeusaenMe stopMn raptuepon. o nueuuk pqa uccneqosateneu (Jones & Fletcher, 1996 b;
Cross-field, 1999), +actota u xapartep qucryccuu ua rpoussoqctseuuMe tenM, rposoqunMx cyrpyranu unu raptuepanu,
urpaet pone nequatopa s .rpoecce tpaucnuccuu.
8nuuue ueratusuoro aerta. Csse neqy ctpeccopanu u suytpeuuun uarpeuuen oquoro raptuepa u uuopnaueu
o rcuxonoru+ecron coctouuu stoporo raptuepa, rony+euuou ot uero canoro, noet Mte cneqctsuen sneaatenectsa
uerou tpeteeu repeneuuou, uarpunep, ueratusuoro aerta. 8epotuocte uneuuo tarou cutyauu ocoeuuo senura s tex
cny+ax, rorqa uuqusuqyynM sMupakt cee raptuepos c nupooayaeuuen, auanoru+uMn ux coctseuuony.
8nuuue couaneuou cpeqM. o nueuuk /actneua, to, +to socrpuuunaetc rar tpaucnuccu unu repeuoc ot oquoro
raptuepa r qpyrony, snetc scero nuae pesynetaton oaeu qn ooux couaneuou cpeqM (Westman, 1997).
Koppenuu ctpeccos u uarpeuuu y cyrpyros unu raptuepos noryt orasatec nouMnu, u ux, xot M ot+actu, nouo
ocuute ten, +to raptuepM ctanrusaktc c oquunu u tenu e usueuuMnu coMtunu u usyt s oquuarosMx ycnosux.
/ctanocte. 6onee sepotuou rpu+uuou pacrpoctpaueuu ctpecca c paotM ua qon snetc ue tpaucnuccu anouu, a
yctanocte, rotopyk rpuuocut c paotM oquu us raptuepos. /ctanocte, snkaac cneqctsuen paotM, sronue noet
rosnute rar ua qonaauee uactpoeuue canoro +enosera, tar u ua anououaneuoe coctouue ero raptuepa (Chan &
Margolin, 1994). 0ryctoaeuuMu unu rpeMsakauu s qerpeccuu raptuep, cropee scero, ue rpunetc, sacy+us pyrasa, sa
qonaauue qena u ue ctauet sauunatec qetenu, a ato sua+ut, +to stopony raptuepy rpuqetc sste oneayk +acte
osauuocteu ua ce.
Couaneua roqqepra. XeuM noryt urpate pone yepos, saauaakaux ux nyeu ot ctpeccos (Repetti, 1989), u
crnouuM roqqepusate reperpyeuuMx paotou nyeu rar cnoson (yteaa, sMpaa co+ysctsue u oqopeuue), tar u
qenon (sssanusa ua ce oneayk +acte qonaaueu paotM) (Bolger et al., 1989). AstopM sMcrasMsakt rpeqronoeuue,
+to, sosnouo, uneuuo roatony par accouupyetc c oneaeu anououaneuou ctauneuoctek ue y euauu, a y ny+uu.
8uunauue oneauuctsa uccneqosateneu couaneuou roqqepru cocpeqoto+euo ua ton, rto ee rony+aet, a ue ua ton, rto
ee orasMsaet. Pone qouopa couaneuou roqqepru noet urpate sauyk pone s
nexauusne rpoecca tpaucnuccuu u sacnyusaet qaneueuaero usy+euu (Westman, 1997). PesynetatM uccneqosauuu,
rposeqeuuMx s rocnequue roqM, rossonkt rpeqronoute, +to yxyqaeuue ra+ectsa roqqepru co ctopouM eu s tex
cenex, s rotopMx paotakt oa cyrpyra, tare noet urpate orpeqeneuuyk pone s repeqa+e rpoeccuouaneuMx
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ctpeccos eu ux nyen.
3aknueue
oqsoq utor, nouo crasate, +to s atou rnase rpeqctasneuM osop roqxoqos r rouunauuk ss