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EXPERIMENT 2 BERNOULLIS THEOREM

Introduction Bernoullis Law states that if a non-viscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of a varying cross section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher and the pressure is higher when the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate. Objective To investigate the validity of Bernoullis Theorem as applied to the flow of water in a tapering circular duct. Apparatus 1. Hydraulics Bench 2. Bernoullis Theorem demonstration unit 3. Stop watch Procedure 1. Check all the manometer tubing is properly connected to the corresponding pressure taps and is air-bubble free. 2. Adjust the discharge valve to a high measureable flow rate. 3. After the level stabilizes, measure the water flow rate using volumetric method. 4. Gently slide the hypodermic tube (total head measuring) connected to manometer #G, so that its end reaches the cross section of the venture tube at #A. Wait for some time and note down the readings from manometer #G and #A. The reading shown by manometer #G is the sum of the static head and velocity heads. The reading in manometer #A measures just the pressure head because it is connected to venture tube pressure tap, which does not obstruct the flow, thus measuring the flow static pressure. 5. Repeat steps above for other cross sections (#B, #C, #D, #E, #F) 6. Repeat step 2 to 5 with another flow rates by regulating the venture discharge valve. 7. Calculate the velocity, using the Bernoullis Equation where; 8. Calculate velocity, using the continuity equation where;

9. Determine the difference between two calculated velocities.

Result 5 Liters (34 seconds) Cross Section Manometer Bernoullis Equation (mm) (mm) A B C D E F 255 212 160 170 105 111 260 256 255 243 244 181 (m/s) 0.3132 0.9291 1.3652 1.1968 1.6514 1.1719 (m) 4.908710 1.517510 1.093610 8.992010 7.853910 4.908710 (m/s) 0.2996 0.9691 1.3447 1.6355 1.8724 0.2996 (m/s) 0.0136 -0.0400 0.0205 -0.4387 -0.2210 0.8723 Continuity Equation Difference

10 Liters (277 seconds) Cross Section Manometer Bernoullis Equation (mm) (mm) A B C D E F 154 150 147 143 141 58 155 151 154 153 153 147 (m/s) 0.1401 0.1401 0.3706 0.4429 0.4852 1.3214 (m) 4.908710 1.517510 1.093610 8.992010 7.853910 4.908710 (m/s) 0.0736 0.2379 0.3302 0.4015 0.4597 0.0736 (m/s) 0.0665 -0.0978 0.0404 0.0414 0.0255 1.2478 Continuity Equation Difference

Calculation For manometer A (5 Liters) From the experiment; (mm) = 255 mm (mm) = 260 mm = 0.3132091953 (m/s) = 4.908710 (m) (m/s)

= 0.2996 (m/s) Error (%) = = 4.34 %

Result Analysis For the 5 liters volume of water using Bernoullis Equation, the manometer reading for respective manometer A, B, C, D, E, and F have the values of 0.3132, 0.9291, 1.3652, 1.1968, 1.6514 and 1.1719 m/s. As for the Continuity Equation, the readings are 0.2996, 0.9691, 1.3447, 1.6355, 1.8724 and 0.2996 m/s respectively. The differences for the manometer A, B, C, D, E and F are 0.0136, -0.04, 0.0205, 0.4387, -0.221 and 0.8723 m/s respectively. An increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. For the 10 liters volume of water using Bernoullis Equation, the manometer for respective manometer A, B, C, D, E and F have the values of 0.1401, 0.1401, 0.3706, 0.4429, 0.4852 and 1.3214 m/s. As for the Continuity Equation, the readings are 0.0736, 0.2379, 0.3302, 0.4015, 0.4597 and 0.0736 m/s respectively. The differences for the manometer A, B, C, D, E and F are 0.0665, -0.0978, 0.0404, 0.0414, 0.0255 and 1.2478 m/s respectively. An increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

Conclusion Based from the experiment, it was obvious that the difference between Bernoullis Equation was more or less similar to Continuity Equation which proved by a small value of percentage error. Therefore, the Bernoullis Theorem is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy, applied to liquids in motion. Though relatively insignificant in this experiment, errors of imprecision are inevitable. The following list sums up all probable sources of human error in this experiment: Misreading the manometer heads for different flows & taps Misreading the stopwatch and volume meter Failing to realize a clogging in the tubes connecting the Venturi tube to the manometer

Recommendation 1. It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The apparatus should be stored properly to prevent damage.

2. Any manometer tube, which does not fill with water or slow fill, indicates that tapping or connection of the manometer is blocked. To remove the obstacle, disconnect the flexible connection tube and blow through. 3. The apparatus should not be exposed to any shock and stresses.

Appendix

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