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UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

THREE PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR STARTING METHOD

Star-Delta Starting Method

Star-Delta starter work by first connecting the motor in star configuration so that only 58% of the full line voltage is applied to the motor.

After a short period, this connection is change to delta thereby applying the full line voltage.

With star-delta starting, the peak starting current is typically between 1.5 and 3 times the normal full-load current, and the peak starting torque is between 0.2 and 0.5 times the motor’s nominal operating.

There are three main reason to apply reduced voltage to medium voltage motors:

a. To reduce the mechanical effect of across the starting and stopping

b. To limit the inrush current inherent with full voltage starting

c. To reduce the effects of pressure surges and water hammer in pumping system

of pressure surges and water hammer in pumping system Figure 1  Star-Delta operating sequence: a.

Figure 1

Star-Delta operating sequence:

a. On starting, the supply is first applied to the motor with its stator windings star-connected. The line voltage is applied to one end of each of the three windings, with the other end bridged together, effectively connecting the windings in a star connection.

b. Under this condition, the voltage across each winding is 1/√3 of the line voltage and so the current flowing each winding is also reduced by this amount. The resultant current flowing from the supply is reduced by a factor of 1/3 as is the torque. As the motor accelerates, its speed stabilizes when its developed torque become equal to its load. This usually happens at about 75% - 80% of nominal speed.

c. The star contactor is then de-energized, and the delta contactor is energized to allow current flow to the stator windings. Each winding is now fed with the full supply voltage and the motor adopts its normal characteristics.

FED 20202: Motor Starter & Drives

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Practical 6 – Star-Delta Starter

UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

d. The run-up time with the windings start-connected is controlled by a timer which is can be adjusted from 0 to 30 seconds. This timer is adjusted during commissioning to ensure that the star-delta change over occurs, as closely as possible, at the point of torque equilibrium.

e. The Star-Delta starter can only be used with a motor which is rated for connection in delta operation at the required line voltage, and has both ends each of the three windings available individually.

Star-delta starters are particularly suited to machines which do not present a high load torque at start-up, or which normally starts off-load. It is also important to note that, during the star-to-delta transition, a high transient current is generated. If a magnetic short circuit protective device is to be used in the starter, this transient must be taken into account in the selection of the device, in order to prevent nuisance tripping.

Although the transient produced at the star-delta transition is very brief, the current can be quite large and, particularly for larger motors, some form of current limiting may be necessary. One solution is to introduce a delay of 1 to 2 seconds during the star-to delta transition. To avoid too large a speed drop during the transition, however, this method can only be used with low-inertia loads.

this method can only be used with low-inertia loads. Star-delta starting current/speed characteristics FED 20202:

Star-delta starting current/speed characteristics

FED 20202: Motor Starter & Drives

characteristics FED 20202: Motor Starter & Drives Star-delta starting torque/speed characteristics 2 Practical

Star-delta starting torque/speed characteristics

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Practical 6 – Star-Delta Starter

UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

PRACTICAL

PART A: Star-Delta Starter

1. Draw the power diagram and the control diagram for Star-Delta Starter.

2. Shows the operation of the system with indicator light as follows:

i. Motor Stop H1 will light ON

ii. Motor run with STAR connection H2 will light ON

iii. Motor run with DELTA connection H3 will light ON

iv. Motor Overload H4 will light ON

3. Determine the suitable power supply if 3-phase 240V / 415 V motor is used.

4. Perform the wiring for control circuit and power circuit

5. Voltage and current during STAR connection

i. Calculate the line voltage, V L and phase voltage, V P . Record the result in Table 1

ii. Calculate the line current, I L and phase current, I P . Record the result in Table 1

6. Voltage and current during DELTA connection

i. Calculate the line voltage, V L and phase voltage, V P . Record the result in Table 1

ii. Calculate the line current, I L and phase current, I P . Record the result in Table 1

7. Measuring voltage and current during STAR connection. Draw the power diagram to show the voltmeter and ammeter position for measuring the line voltage and phase voltage; and line current and phase current.

i. Measure the line voltage, V L and phase voltage, V P

ii. Measure the line current, I L and phase current, I P

8. Measuring voltage and current during DELTA connection.

i. Measure the line voltage, V L and phase voltage, V P

ii. Measure the line current, I L and phase current, I P

9. State your findings and conclusions.

Table 1:

 

STAR CONNECTION

DELTA CONNECTION

 

Theoretical

Measured

Theoretical

Measured Value

Value

Value

Value

V

L

       

V

P

       

I

L

       

I

P

       

FED 20202: Motor Starter & Drives

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Practical 6 – Star-Delta Starter

UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

UniKL MFI Electrical & Electronics Section

PART B: Star-Delta Starter (Forward-Reverse)

1. Design the power diagram and control diagram for Forward-Reverse Star-Delta Starter.

2. Perform the wiring for control circuit and power circuit.

3. Conclusions.

FED 20202: Motor Starter & Drives

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Practical 6 – Star-Delta Starter