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1705

2001 .

66.045.1.001.24(076)
112-5173-5
-248
-

,
.. .

:
.. ; .. .
.. .

-248 : . // . .. , ..
. / .. . - . - , 2001. - 32 .

, , , 3
, , , ,
1705.
66.045.1.001.24(076)
112-5173-5

, 2001


..... 4
1 .. 4
2 ... 5
2.1 ... 6
2.2
.... 7
3 .. 11
4 .. 18
5 () ... 24
.. 31


. , , .
: , , , -.
.

.
,
, , .

" " .. [1], [2],
.. [3],
.. [4] .
, , ,
,
.
1
(), ( ), ,
.
, .

.
.
1. ( )
.
4

2. .
3. -.
4. .
5. ( - -
).
6. .
7. .
8. , , .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. - (, , ).
13. , , .
14. - ( , ..).
15. , , ( , , , , , ..).
16. ,
, -, .
17.
( ).
18. - .
19. .
2

, .
,
, .

:

.
.
1. ,
.
2. .
3. ,
, ,
.
4. .
, (
, ..) ,
,
.
5. , ,
.. .
6. . .
7.
. , , ..
(
, , ..), , .
2.1
.
.
6

1. : (, ), (, ).
2. , .
3. , : .
4.
: .
5. : , ..
6. : , ,
..
7. : , , ..
2.2

I.
1.
(
) .
) (Re 10000):
Nu = 0,021l Re0,8 Pr0,43 (Pr/ Pr)0,25,

(1)

l - , (L) (d), L/d 50 l = 1.


) (2300< Re<10000):
Nu = 0,008 Re0,9 Pr0,43 (Pr/ Pr)0,25,

(2)

) (Re 2300):
(3)
Nu = 0,15 Re0,33 Gr0,1 Pr0,43 (Pr/ Pr)0,25.
(1) - (3)
( 7

), , , - . Pr - ,
.
2. (1)-(3), :
d = D d, D - ,
d .
3. ( ).
Re<1000 :
Nu = 0,56 Re0,5 Pr0,36 (Pr/ Pr)0,25

(4)

Re1000
:
Nu = 0,22 Re0,65 Pr0,36 (Pr/ Pr)0,25

(5)

:
(6)
Nu = 0,4 Re0,6 Pr0,36 (Pr/ Pr)0,25
(4) - (6) 0,6.
(4) - (6) , - .
II.
1. :
) n c d :

= 2,04 t

3 2 r
= 3,78 t
t H

2 d n
G

(7)

) d:

= 0,728 t

3 2 r g
t d

(8)

(7)-(8): - . . 4.9 [1] ; t - ,


(, ):

3
t =

(9)

- , (),
(t), .. .
G - , /;
r - t, /;
t = t - t - ;
- , . . 4.7 [1].
. 4.12. [1].
2. .
)
:

2 (T )
2 (T ) 2 .
2 q 2
= b3
= b3
T


2

=b

(10)

) , :
2

3 2

= 0,075 1+10
1

(11)

(10) - (11)
,
.
q - , /2;
- , /;
- , ;
= ( - ) - ;
b - , :
(12)
b = 0,075 + 0,75 ( / ( - ))2/3 ;
- , / 3, :


,
22,4

(13)

- ,
- (1 /2,
273 ),
- , / 3;
- , / .

10

3
50 / ( ) 105 40 . 8 35

.
.
:
1 ( ), 2
- ( ).
t1

t1

105

t2

40 (1)

35

t2

(2)

, :
t = 105 35
t
t

= 70

C;

t = 40 8 = 32

t p =

t t
70 32
=
= 48 , 5
t
l n 70
32
ln
t

C.

:
35 + 8
= 21 ,5 o C ;
2
t 1 = t 2 + t p = 21 ,5 + 48 ,5 = 70
t2 =

C.

,
-

11

,
.
(5 %):
Q = 1,05 G1 c1 (t1 - t1) = 1,05 (50000/3600) 3435 65 =3256100 ,
1 = 0,82 4190 = 3435 /( ) - t1 (. XI, [1]).

G2 =

Q
3256100
=
= 28 ,8 / ,
c 2 ( t 2 t 2 ) 4190 27

2 = 4190 /( ) - t2
( 0 90 ).
:
V1 = G1 / 1 = 50000/(3600 1125) = 0,0123 3/ ;
V2 = G2 / 2 = 28,8/ 998 = 0,0289 3/ ,
1 = 1125 /3; 2 = 998 /3 (. IV, [1] );
1 = 0,66 x 10 -3 x; 2 = 0,97 x 10 -3 x (. V, [1])
( t1 = 70 oC t2 =
= 21,5 oC).
,
. 4.8 [1] = 140 /(2 x ) ( ):
Q
F =

3256100
=

K x t

480 2

140 x 48,5


252 .
(1) ,
, (2) - .
- , - .
1. ().

12

(Re > 10000) :


Re 1 1
d 1

w '1 =

10000 0 , 66 10 3
0 , 021 1125

0 , 279 / c

, Re = 10000:

V1
0 , 0123
=
= 127
2
'
0 , 785 d w1 0 , 785 0 , 021 2 0 , 279

. 4.12 [1] F n 465 . 73 329 2 2 9 .


, 465- D.. = 800 .
:
w1 =
Re

V1
0 , 0123
=
= 0 , 0764 /
2
0 , 785 d n
0 , 785 0 , 021 2 465
=

w 1 d 1
1

0 , 0764 0 , 021 1125


= 2735
0 , 66 10 3

(2300<Re<10000), ( , ) : Nu1 = 0,008 Re10,9 Pr10,43(Pr1 /Pr1)0,25.


Pr1 Pr1:
1 x 1
3435 x 0,66x 10-3
Pr1 =
=
= 4.24,
0,535
1
1 = 0,46 x 1,163 = 0,535 /( x K) (. X, [1]);
2 = 0,51 x 1,163 = 0,593 /( x K) (. X, [1]).
(t1 = 70 oC t2 = 21,5 oC).
: tc1 = t1 - t / 2 = 70 - 48,5 / 2 = 45,8 oC = tc2
:
cc1 = 0,81 x 4190 = 3394 /(x);
c1 = 0,93 x 10-3 x;
c1 = 0,425 x 1,163 = 0,494 /(x K).
1 x 1
3394 x 0,93 x10-3
Pr1 =
=
= 6,39.
0,494
1

13

Pr/Pr:
Pr1 /Pr1 = 4,24/6,39 = 0,664.
:
Nu1 = 0,008 x27350,9 x 4,240,43 (4,24/6,39)0,25 = 16,66.
1 x d

1
:
16,66x 0,535
Nu1 x 1
=
= 424 /(2x ).
1 =
d
0,021
Nu1 =

2.
().
:
2
V
D 2 .. d . n
2
2
S . . = 2 =

= 0,785 D
=
. . d . n
w2
4
4

= 0,785 (0,8 2 0,025 2 465) = 0,274 2 ,


D. . , ;
d. , ;
n ;
w2 - c :

w2 =

V2
0,0289
=
= 0,105 / c .
S ..
0,274

Re 2 =

w 2 d 2

0 ,105 0 , 025 998


= 2701
0 ,97 10 3

2
.
:

14

Re >1000:
0 , 25

Pr
Nu 2 = 0,4 Re Pr 2 , 0,6.
Pr 2

45,8 :
cc2 = 4190 /(x);
c2 = 0,59 x 10-3 x;
c2 = 0,55 x 1,163 = 0,640 /(x K).
Pr2 Pr2:
0,6
2

Pr2 =

Pr2 =

2 x 2

4190 x 0,97x 10-3


=

= 6,85;

2
2 x 2
2

0 , 36
2

0,593
4190 x 0,59x 10-3
=

= 3,86.
0,640

Pr/Pr2:
Pr2 /Pr2 = 6,85/3,86 = 1,775.
:
Nu2 = 0,4 x 0,6 x 27010,6 x 6,85 0,36 x (6,85/3,86)0,25 = 63,42.
:
Nu2 x 2
63,42x 0,593
=
= 1504 /(2x ).
2 =
d
0,025
:
rc = r + r1 + r2 = / + r1 + r2 = 0,002/46,5 + 1/5800 +
+ 1/2900 = 5,6 x 10 -4 2 x /,
r = 46,5 / (2 x ) (. XXVIII, [1]);
r1 = 1/5800 2 x / (. XXXI, [1]);
r2 = 1/2900 2 x /(. I, [1]).
:

15

K' =

= 279 /( 2 )
1
1
1
1
4
+ r +
+5,610 +
'1
'2
424
1504
:
q = K x t = 1 x t1 = t / r= 2 x t2 =
= K x ( t1 - t2) = 1 x ( t1 - t1) = (t1 - t2) / r = 2 x (t2 - t 2),
t1 + t + t2 = t

q = K x t = 279 x 48,5 = 13532 /2;


t1 = t1 - q /1 = 70 13532 / 424 = 38,1 oC;
t2 = t2 + q / 2 = 21,5 + 13532 / 1504 = 30,5 oC.
.

:
t1 = 38,1 oC:
cc1 = 0,81 x 4190 = 3394 /(x);
c1 = 1,07 x 10-3 x;
c1 = 0,418 x 1,163 = 0,486 /( x K);
t2 = 30,5 oC:
cc2 = 4190 /(x);
c2 = 0,8 x 10-3 x;
c2 = 0,525 x 1,163 = 0,611 /( x K).
Prc1 Pr2 :
Pr1 =

Pr2 =

1 x 1
1
2 x 2

3394 x 1,07x 10-3


=

= 7,47;
0,486
4190 x 0,8x 10-3

=
= 5,49.
2
0,611
Pr/Pr:
Pr1 /Pr1 = 4,24/7,47 = 0,568 ( - 0,664);
Pr2 /Pr2 = 6,85/5,49 = 1,248 ( - 1,775).

16

:
1 = 1 x (0,568 / 0,664)0,25 = 424 (0,568 / 0,664)0,25 = 408 /(2x ),
2 = 2 x (1,248 / 1,775)0,25 = 1504 (1,248 / 1,775)0,25 = 1377 /(2x ).
:

1
1
1
+ 5,610 4 +
1377
408

= 268 /( 2 )

:
K x t
268 48,5
t1 = t1
= 70
= 38,1
1
408
t2 = t2 +

K t
2

268 48,5
= 21,5 +

= 30,9

1377

.
.
:

F =

Q
3256100
=
= 251 2
K t 268 48,5

4.12 [1] 465 F = 329 2, - 9 .


:
F Fp
Fp

100 % =

329 251
100 % = 31 ,1 % .
251

17

4
(
)
50 / 118 . . 8 35 . .
118

118 (1)

35

(2)

:
t = 118 8 = 110
t
t
t p

; t = 118 35 = 83

C;

< 2
=

t + t
2

110 + 83
= 96 , 5
2

C.

:
t 1 = 118 o C ;
35 + 8
t2 =
= 21 , 5 o C .
2
: G1 = 50000/3600 = 13,9 /c.
(5 %):
Q = 1,05 G1 r1 = 1,05 x 13,9 x 589,1x 103 = 8591000 ,
r1 = 589,1x 103 / ( () t =
= 118 , . XLV, [1]).
:

G2 =

Q
8591000
=
= 75 ,9 / .
c 2 (t 2 t 2 ) 4190 27

:
V2 = G2 /2 = 75,9/998 = 0,0761 3/ ,
2 = 998 /3 ( t2 = 21,5 . IV, [1]).

18


:
= 230 /(2 x ) (. 4.8, [1]).
:
Q
8591000
F =
=
= 387 2
K x t
230 x 96,5
252 .
(1) , (2) - .
1. .

(Re > 10000) :
Re 2 2 10000 0,97 10 3
w' 2 =
=
= 0, 463 / c ,
d 2
0,021 998
2 2 - t2 = 21,5 .
, Re = 10000:
V2
0 , 0761
n =
=
= 475 .
2
0 , 785 d
. w'

0 , 785 0 , 021 2 0 , 463

. 4.12 [1] F n D = 800 ,


73 329 2
n = 465 . . .
( (2)):
:
Re2 = 10000 x (475/465) = 10215 (Re2 >10000, ).
( , ):

Nu 2 = 0 , 021 l Re

0 ,8
2

Pr

0 , 43
2

P r2

P r 2

0 , 25

l 1.
:

19

c 2 2
4190 0 , 97 10 3
=
= 6 ,85 .
2
0 , 593
( t 2 = 21 , 5 o C ).
:
P r2 =

t1 = t2 = t1

t cp
2

= t2 +

t cp
2

=118 96,5 / 2 = 21,5 + 96,5 / 2 = 69,8 .


t2 = 69,8 :
cc2 = 4190 /(x) ( 0 90 );
c2 = 0,413 x 10-3 x (. IX, [1]);
c2 = 0,575 x 1,163 = 0,669 /( x K) (. X, [1]).
Pr2:
4190 x 0,413x 10-3
2 x 2
Pr2 =
=
= 2,59.
2
0,669
:

Pr2
6,85
=
= 2,645
Pr 2 2,59
:
Nu2 = 0,021 x1 x 102150,8 x 6,850,43 x (6,85/2,59)0,25 = 98,75.
:
98,75x 0,593
Nu2 x 2
2 =
=
= 2789 /(2x ).
d
0,021
2. ( (1)).
(
).

:

1 = 0 , 728 t
:
20

31 12 r1 g
1 t d p

1) (n). . 4.12 [1] n =


465 n = 23.
. 4.7 ( ) = 0,58;
2) t - ,
:
1

3 8 0,15 3 0,39610 3 8
t = 1 1 =

= 0,915 ;
3
1 1
0,142 0,95 10
3) 1 = 0,122 1,163 = 0,142 /( ) (
_
t 1 = 118 );

1 = 0,396 10-3 ( t 1 = 118 );


1 = 0,129 1,163 = 0,15 /( ) (
t 1 = 69,8 );
1 = 0,95 10-3 ( t 1 = 69,8 );
4) = 1 - , , ( . 4.9 [1]);
5) 1 = 737 /3 -

t 1 = 118 (. );

_
6) t = t 1 - t1 = 118 - 69,8 = 48,2 .
1:

1 = 0,728 0,58 0,915 1 4

0,1423 737 2 589,1 103 9,81


2
= 805 /( ).
3
0,396 10 48,2 0,025

:
rc = r + r1 + r2 = / + r1 + r2 = 0,002/46,5 + 1/11600 +
+ 1/2900 = 4,74 x 10 -4 2 x /,
r = 46,5 / (2 x ) (. XXVIII, [1]);
r1 = 1/11600 2 x / (. XXXI, [1]);
r2 = 1/2900 2 x /(. I, [1]).
:

21

K '=

1
1
1
+ r +
'2
'1

1
1
1
+ 4 ,74 10 4 +
805
2789

= 482 /( 2 )

:
q = K x t = 1 x t1 = t / r= 2 x t2 =
= K x ( t1 - t2) = 1 x ( t1 - t1) = ( t1 - t2) / r = 2 x (t2 - t2),
t1 + t + t2 = t.
q = K x t
t1 = t1 - q / 1 = 118 - 482 x 96,5 / 805 = 60,2 oC;
t2 = t2 + q / 2 = 21,5 +482 x 96,5 / 2789 = 38,2 oC.
.
1. (2).

tc2 = 38,2 :
cc2 = 4190 /(x);
c2 = 0,685 x 10-3 x (. IX, [1]);
c2 = 0,54 x 1,163 = 0,628 /( x K) (. X, [1]).
Pr2:
2 x 2
4190 x 0,685x 10-3
Pr2 =
=
= 4,57.
2
0,628

P r2
6,85
=
= 1,499 ( - 2,645).
P r 2 4,57
:

1,499 0, 25
2 =2789
= 2420 /(2 ).
2,645
2. , t1 =
= 60,2 :

22

1 = 0,13 1,163 = 0,15 /( ) (


= 60,2 );

1 = 1,14 10-3 (

0,151 3 0,39610 3
t =

3
0,142 1,14 10
0,915);

t1 = 60,2 );
1

= 0,897 (

t = t 1 - t1 = 118 - 60,2 = 57,8 ( 48,2).

1 = 805

0 ,897
48 , 2
2
4
= 754 /( )
0 ,915
57 ,8

:
K '=

1
1
1
+ r +
'2
'1

1
1
1
+ 4 ,74 10 4 +
754
2420

= 452 /( 2 )

:
t1 = t1 t / 1 = 118 - 452 x 96,5 / 754 = 60,2 oC
t2 = t2 + t / 2 = 21,5 +452 x 96,5 / 2420 = 39,5 oC
t2 3 %,
.
:
Q
8591000
Fp =
=
= 197 2
K t
452 96 ,5
4.12 [1] 465 F = 219 2, 6 .
:
F Fp
Fp

100 % =

219 197
100 % = 11 , 2 % .
197

23

5 ().
50 /
a, 3 /2. .
143
(1)
143

111

111

(2)

:
t = t = 143 111 = 32 t = 32 ;
t1 = 143 ; t2 = 111 .
5% :
Q = 1,05 G2 r2 = 1,05 (50000/3600) 361,9 103 =5277700 ,
r2 = 361,9 103 / - t2 (. XLV, [1]).
, 5% (.. = 0,95):
5277700
G1 = Q/(r1 x) =
= 2,59 / ,
2141 103 0,95
r1 = 2141 103 / -
t1 = 4 /2 (. LVII, [1]).
.
: = 300 /(2 ) (. 4.8, [1]).
Q
5277700
F =
=
= 550 2.
K t
300 32
252
. 4.12 [1] 747
176 528 2 ( 3 9 ).
, n = 747.
24

(1) , (2) .
.
1. ( (2)).

:

2 = b3

22 ( T ) 2
2 ( T ) 2
,
= b3 2 2
2 2 T
2 2 T

2 = 0,1 1,163 = 0,1163 /() (. , [1]);


2 = 776 /3 (. IV, [1]);
2 = 0,249 10-3 (. I, [1]);
2 = 18,245 10-3 / (. IV, [1])
t2 = 111 ;

b = 0 , 075 + 0 , 75

2 ,856
= 0 , 075 + 0 , 75
776 2 ,856

= 0 , 0929 .

b :

p T0
90 1
273

=

= 2,856 /3;
22 , 4 p 0 T 22 , 4 1 273 +111

= 2 = 776 /3,

- , /,
, T - , ,
, T - ,
.

. .
.
:
t1 = t2 = t1

t
2

= t2 +

t
2

= 143

32
32
= 127 ;
= 111 +
2
2

T = t2 t 2 = 127 111 = 16 .

25

2 = 0,0929 3

0,1163 2 77616 2
2
= 1235 /( ).
3
3
0,24910 18,24510 (273+ 111)

2. ( (1)).

:

1 = 3 , 78 t 1 3

12 d n
,
1 G1

- , (, ) .
0,5 % (.)
. 4.9 [1] = 0,6;
1 = 0,685 /( ) (. I, [1]);
1 = 923 /3 (. I, [1]);
d = 0,025 (
);
n = 747;
1 = 0,19310-3 (. I, [1]);
G1 = 2,59 /c.

_
t = t 1 = 143 ;

3
t = 1 1
1 1

0,686 3 0,19310 3
=

3
0,685 0,218 10

= 0,985 ,

1 = 0,686 /( ) (. IX, [1] t 1 = 127 );


1 = 0,218 10-3 (. IX, [1]

t1 = 127 ).

1:
2
923 2 0,025 747
= 4850 / ( ).
3
0,193 10 2,59
:
rc = r + r1 + r2 = / + r1 + r2 = 0,002/46,5 + 1/5800 +
+ 1/11600 = 3,02 x 10 -4 2 x /,

1 = 3,78 0,6 0,985 0,685

26

r = 46,5 / (2 x) (. XXVIII, [1]);


r1 = 1/5800 2 x / (. XXXI, [1]);
r2 = 1/11600 2 x / (. I, [1]).
:
K' =

1
1
=
= 759 / ( 2 )
1
1
1
1
4
+ r +
+ 3, 02 10
+
'2
1235
4850
'1

:
q = K x t = 1 x t1 = t / r= 2 x t2 =
= K x (t1 - t2) = 1 x (t1 - t1) = (t1 - t2) / r = 2 x (t2 - t2),
t1 + t + t2 = t
q = K x t
t1 = t1 - q /1 = 143 - 759 32 / 4850 = 138 oC;
t2 = t2 + q/2 = 111 + 759 32 / 1235 = 130,7 oC.
.
.
1. 1 (. (1)):
1

0,685 3 0,19310 3 8
t =

= 0,996 (
3
0
,
685
0
,
199
10

0,985),
1 = 0,685 /( ) ( t1 = 138 , . XXXIX, [1]);
1 = 0,199 10-3 ( t1 = 138 , . XXXIX, [1]).
:
0 ,996
2
1 = 4850
= 4904 /( ).
0 ,985
2. 2 ( (2)):
= t2 - t2 = 130,7 - 111= 19,7 (
16 ),

2
19 , 7 2
2 = 1235
= 1872 /( ).
16


(q1) (q2):

27

q1 = 1 ( t1 t 1 ) = 4904 (143 138) = 25520 /2;


q2 = 2 ( t 2 t 2 ) = 1872 (130,7 111) = 36878 /2.
(> 5 %).
:
1
'' =
= 961 /( 2 )
1
1
4
+ 3 , 02 10
+
4904
1872
:
x t
961 32
t1 = t1
= 143
= 136,7 ;
1
4904
t2 = t2 +

K t

961 32
= 111 +

= 127,4 .

1872

.
:
1. 1 = 4904 /(2 ) (
1,3 ).
2. 2:
T = ( t 2 t 2 ) = 127,4 111 = 16,4 oC ( =
19,7),
2 = 1872 (16,4/19,7)2 = 1297 /(2 ).
q1 q2:
q1 = 1 ( t1 t 1 ) = 4904 (143 136,7) = 30895 /2;
q2 = 2 ( t 2 t 2 ) = 1297 (127,4 111) = 21270 /2.
5 %.

28


q = f (t2):

q10-3,
/2
40

q2

q1

30
20
t2 = 128,9 oC
10
t2,
127 128

129

130

131

q1 = f(t2) q2 = f(t2) :
t2 = 128,9 oC.
.
2:
T = ( t 2 t 2 ) = 128,9 111 = 17,9 oC ( =
16,4)
2 = 1297 (17,9/16,4)2 = 1545 /(2 ).
t1:
t1 = t2 + 2 ( t 2 t 2 ) r = 128,9 + 1545 (128,9 111) 3,02 10-4 =
= 128,9 + 8,4 = 137,3 oC.
1 = 4904 /(2 ) (
138 oC, . ;
1 %).
q1 q2:
q1 = 1 ( t1 t 1 ) = 4904 (143 137,3) = 27953 /2;

29

q2 = 2 ( t 2 t 2 ) = 1545 (128,9 111) = 27656 /2.


5 %. .
:
= 1/(1/4904 + 3,02 10-4 +1/1545) = 867 /(2 ).
:
Q
5277700
Fp =
=
= 190 2
K t p
867 32
4.12 [1] 747 F = 235 2, 4 .
:

F Fp
Fp

100 % =

235 190
100 % = 23 , 7 % .
190

,
,
,
.
. XXXV [1].
45-50 .

30


1. .., .., .. .
/ - ... 10- , . - .: , 1987. 576 .,
.
2. .., .., .., ..
( ). - .: , 1993. - 496 .
3. .. . . - 9- ., . - .: , 1973. - 752 .
4. :
/ .. , .. , .. .
.. , 2- ., . . - .: , 1991. 496 .
5. .., ..
: . - 3- ., .
. - .: , 1987. - 496 .
6. . . ... - .:
- , 1958. - 932 .
7. . : . . - .:
, 1961. - 820 .
8. .., ..
. - . -.: , 1955. - 392 .
9. .. - . - .: . , 1978. - 85 .
10. . : . . - .: , 1979. - 216 .
11. .., .., .. ( , , ). - .: , 1984. - 296 .
12. : 2- . .1 / . .,
. .. , .. .: .: , 1987. - 560 .
13. : 2- . .2 / . .,
. .. .: .: , 1987. - 352 .
14. . , : . . - .: , 1981. - 384 .
15. .. . - .:
, 1982. - 472 .
31

16. .. :
. . - : , 1973. - 34 .
17. .. . - .:
, 1981. - 143 .
18. . .: , 1981. - 144 .
19. .., ..
. - .: , 1986. - 152 .
20. .., .., .. . - .: , 1984. - 296 .
21. .. . - :
, 1990. - 165 .
22. .., .., ..
. - : - . -, 1993. - 208 .
23. .., .., .. . - .: , 1989. - 366 .
24. Hewitt G.F. (Coor. Ed.), Schluender E.U. (Ed.-in-Chief). Hemispere
handbook of heat exchanger design. - NY: Hemispere Publ. Corp., 1990.
25. .., .., .. : . 4 . .: , 1981. 416 .
26. .., .. . . .: , 1959. 414 .
27. .. : . .: , 1990. 367 .
28. ( ): 2-
. .: , 1973. 296 .
29. ( ).
.: , 1978. 256 .
30. (. ): 3-
. .: , 1977. 256 .
31. .. (.). .
. .: , 1980. 320 .
32. .., ..
: . . -. . 2-4 ., . . . : , 1991. 48 .
33. ..
: . .: .
.., 1979. 24 .

32





1705
:
;
.
.

33