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2008

517.91(07)
22.161.67
90

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.., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., ..,
..
:
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. .-. , .. .

. . .-. , .. .

9
. .
. . : ,
2008. 288 .
, ,
, ,
.
,
, .

517.91(07)
22.161.67

, 2008

1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.

1.4

1.5
1.6.
1.7. .

1.8. .

1.9. ,
1.10.
. .
1.11. n-
.
1.12. n
1.13.
1.14.
1.15.
1.16. ,
1.17.
1.18. .

1.19.

1.20.

1.21.
1.22.

1.23. .

1.24. .

1.25. .

1.26.
1.27.
1.28.

7
7
10
11
15
18
20
23
25
27
32
37
38
41
46
55
56
57
59
61
67
70
71
76
78
80
83
84

1.29.

1.30.
. (
)
1.31. .

( )
1.32. ,
.
1.33. .


1.34. .


1.35.

.

1.36. . ,

1.37.

1.38. ()

1.39.
2.
2.1.
.
2.2.

2.3.
2.4.

2.5.
2.6.
2.7.
2.8.
2.9. ,

2.10.
2.11. n

2.12. n
.

90
94

96
100
104

113

120
122
125
126
136
138
139
144
147
149
152
153
157
158
161
163
167

2.13.

.
2.14.
2.15.
2.16. .

2.17.

2.18.

2.19. . .

2.20.
( )
2.21.
2.22. .
2.23.
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

169

173
178
184
188
191
195
199
202
208
212
222
224
250
277
288

1.

1.1

.

().
, , ,
.
, 0 t=0,
(0 > ) . ( t ) ,
.
,
. , ( t ) ,

d ( t )
= k[( t ) ] ,
dt

(1.1)

k - .
(1.1)
. , ..
( t ) . (1.1)

( t ) = Ce kt + , - .
(0) = 0 , , 0 = C + . ,

( t ) = (0 )e kt + .
1.2
1.1 x,
y(x) y , y , ., y (n) ,
.
1.2 , ,
.

1.1

y = x 2 sin y - 1- ;
y + xy = e x - 2- .
1.3 F(x, y, y) = 0 y = f(x, y)
.
1.4 1- F(x, y, y) = 0
(a,b)
y = ( x ) , .
1.2 y=x2 ,
xy - 2x 2 = 0 , .. y=x2 y = 2x
.
.
.
1.5 , x=x0 y(x)
y0 , .
y(x0)=y0 y x = x 0 = y 0 .
1.6 1- y = f(x, y)
y = ( x , c) , :
1.
y = ( x , )
.

2.
y(x0)=y0 , (x0,y0) ,
= 0 , y = ( x , 0 )
.
y = ( x , c) XOY
.
1.7 y = ( x , c 0 ) ,
y = ( x , c) = 0 ,
.
y = ( x , c 0 ) XOY
,
(x0,y0).
, ..
( x , y, c, ) = 0 , .
( x , y, c 0 , ) = 0 .
8

y = f(x, y) ,
y(x0)=y0, .
1.1 ( ).

y = f(x, y) f(x,y) f y (x , y )
, (x0,y0),
y = ( x ) ,
y(x0)=y0 ( ).
,
,
(x0,y0).
1.8 y = f(x, y)
, (x,y)
, .

( ), .. ,
.
1- y = f(x, y)
(x,y) y ,
. , y = f(x, y)
( ) XOY.
1- .

1.9
Y

f(x,y,)=c,
.
1.3

y = 2x


2x=c, ..
,
OY

1
2

1
2

.1.1
9

x =

c
.
2

,
OX ,
c.
, =0 x=0, tg = 0 ,
= 0 . =1

x =

1
, tg = 1 = 45o . c = 1
2

1
x = , tg = 1 = 45o ..
2
1
2

( x = , x = 0, x =

1
, x = 1)
2

, OX (.
1.1), .
y=x2+. .
.

1.3

1.10
,

dy
= f ( x ) g( y )
dx

(1.2)

M 1 ( x)N1 ( y )dx + M 2 ( x )N 2 ( y )dy = 0 ,

(1.3)

f(x), g(), M1(x), N1(y), M2(x), N2(y) - , .


(1.3)
N1 (y ) M 2 (x )

M1 ( x )
N (y )
dx + 2 dy = 0 ,
M 2 (x )
N1 (y )

M1 ( x )
N (y )
dx + 2 dy = c .
M 2 (x)
N1 ( y )

(1.4)

(1.4) (1.3).

10

1.4 y sin x y ln y cos x = 0,

y = e .
.

dy
dy
cos dx
dy
cos x dx
,
,
=
=
sin x = y ln y cos x ,
y ln y
sin x
y ln y
sin x
dx
d(ln y )
d(sin x )
ln y = sin x , ln ln y = ln sin x + ln c .

ln y = c sin x .

c

y = e ;
ln e = c sin , 1 = . =2
6
2
6
, ln y = 2 sin x y = e 2 sin x
.

1.4
.
1.11 f(x,y)
n- () x y,
f ( x, y ) = n f ( x, y ) .
1.5 f ( x , y) = x 2 + 5xy
, .. f (x , y) = (x ) 2 + 5 x y = 2 ( x 2 + 5xy) = 2 f ( x , y)

1.12 f(x,y)
() x y,
f ( x, y ) = 0 f ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) = f ( x, y ) .

y x3
1.6 f ( x , y) = tg + 3
x y
y (x ) 3
y x3
, .. f (x , y) = tg
+
= tg + 3 = f ( x, y) .
x (y ) 3
x y

1.13

y = f ( x, y) x y, f(x,y)
.

11

1.14

P( x , y)dx + Q( x , y)dy = 0 , P(x,y), Q(x,y) .


1.15
y = f ( x , y )
, f(x,y)

y
y
, .. y = f .
x
x

y
= t , t = t (x ) -
x

y
x
dt
dx
dt
.
,
=
t + xt = f (t ) xt = f (t ) t , t =
f (t ) t x
dx
dt

= ln x + C , .
f (t ) t
y
t .
x

y = xt y = t + xt (x = 1) y = f ,

(x

1.7
2

+ y 2 dx 2 xy dx = 0 .
.

y
1+
2
2
dy
x +y
x = f y , , y
= y =
=

y
dx
2xy
x
2
x
y
. .. .
x
y
t = , y = xt , y = t + xt (x = 1) .
x
2
y
1+
x ,
y y y =
y
2
x
1+ t2
1 t2
dt
t + xt =
xt =
, t =
.
2t
2t
dx
12

2 t dt

dx
,
x
1 t2
ln 1 t 2 = ln x ln C ln x + ln 1 t 2 = ln C , x 1 t 2 = C .

C1 = C .

t t =

y
,
x

y 2 = x 2 c1x .

1.16 y =

a 1 x + b 1 y + c1

a2x + b2y + c2

, , ,

a1
a2

b1
0 , ..
b2

a1 b 2 a 2 b1 0 .
=

a1
a2

b1
= 0 , .. a 1 b 2 a 2 b1 = 0 ,
b2


z (x ) = a 2 x + b 2 y z (x ) = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2 z (x ) = a 1x + b1y + c1 .
.

a b1
a1x + b1y + c1
= 1
0 .
a 2 b2
a 2x + b2 y + c2
x = x1 + , y = y1 + , x1 y1 - x y , -

1) y =

, , .

dy
dy
, y = 1 :
dx1
dx
dy1 a1 (x1 + ) + b1 (y1 + ) + c1

=
dx1 a 2 (x1 + ) + b 2 (y1 + ) + c 2
dy1
a x + b1 y1 + (a1 + b1 + c1 )
.
= 1 1
dx1 a 2 x1 + b 2 y1 + (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )
, ,
a1 + b1 + c1 = 0,
, ..

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = 0.
dy1 a1x1 + b1y1

,
=
dx1 a 2 x1 + b 2 y1
dx = dx1 , dy = dy1 , y =

13

y1
.
x1
, x1 x y1 y .
a b1
a x + b1y + c1

2) y = f 1
= 1
= 0 , ..
a
b
a
x
+
b
y
+
c
2
2
2
2
2
a
b
a
a1 b 2 a 2 b1 = 0 1 = 1 . k , 1 = k ,
a 2 b2
a2
b1
= k a1 = ka 2 , b1 = kb 2 . z (x ) = a 2 x + b 2 y ,
b2
a1x + b1y + c1 = ka 2 x + kb 2 y + c1 = k (a 2 x + b 2 y ) + c1 = kz + c1 ,
a 2x + b2 y + c2 = z + c2 .
1
z = (a 2 x + b 2 y ) = a 2 + b 2 y ,

y =
(z a 2 )

b2

t=

a x + b1y + c1
kz + c1
1

.
y = f 1
(z a 2 ) = f
a
x
+
b
y
+
c
b
z
+
c
2

2
2
2
2
b1

z + c1
b
dz
+ a .

= b2 f 2
2

dx
z + c2

, z a 2 x + b 2 y .

1.8

(x + 2 y + 1) dx (2x + y 1) dy = 0 .

x + 2y + 1
.
2x + y 1
1 2
, x y =
= 3 0 .
2 1
, . x = x1 + ,
y = y1 + , x1 y1 - x y , -
dy
dy
. dx = dx1 , dy = dy1 , y =
, y = 1 :
dx
dx1
dy1 (x1 + ) + 2(y1 + ) + 1
dy1 x1 + 2 y1 + ( + 2 + 1)

.
=
=
dx1 2(x1 + ) + (y1 + ) 1
dx1 2x1 + y1 + (2 + 1)
.

14

y =

, ,

+ 2 + 1 = 0,
= 1, = 1.
2

1
=
0
,

dy1 x 1 + 2 y1
. .
=
dx 1 2 x 1 + y1

dt
,
y1 = t x1 y1 = t x1 + t , t =
dx

1
x + 2 tx1

:
t x1 + t = 1
,
2x1 + tx1
dx 1
dt
1 t2
2+t
1 + 2t
,

dt
=
,
x1 =
t x1 =
t,
dx 1
2+t
x1
2+t
1 t2
1+ t 1
t
dx1
2
dt
=
,
ln
ln 1 t 2 = ln x 1 + ln c ,

2 +

2
x1
1 t 2
1 t 1 t
y
1+ 1
y
x1
1+ t
= x1 c ,
= x1c . t 1 ,
2
2
x
(1 t ) 1 t
1
y1
y
1 1 1
x1
x1
(x1 + y1 ) x1 = x c , x + y = c(x y ) x y ,
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(x1 y1 ) x12 y12

x1 + y1 = c 2 (x1 y1 )2 (x1 y1 ) ,

x1 + y1 = c 2 (x1 y1 )3 . c 2 = c1 .

x1 x = x 1, y1 y = y + 1 , x + y = c1 (x y 2) .
3

1.5
1.17

, (. . )
y .

y + P(x )y = Q(x ) .

(1.4)

Q(x ) 0 , ,
Q(x)=0 .
15

.
I . ..

.

u=u(x) v=v(x), .. y=uv. y = u v + uv
(1.4) u v + uv + P(x )uv = Q(x )

u v + u (v + P(x )v ) = Q(x ) .

(1.5)

, , v (x ) ,
, ,
, ..

v + P(x )v = 0 ,

v =

dv
.
dx

v v=v(x)
. v = v(x )
(1.5), , , v + P(x )v = 0 ,
u:

u v = Q(x ) ,

u =

du
,
dx

(1.6)

.
(1.6) u=u(x,C). , u
v , (1.4):
y = u (x , C ) v(x ) .
1.9 y y ctg x =
.

1
.
sin x

y .

1
. y=uv; y = u v + uv
sin x
1
u v + uv uv ctg x =

sin x
1
.
u v + u ( v v ctg x ) =
(1.7)
sin x

P(x ) = ctgx ,

Q (x ) =

16

v - v ctg x = 0 ,

dv
dv
= v ctg x;
= ctg x dx; ln v = ln sin x , v=sin x.
dx
v
1
v (1.7), u sin x =
,
sin x
du
1
dx
sin x =
; du =
, u = ctg x + C. ,
u = u (x , c ) :
2
dx
sin x
sin x
y = uv , y = ( ctg x + C ) sin x y = cos x + C sin x .
v = v (x ) :

II . .

y + P(x )y = Q(x ) .
1)
y + P(x )y = 0 .
.

dy
= P(x )y .
dx

y =

dy
,
dx

dy

y = P(x )dx ,

P ( x )dx
y = ce

- .
2) (x )
(1.4)
P ( x )dx
.
y = c (x ) e
c(x ) , y

y (1.4).

P ( x )dx

. : y = c(x ) e
,

P ( x )dx
p ( x )dx
y = c(x ) e
+ c(x ) e
( p(x )). y y

p ( x )dx
p ( x )dx
p ( x )dx
(1.4): c(x ) e
c(x ) p (x ) e
+ c(x )p(x )e
= Q(x ),

dc(x )
p ( x )dx
p ( x )dx
c(x )e
.
= Q(x )
= Q(x )e
dc(x ) = Q(x )e

p (x )dx

dx

dx ,

c(x ) = Q (x ) e
17

p ( x )dx

+ c1 .

P ( x )dx
c(x ) y = c(x ) e
,

y = ( Q( x ) e

P ( x )dx

p ( x )dx

dx + c1 ) e
1.10 y + 2xy = 2x .

.
1. y + 2xy = 0 .

dy
dy
= 2xy,
= 2xdx ,
dx
y

dy

2
x
y = 2 xdx, ln y = x + ln c, c = e ,
2

y = c e x - .
2

2.

=(x)

y + 2xy = 2x y = c(x ) e x . ( ) . y y :
2

y = c(x ) e x + c(x ) e x ( 2 x )
2

c(x )e x 2x c(x )e x + 2x c(x )e x = 2 x ,


2

c(x )e x = 2 x ,
c(x ) = e

c(x ) = 2 x e x . , c(x ) :
2

(x ) = e

x2

( )

d x2 .

c(x ) = e x + c1
2

x2

2 xdx ,

y = c(x ) e x ,
2

y = e x + c1 e x
2

y = 1 + c1 e x .
2

x+ P(y ) x = Q(y )
x, x. x = u v , u = u (y ) , v = v(y ).
1.6
1.18

y + P(x )y = Q(x ) y , R ( 0, 1)

(1.8)

.
= 0 , = 1 -
. 2 :

18

I .

y 0 , :

y y + P ( x ) y + 1 = Q (x ) .
y +1 = z . z
z
z = (1 )y y, y y =
. (1.8)
1
1
z + P(x )z = Q(x ).
1
z z
1.5 .

1
x2
1.11 y
.
y=
2x
2y
1
x2
. . P(x ) =
, Q(x ) = , = 1 .
2x
2
2
1 2 x
y -1 : yy
. z = y 2 ,
y =
2x
2
z
z 1
x2

z = 2yy , yy =

z=
2
2 2x
2
1
z z = x 2 . z z .
x
z = u v , u = u (x , c ) , v = v(x ) . z z = u v + uv
1
1
1

z z = x 2 : u v + uv uv = x 2 , u v + u v v = x 2 .
x
x
x

1
v v = 0 (1) u v = x 2 (2).
x
dv dx
(1) v = v(x ) :
=
, ln v = ln x , v = x.
v
x
x2
2
(2) u = u (x , c ): u x = x , u = x , u =
+ c.
2
x3
z = uv , z =
+ cx, z = y2 , y = z . ,
2
x3
: y =
+ cx .
2

19

II . ,
, ,
1.5.
1.12 x 2 y 2 y + xy 3 = 1.
. x2y2:

y +

y 1 1
=
,
x x 2 y2

1
1
, Q(x ) = 2 , = 2 .
x
x
uv
1

u v + vu +
= 2 2 2
x x u v

, , P(x ) =
y=uv, y = u v + vu ,

v
1

u v + u v + = 2 2 2 .
x x u v

1
v
: 1) v + = 0 2) u v = 2 2 2 . ,
x
x u v
dv dx
1
+
= 0; ln v + ln x = 0; vx = 1; v = .
v(x ) :
v
x
x
u 1
,
v , u (x , c ) - .
=
x u2
u3 x 2 C
du
2
u =
. u du = xdx,
=
+
dx
3
2 3
3
3
1
3
C
y = 3
u = 3 x 2 + C . y = u v , y = 3 x 2 + C
+ 3 2
2
x
2x x
.
1.7 .

1.19

P(x,y)dx+Q(x,y)dy=0

(1.9)

U(x,y),
(1.9) .
dU(x,y)=0.

20

U(x,y)=C.

(1.10)

.
, (1.9)
, , D,
P(x , y ) Q(x , y ) ,

P(x , y )
Q(x , y )

,
y
x

P Q
.
=
y x

(1.11)

, (1.11) ,
(1.9)
x

x0

y0

P(x, y )dx + Q (x 0 , y )dy = C

(1.12)

x0

y0

P (x, y 0 )dx + Q(x, y )dy = C

(1.13)

(x0;y0) - D, P(x , y ) , Q(x , y )


.
(1.11) , (1.9)
.

(x, y ), .
: 1)
x , .. = (x ) ; 2) y , ..
= (y ). ,

P Q

y x
= (x )
Q

21

x;

(x ) = e

( x )dx

(x ) = e

P Q

y x
dx
Q

(1.14)

P Q

y x
= (y )
P

y;

( y )dy
( y ) = e
(y ) =

P Q

y x

dy
P
e
.

(1.15)

1.13

2 x cos 2 ydx + 83 y x 2 sin 2 y dy = 0


P(x , y ) = 2x cos 2 y, Q(x, y ) = 83 y x 2 sin 2 y ;
P(x , y )
Q(x , y )
= 2x ( 2 sin y cos y ) = 2 x sin 2 y,
= 2 x sin 2 y. ,
y
x
.

2x cos ydx + (8 3 y x 0 sin 2 y )dy = c .


y

(1.12)

x0

y0

( x 0 ; y0 )

(0; 0) :

2
2
2x cos ydx + 83 ydy = C, x cos y + 6 y3 y = C .
2

1.14
ydx + x ln x y 3 dy = 0 .

P(x,y)=y,

Q(x, y) = x(lnx y 3 ) .

P
= 1,
y

Q
= 1 + ln x y 3 , . ,
x
.

22

P Q

1
y x 1 1 ln x + y 3
=
= = (x ),
3
Q
x
x ln x y

, x. :

( x )dx
(x ) = e
=e

dx
x

=e

ln x

=e

ln

1
x

1
.
x

= 1 / x ,

y
dx + ln x y 3 dy = 0, , ,
x

. (1.12):

y
y
3
dx
+

ln x 0 y dy = C . (x0;y0) (1;0),
x0 x
y0
x

( )

y
y
3
dx
+
x
y dy = C, (ln 1 = 0)
0
1
x

y ln x

y ln x

x
1

y4

= C,

y
= C. .
4

1.8 .

1.20

F(x, y, y, y , , y (n ) ) = 0

(1.16)

n- .
, ,

y (n ) = f x , y, y, y ,..., y (n 1) .
.

23

(1.17)

1.21 (1.16) n -
y = (x ) ,
.
1.22 (1.16)
y = (x , c1 , C 2 ,..., C n ), C1, C2,,Cn - , x
, :
1.
y = (x, C1 , C 2 ,..., C n )
C1, C2,,Cn.
3.

y x = x 0 = y 0 , y x = x 0 = y0 , ... , y (n )

x=x0

= y 0 (n )

C1 = C1 , C 2 = C 2 ,...,
0

(1.18)

C n = C n 0 , y = x , C10 , C 2 0 ,..., C n 0

(1.16) (1.18).

1.23 y = x , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n
(1.16), y = (x , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n )
0

C1 = C1 , C 2 = C 2 ,..., C n = C n ,
.
(1.16),
(1.18), .
1.2 ( ).
(1.17) f x , y, y, y ,..., y (n 1)
0

f y , f y , f y ,..., f y ( n 1) D

(n 1)

x , y, y,..., y (n 1) , x 0 , y 0 , y 0 , ,..., y 0
D
y = (x ) (1.17),
(1.18). .
() n- :
() ,
.
2 F(x , y, y, y) = 0 .
. ;
- ,

24

(x0,y0)
y(x 0 ) = y0 y0 = y(x 0 ) .
n - .
1.9 ,
,
() , .
, .
1.

y (n ) = f (x )

n - .
,
- n .

y = f (x )

2 .

y = f (x )dx + c1

y = F1 (x ) + c1 ,

y = (F1 (x ) + c1 )dx + c 2 y = F1 (x )dx + c1x + c 2 .


1
1.15 y = 3 .
x
. ,

dx
1
1
1

y
=

+
C
,
y
=

+
C
dx

y
=
+ C1x + C 2 ,

2x 2 1
1
2x
x3
2x 2

1
C
C
1

y = + C1x + C 2 dx = ln x + 1 x 2 + C 2 x + C 3 . C1 = 1 ,
2
2
2
2x

1
y = ln x + C1x 2 + C 2 x + C3 - .
2
y =

2. n-

F x, y (k ) , y (k +1) ,..., y (n ) = 0,

(1.19)

y
(k 1) , k

y (k ) = p(x ).

25

p(x ) = y (k +1) ,

p (x ) = y (k + 2 ) ,..., p (n k ) (x ) = y (n )
F x , p, p, p ,..., p (n k ) = 0 .

(1.19)

, F( x, y , y ) = 0 ,
y , y = p(x ) , y = p

dp
F(x , p, p)
dx
dp

F x , p, = 0 . x - , p - .
dx

y
1.16 xy = y ln + 1 .
x

. y .
dp
p
y = p(x), y = p , p =
xp = p ln + 1,
dx
x
p p
p = ln + 1 . ,
x x
p
. t (x ): t = , p = tx ,
x
p = t x + t (x = 1) , , t x + t = t (ln t + 1)
dt
t x = t ln t , t =
. , ln C1x = ln ln t , C1x = ln t
dx
p
t = e C1 x . p , .. t
,
x
p
= e C1 x . p = y , y = xe C1x .
x
y = xe C1 x dx ,
1 C1x 1 C1x
y=
xe 2 e + C 2 .
C1
C1
y =

3. n-

F y , y , y ,..., y (n ) = 0,
x.

26

(1.20)

:
p = y , p = p(y ) ,

= p
- y. y = p p y

dp
.
dy

x, y
(k-1) , , F y (k ) , y (k +1) ,..., y (n ) = 0,
(k+1) ,
y (k ) = z(x ), z = p(y).
, ,
x , .. F (y , y , y ) = 0 p = y , p = p(y )

dp
F(y, p, p p) = 0 .
dy
1.17 2 yy3 + y = 0 ,
y(0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 3 .
dp
. y = p(y ), y = p
,
dy
dp
dp
2 yp3 + p
= 0, 2 = 2 y dy. ,
dy
p
1
1
dy
1
dy
,
= y 2 + C1 , p = 2
, p = y =
= 2
.
p
dx y + C1
dx
y + C1
: y = 0 , y = 3 , 3 = 1 / C1 , .. C1 = 1 / 3 .
dy
1
,
= 2
, y 2 1 / 3 dy = dx.
dx y 1 / 3
y 3 y / 3 = x + C 2 . y(0 ) = 0 ,
y = p p = p

C 2 = 0 . , y 3 y = 3x .
1.10.
.
1.24 n- ,
y
y, y,..., y (n ) , ..

27

a 0 y (n ) + a1 y (n 1) + ... + a n y = f (x ),

(1.21)

a0,a1,,an,f(x) x , a 0 0
x , (1.21).
f(x), ,
.
1.25 f(x) 0 , (1.21)
.
1.26 f(x)=0,

a 0 y (n ) + a1y (n 1) + ... + a n y = 0.

(1.22)

y + a 1 y + a 2 y = 0 .

(1.23)

1.27 (1.23) y1(x) y2(x)


[a; b],
, ..

y1
const .
y2

.
1.18 2-
y - y = 0 . e x , e -x ,3e x ,
.

ex
e e , .. x = e x e x = e 2 x const
e
ex 1
x
x
x. e 3e , .. x = = const.
3
3e
x

-x

1.28 y1,y2,,yn- x,

W (y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ) =

y1
y1

y 2 ........y n
y2 ........yn

............................
y1( n 1) y (2n 1) ...y (nn 1)

.
28

y1 y2 W (y1 , y 2 ) =

y1 y 2
= y1 y2 y 2 y1 .
y1 y2

1.3 y1 y2 [a; b] ,
.
. .. y1 y2 - [a; b] , y2= y1 ,
= const , y2 = y1 ,

W (y1 , y 2 ) =

y1 y 2 y1 y1
y1 y1
=
=
= 0.
y1 y2 y1 y1
y1 y1

1.4 y1 y2 (1.23)
[a; b] , W(y1,y2), ,
.
. . y=0
( ) (1.23)
[a; b] , y x = x 0 = 0, y x = x 0 = 0 , x0 [a; b] . (1.2),
(1.23), ,

(1.23),

y x = x 0 = 0, y x = x 0 = 0 .
, (1.23)
(, ) ,
[a; b] ,
[a ; b] . , x = ( x = )
y

x =

= 0, y x = = 0 .

,
d < x < + d , d
(1.23). , d,
y 0, , y=0 [a; b] .
(1.4). ,
W(y1,y2)=0 [a; b] . (1.3) W(y1,y2)
[a; b] : W=0 y1 y2 y 2 y1 = 0.
, y1 0 [a; b] .

y2
y1 y2 y 2 y1

= 0 = 0 ,
2
y1
y1

29

y2
= = const; .. y1 y2 ,
y1
.
, y1=0 x1,x2,,xk, [a; b] .
(,x1). y1 0 . ,
, (,x1)

y2
= = const, y 2 = y1.
y1
y = y 2 y1. y 2 y1
(1.23), y = y 2 y1 - (1.23) y 0 (a;x1).
, ,

y = y 2 y1 0 [a; b] ,

y2
= [a; b] , .. y2 y1 -
y1

.
y2
y1. ,
[a; b] .
1.5 (
). y1,y2,yn -

a 0 y (n ) + a1 y (n 1) + ... + a n y = 0 ,
y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 + ... + C n y n - (1,C2,,Cn ).
.
2- (n=2). , y=C1y1+C2y2 -
(1.23), .. y + a1 y + a 2 y = 0 . y=C1y1+C2y2

y = C1 y1 + C 2 y2 ,
y = C1y1 + C 2 y2 (1.23):

(C1y1 + c 2 y 2 ) + a1 (C1y1 + c 2 y 2 ) + a 2 (C1y1 + c 2 y 2 ) = 0,

C1y1 + C 2 y2 + a1C1y1 + a1C 2 y2 + a 2 C1y1 + a 2 C 2 y 2 = 0,


C1 y1 + a1y1 + a 2 y1 + C 2 y 2 + a 1y 2 + a 2 y 2 = 0.

..

(1.23),

y1 + a1y1 + a 2 y1 = 0 y2 + a 1y2 + a 2 y 2 = 0 . C1 0 + C 2 0 = 0 -
y1

) (
y2

, y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 - (1.23)
1 2.
,
y x = x 0 = y 0 , y x = x 0 = y0 ,
30

C1

C2 ,

C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 .
y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 ,

y 0 = C1 (y1 )0 + c 2 (y 2 ) 0

y 0 = C1 (y1 )0 + c 2 (y2 ) 0,

y2

x=x0

= (y2 ) 0 .

y1

x=x0

= (y1 ) 0 ,

y2

x=x0

(1.24)

= (y 2 ) 0 ,

y1

x=x0

= (y1 )0 ,

(1.24) c1 c2, ..

(y1 )0 (y 2 )0
= (y1 )0 (y2 )0 (y 2 )0 (y1 )0
(y1 )0 (y2 )0

x=x0 ,

, ( y1 y2).
, y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2
C1 C 2 , .
.
1.6 y1
(1.23), y2, ,

y 2 = y1

a 1dx

y12

dx

(1.25)

( ).
(1.25)
2- , .

1.19 y +
y1 =

2
y + y = 0,
x

sin x
.
x

. y2,
2
dx
x
e

ln

2 ln x

1
2

sin x
sin x e
sin x e x
y2 =

dx =
dx =
dx =

2
x
x sin x 2
x sin x 2
sin x

x
x
x
31

1
sin x
x 2 dx = sin x dx = sin ( ctgx ) = cos x .
=
2

x sin 2 x
x
x
x
sin x
x2
:

Y = C1y1 + C 2 y 2 = C1

sin x
cos x
C2
x
x .

1.11
n-
1.29
() n-

y (n ) + a1 y (n 1) + a 2 y (n 2 ) + ... + a n 1 y + a n y = 0,

(1.26)

a1,a2,,an - .
(1.26)

Y = C1 y 1 + C 2 y 2 + ... + Cn y n ,

(1.27)

y1,y2,,yn
(1.26) , .
1.30 n n - ,
(a,b)
.
1.20 y - y = 0 . e x , e -x ,
ch x ?
.
:
x
e x chx
y1 y 2 y 3 e
W (y1 , y 2 , y 3 ) = y1 y2 y3 = e x e x shx = 0 .
y1 y 2 y 3 e x e x chx

(1.28)

,
. W=0, e x , e -x , ch x -
.
32

(1.26).

y=ekx,

k=const,

(1.29)

y = k e kx , y = k 2 e kx , ..., y (n ) = k n e kx .
(1.26),

e kx k n + a 1 k n 1 + a 2 k n 2 + ... + a n 1 k + a n = 0 .
e kx 0 ,

k n + a1 k n 1 + a 2 k n 2 + ... + a n 1 k + a n = 0 .

(1.30)

1.31

(1.30)

.
k (1.30),
ekx (1.26).

(n=2):

2-

y + a1 y + a 2 y = 0.

(1.31)

k 2 + a1k + a 2 = 0.

(1.32)

.
1. D > 0 .
k1 k 2 . (1.31) y1 = e k 1 x , y 2 = e k 2 x .
y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 (1.31)

Y = C1e k 1 x + C 2 e k 2 x .

(1.33)

, y1 y 2
( ). ,
.
33

y2
e k1 x
ek 2 x
=
= k 2 e k 1x e k 2 x k1e k 1 x e k 2 x = (k 2 k1 )e (k 1 + k 2 )x
k
x
k
x
y2 k1e 1 k 2 e 2
W (y1 , y 2 ) 0 , .. k1 k 2 .
2. D = 0 .
k , m=2. y1 = e kx , y 2 = x e kx .
y = C1y1 + C 2 y 2 (1.31)
y
W (y1 , y 2 ) = 1
y1

Y = C1e kx + C 2 x e kx .

(1.34)

, y 2 = x e kx (1.31).
y 2 (1.31)

(x e ) + a (x e ) + a (x e ) = 0 .
(k + a k + a )x + (a + 2k ) = 0 .

kx

kx

kx

k + a1k + a 2 = 0 , .. k (1.32);
a 1 + 2k = 0 , .. D = 0 , ,
2

k =

y1

y2

b D
k1, 2 =
. ,
2
a

y1
..
const . ,
y2

a1
2

y1
e kx
1
= kx = const .
y 2 xe
x
3. D<0. k1 = + i, k 2 = i. y1 = e x cos x ,

y 2 = e x sin x . y = C1y1 + C 2 y 2 (1.31)


Y = C1e x cos x + C 2 e x sin x.

(1.35)

, y1 y 2 - (1.31).
e k 1 x e k 2 x - (1.31) (. (1.29)),
(1.5)
(1.31). , y1 y 2 e k 1 x e k 2 x .
, y1 = e x cos x =

) (

1 k1x
1
e + e k 2 x = e ( + i )x + e ( i )x =
2
2
34

1 x
1
e (cos x + i sin x ) + e x (cos x i sin x ) = e x (2 cos x ) . ,
2
2
1 k1x
y 2 = e x sin x =
e ek 2 x .
2i
y
, y1 y 2 , .. 1 const .
y2

y1 e x cos x
,
=
= ctg x const .
y 2 e x sin x
n-
(1.26).
( ),
.
(1.30)
.
1. (1.30) n ( 1) .
k i i = 1, n y i = e k i x .
(1.26) (1.27)

Y = C1e k 1x + C 2 e k 2 x + ... + C n e k n x .

(1.36)

2. (1.30) m k.
k m m
e kx , x e kx , x 2 e kx , ..., x m 1 e kx .
3. (1.30) .
- k1 = + i k 2 = i

e x cos x e x sin x .
4. (1.30) -
k1 = + i k 2 = i m > 1 . 2m

e x cos x , x e x cos x , x 2 e x cos x , , x m 1 e x cos x ;


e x sin x , x e x sin x , x 2 e x sin x , , x m 1 e x sin x .

(1.37)

1.21

y y 4 y + 4 y = 0.

. .
y y, y y
35

k . y k 0 = 1, y k1 , y k 2 , y k 3 .
k 3 k 2 4k + 4 = 0, , ,

k 2 (k 1) 4(k 1) = 0, (k 1)(k + 2)(k 2) = 0.


,
k1 = 1, k 2 = 2, k 3 = 2.

,
Y = C1e x + C 2 e 2 x + C3e 2 x .
1.22

y 5y + 3y + 9 y = 0.

. k 3 5k 2 + 3k + 9 = 0

k 3 + k 2 6k 2 6k + 9k + 9 = 0, (k + 1) k 2 6k + 9 = 0,

(k + 1)(k 3)2 = 0 .

, k1 = -1
k 2,3 = 3 .

y1 = e x , y 2 = e 3x , y 3 = x e 3x .
(1.27) :

Y = C1e x + (C 2 + C3 x )e 3x .

1.23

y IV + y + 4 y + 4 y = 0 .
.
k2 k2 + 4 + k k2 + 4 = 0,
k (k + 1) k 2 + 4 = 0 .
k + k 3 + 4k 2 + 4k = 0
k1 = 0 , k 2 = 1
k 3, 4 = 2i . ( ). ,

) (

Y = C1 + C 2 e x + C3 cos 2x + C 4 sin 2 x.
1.24

y IV + 18 y + 81y = 0.
.

k 4 + 18k 2 + 81 = 0 k 2 + 9 = 0,
k1, 2,3, 4 = 3i . y1 = cos 3x ,
y 2 = sin 3x , y 3 = x cos 3x , y 4 = x sin 3x .
(1.27)

Y = (C1 + C 2 x ) cos 3x + (C3 + C 4 x ) sin 3x.

36

1.12
n -

()
n-

y (n ) + a1 y (n 1) + a 2 y (n 2 ) + ... + a n 1 y + a n y = f (x ) .

(1.38)

1.7 ( ). Y
(1.38) - Y *
Y

y (n ) + a1 y (n 1) + a 2 y (n 2 ) + ... + a n 1 y + a n y = 0,

(1.39)

Y = Y + Y* .

(1.40)

..

. ,
2 -

y + a1 y + a1 y = f(x).

(1.41)

, (1.40) (1.41).
Y + Y * (1.41) y,

(Y + Y ) + a (Y + Y ) + a (Y + Y ) = f (x )
*

Y + a Y + a Y + Y* + a Y* + a Y* = f (x ).

1
2
1
2

(1.42)

y + a1y + a 2 y = 0 ,

(1.43)

, , . Y*
(1.41), , ,
f(x). , (1.42) , Y + Y *
(1.41). .
37

, (1.40) (1.41), ..
, Y = Y + Y * = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 + Y *
,

y (x 0 ) = y 0

y(x 0 ) = y0 .

(1.44)

Y = C1y1 + C 2 y 2 + Y*

(1.45)

(1.44) (1.45) ,

C1 y1 (x 0 ) + C 2 y 2 (x 0 ) = y 0 Y(x 0 ),

C1 y1 (x 0 ) + C 2 y2 (x 0 ) = y0 (Y(x 0 )) ,

(1.46)

y 0 = y(x 0 ), y0 = y(x 0 ) , 1 2.
W(x0)
y1(x) y2(x) x=x0.
( ), W(x0) 0.
(1.46) : C1 = C10 C 2 = C 02 .
Y = Y * + C10 y1 (x ) + C 02 y 2 (x )
(1.41). .

1.13
Y*
(1.38) 2- (1.41).
( )
: Y = C1 y1 (x ) + C 2 y 2 (x ) -
(1.43).
Y* (1.41)

Y * = C1 (x ) y1 (x ) + C 2 (x ) y 2 (x ) .

38

(1.47)

(Y ) = C (x ) y (x ) + C (x ) y (x ) + C (x ) y (x ) + C (x ) y (x ).

C1(x) C2(x) ,

C1 (x ) y1 (x ) + C2 (x ) y 2 (x ) = 0 .

(1.48)

( )
(Y ) = C (x ) y (x ) + C (x ) y (x ) + C (x ) y (x ) + C (x ) y (x ).

Y , (Y ) , (Y ) (1.41), :
Y* = C1 (x ) y1 (x ) + C 2 (x ) y2 (x ) ,
*

C1 (x ) y1 (x ) + C1 (x )y1 (x ) + C 2 (x ) y 2 (x ) + c 2 (x ) y 2 (x ) +
+ a C (x ) y (x ) + C (x ) y (x ) + a [C (x )y (x ) + C (x )y (x )] = f (x )
1

C1 (x ) [y1(x ) + a1 y1 (x ) + a 2 y1 (x )] + C 2 (x ) [y2 (x ) + a1 y2 (x ) + a 2 y 2 (x )] +

+ C 1(x ) y1 (x ) + C 2 (x ) y 2 (x ) = f (x ) .

y1(x) y2(x) - (1.43),


,

C1 (x ) y1 (x ) + C 2 (x ) y 2 (x ) = f (x ).

(1.49)

, Y* (1.47)
(1.41), C1(x) C2(x) ,
(1.48) (1.49):

C1 (x ) y1 (x ) + C2 (x ) y 2 (x ) = 0,

C1 (x ) y1 (x ) + C2 (x ) y2 (x ) = f (x ).

(1.50)

y1 (x ) y 2 (x )
0 ,
y1 (x ) y2 (x )

y1(x) y2(x)
(1.43). (1.50) :
C1 (x ) = 1 (x ) C2 (x ) = 2 (x ). 1 (x ) 2 (x ). ,
1(x) 2(x), (1.47)
(1.41).

39

1.25 y + 4 y = tg 2 x .
.
.
y + 4 y = 0 ;
k2+4=0 k1, 2 = 2i . , y1=cos2x y2=sin2x ,
Y = C1 cos 2 x + C 2 sin 2x

Y * = C1 (x ) cos 2x + C 2 (x ) sin 2x ,

(1.51)

1(x) 2(x)

C1 (x ) cos 2 x + C2 (x ) sin 2 x = 0,

2C1 (x ) sin 2 x + 2C2 (x ) cos 2 x = tg 2 x.

C1 (x ) =

1 sin 2 2x
,
2 cos 2 x

1
C2 (x ) = sin 2 x.
2

1 sin 2 2 x
1
1
C1 (x ) =
dx + C1 = cos 2 x
dx + C1 =
2 cos 2x
2
cos 2 x
1
1

= sin 2x ln tg x + + C1;
4
4
4

1
1
C 2 (x ) = sin 2 xdx + C 2 = cos 2 x + C 2 .
2
4

1(x) 2(x) (1.51),


:

Y = sin 2 x ln tg x + + C1 cos 2 x + cos 2 x + C 2 sin 2 x =


4
4

= C1 cos 2 x + C 2 sin 2x cos 2 x ln tg x + .


4
4

1.1.
, ..

y (n ) + a1 (x )y (n 1) + a 2 (x )y (n 2 ) + ... + a n 1 (x ) y + a n (x ) y = f (x ).

40

1.14
(1.38)
Y*, .
f(x) (1.38)
( f(x) ):

f (x ) = e x (Pn (x ) cos x + Q m (x ) sin x ),

(1.52)

- , Pn(x) Qm(x) -
n- m- ,
Y* (1.38)

Y * = x r e x (M s (x ) cos x + N s (x ) sin x ) .

(1.53)

Ms(x) Ns(x) - s- (s - n
m) , r - ,
+ i

,
(1.39).
1.26

y + 2 y = e x 3x 2 + 2 x + 9 .

(1.54)

. 1. Y

y + 2 y = 0 .

2
k +2k=0, k1=0, k2=-2. ,

Y = C1 + C 2 e 2 x .

2. Y* (1.54).
f (x ) = e x 3x 2 + 2 x + 9 (1.52): n=2, P2(x)=3x2+2x+9,
= 1, = 0 . + i = 1 -

, r = 0. , Y

Y * = Ax 2 + Bx + C e x ,
A, - , . , Y* .

Y * Y* :

41

Y * = Ax 2 + Bx + C e x + (2Ax + B)e x = Ax 2 + 2Ax + Bx + B + C e x ;

Y * = Ax 2 + 2Ax + Bx + B + C e x + (2Ax + 2A + B)e x ,

Y = Ax 2 + 4Ax + Bx + 2A + 2B + C e x .

Y * Y * (1.54):
Ax 2 + 4Ax + Bx + 2A + 2B + C e x + 2 Ax 2 + 2Ax + Bx + B + C e x =

= e x 3x 2 + 2x + 9 .
ex
x,

3Ax 2 + (8A + 3B)x + 2A + 4B + 3C = 3x 2 + 2 x + 9.

,
x . ,
, :

x 2 : 3A

= 3,

x1 : 8A + 3B

= 2,

x 0 : 2A + 4B + 3C = 9.
, A = 1 , B = 2 , C = 5 . ,
Y * = Ax 2 + Bx + C e x :

Y* = x 2 2x + 5 e x .
y = Y + Y* :

y = C1 + C 2 e 2 x + x 2 2 x + 5 e x .
1.27 y + 8y + 16 y = 10e 4 x .
. 1. Y . k2+8k+16=0
k1=k2= 4. ,

Y = (C1 + C 2 x )e 4 x .
2. Y*. (1.52): n=0, P0= 10,
= 4, = 0 .

+ i = 4

*
, r=2 Y

Y * = Ax 2 e 4 x ,
A - , .

Y* Y * :

42

(
(

Y * = 4Ax 2 + 2Ax e 4 x ,

Y * = 16Ax 2 16Ax + 2A e 4 x .

Y * , Y * Y * ,
e - 4x , 2A= 10, A=

5. ,

Y * = 5x 2 e 4 x ,
a y = Y + Y *

y = (C1 + C 2 x )e 4 x 5x 2 e 4 x .

1.2.
(1.53) ,
f (x ) (1.38) :

f (x ) = e x Pn (x ) cos x (.. Q m (x ) 0 )

f (x ) = e

Q m (x ) sin x (.. Pn (x ) 0 ).
1.28 y + 4 y = 3x cos x.
. 1. Y. k2+4=0
k1,2= 2i. ,
x

Y = C1 cos 2 x + C 2 sin 2x.


2. Y*. : = 0 , = 1,
P1 (x ) = x , Q(x ) = 0 . + i = i
; r = 0 Y*

Y * = (Ax + B) cos x + (Cx + D ) sin x,

A, , D - . ,

Y * = (Cx + D + A ) cos x + ( Ax + C B) sin x ,

Y * = ( Ax + 2C B) cos x + ( Cx 2A D ) sin x.

Y * Y*

cos x sin x;

(3Ax + 3B + 2C ) cos x + (3Cx + 3D 2A ) sin x = 3x cos x.

x cos x, cos x, x sin x sin x,

43

x cos x : 3A
= 3,
cos x : 3B + 2C = 0,
x sin x : 3C
= 0,
sin x : 3D 2A = 0,
A=1, B=0, C=0, D=2/3. ,

2
Y * = x cos x + sin x.
3

2
y = Y + Y * = C1 cos 2 x + C 2 sin 2 x + x cos x + sin x.
3

1.29

y + 9 y = 9 cos 3x + 16 sin 3x.


. 1. Y . k2+9=0
k1,2= 3i. ,
Y = C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x.

(1.52)

2. Y*. : = 0 , = 3 ,
P0 (x ) = 9 , Q 0 (x ) = 16 . + i = 3i
, r = 1

Y * = x (A cos 3x + B sin 3x ),

- .

Y * = (3Bx + A ) cos 3x + ( 3Ax + B) sin 3x ,

Y * = ( 9Ax + 6B) cos 3x + ( 9Bx 6A ) sin 3x.

Y * Y* ,
6B cos 3x 6A sin 3x = 9 cos 3x + 16 sin 3x ,
6B=9, 6A=16, .. B=3/2, A= 8/3. ,

3
8

Y * = x cos 3x + sin 3x .
2
3

8
3
y = Y + Y * = C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x x cos 3x + x sin 3x.
3
2

44

1.3. (1.38)
(1.52), ..

f (x ) = f1 (x ) + f 2 (x ) + ... + f m (x ),

(1.55)

Y1* , Y2* , , Ym* ,


f1(x), f2(x),, fm(x).

Y * = Y1* + Y2* + ... + Ym* ,

(1.56)

(1.38)

Y = Y + Y1* + Y2* + ... + Ym* .

(1.57)

1.30

y 4 y = 4 x 5 + 10e x cos x.
. 1. Y . k24k=0
k1=0 k2=4 .

Y = C1 + C 2 e 4 x .

2. Y*. f(x)
f1(x)=4x-5 f2(x)=10excosx.
Y1* Y2* .
f1(x)=4x-5 (1.52): n=1, P1(x)=4x-5, = 0, = 0 ,
+ i = 0 (..
r =1). ,

Y1* = x (Ax + B) = Ax 2 + Bx.

Y1* = 2Ax + B ,

Y1* = 2A .

Y1* Y1*

f1 (x ) = 4 x 5 ,

2A 4(2Ax + B) = 4 x 5,
8A = 4, 2A 4B = 5, A = 1 / 2, B = 1. ,

Y1* =

x2
+ x.
2

45

f 2 (x ) = 10e x cos x (1.52): = 1, = 1, P0 (x ) = 1,


Q 0 (x ) = 0 . + i = 1 + i
*

, r=0 Y2

Y2* = e x (C cos x + D sin x ).

Y2* = e x ((C + D ) cos x + (D C ) sin x ),

Y2* = e x (2D cos x 2C sin x ).

Y2* Y2* f 2 (x ) = 10e x ,

e x (( 4C 2D ) cos x + (2C 4D ) sin x ) = 10e x cos x,

4C 2D = 10,

2C 4D = 0,
. . = 2, D= 1. ,

Y2* = 2e x cos x e x sin x.


,
:

y=Y+

Y1*

Y2*

= C1 + C 2 e

4x

x2

+ x 2e x cos x e x sin x.
2

1.15

.
, .
1.32 ,
x, y1, y2,,yn
.
, n
y1, y2,,yn

46

F1 (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n , y1 , y2 ,..., yn ) = 0,
F (x , y , y ,..., y , y , y ,..., y ) = 0,
1
2
n
1
2
n
2
.......................................................
.......................................................

Fn (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n , y1 , y2 ,..., yn ) = 0.
1.33
,

dy1
dx = f1 (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ),

dy 2 = f (x , y , y ,..., y ),
2
1
2
n
dx

......................................
......................................

dy n
dx = f n (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ).

(1.58)

.

(1.58).
,

d2x
2 = F1 (x , y, z, t , x , y, z),
dt
d2 y
2 = F2 (x , y, z, t , x , y, z),
dt
d2z
2 = F3 (x , y, z, t , x , y, z),
dt
dx
dy

= u,
= v,
dt
dt
:

47

dz
= w
dt

dy
dz
dx
=
u
,
=
v
,
= w,
dt
dt
dt

du = F (x, y, z, t , u , v, w ),
1
dt

dv = F (x , y, z, t , u , v, w ),
2
dt
dw

= F3 (x , y, z, t , u , v, w ).
dt
1.34 (1.58)
n y1 (x ), y 2 (x ), y 3 (x ),..., y n (x ),
.
1.35 (1.58)

y1 (x 0 ) = y10 , y 2 (x 0 ) = y 02 , ..., y n (x 0 ) = y 0n .

(1.59)

1.36 (1.58)
, (1.59).
1.37 (1.58) D

y1 (x , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n ), y 2 (x , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n ),.....,


y n (x , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n ) , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n D R
(1.58) (1.59)

C1* , C*2 ,..., C*n ,

y1 x , C1* , C*2 ,..., C*n , y 2 x , C1* , C*2 ,..., C*n ,....., y n x , C1* , C*2 ,..., C*n
(1.59).
1.38

) (

(1.60)

y1 (x, C1 , C 2 ,..., C n ), y 2 (x , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n ),....., y n (x , C1 , C 2 ,..., C n )

(1.61)

y1 x , C1* , C*2 ,..., C*n , y 2 x , C1* , C*2 ,..., C*n ,....., y n x , C1* , C*2 ,..., C*n ,

(1.59), .

.
(1.58). x ,
48

, :

d 2 y1 f1 f1 dy1 f1 dy 2
f1 dy n
=
+

+
...
+

.
x y1 dx y 2 dx
y n dx
dx 2

(1.62)

dy1 dy 2
dy
,
,..., n (1.58),
dx dx
dx
2
d y1 f1 f1
f1
f1

=
+

f
+

f
+
...
+
f n ,
1
2
x y1
y 2
y n
dx 2

d 2 y1
= F2 (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ) .
dx 2
(1.63)
(1.58),

d 3 y1
= F3 (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n )
dx 3

(1.63)

dy1 dy 2
dy
,
,..., n
dx dx
dx

(1.64)

.
(1.63) ,

d n y1
= Fn (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ).
dx n

(1.65)

dy1
dx = f1 (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ),
2
d y1
dx 2 = F2 (x, y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ),
3
d y1
3 = F3 (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ),
dx
........................................

........................................
dn y
n1 = Fn (x , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n ).
dx
49

(1.66)

(n-1) (1.66) y2,y3,,yn x,

y1 y1 , y1 ,..., y1( n 1) .
:

)
)

(
(

y = x, y , y ,..., y (n 1) ,
2
1 1
1
2
y = x , y , y ,..., y (n 1) ,
3
1 1
1
3
.........................................
.........................................

y = x , y , y ,..., y (n 1) .
n
1 1
1
n

(1.67)

y2,y3,,yn (1.67).
n- y1:

d n y1

= x , y1 , y1 ,..., y1(n 1) .
n
dx

(1.68)

y1 = 1 (x , c1 , c 2 ,..., c n ).

(1.69)

(n-1)
y1 , y1,..., y1(n 1) (1.67), y 2 , y 3 ,..., y n :

y 2 = 2 (x , c1 , c 2 ,..., c n ),
y = (x , c , c ,..., c ),
3
1 2
n
3
....................................
....................................

y n = n (x , c1 , c 2 ,..., c n ),

50

(1.70)

1.31

dy1
dx = 5 y1 + 4 y 2 ,

dy 2 = 4 y + 5 y .
1
2
dx
. x:

d 2 y1
dy1
dy 2
=
5
+
4
.
dx
dx
dx 2
y 2 =

(1.71)

1 dy1

5y1 .

4 dx

dy 2
1 dy
dy 2 5 dy1 9

= 4 y1 + 5 1 5 y1 , ..
=
y1
dx
4 dx
dx 4 dx 4

dy 2

(1.71),
dx
d 2 y1
dy1
5 dy1 9
=
5

+
4
y1 .

dx
dx 2
4 dx 4
,
y1 :

d 2 y1
dy
10 1 + 9 y1 = 0 .
2
dx
dx

y1 = C1e x + C 2 e 9 x .

1 dy
1
y 2 = 1 5y1 = C1e x + 9C 2 e 9 x 5C1e x 5C 2 e 9 x = C1e x + C 2 e 9 x
4 dx
4
,

y1 = C1e x + C 2 e 9 x ,

y 2 = C1e x + C 2 e9 x .
(1.58),

, ..
51

dy1
dx = a 11y1 + a12 y 2 + ... + a1n y n ,

dy 2 = a y + a y + ... + a y ,
21 1
22 2
2n n
dx

...................................................
...................................................

dy n
dx = a n1 y1 + a n 2 y 2 + ... + a nn y n .

(1.72)


y1,y2,y3:

dy1
dx = a 11y1 + a12 y 2 + a13 y 3 ,

dy 2
= a 21y1 + a 22 y 2 + a 23 y 3 ,

dx

dy 3
dx = a 31y1 + a 32 y 2 + a 33 y 3 ,

(1.73)

a ij (i, j = 1,2,3) - .
(1.73)

y1 = e kx , y 2 = e kx , y 3 = e kx ,

(1.74)

, , , k - , , (1.74)
(1.73).
(1.73) e kx 0 ,
:

k = a11 + a12 + a13 ,

k = a 21 + a 22 + a 23 ,
k = a + a + a

31
32
33

52

(a11 k ) + a12 + a13 = 0,

a 21 + (a 22 k ) + a 23 = 0,
a + a a + (a k ) = 0.
31
32
32
33

(1.75)

(1.75)
, , ,
:

a11 k

a12

a 21

a 22 k

a 31

a 32

a13
a 23 = 0.

(1.76)

a 33 k

1.39 (1.76)
(1.73).
(1.76) k.
.
1. (1.76) k1 k 2 k 3 .
k i (i = 1,2,3) (1.75)
i , i , i ( ).
(1.73):
k1 :
y1(1) = 1 e k1 x ,
y (21) = 1 e k1 x ,
y 3(1) = 1 e k1x ;
k 2 :

y1(2 ) = 2 e k 2 x ,

y (22 ) = 2 e k 2 x ,

y 3(2 ) = 2 e k 2 x ;

k 3 :
y1(3) = 3 e 3 ,
y (23) = 3 e 3 ,
y 3(3) = 3 e 3 .

(1.73) :
k x

k x

k x

y1 = C11e k1 x + C 2 2 e k 2 x + C3 3 e k 3 x ,
y 2 = C11e k 1x + C 2 2 e k 2 x + C3 3 e k 3 x ,

(1.77)

y 3 = C11e k 1x + C 2 2 e k 2 x + C 3 3 e k 3 x .
2. (1.76) k
m (m=2;3). , , :
) m=2, y1 = (A + Bx )e kx , y 2 = (C + Dx )e kx , y 3 = (E + Fx )e kx ;

53

m=3,

y1 = A + Bx + Cx 2 e kx ,

y 2 = D + Ex + Fx 2 e kx ,

y 3 = G + Hx + Nx 2 e kx .
m A, B, C,, N,
.
m , ,
. m
(1.73).
3. ,
: k1 = a + b i , k 2 = a b i , k 3 . :
k1: y1(1) = 1 e ax cos bx ,

k2: y1( 2 ) = 2 e ax sin bx ,


k x
k3: y1(3 ) = 3 e 3 ,

y (21) = 1 e ax cos bx ,

y 3(1) = 1 e ax cos bx;

y (23) = 3 e k 3 x ,

y 3(3) = 3 e k 3 x .

y (22 ) = 2 e ax sin bx ,

y 3(2 ) = 2 e ax sin bx;

y1 = C1 1 e ax cos bx + C 2 2 e ax sin bx + C 3 3 e k 3x ,
y 2 = C1 1 e ax cos bx + C 2 2 e ax sin bx + C 3 3 e k 3x ,

(1.78)

y 3 = C1 1 e ax cos bx + C 2 2 e ax sin bx + C 3 3 e k 3x .
1.32 :

dy1
dx = y1 y 2 ,

dy 2 = 4 y + y .
1
2
dx
.
k1= 1, k2=3.

1 k 1
= 0 ,
4 1 k

y1(1) = 1 e k1 x ,

y1(2 ) = 2 e k 2 x , y (22 ) = 2 e k 2 x . i i (i = 1,2).


k1= 1 (1.75)

y (21) = 1 e k1x

(1 ( 1))1 1 = 0,
21 1 = 0,

41 + (1 ( 1))1 = 0,
41 + 21 = 0.
. 1 = 1 , 1 = 2 .
y1(1) = e x , y (21) = 2e x .
54

2 2 2 = 0
4 2 2 2 = 0.

k2=3 (1.75)

2 = 1, 2 = 2. k2=3 :

y1(2 ) = e 3x y (22 ) = 2e 3x .

y1 = C1 y1(1) + C 2 y1(2 )
(1)

(2 )

y 2 = C1 y 2 C 2 y 2

y1 = C1 e x + C 2 e 3x
y 2 = 2 C1 e x 2C 2 e3x .
1.16 ,


.

, y=y(x)
x,y, y .
( y(x 0 )
y=y(x) x0). ,
, f(x, y, y) = 0 ,
y(x).
,

, ,
:
1. ,
.
2. , ,
. , y=y(x).
3. y

x .

4. .
5. , (, .)
.
6. dy ,
dx x.
, , ,
.
55

,

.
7. ,
(, ).
8. , ,
(, )
.

, , , ,
, .
.
1.17


.


. ,
.


. ,
.
.

: , , ,
, .

: ,
, (, ),
.
,

.
,

.

56

1.18
.

1.40 ,
,
.
, ,
.
u = u (x1 , x 2 , ... , x n )
n
x1 , x 2 , ... , x n k -

u
u
ku

F x1 , ... , x n , u ,
, ... ,
, ... , k

x
x1 1 ...x kn n
1
n

= 0.

(1.79)

k1 + k 2 + ... + k n = k .
, ,
.

u = u (x , y ) :

F(x, y, u , u x , u y ) = 0 ,

(1.80)

F(x, y, u , u x , u y , u xx , u xy , u yy ) = 0 ,

(1.81)

2u
2u
2u
u
u
ux =
, uy =
, u xx = 2 , u xy =
, u yy = 2 .
x
y
xy
x
y
(1.79)
u = u (x1 , x 2 , ... , x n )
( u = u (x , y ) (1.80), (1.81)),
,
,
.
( )

.
u (x , y )

u
= 0.
x
57

(1.82)

, u (x , y ) x ,
y :

u = u (x, y ) = (y ) ,

(1.83)

, (y ) x , , ,
(1.82) . , (1.83)
(y ) .

,
. (1.83),
,
(1.82).

u
= f (y ) ,
y

(1.84)

f (y ) - . u (x , y ) ,
(1.84),

u (x , y ) = f (y )dy + (x ) ,

(1.85)

(x ) - x . ,
(1.85) y .
((x )) , .. .

2u
= 0.
xy
,

u
= v,
y

(1.86)

(1.86)

u v
v
=
= 0 . , ,
=0
x y x
x
(1.83), .. v = f (y ) , f (y ) - .
(1.86) :

u
= f (y ) .
y
58

(1.85)
u (x , y ) = f (y )dy + (x ) .
f (y ) - ,
y , (y ) .

u (x, y ) = (x ) + (y ) ,

(1.87)

(x ) , (y ) - . ,
(1.87) (1.86).
, (1.87) (1.86)
. .
:

,
.
, ,
, .. ,
, .
1.19

,
,
.

, u x y ,
:

A(x, y )u xx + 2B(x , y )u xy + C(x, y )u yy + D(x, y )u x +

+ E(x, y )u y + F(x , y ) u = f (x , y ),

(1.88)

A, B, C, D, E, F, f - ,
G x y , A, B, C
2- .
u (x , y )
.
(1.88) f (x, y ) 0 ,
; f (x, y ) 0 , .

59

Au xx + 2Bu xy + Cu yy + Du x + Eu y + F u = 0 .

(1.89)

(1.89)
.
u1 (x , y ), u 2 (x , y ), ... , u k (x , y )
(1.89),

C1u1 (x , y ) + C 2 u 2 (x , y ) + ... + C k u k (x, y ) ,

(1.90)

C1 , C 2 , ... , C k - ,
.
, (1.89)
u (x , y ) (1.90) u x , u y , u xy , u xx , u yy
.
, ,
, n .

, ..
,
. (, u1 (x , y ), ... , u n (x , y )
,
). ,
:

C1u1 (x , y ) + C 2 u 2 (x, y ) + ... + C n u n (x , y ) + ... = C n u n (x , y ) .


n =1

(1.91)

u (x , y ) = C n u n (x, y ) .
n =1

, ,
. u (x , y ) ,
(1.91), ,
(1.89).

60

1.20


, ,
.
.
,
.

(1.88) :

Au xx + 2Bu xy + Cu yy + F1 (x , y, u, u x , u y ) = 0 .

(1.92)

(1.92)
= B 2 AC .
G1 G B2 AC ,
(1.92) :
) , B 2 AC > 0 ;
) , B2 AC = 0 ;
) , B2 AC < 0 .
.
y 2 u xx + xyu xy + x 2 u yy = 0 .
. A = y 2 , B = xy , C = x 2 B2 AC = x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 = 0
x y . , ,
, .
G ,
,
B2 AC .
L , B2 AC = 0 ;
. :
1) G , L , B2 AC ,
(1.92)
L ;
2) B2 AC G , (1.92)
.
.
1 x 2 u xx 2xyu xy 1 + y 2 u yy 2 xu x 2 yu y = 0 .

61

. A = 1 x 2 ,

)(

B = xy , C = 1 + y 2

= B2 AC = x 2 y 2 + 1 x 2 1 + y 2 = 1 x 2 + y 2 .

, ,

, 1 x 2 + y 2 = 0 . , x 2 y 2 = 1
,
, G1 , > 0 x 2 y 2 < 1 , G 2 , < 0

(x

y 2 > 1 , .

2u
u u
= F x , y, u , ,
xy
x y

(1.93)

.
:

2u 2u
u u

=
F

x
,
y
,
u
,
, .

x
y
x 2 y 2

(1.94)

2u
u u

=
F
x
,
y
,
u
,
,

x
y
y 2

(1.95)

2u 2u
u u
+
=
F

x
,
y
,
u
,
,

x
y
x 2 y 2

(1.96)

.
(1.92) ,
, ,
, , x y

= (x , y ) ,

= (x, y ) .

(1.97)

(x, y ) , (x , y ) ,
D , ..

62

D=

G . ,
(1.92), ,

2u
2u
2u
A (, ) 2 + 2 B(, )
+ C (, ) 2 +

u u
+ F1 , , u , , = 0,

(1.98)




A(, ) = A + 2B + C ,
x y
x
y



B(, ) = A + B + + C ,
x x
y y
x y y x



C (, ) = A + 2B + C .
x y
x
y
,


B A C = B AC .
x y y x
2


, D = x y y x
.
(1.97) (x, y ) (x , y )
, : 1) A = 0, C = 0 ,
2) A = 0, B = 0 , 3) A = C , B = 0 . , (x, y ) (x , y )
,
u xx , u yy ,
u xx , u xy , - u xy . ,
, (1.98)
.
(1.92)
; /1,3/.
.
(1.92)

63

A(dy )2 2Bdxdy + C(dx )2 = 0 ,

(1.99)

(1.92).
(1.99) :

dy B + B 2 AC
Ady B + B AC dx = 0 (
=
),
dx
A
2

dy B B2 AC
Ady B B AC dx = 0 (
=
).
dx
A
2

(1.100)

(1.101)

(1.100) (1.101)
(x , y ) = C1 (x, y ) = C 2

(1.92)

. (
(1.92) ).
G , ,
,
,
,
.
.
1. B2 AC > 0
(1.100) (1.101) .
(x , y ) = C1 (x , y ) = C 2
(1.92).
, , (1.92)
,
= (x , y ) , = (x , y ) ,

2u
= 1 (, , u , u , u ).

,
.
, ( =

, =
,
2
2

- ) (1.92)
:

64

2u 2u

= 1 (, , u , u , u ).
2 2
2. B2 AC = 0 ,
(1.100), (1.101)
(x , y ) = C .
(1.92)
, , ,
= (x , y ) ,
:

= (x, y )

(, = x ),

D=

0.
(1.92)

2u
= 2 (, , u, u , u ).
2
3. B2 AC < 0 .
(1.100) (1.101) ,
-.
.
(1.100)
(x , y ) 1 (x , y ) + i2 (x, y ) = C1 ,
(x , y ) - , ,
1 (x, y ) 2 (x , y ) - .
( (1.101) -
.

= 1 (x , y ) , = 2 (x , y ) ,
(1.92) :

2u 2u
+
= 3 (, , u , u , u ) .
2 2

.
, ,
. , x
y
:
u x = u x + u x , u y = u y + u y .
65

u x
u y ,

u xx = (u x )x , u xy = (u x )y = (u y )x = u yx , u yy = (u y )y ;

(u x )x , (u x ) y ,

(u y )y

.
.
2
2u
2u
2 u
x
+ 2 xy
+y
= 0.
2
2

y
x
y
2

. A = x 2 , B = xy , C = y 2 B2 AC = x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 = 0 .
.

x 2 (dy )2 2 xydxdy + y 2 (dx )2 = 0 ,

(xdy ydx )2 = 0 ,

xdy ydx = 0 .
dy dx

,
=
y
x

ln y ln x = ln C

y
= C1 .
x

=
= y

y
, = y.
x

D=

0.

y 1

= 2,
= 0,
= ,
= 1.
x

y
x

y
x

D=

y
x2
0

1
y
x = 2 0.
x
1

u xx , u xy , u yy .
66

u u u
y u
u
y u
= +
= 2 + 0
= 2 ;
x x x

x
x
2 u y u 2 y u y 2 u y 2 u
=

=
=
x 2 x x 2 x 3 x 2 2 x x 2 x

2 y u y 2 2 u
= 3 + 4 2;
x x
u u u 1 u
u
= +
= + 1 ;
y y y x

2 u 1 u u 1 2 u 2 u 2 u
= + =
+
+
+
y 2 y x x 2 y y 2 y

1 2u
2 u 1 2 u 1 2 u 2 u

+
=
+
1 +
1 +
=
x
y x 2 x 2
1 2u 2 2u 2u
;
= 2 2+
+
x 2
x
2u
y u
1 u y 2 u y 2 u
=

=
= 2 2 2 2
xy y x 2
x x y x y
1 u y 2 u y 2 u
= 2 3 2 2
.
x x
x
2u 2u 2u

,
,
:
2
2

y
x
y
2
2
2 y u y u
y u 2 y 2 2 u 2 y 2 2 u y 2 2 u
+
2 2 2

+
+
x x 2 2
x x
x x 2 2
2
y2 2u
2 u
+2
+y
= 0,
x
2

2u
2u
y
= 0
= 0.
2
2
2

1.21

,
(1.88).
67

1.

2
2u
2u 2u
2 u
= c 2 + 2 + 2 + f (x , y, z, t ) ,
2
t
y
z
x

(1.102)

c - ,

.
x, y, z
, t - .
( )

2
2u
2u
2 u
= c 2 + 2 + f (x , y, t ) .
t 2
y
x

(1.103)

(1.102)
2
2u
2 u
=c
+ f (x , t ) .
t 2
x 2

(1.104)

,
, , ,
. , :
) ( u = u (x , t )
x
t ; t
u = u (x, t ) xOu );
) ( u -
);
) , ;
) ,
( u - ).

2u
2u
u
= A 2 + B + Cu
2
t
x
t

(1.105)

.
( u - ),
( u - ).
68


.
2.

2
u
2u 2u
2 u
= a 2 + 2 + 2 ,
t
y
z
x

(1.106)

a - , ,
.

2
u
2u
2 u
= a 2 + 2 ,
t
y
x

(1.107)

2
u
2 u
=a
.
t
x 2

(1.108)


- . ,
( a 2
, u -
t );
, ,
( a 2 = - , u -
); ( a 2 = D -
, u - );
( u - ).
,
,

2
u
2u 2u
2 u
+ f (x, y, z, t ) = a 2 + 2 + 2 ,
t
y
z
x

(1.109)

f (x , y, z, t )
.
(1.106)(1.109)
.
69

3.

2u 2u 2u
+
+
= f (x , y, z )
x 2 y 2 z 2

(1.110)

.
f (x, y, z ) 0 , :

2u 2u 2u
+
+
= 0.
x 2 y 2 z 2

(1.111)

2u 2u 2u
u = 2 + 2 + 2 ,
x
y
z
, (1.110) (1.111)
u = f (x , y, z )

u = 0 .

: , ,
, , .
.
, , ,

; , , ,
.
1.22

,
,
( ).
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
.
, , .
, ;
, - ,
. ,
70

,
, .
,
.
,
.

, ,
.


.
:
1) (, )
(, ) ,

( );
2) (), ,
, ;
3)
, ;
4)
.
,
,
, , .
,
, , ,
; ,
.
. ,
,
, ,
.
.
1.23

, .
(, ),
.
, .. ,
,
71

.
Ox ,
u = u (x , t ) - x
t . , x
t , u x t , ..
u (x , t ) .

u
t u (x , t )

T

x
. 1.2

u
= u x (x , t )
x

x
(. 1.2).
x u (x , t )
x

, Ou ,

u
= u x (x , t ) -
t

2u
, 2 - . ,
t
, u (x , t ) .
.
. , .. ;
, ,
- , ,
, (. 1.2).
. , ,
: .
. , .. .
. , Ou ,
. ,
. ,
, , .
g(x , t ) .
, g(x, t ) = g , - , g . ,
, .
. .
, u (x , t ) , ,
u x (x , t ) = tg ( = (x , t ) ) t ,
72

u

x
).
. ,
x , t .
.
(x1 , x 2 ) ,

M1M 2 (. 1.3). S M1M 2 t :


2

2
u
S = 1 + dx dx = x 2 x1 = S .
x
x1
x1

x2

, .
.
u
, ,
,
M1
M2

.
T2
,
T1
x , .. T(x ) = T0 = const .
x
x1
x2
,
M1M 2
. 1.3
T (x1 ) T (x 2 ) ,
M1
M 2 , .
,
( ).
Ox .
, Ou
:
Ox T (x1 ) + Ox T (x 2 ) = 0 .
Ox T (x1 ) = T (x1 ) cos (x1 ) , Ox T (x 2 ) = T (x 2 ) cos (x 2 ) , ( x ) x t
Ox . ,
T(x 2 ) cos (x 2 ) T(x1 ) cos (x1 ) = 0 .
, cos ( x ) :

cos (x ) =

1
1 + tg (x )
2

73

1
u
1+
x

1.

, T(x1 ) T (x 2 ) . , x1 x 2 ,
, x . ,
, T T0 x t .

(. . ).
Ou : ,
.
Ou , M1
M 2 ,
Y = T(x 2 ) sin (x 2 ) T(x1 ) sin (x1 ) T0 (sin (x 2 ) sin (x1 )) .
.

u
tg(x )
u
x
sin (x ) =
=
.
2
x
1 + tg 2(x )
u
1+
x
u

u
.

x x = x

x
x = x1

2
x2 2
u
u

=
dx ,
x x = x1 x 1 x 2

, Y = T0
,

u
x x = x 2

u
dx .
2
x1 x

x2 2

Y = T0

(1.112)

g(x , t ) ,
Ou .
Ou , M1M 2 ,
x2

g(x , t )dx .

(1.113)

x1

(x ) ;
M1M 2 ,

2u
(x ) 2 dx .
t
x1
x2

74

(1.114)

(1.112), (1.113), (.114),

2u

2u
T0 2 (x ) 2 + g(x , t )dx = 0 .
x
t
x1

x2

(1.115)

,
, .

u (x , t ) , (x ) g(x , t ) , ,
x1 x 2 ,
x t :

2u
2u
T0 2 (x ) 2 + g(x, t ) = 0
x
t

2u
2u
(x ) 2 = T0 2 + g(x, t ) .
t
x

(1.116)

.
, .. = const , (1.116)

2
2u
2 u
=a
+ f (x , t ) ,
t 2
x 2

a =

(1.117)

T0
1
, f (x , t ) = g (x , t ) .

(1.117)
; f (x , t ) 0 , .. ,
(1.117) :
2
2u
2 u
=a
.
t 2
x 2

(1.118)

(1.118)
.
(1.117)

75

. ,
.

1.24 .

(1.116)
. ,
.
:
().

. l , u (x , t )
x = 0 x = l t :
u (0; t ) = 0 , u (l, t ) = 0

u x =0 = 0 ,

u x =l = 0 .

(1.119)

(1.119) ; ,
.
, ,
. ,
t = 0 . (t = 0 )
:

u (x ,0 )
= F(x )
t

u (x,0) = f (x ) ,

u t = 0 = f (x ) ,

u
= F(x ) ,
t t = 0

(1.120)

f (x ) F(x ) - .
(1.120) .
,
: (1.116) ( (1.117)
(1.118)), (1.119)
(1.120). ,
. ,
, f (x ) F(x ) ,
.

76

, (1.116), (1.119), (1.120),


, :
, ,
.
(1.119)
. :
I. u x = 0 = 1 (t ) , u x = l = 2 (t ) ;

u
u
= 1 (t ) ,
= 2 (t ) ;
x x = 0
x x = l
u

III.
+ h1u
= 1 (t ) , + h 2 u = 2 (t ) ,
x
x =0
x
x =l
1 (t ) , 2 (t ) - , h1 , h 2 - .
II.


, , . I
, (, ..)
; II ,
; III .
, , ,
. , (1.119)
.
,
.
(1.116) .
,
, .

; .

: (1.116) < x < t > 0 ,
:

u
= F(x ) .
t t = 0

u t = 0 = f (x ) ,

.


,
0 x < .
I-III x = 0 .

77

1.25 .



. ,
. 1.24,
2
2u
2 u
=a
t 2
x 2

(1.121)

u (x , t ) t = 0 = f (x ) ,

u (x , t )
= F(x ) ,
t t = 0

(1.122)

f (x ) F(x ) .
u (x , t ) .
.
(1.121)
, (. (1.93)).

(dx )2 a 2 (dt )2

= 0,

:
dx adt = 0 dx + adt = 0 .
,
x at = C1 x + at = C 2 .

= x at , = x + at .
(1.121)

2u
= 0.

.1.18 (. (1.87)),

u (, ) = ( ) + () ,
( ) () - .
x t , (1.121)

u (x , t ) = (x at ) + (x + at ).

78

(1.123)

,
(1.122)
u (x ,0 ) = (x ) + (x ) = f (x ) ,

u (x ,0)
= a(x ) + a (x ) = F(x ) .
t

x ,

1x
(x ) + (x ) = F(z )dz + C , C = const .
a x0

(x ) + (x ) = f (x ) ,
1x
(x ) + (x ) = F(z )dz + C
a x0

1
1 x
C
(x ) = f (x )
F(z )dz ,
2
2a x 0
2

(1.124)

1
1 x
C
(x ) = f (x ) +
F(z )dz + .
2
2a x 0
2

(1.125)

,
f (x ) F(x ) , (1.124) (1.125)
x ( < x < ) . x (1.124) x at , (1.125)
x + at (x at ) (x + at ) (1.123),

u (x , t ) =

x at

f (x at ) + f (x + at ) 1 x +at
+ F(z )dz F(z )dz
2
2a x 0
x0

u (x , t ) =

f (x at ) + f (x + at ) 1 x +at
+
F(z )dz .
2
2a x at

(1.126)

(1.126) .
,
u (x , t )
(1.121), (1.122).
, F(x ) , f (x ) -
. (1.126)
79

, .
(1.126) ,
t f (x ) F(x )
.

1.26
, (1.126),
u (x , t )

u 1 (x, t ) = (x at ) u 2 (x , t ) = (x + at ) ,
1
1 x
(x ) = f (x )
F(z )dz ,
2
2a x 0
1
1 x

(x ) = f (x ) +
F(z )dz .
2
2a x 0
u 1 (x , t ) u 2 (x , t ) .

u 1 (x, t ) = (x at ) . x
t , , .. x at = C .

dx
= a .
dt
. x
a
Ox , u 1
dx adt = 0

u1

a
t = t0


(C) , , , .
u1

u 1 = (x at ) x 1 t 1
t = t1
, t = t 0 x 0 .
0 x = at
x

1
1
t : t = t 0 = 0 , t = t 1 ,
u1
t = t 2 (. 1.4). ( t = t 1 )
t = t2
( t = t 0 )
at 1 , ( t = t 2 ) at 2
0
x2 = at 2
x
..
. 1.4
,
, ,
, . ( ,
, ).
0

x0 = at0

80

,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, u 1 = (x at ) .
u 2 = (x + at )

( ), , .
.
,
.
a =

T0

.
, (1.126)
() (x at ) + (x + at ) ,
a ,
.
. u 1 = (x )

u 2 = (x ) ,
t = 0 , , ,
a : u 1 = (x ) - , u 2 = (x ) - .

,
.
(1.126) .
, , ..
F(x ) = 0 . (1.126)

1
1
u (x, t ) = f (x at ) + f (x + at ) .
2
2
u

u0

. 1.5

(1.127)

f (x ) ,
u (x , t ) x t .
, ,


( l; l ) , f (x ) 0 ,
F(x ) 0 x ( ; ) (. 1.5).
,
( l; l ) t = 0
81

.
t =

l
. , u (x , t )
2a
1
1
u 1 = f (x + at ) u 2 = f (x + at ) .
2
2

,
.
t = 0 (. 1.6),
(1.127): u1 t =0 = u 2

t =0

1
1
= f (x ) = u 0 , u 0 = u t =0 .
2
2


u2

u1

u
u0

u0
2

t = t0 = 0

t=0

u0
2

A
l

B
0

a
t=0

. 1.6

3
l l
2

u2

u0
2

u0
2

t=
l
2

l
2a

u1

3
l
l
2
2

t = t1 =

l
2a

x1 =
2

3 x
l
l
2 2

u0
2

l l
2

3 x
l
2

. 1.7

u 1 u 2

l
.
2

u
t =

l
(. 1.7)
2a

u 1 u 2
t =
82

l
(. 1.8).
a

l
,
2

u 1 u 2
, . 1.9, u ,
AB .

2l

u2

u0
2

u0
2

t=

l
a
2l

u1
l
a
(x2 = l )

t = t2 =

2l x

u0
2

2l x

. 1.8

l
, ,
a
l
, t = , .
a
,

t<

( ,
, )
.
, , , .
u

u2

u0
2

u0
2

5
3
l
l l
2
2
2

u1
t>

5
l l
3
l l
2
2 2
2

l
a

3
l
2

u0
2

5 x
l
2

l
2

3
l
2

5 x
l
2

. 1.9

1.27

.
Ox , ,
.
2
2u
2 u
=a
2
t
x 2

83

(1.128)

u t = 0 = f (x ) ,

u
t

t =0

= F(x ) ,

(1.129)

x 0 ,

u x =0 = 0 .

(1.130)

(1.129), (1.130) , f (0 ) = 0 .
(1.128) (1.129), (1.130)
(1.126) . ,
f (x ) F(x ) , x 0 ,
x < 0 . u (0, t ) :

f ( at ) + f (at ) 1 at
u (0, t ) =
+
F(z )dz .
2
2a at

(1.131)

u (0, t ) t ,
f (x ) F(x ) x < 0 :
f ( x ) = f (x ) , F( x ) = F(x ) ,
..
. , , (1.131) ;
,
, .
f (x ) F(x ) ,
:

u (x , t ) =

f (x at ) + f (x + at ) 1 x +at
+
F(z )dz .
2
2a x at

(1.132)

x t x 0
. , (1.132)
(1.128), (1.129) , ,
(1.130).

1.28



84

.
, . , .
1.24,
2
2u
2 u
=a
2
t
x 2

(1.132)

u x =0 = 0 ,

u x =l = 0

(1.133)

u t =0 = f (x ) ,

u
t

t =0

= F(x ) ,

(0 x l) .

(1.134)

.
(1.132),
(1.133). -
(1.134).
(1.132), ,

u (x , t ) = X(t )T(t ) ,

(1.135)

(1.133).
(1.135) x t ,
u tt = T (t )X(x ) , u xx = X (x )T(t ).
(1.132),

T (t )X(x ) = a 2 T (t )X (x )
, a 2 XT ,
1 T (t ) X (x )
.

=
X (x )
a 2 T (t )

, t , - x ,
, x t ,
.. .
( ). ,

1 T (t ) X (t )

=
= .
2
(
)
(
)
T
t
X
t
a
85

(1.136)

(1.136)

T (t ) + a 2 T(t ) = 0 ,

(1.137)

X (x ) + X(x ) = 0 .

(1.138)

, (1.132) ,
t , - x ,
, (1.132) .
(1.135),
(1.133), t
u x =0 = X(0 )T(t ) = 0 , u x =l = X(l )T(t ) = 0 .

( T (t ) 0 ), u (x , t )
x t .
. , ..
, ,

X(0 ) = 0 x (l ) = 0 .

(1.139)

X (x )
:
,
(1.138), (1.139).
-.
, (1.138) - (1.139)
, ,
- .
(1.138)
- (1.139). , < 0 , = 0 > 0 .
(1.138) 2-


k2 + = 0;
k 1, 2 = , , .
. < 0 .
(1.138)

X ( x ) = C1 e

+ C 2e

(1.139),
86

C1 + C 2 = 0

C1e l + C 2 e

= 0.

1
e

1
e

= e

0,

, , C1 = 0 C 2 = 0 .
, X(x ) 0 .
, , , .
. = 0 .

X(x ) = C1 + C 2 x .
(1.139) :

C1 + C 2 0 = 0

C1 + C 2 l = 0.
C1 = 0 , C 2 = 0 , , X(x ) 0 .
. > 0 .
( k 1, 2 = i ) (1.138)

X(x ) = C1 cos x + C 2 sin .

(1.139),

C1 1 + C 2 0 = 0

C1 cos l + C 2 sin l = 0.
, C1 = 0 , ,
C 2 sin l = 0 . , C 2 0 ,
X (x ) 0 .
sin l = 0 ,
n
=
, n - (n = 0, 1, 2,...) .
l
, (1.138) - (1.139)

2

n
= n = .
l

87

(1.140)

, n ,
X n (x ) .

X n (x ) = C 2 sin
C 2 = 1.

nx
.
l

n
, n =
l

X n (x ) = sin

nx
, n = 1, 2, ... .
l

(1.141)

, (1.140), (1.141)
n , n
.
T (t ) .
n (1.137),
Tn (t ) . Tn (t )
2

na
Tn(t ) +
Tn (t ) = 0 .
l

Tn (t ) = a n cos

nat
nat
,
+ b n sin
l
l

a n , b n - .
,

nat
nat
nx

,
u n (x , t ) = X n (x )Tn (t ) = a n cos
+ b n sin
sin
l
l
l

(1.142)

n = 1, 2, ... , (1.132) (1.133)


a n b n .
.
,
(1.134).
(1.142)

88



nat
nat
nx
.
u (x , t ) = u n (x , t ) = a n cos
+ b n sin
sin
l
l
l
n =1
n =1

(1.144)

(1.144) 0 x l , 0 t T ,
.
(1.132) (1.144) ,
X t . ,

u tt a 2 u xx = u n tt a 2 u n xx = 0 ,
n =1

u n (x , t ) (1.132).
, (1.144)
(1.133), , ..
u (x , t ) . a n b n ,
(1.144) .
(1.144) t :

u na
nat
nat
nx
.
=
+ b n cos
a n sin
sin
t n =1 l
l
l
l

(1.145)

t = 0 (1.144) (1.145),
(1.134):

nx

= f (x )

l
n =1

na
nx

b n sin
= F(x ),

l
n =1 l

0 x l

a n sin

(1.146)

(1.146) f (x )
F(x ) [0; l].

, ( x ) ,
[0; l]
(0) = (l ) = 0 ,
:
89

(x ) = a n sin
n =1

nx
,
l

2l
nx
dx .
(x ) sin
l0
l
, f (x ) F(x ) ,
, a n b n - ,
an =

2l
nx
a n = f (x ) sin
dx ,
l0
l

(1.147)

na
2l
nx
b n = F(x ) sin
dx ,
l
l0
l

bn =

2 l
nx
dx .
F(x ) sin
na 0
l

(1.148)

, (1.144), a n b n
(1.147), (1.148), (1.132)(1.134).
1.29


,
, P(x , t ).

2
2u

P
2 u
(
)
=
a
+
g
x
,
t
g
=

t 2
x 2

(1.149)

u x = 0 = 0 , u x =l = 0
90

(1.150)

u t = 0 = f (x ) ,

u
t

t =0

= F(x ) .

(1.151)

(1.149) (1.151)

u (x , t ) = v(x , t ) + (x , t ) ,

(1.152)

v(x , t )
2
2v
2 v
=
a
+ g (x , t ) ,
2
2
t
x

(1.153)

v x =0 = 0 , v x =l = 0

(1.154)

v t =0 = 0 ,

v
t

= 0,

(1.155)

t =0

(x , t )
2
2
2
,
=a
t 2
x 2

(1.156)

x =0 = 0 , x =l = 0

(1.157)

t = 0 = f (x ) ,

= F(x ) .
t t =0
91

(1.158)

v(x , t ) , .. ,
,
.
(x , t ) , .. ,
.
,
, v +
.
(x , t ), .. (1.156) (1.158),
. 1.28. v(x , t ) .
v(x , t )

v(x , t ) = Tn (t ) sin
n =1

nx
.
l

(1.159)

(1.154) .
Tn (t ) , (1.159)
(1.153) (1.155).
(1.159) (1.153),
2

nx
nx
n
2

(
)
T
t
sin
=

a
+ g (x , t ) .
n
Tn (t ) sin
l
l
l
n =1
n =1

an
K n =
,
l

2
Tn(t ) + K n Tn (t ) sin

n =1

nx
= g (x , t ) .
l

(1.160)

g (x , t ), x t ,
:

g (x , t ) = g n (t ) sin
n =1

nx
,
l

(1.161)

g n (t ) =

2l
nx
dx .
g(x , t ) sin
l0
l
92

(1.162)

(1.160) (1.161),

Tn(t ) + K 2n Tn (t ) = g n (t ) (n = 1, 2, ...)

(1.163)

, (1.155) ,

Tn (0 ) sin

n =1

nx
= 0,
l

Tn (0) = 0

(n = 1, 2, ...) .

(1.164)

(1.155) ,

Tn (0 ) = 0

(n = 1, 2, ...) .

(1.165)

, Tn (t )
(1.163) (1.164) (1.165).
(1.163) ,

Tn (t ) =

1 t
g n () sin K n (t )d .
Kn 0

g n () (1.162),

Tn (t ) =

2 t l
n
d .
d g(, ) sin K n (t ) sin
lK n 0 0
l

(1.166)

Tn (t ) (1.159),
v(x , t ) .
, (1.149)(1.151)

u (x , t ) = Tn (t ) sin
n =1

nx
nat
nat
nx
,
+ a n cos
+ b n sin
sin
l
l
l
l
n =1

(1.167)

Tn (t ) (1.166), a n b n -
(1.147) (1.148).

93

1.30

.
( )

, ,
.
2
2u
2 u
=a
+ g(x , t )
2
2
t
x

(1.168)

u x =0 = 1 (t ) , u x =l = 2 (t )

(1.169)

u t =0 = f (x ) ,

u
t

t =0

= F(x ) (0 x l ) .

(1.170)

(1.168)(1.170)
.
, (1.169) .
.
(1.168)(1.170)
v(x , t )

u (x , t ) = v(x, t ) + (x , t ) ,

(1.171)

(x , t ) , v(x , t )
.
(1.171) x t (1.168),
2
2 v 2
2
2 v
+ 2 = a 2 + 2 + g(x , t ) .
2
t
t
x
x
, v(x , t )

2
2v
2 v
+ g 1 (x , t ) ,
=a
t 2
x 2

94

(1.172)


2
2
2
,
g1 (x , t ) = g(x , t ) 2 a
2
x
t

v(0, t ) = 1 (t ) (0, t ) ,

v(l, t ) = 2 (t ) (l, t )

(1.173)

v(x ,0 ) = f (x ) (x ,0 ),

v(x ,0 )
(x ,0)
= F(x )
t
t

(1.174)

(x , t ) ,
v(0, t ) = 0 , v(l, t ) = 0 ,
,

(0, t ) = 1 (t ) ,

(l, t ) = 2 (t ) .

(1.175)

(x , t )
, (1.175). ,
(x , t ) x

(x , t ) = 1 (t ) +

x
[ 2 (t ) 1 (t )].
l

(1.176)

, u (x , t )
v(x , t ) .
v(x , t )
2
2v
2 v
=a
+ g 1 (x , t ) ,
2
2
t
x

(1.177)

x
g1 (x, t ) = g(x , t ) 1(t ) [ 2 (t ) 1(t )] ,
l

v x =0 = 0 , v x =l = 0
95

(1.178)

v t =0 = f (x ) 1 (0 ) + [ 2 (0 ) 1 (0 )],
l

x
v

= F(x ) 1 (0 ) + [ 2 (0 ) 1 (0 )].
t t =0
l

(1.179)

(1.177)(1.179) . 1.29.
1.31 .

( )

.
, , .

. ,

. u = u (x, y, z, t ) ,
u M (x , y, z ) t .
:
;
; .
, ,
, .
.
l ,
( )
,
. Ox
, x = 0 , -
x = l (. 1.10).

. 1.10

u = u (x , t ) ,
, .
96

,
.
1. Q ,
, u ,
Q = cmu ,
c - , m - .

Q = cSxu ,

(1.180)

- ; S - .
2. :
Q , t S
n ,

Q = k

u
St ,
n

k - (
, ).

Q = kS

u
t ,
x

(1.181)

k
. , k = k (x ) .
3. ,
, ..
( ) .
F(x , t ) x
t .
(x, x + x ) t

Q = F(x , t )Sxt .

(1.182)

, , .
, .
, x = x 1 x = x 2 (x 2 x 1 = x ) ,
[x 1 , x 2 ].
,
. (1.181) ,
x = x 1 ,
97

Q1 = k

u
x

Q 2 = k

u
x

x = x 2 :

St ;
x = x1

St .
x=x 2

Q1 Q 2 :

Q1 Q 2 = k
u
= k
x

x =x2

u
x

St + k
x = x1

u
x

St =
x=x 2

St k u xSt.

x 2
x = x1

( ).
,
t (1.182)
Q 3 = F(x , t )Sxt .
Q = Q1 Q 2 + Q 3 t
u .
Q , ,
(1.180):

Q = cSx (u (x , t 2 ) u (x , t 1 )) cSx

u
t .
t

2u
x 2

xSt. + F(x , t )Sxt = cSx

u
t .
t

Sxt ,

2u
u
k 2 + F(x , t ) = c .
t
x
k
F(x , t )

= a2,
= f (x , t ) ,
c
c
2
u
2 u
=a
+ f (x , t ) .
2
t
x

(1.183)


. (1.183)
, a 2
. a 2 2 /.
98


(1.183)

.

, ,
. ,
,
.
u = u (x, y, z, t )

2
u
2u 2u
2 u

= a 2 + 2 + 2 + f (x , y, z, t ) ,
t
y
z
x

(1.184)

u
= a 2 u + f (x , y , z , t ) ,
t
=

2
x

2
y

2
z

(1.185)

- .

(1.185) , u , (.1.21).


1. .
, .. f = 0 , (1.185)
:

u
= a 2 u .
t

(1.186)

(1.186) .
2. .
, ..

= 0 , :
t

u = ,

99

(1.187)

f
.
2
a

3. .

u
= 0 f = 0 ,
t
:

u = 0 .

(1.188)

(1.188) :
u = u (x , y, z ) ,
. : ,
(
).
, .

1.32 ,
.
,
(1.185). ,

,
( )
( ).

, ..
.

.
: I
; II ; III
, .
, , .

.
u = u (x , t )
(t = 0 ) :

u (x ,0 ) = u t = 0 = (x ).
I III.
1. ( )

100

(1.189)

u x =0 = 1 (t ) , u x =l = 2 (t ),

(1.190)

1 (t ) , 2 (t ) - , t 0 t T ,
T , .
, 1 (t ) = u 1 = const ,
2 (t ) = u 2 = const , ..
u 1 u 2 .
2. ( )
. , x = 0

u
x

x =0

= 1 (t ) .

(1.191)

. q 1 (t ) -
, .. ,
x = 0 .
(0; x ) t 2 t 1 = t ,
(1.183)

q1 (t )t + k

u (x, t )
u
St = cSx t .
x
t

t x 0 , u x (0, t ) =

q 1 (t )
.
k S

, (1.192), 1 (t ) - ,
q 1 (t ) 1 (t ) =

q 1 (t )
.
k S

x = l ,
q 2 (t ) ,
x =l

q 2 (t )
.
k S

= 1 (t )

u
x

u
x

x =0

u
x

x =l

= 2 (t )

, ,
. ,
, q1 (t ) = 0 q 2 (t ) = 0 , ,

u
x

= 0
x =0

u
x

= 0.
x =l

3. ( )
. , x = l

101

= 3 (t ) .
u + h
x x =l

(1.192)

(1.192) , ..
. ;
.
,
,
,
:
q = (u ) ,
- ( ).
,
.
q(t ) ,
x = l ,
q(t ) = (u (l, t ) (t )) .
,
.

q (t ) = k

u
x

.
x =l

u (l, t )

= (u (l, t ) (t )) .
x
k

u (l, t )
+ hu (l, t ) = 3 (t ) ,
x

h =

, 3 (t ) = h(t ) .
k

, ,
u (x , t ) , . ,
u x (x , t ) , . ,
u (x , t ) ,
u x (x , t ) , .
(1.190), (1.191), (1.192)
, ,
.
(1.189).
, u = u (x , t )

102

+ f (x, t ) 0 < x < l , 0 < t T ,


u t = a 2 u xx

u (x ,0 ) = (x ) , 0 x l ,
u (0, t ) = 1 (t ) , u (l, t ) = 2 (t ) , 0 t T .


x = 0 x = l .

.
, u (x , t ) ,
.
,
, ,


, ,
.

(
) :
u = u (x , t ) < x < ,
t 0 ,
u t =0 = (x ) ( < x < ) ,
(x ) - .
, ,
,

. .

: u = u (x , t )
0 < x < , t 0 ,
u t = 0 = (x ) , (0 < x < ) ,

u x = 0 = (t ) , t 0 ,

(x ) (t ) - .
(1.185) V ,
S ,
u (x , y, z, 0) = (x, y, z ) ,
S V u = u (x, y, z, t )
:
1) u (x , y, z, t ) S = f1 (M , t ) ( 1- );
2)

u
= f 2 (M, t ) ( 2- );
n S
103

n - S ; , S
,

u
= 0;
n S

+ hu = f 3 (M, t ) ( 3- ).
n
S
M(x , y, z ) - S .
3)

,
u (x, y, z )
, ..
,
S .
(1.187)
(1.188) , f1 , f 2
f 3 t .
u (x , y, z ) S = f1 (x , y, z ) ,

u (x, y, z )
= f 2 (x , y, z ) - .
n
S

, ,
,
x 1 x x 2 , t 0 .
,
.
,
, .

1.33
.

.

.
.

.

104

1.33.1.
l ,
.
.
.
1.33.1. ,

2
u
2 u
=a
t
x 2

(1.193)

u x =0 = 0 , u x =l = 0

(1.194)

u t =0 = (x ) .

(1.195)

u (x , t )

(0;0)

(0) = (l ) = 0 .

(l,0)

(1.196)

(1.193),
(1.194),

u (x , t ) = X (x )T(t ) .
(1.197) (1.193),

X(x )T (t ) = a 2 T(t )X (x ) .

T (t ) X (x )
=
= , = const ,
a 2 T ( t ) X (x )

105

(1.197)

T (t ) + a 2 T(t ) = 0 ,

(1.198)

X (x ) + X(x ) = 0 .

(1.199)

(1.194)

X(0) = 0 , X(l ) = 0 .

(1.200)

(1.193) (1.197),

(1.199),
(1.200). ,
X (x ) (
),
(.1.28). ,
,

n
n =
l

(n = 1, 2, 3, ...) ,

(1.199) (1.200):

X n (x ) = sin

nx
.
l

(1.201)

= n (1.198),
2

na
T (t ) +
T (t ) = 0 ,
l

Tn (t ) = a n e

na

t
l

a n - .
, (1.196) (1.197)

2

u n (x , t ) = a n e

na

t
l

sin

nx
, n = 1, 2, ...
l

a n . ,
(1.193) ( ),
(3.15).

106

n =1

n =1

u (x , t ) = u n ( x , t ) = a n e

na

t
l

sin

nx
.
l

(1.202)

u (x , t ) (1.202) , ..
.
(1.195),

u (x,0) = (x ) = a n sin
n =1

nx
.
l

(x )
(0; l ) . a n

an =

2l
nx
dx .
(x ) sin
l0
l

(1.203)

, (1.193) (1.195) u (x , t ) ,
(1.202),
(1.203).

1.33.1. ,

(1.193)

u x =0 = 1 (t ) , u x =l = 2 (t ),

(1.204)

u t =0 = (x ) ,

(1.205)

1 (t ) , 2 (t ) , (x ) - .
(1.201)

u (x , t ) = Tn (t ) sin
n =1

107

nx
,
l

(1.206)

2l
nx
Tn (t ) = u (x , t ) sin
dx ,
l0
l

(1.207)

t . :

Tn (t ) =

u = u (x , t )
du =

u
dx
x

nx
dx
l
=
l
nx
v = cos
n
l
dv = sin

2 l
nx
=
u (x, t ) cos
l n
l

l L u
nx
+
dx =
cos
n 0 x
l

2 l
l L u
nx
n
(
)(
)
(
)

u
l
,
t

u
0
,
t
+
dx .
cos

l n
n 0 x
l

u
nx
, u 1 =
, dv1 = cos
dx .
x
l
2u
l
nx
du 1 =
dx
,
.
v
=
sin
1
n
l
x 2
=

2
2l l 2 u
nx
n
( 1) u (l, t ) u (0, t )
Tn (t ) =
sin
dx .

n
l
(n)2 0 x 2
u (x , t ) (1.193) (1.204),

Tn (t ) =

2
2l l u
nx
1 (t ) ( 1)n 2 (t )
sin
dx .

2
n

t
l
(n) 0

(1.208)

(1.207) t ,

dTn (t ) 2 l u
nx
= sin
dx .
dt
l 0 t
l

(1.209)

(1.208) (1.209),
Tn (t ) (1.206):

dTn (t ) na
2na 2
n
+
1 (t ) ( 1) 2 (t ) .
Tn (t ) =
2
dt
l
l


108

(1.210)

dTn (t ) na
dTn
Tn
na
na
+
=
=
Tn (t ) = 0
dt ln
l
dt
n
Cn
l
l
l
2

Tn (t ) = C n (t )e

na

t
l

(1.211)

na

t
l

na

t
l

na

.
C n (t )e
l
Tn (t ) Tn (t )
(1.210), C n (t ):
Tn (t ) = Cn (t )e

Cn (t )e

na

t
l

2na 2
l

[ (t ) ( 1) (t )],
n

Cn (t ) =

2na
l

na

t
l

[ (t ) ( 1) (t )].
n

C n (t ) =

2na 2 t
l2

na

[ () ( 1) ()]d + C .
n

, (1.210)
2

Tn (t ) = e

na

t
l

2 t na
C + 2na e l () ( 1)n ( ) d .

1
2
n

l2 0

C n . , C n = Tn (0 ) .
(1.205),

u (x ,0 ) = Tn (0) sin
n =1

(1.212)

nx
= (x )
l

, ,

Tn (0) = C n =

2l
nx
dx .
(x ) sin
l0
l

(1.213)

, (1.193), (1.204) (1.205) (1.206),


Tn (t ) (1.212) (1.213).
109

1.33.2

.


.

(1.183).

1.33.2

2
u
2 u
=a
+ f (x , t )
t
x 2

()

u x =0 = 0 , u x =l = 0 ,

(1.214)

u t =0 = 0 .

(1.215)

u (x , t ) = Tn (t ) sin
n =1

nx
.
l

(1.216)

.
, f (x , t ) , x
t ,

f (x , t ) = f n (t ) sin
n =1

nx
,
l

(1.217)

2l
nx
f n (t ) = f (x , t ) sin
dx .
l0
l

(1.218)

(1.183) (1.216) ( )
(1.217),

110

na
nx

= 0,
Tn (t ) +
Tn (t ) f n (t ) sin
l
l
n =1

Tn (t ) + 2n Tn (t ) = f n (t ) , n =
(1.214)

u (x ,0 ) = Tn (0) sin
n =1

Tn (t ) :

na
.
l

(1.219)

nx
= 0,
l

Tn (0 ) = 0 .

(1.220)

(1.219),
(1.220), .
(1.211)

Tn (t ) = C n (t )e n t .
(1.219) Tn (t ) Tn (t ) ,
C n (t ):
2

Cn (t )e n t = f n (t ) ,
2

C n (t ) = f n ( )e n d + C n .
2

, Tn (t ) = C n + f n ( )e n d e n t
2

(1.220)

Tn (0 ) = C n = 0 .

,
t

Tn (t ) = e n (t )f n ()d .
2

(1.221)

(1.216) (1.221),
(1.183), (1.214) (1.215)

111

t na 2 (t )

nx
l

.
u (x , t ) = e
f n ( )d sin

l
n =1 0

(u t =0 = (x )),

(1.222)

(1.222)
u t =0 = (x ) (1.214),
.1.33.1.

1.33.2

, .. ,
:
(1.183)
2
u
2 u
=a
+ f (x , t )
t
x 2

u x = 0 = 1 (t ) , u x = l = 2 ( t ) ,

(1.223)

u t =0 = (x ) .

(1.224)

, . 1.33.1, 1.33.2.
,

u (x, y ) = v(x , y ) + (x , y ) ,

(1.225)

v(x , y )
2
v
2 v
=a
,
2
t
x

(1.226)

v x = 0 = 1 (t ) , v x = l = 2 (t )

(1.227)

112

v t =0 = (x ) ,

(1.228)

(x , t )
2

2
=a
+ f (x , t ) ,
t
x 2

(1.229)

x =0 = 0 , x =l = 0

(1.230)

t=0 .

(1.231)

, (1.225)
.
1.34 .



, ,
( t = 0 ) .
:
u (x , t ) ,
< x < , t 0 ,
2
u
2 u
( < x < , t > 0)
=a
2
t
x

(1.232)

u t =0 = (x ) , < x < .

(1.233)

.

.
113

(1.232)

u (x , t ) = T (t )X(x ) .

(1.234)

(1.234) (1.232) ,

T (t ) X (x )
=
= , = const .
2
X
(
x
)
a T(t )

T (t ) + a 2 T(t ) = 0 ,

(1.235)

X (x ) + X(x ) = 0 .

(1.236)

(1.235)

T(t ) = Ce a t .
2

(1.237)

T(t ) X (x ) , ..
u = X(x )T (t )
. (1.236) ,
; < 0 , e a t t ,
. , 0 .
2

= 2 . (1.237) C = 1 .

T (t ) = e a t .
2 2

, (1.236)
X(x ) = A cos x + B sin x .
,
. A B
. A B .
(1.234)

u (x , t ) = e a t [A( ) cos x + B( ) sin x ].


2 2

(1.238)

l
: n = n

,
l

n A n B n .
114

, n ( n

n +1

, l ).
l

0 . ,
.
u (x , t ) ,
0 < < . (1.232) ; ,
, ,
.
(1.238) n ,
:

u (x, t ) = u (x , t )d = e a t [A( ) cos x + B( ) sin x ]d .


0

2 2

(1.239)

, (1.239)
(1.232), (1.239) x t
.
, ,
: (1.239)
(1.232)
( ) B( ) . ( ) B( ) ,
(1.239) (1.233). (1.239) t = 0 ,
(1.233)

u (x,0) = (x ) = [A( ) cos x + B( ) sin x ]d .

(1.240)

, , ( ),
.
,
f (x ) , , ..

f (x )dx < ,

cos x
sin x , :

f (x ) = [a ( ) cos x + b( ) sin x ]d ,
0

115

(1.241)

1
a ( ) = f (x ) cos xdx ,

1
b( ) = f (x ) sin xdx .

(1.242)

(1.241)
f (x ) , (1.242) .
(1.240) (1.241),

1
( ) = (x ) cos xdx ,

1
B( ) = (x ) sin xdx

(1.243)

, (x )
.
( ) B( ) (1.243)
(1.240),

u (x , t ) = e
0

2a 2 t

1
1

cos x ( ) cos d + sin x ( ) sin d d.

cos x sin x ,
1 2a 2 t

u (x , t ) = e
( )(cos cos x + sin sin x )d d.

, ,
:

u (x , t ) =

:

u (x , t ) =

1 2a 2 t
d ( ) cos ( x )d .
e
0

1
2a 2 t
(
)

cos ( x )d .

e

0

(1.244)

. u (x , t )
, .
,

.
; a t = z ,

( x ) = z , d =

dz
x
, =
.
a t
a t

116

cos ( x )d =

2a 2 t

a t

z2

cos zdz .

K ( ) = e z cos zdz .
2

(1.245)

K ( ) , ,

K ( ) = e z z sin zdz .
2

K ( ) , :

dv = e z zdz
K () =
=
1 z 2
du = cos zdz, v = e
2

1 2
2

= e z sin z e z cos zdz = K ().


2
20
2
0
2

u = sin z,

K () = K ().
2

K ()

K ()
2
= ln
= .
K ()
2
C
4

K () = Ce

2
4

C . (1.245) K (0 ) = e z dz - .
2

, e z dz =
2

.
2

K () = e z cos zdz =
2

e
2

2
4

( x )2

4a 2 t
a t
.
cos ( x )d =
e
e
a t 2
0
(1.244),

2 2

117

u (x , t ) =

1
1
e
( )

a t 2

( x )2
4a 2 t

u (x , t ) =

2a t

( )e

( x )2
4a 2 t

d .

(1.246)

, (1.246),
, :
. ,
Erf ,
.

G (x , , t ) =

1
2a t

( x )2
4a 2t

(1.247)

x, t ,
.
G (x , , t ) ,
. .

(x ) , , x = x 0 ,
u = u 0 = const , ..

u 0 , x 0 < x < x 0 +
0, x x 0 >

(x ) = (x ) =

(. . 1.11). .
:
t = 0 t = 0
(x 0 ; x 0 + ) , .. 2 ,
Q 0 = 2cu ( -
, c - , 2 - ),
u 0 .
, ,
(x ) , (
) (x ) ,
.

118

(1.247)

u (x , t ) =

x 0 +

2a t

x 0

u 0e

( x )2

Q
e
4ac t x 0

( x )2
4a 2 t

d .

(1.248)

,
Q 0 . , ..
,
t = 0 x 0 ,
(1.248),
,

u0

x0 x0 x0 +

d =

4a 2 t

x 0 +

. 1.11

u (x , t ) =

Q
1
lim e
c 2a t 0 2

( x 0 x )2

2 = u 0

4a 2 t

1
2a t

( x 0 x )2
4a 2 t

(1.249)

, Q 0 = c , (1.249)

u (x , t ) =

( x 0 x )2

= G (x , x 0 , t ) ,
2a t
.. (1.247) = x 0 .
, Q 0 = c ,
x 0 t = 0 , x t
,
G (x, x 0 , t ) .

(1.246).
x = ( ) ,
d dQ = c( )d ,
,
dQ . , (1.249), ,
, :
( )d

4a 2 t

1
2a t

119

( x )2
4a 2t

, ( )
, ,
, ..
,

u (x , t ) = ( )

( x )2

d .
2
a

, (1.246) ()
, x t

( ) , t = 0 .
(1.246)
. ,

2
u
2u 2u
2 u
= a 2 + 2 + 2
t
y
z
x

u t =0 = (x , y, z )

u (x , y, z, t ) = (, , )

(2a

1
t

4a 2t

( x )2 + ( y )2 + ( z )2

4a 2 t

ddd .

1.35 .


.

.
, .
R ,
. , ,
,
r .
.
t > 0 .

u t = a 2 (u xx + u yy + u zz )
120

(1.250)

, .. u
M (x , y, z ) t > 0 r
.
,

u = u (r, t ) , r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 .

(1.251)

(1.250)

x
u x = u r rx = u r ,
r

u xx = (u r

rx + u r rxx =

u rr rx2

+ u r rxx

r2 x2
x
= u rr + u r
.
r3
r

u yy , u zz . (1.250)
u xx , u yy , u zz

u t = a 2 u rr + u r .
r

(1.252)

u t =0 = (r ) ,

(1.253)

(r ) - 0 r R ,

u r =R = 0 .

(1.254)

V(r, t ) = ru (r, t ) ,

(1.255)


. , (1.255)
Vt = ru t , Vr = u + ru r , Vrr = 2u r + ru rr .
u t , u r , u rr (1.252).
(1.252)
Vt = a 2 Vrr ,
V(r, t ) :
V t =0 = r(r ) ,
121

V r =0 = 0 , V r = R = 0 .

R , , ,
r(r ) .
. 1.33.1. (1.202) (3.203)
2

V(r, t ) = a n e

na

t
R

i =1

sin

nr
,
R

2R
nr
dr .
r(r ) sin
R0
R
V(r, t )
.
u (r, t ) =
r
an =

1.36 .
,

.

.
,
, . 1.31,
, ,
. .

, ..
, ,
. E - ; - ;
.
:
E S
( ) ,
, 4 :
E n dS = 4 e i .
i

V
= (x , y, z ) . dV ,
dV , ,
E - ,

122

. e i dV . ,
i

E n dS = 4 dV .
S

(1.256)

-
E n dS = 4 divE dV ,
S

(1.256)

divE dV = 4 dV
V

(divE 4 )dV = 0 .
V

, V , ,
. ,

divE = 4 .

(1.257)

,
, , ..
(x , y, z ) ,
E = grad ,
- .
,
div(grad ) .
(1.257)

= 4 .

(1.258)

(1.258) :
= .
,
. ( = 0) ,
:
= 0 .

T S
( = const ),
123

v . , v x , v y , v z v
t .
. ,
, ..

div v = 0 .

(1.259)

(: , ,
S ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
( -)).
(1.259)
. v ,
v x , v y , v z ,
.

v . ;
,
, (1.259).
.
( rot v = 0 ), v u ,
:
v = grad u .
(1.259),

div(grad u ) = 0

u = 0 .
, u (x, y, z )
.

v = k grad P ,
P - ; k const .
P(x, y, z ) :

2P 2P 2P
+
+
= 0.
x 2 y 2 z 2

124

1.37

,
, , .
.
() :
u (x, y, z ) , V ,
S ,
u = 0 ( u = f (x , y, z ) )
,
:
I. u S = f1 (P ) ( 1- );

u
= f 2 (P ) ( 2- );
n S
u

+ hu = f 3 (P ) ( 3- ),
III.
n
S
u
f1 , f 2 , f 3 - ;
-
n
n S ; P(x, y, z ) - .
II.

. 1.32,

,
.
,
.
, .
,
, u ,
, S
(,
- );
, ..
S . ,
.
V , ( )
S ,
( ) .

125

1.38 ()


( ) .
,
(, , ,
, , .)
( -)
. ,
(
).

1.38.1. ( )
.
: u
T ,

.
( ) . ,
,

,
, .
: u ,

u = 0

(1.260)

x 2 + y 2 < a 2 , x 2 + y 2 a 2
:

u C = f (x , y ) .

(1.261)

: ,
x + y 2 > a 2 ( ), x 2 + y 2 a 2
(1.261).
.
(, ) ,
2

x = cos , y = sin .
126

(1.262)

(1.262)

2u
x 2

2u
y 2

=0

2 u 1 u 1 2 u
+
+ 2
= 0.
2
2

(1.263)

( ).
(1.262) :

u (, ) C = u (a , ) = f ( ) , 0 2 .

(1.264)

f ( + 2) = f () , .. 2
(, ) .
(1.263)
(1.264)

u (, ) = R () () .

(1.265)

(1.265) (1.263),

1
1
R ( )() + R ()() + 2 R () () = 0 .

()
2 R ( ) + R ()
=
= .
()
R ( )


, ,
, .
:

2 R () + R () R () = 0 ,

(1.266)

() + () = 0 .

(1.267)

(1.267)

() = cos + B sin .

127

(1.268)

2 u (, ) ,
f (), , ..
:
u (, + 2) = u (, ) .
, () 2 :

( + 2) = () .

(1.269)

(1.268)
, = n , n = 0, 1, 2, ... n , ..
n B . ,
n .
,
(1.268), (1.269)

n = n 2 , n ( ) = A n cos n + B n sin n , n = 0, 1, 2,...

(1.270)

n = n 2 (1.266):

2 R ( ) + R () n 2 R () = 0 .

(1.271)

(1.271)
.

R ( ) = .

(1.272)

(1.272) (1.271),

( 1) 2 2 + 1 n 2 = 0

, ,

2 n 2 = 0 , = n

(n > 0) .

, n (n > 0 )

n n ,
R n ( ) (1.271):

R () = C n n + D n n ,

(1.273)

C n , D n - . R n ( ) n ( ) ,
(1.265),
128

u n (, ) = (A n cos n + B n sin n) C n n + D n n .

(1.274)

R n () = C n n , ..
D n 0 , (1.274) = 0
< a . ,

, R n ( ) = D n n , , C n = 0 , ..
(1.274) a .
(1.263)
u n (, ) = n (A n cos n + B n sin n) a ,

u n (, ) =

1
n

(A n cos n + B n sin n)

a ,

n = 0, 1, 2,... .
( C n D n A n B n ).

u (, ) = n (A n cos n + B n sin n ) , a ,
n =0

u (, ) =

n = 0

(A n cos n + B n sin n) ,

(1.275)

(1.276)

( ).
A n B n ,
(1.264)

u (a , ) = f () = a n (A n cos n + B n sin n) , 0 2 .
n =0

(1.277)

f () [0; 2]:

f () =

0
+ ( n cos n + n sin n) ,
2 n =1

1 2
0 = f ( )d ,
0

129

(1.278)

1 2
n = f ( ) cos n d ,
0

(1.279)

1 2
n = f ( )sin n d .
0
(1.277) (1.278), ,
(1.277) A 0 , a n A n , a n B n
:

A0 =

0
, a n A n = n , a n Bn = n .
2

A0 =

A0 =

, A n = nn , B n = nn ,
2
a
a

0
, A n = n a n , Bn = n a n .
2

u (, ) = 0 + ( n cos n + n sin n) ,
2 n =1 a
n

(1.280)

u (, ) = 0 + ( n cos n + n sin n) ,
2 n =1

(1.281)

0 , n , n
f () (1.279).
, (1.280) (1.281)
.
(1.280), (1.281) .
,
. (1.280),
(1.279)

130

1 2
u (, ) =
f ( )d +
2 0
n

1 2

1 2
+ f ( ) cos n d cos n + f ( ) sin n d sin n =
n =1 a 0

1 n

1 2
= f ( ) + (cos n cos n + sin n sin n)d =
0
2 n =1 a

1 n

1 2
(
)
(
)
= f + cos n d.
0
2 n =1 a

(1.282)

= t , = ;
a
1
cos = e i + e i ,
2
n
1
1
1 1
+ cos n ( ) = + t n cos n = + t n e in + e in =
2 n =1 a
2 n =1
2 2 n =1

( )

1
= 1 + te i
2 n =1

( )

te

n =1

+ te

n =1

= qn =
n =1

q
1 q

q =

i ( )

, q = < 1 .
e
a
a

1 n
+ t cos n =
2 n =1

1
te i
te i 1
1 t2
1 +
=
+
=
2 1 te i 1 te i 2 1 te i te i + t 2

1
1 t2
1
=
=

2 1 2t cos + t 2 2

1
a

1 2 cos( ) +
a
a

1
a 2 2
.
= 2
2 a 2a cos( ) + 2
(1.282),

131

1 2
a 2 2
u (, ) =
d .
f ( ) 2
2 0
a 2a cos( ) + 2

(1.283)

,
. (1.283)
,
. , 0 < a
(1.263), (1.264). , ,
(1.283) = a . , (1.283)
, ,
lim u (, ) = f (). :
a 0

1 2
a 2 2
d < a ,

f ( ) 2
2
u (, ) = 2 0
2a cos( ) + a
= a.
f ()

(1.284)

1 2
2 a 2
d > a ,

f ( ) 2
2
u (, ) = 2 0
2a cos( ) + a
= a.
f ()

(1.285)

.
.
, ..
, u = u (x , y, z ) , ,
, z .
, Oz ,
. , .

1.38.2.

(x )
F (y)

( y)
0

f (x )


0 x a , 0 y b
(.
1.12)

:
u = u (x , y ) ,

. 1.12

132

2u 2u
+
= 0,
x 2 y 2

(1.286)

0< x < a, 0< y< b


u (0, y ) = (y ) , u (a , y ) = F(y ) , 0 y b ,

(1.287)

u (x ,0) = f (x ) , u (x , b ) = (y ), 0 x a ,

(1.288)

(b ) = f (0) , (b ) = (0) ,
F(0 ) = f (a ) , F(b ) = (a ) .

(1.289)

(1.289)
.
, ,
(1.289) , .. .

u (x, y ) = v(x , y ) + (x , y ) ,
(x, y ) = A + Bx + Cy + Dxy

A = f (0 ) , B =

1
[f (a ) f (0)], C = 1 [(b ) (0)] ,
a
b

1
{[(a ) (0)] [f (a ) f (0)] }.
ab
v(x , y )

D=

. , (1.286) (1.289),
, (1.289) .

u (x , y ) = u 1 (x , y ) + u 2 (x , y ) ,

(1.290)

u 1 (x , y ) u 2 (x , y )
:

u 1 (0, y ) = (y ) , u 1 (a , y ) = F(y ) ,

(1.291)

u 1 (x ,0) = 0 , u 1 (x , b ) = 0 ,

(1.292)

133

u 2 (0, y ) = 0 , u 2 (a , y ) = 0 ,

(1.293)

u 2 (x ,0 ) = f (x ) , u 2 (x, b ) = (x ) .

(1.294)

(
).
u 1 (x , y ) u 2 (x , y )
. u 2 (x , y ) .
(1.286),
(1.293),

u 2 (x , y ) = X(x )Y(y ) .

(1.295)

(1.295) (1.286)

X (x )
Y (y )
=
= , = const ,
X(x )
Y (y )

Y Y = 0 ,

(1.296)

X + X = 0 .

(1.297)

(1.293) x (1.295)

X(0 ) = 0 , X(a ) = 0 .

(1.298)

X (x ) (1.297), (1.298)
-, , (. . 1.33.1),

n
n
n = , X n (x ) = sin
x , n = 1, 2, ...
a
a
(1.296) = n
n
n
Yn (y ) = A n ch
y + B n sh
y.
a
a
X n (x ) Yn (y ) ,
u 2 n (x , y ) , (1.286) (1.293):
n
n
nx

u 2 n (x, y ) = A n ch y + B n sh
y sin
, n = 1, 2,...
a
a
a

, ,
134


n
n
nx
u 2 (x , y ) = A n ch y + B n sh y sin
.
a
a
a
n =1

(1.299)

(1.294),

n
x = f (x ) ,
a
n =1

n
n
nx
u 2 (x , b ) = A n ch b + B n sh b sin
= (x ) .
a
a
a
n =1
n
n
, A n A n ch
b + B n sh b
a
a
f (x )
(x ) :
2a
n
A n = f (x ) sin xdx = f n ,
a0
a
n
n
2a
n
A n ch b + B n sh b = (x ) sin xdx = n .
a
a
a0
a

u 2 (x ,0) = A n sin

nb
1
n f n ch
.
nb
a
sh
a
A n B n (1.299)
u 2 (x , y )
A n = f n , Bn =

nx

n(b y )
ny
a .
u 2 (x , y ) = f n sh
+ n sh

a
a nb
n =1
sh
a
sin

(1.300)

ny

n(a x )
nx
b ,
u 1 (x, y ) = n sh
+ Fn sh

b
b na
n =1
sh
b
sin

135

(1.301)

2b
ny
n = (y ) sin
dy ,
b0
b
2b
ny
Fn = F(y )sin
dy .
b0
b
: u (x, y ) = u 1 (x , y ) + u 2 (x , y ) .
1.39

.
, .

,
(
). .
, .
.
,
,
.
(
).
, ,
( ,
);
,
, ...
.
,
,
,
.
, , ,
, , -,
,
.

136

2.

2.1
.
, , .

F x , y , y ,K y ( n ) = 0

, ,
.
:
2
1) y + xy x = 0 ;
2) y y = 1 2- ;
2
3) y y +
x 5 = 0
.
, F( x, y, y ) = 0 y , y = f ( x , y) .

F( x, y, y ) = 0 -

y = ( x) , .

.

y = f ( x , y) D y = ( x , C) , : 1)
, ;
2) y( x 0 ) = y 0 , , ( x 0 ; y 0 ) D , C = C 0 , y = ( x; C 0 )
.
y = ( x , C) XOY , - C .
( x , y , C) = 0 ,
y = f (x , y ) .

y = ( x; C 0 ) ,
y = ( x; C) C = C 0 ,

.
138

y | x = x 0 = y 0 , X 0Y y 0 = y 0 (x 0 ), -

M 0 ( x 0 ; y 0 ) .
,
y = f ( x , y) , y( x 0 ) = y 0
.
. f ( x , y)
D 0Y y , f y (x , y ) , , (x 0 , y 0 ) D , -

, , y = (x ) y = f (x, y ) , , x 0 .
,
, .. ( x; y) , .

C (
C = ).
( ), .. ,
, , .
, y = 1 y

y = sin( x + C) , < C < . : y = 1


y = 1 , .
2.2

y = f ( x , y)
,
, y , x . y = f (x ) g(y ) .
, f (x ) g(y )
a < x < b , c < y < d g(y ) 0 .
y = f (x ) g(y ) dx g(y ) , :

dy
= f (x )dx .
g (y )

139

dy
= f (x )dx + C , g(y )

.
M 1 (x ) N 1 (y )dx + M 2 (x ) N 2 (y )dy = 0
x y .
M 1 (x ), N 1 (y ), M 2 (x ), N 2 (y ) a < x < b , c < y < d .

M 2 (x ) N 1 (y ) :

M 1 (x )
N (y )
dx + 2 dy = C .
M 2 (x )
N 1 (y )

, C .
M( x) dx + N( y)dy = 0
.

M( x)dx + N( y)dy = C , ( ) .
y = f (ax + by + c ) ( a , b, c - ) z (x ) = ax + by

z (x ) = ax + by + c .

z (x ) = a + by , y =

y = f (ax + by + c )

1
(z a ) = f (z )
b

1
(z a )
b

z = a + b f (z ) ,

dz
dz
. ,
= x + c.
dx
a + b f (z )
a x + b1y + c1
a x + b1 y + c1
,

y = 1
;
y = f 1
a 2x + b2 y + c2
a
x
+
b
y
+
c
2
2
2
a 1 b1
a
b
= 0 1 = 1 a 2 b2
a 2 b2
z (x ) = a 2 (x ) + b 2 y z (x ) = a 2 x + b 2 y + c 2
z (x ) = a 1x + b1y + c1
z =

140

2.1. y = x y + 1 .
2

. f (x ) = x , g(y ) = 1 + y 2 , f (x ) g(y )

1 + y2 0.
,

dy
dy
= x y 2 + 1 ; dy = x y 2 + 1 dx ;
= x dx
dx
1+ y2
dy
x2
= x dx ; arctgy =
+ C
2
2
1+ y
.

x2

y = tg + C ,
2

y ,

x2

<
+C< .
2 2
2
2.2.
x yx 2 dx + y 2 + xy 2 dy = 0 .
.
x 2 (1 y )dx + y 2 (1 + x )dy = 0 . , x y .

(1 y ) (1 + x ) 0 ,

x 2 (1 y)
y 2 (1 + x)
dx +
dy = 0 .
(1 y)(1 + x)
(1 y)(1 + x)

x2
y2
x2 1 +1
1 y2 1
dx +
dy = C ;
dx
dy = C ;

1+ x
1 y
1+ x
1 y
dx
dy
(1 + y)dy
= C;
( x 1)dx +
1+ x
y 1
x2
y2
x + ln 1 + x y
ln y 1 = C ;
2
2
1 2
1+ x
x y 2 ) ( x + y) + ln
= C . 1 = 2 .
(
2
y1

141

1+ x
C1 = 0 .
y 1
dx dy
2.3.
+
= 0.
x
y
(x + y )(x y 2 ) + 2 ln

. - -

dx
dy
+
= C;
x
y

ln x + ln y = ln C ( , C ln C ).
ln x y = ln C ; x y = C ;

y=

C
, x

.
2.4. , ,
, ,
.
. y = f ( x) , M( x; y) .

f ( x)
B

M( x , y)
y
0

x P

y = f ( x)
x

. 2.1

= , ..
= = x .

y
tg( ) =
= ,
x
tg = y , tg( ) = y ,
y

y = .
x

,

dy
dx
=

y
x ,
ln y + ln x = ln C ;

xy = C ; y =

C
,
x

.
2.5. m = 0,75
. V . k = 3 .
.
142

. t P = mg Q = kV . P
, Q ,
F = mg kV .
F ,

F ,

m = 0,75 , k = 3 .

0,75

F = ma = m

dV
.
dt

dV
= mg kV , dt

dV
= 0,75q 3V 0,75,
dt

dV
= q 4V .
dt
.
,

1
dV
ln q 4V = t + C .
= dt ,
4
q 4V
ln q 4V = 4(t + C );
q 4 V = e 4 ( t + C ) ;

4 V = q e 4 ( t + C ) ;

q e 4( t + C )
1
1
4 t
C
V = q e e
= q C1 e 4 t , C 1 = e C .
V=
4
4
4
C 1 V(0) = 0 :

0=

1
(q C1 ) , C1 = q .
4

V=
.

y = ctg(2x 5y + 4 ) +

q
1 e 4 t .
4

2
.
5

. y = f (ax + by + c ) . z (x ) = 2x 5y + 4 .

z = 2 5y , y =

1
(2 z ) y = ctg(2x 5y + 4) + 2
5
5

1
(2 z ) = ctgz + 2 z = 5ctg z , z = dz .
5
5
dx
dz
= 5 dx
,
ctg z
143

sin z dz

cos z = 5 dx ,

ln cos z = 5x + c . z 2x 5y + 4 .

ln cos(2 x 5y + 4 ) = 5x + c

4 4x 3y + 2
.

3 8x 6 y 3
a x + b1y + c1
. . y = f 1
a
x
+
b
y
+
c
2
2
2
4 3
, x y : =
= 0 . .. 8 6
. y =

, z (x ) = 4x 3y + 2 ,
.

1
(4 z ) . y = 4 4x 3y + 2 3
3 8x 6 y 3
1
4
z
1
z
dz
(4 z ) =
z =
, z =
.
3
3 2(z 2 ) 3
3
2z 7
dx
2z 7
7

,
dz = 3dx , 2 dz = 3 dx
z
z

2z 7 ln z = 3x + c . z 4x 3y + 2 .
2(4 x 3y + 2 ) 7 ln 4x 3y + 2 3x = c .
z = 4 3y , y =

2.3
f ( x; y) n
x y ,

f (x , y ) = n f (x , y ) .

f ( x; y) -

x y , f (x, y ) = 0 f (x; y ).
y = f ( x; y)

x y , f ( x; y) .
P( x , y)dx + Q( x , y)dy = 0 , P( x , y) Q( x , y) .

144

y
x

y = f .

y
= t (y = xt , y = t + xt )
x


t (x ) .

2y 2 x 2
2.6. y =
.
xy
2y 2 x 2
. f ( x; y) =

xy

2(y )2 (x )2 2 2 y 2 x 2
2y 2 x 2 0
,
=
=
=
x y
xy
2 x y

2y 2 x 2
y
=
. .
= t.
x
xy
y = xt y = t + xt ,

2x 2 t 2 x 2
x 2 2t 2 1 2t 2 1
=
=
.
x tx
t
x2t
2t 2 1
2t 2 1 t 2 t 2 1
dt t 2 1
xt =
t =
=
x
=
.
t
t
t
dx
t
t dt
dx
, 2
= .
x
t 1
1
ln t 2 1 = ln x + ln 1 , ln t 2 1 = ln x 2 , 12 = .
2
t 2 1 = x 2 , t 2 = x 2 + 1.
t + xt =

y , t

y
,
x

y2
= x 2 + 1 . y 2 = x 4 + x 2 .
2
x

2.7.
x + 6x 2 y 2 + y 4 dx + 4 x y x 2 + y 2 dy = 0 , y(1) = 0 .
4

145

P( x , y) = x 4 + 6x 2 y 2 + y 4 ,

Q( x , y) = 4 x y( x 2 + y 2 ) . - .

. y = t x ,

y = t + x t , t =

dt
.
dx

x 4 + 6x 2 y 2 + y 4
x + 6 x y + y = 4 x y x + y y , y =
;
2
2
4xy x + y
4
2
2 2
4 4
4
x + 6x x t + x t
x 1 + 6t 2 + t 4
t + xt =
; t + xt = 4
;
2
2
2 2
3
4x t x + x t
x 4t + 4t
2
4
2
4
2
4
1 + 6t + t
1 6 t t 4t 4t
5t 4 10t 2 1
xt =
t =
=
.
3
2
3
4t + 4 t
4t 1 + t
4t + 4t
3
4t + 4t
dx
4
dt
=
,
2
x
5t + 10t + 1
4

1 20t 3 + 20t
1
4
dt
=
ln

x
;

ln 5t 4 + 10t 2 + 1 = ln x . 2
5 5t + 10t + 1
5
1
5
(x ) = 4
. y ,
5t + 10t 2 + 1
y
y4
y2
5
(x ) = 5 4 + 10 2 + 1

x
x
x

x4
x = 4
. x = 1, y = 0 , 5 y + 10 y 2 x 2 + x 4
1
4
= 1 . x , x =

5y 4 + 10y 2 x 2 + x 4
x 5 + 10y 2 x 3 + 5y 4 x = 1 .
5

2.8. ,
(1;1) , ,
.
. M( x , y) ,

, M( x, y) y .

x y = 2(x + y ); y =

2(x + y )
y
= 21 + . .
x
x

y = x t

(y = t + xt )
146

t + x t = 2(1 + t );

x t = 2 + 2t t ; t =

2 + t dt 2 + t
;
=
x
dx
x

dt
dx
=
. , ln 2 + t = lnc x , 2 + t = x ,
2+t
x
y
t = x 2 ,
= x 2, y(1) = 1. 1 = 2 ; = 3 .
x

, y = 3x 2 x .
2

2
1 1
; 0X x = 0 x = .
3 3
3
2.4 ,

a 1 x + b 1 y + 1
a 1 b 2 a 2 b 1 0
a 2 x + b2 y + 2
x = x 1 + , y = y1 + , ( , ) a 1 x + b1 y + 1 = 0 a 2 x + b 2 y + 2 = 0 .
a 1 b 2 a 2 b 1 = 0 , a 2 x + b 2 y = z (x )
y =

.

2.9. y =

x+y2
.
yx4

. ,

xy
1 1
= 2 0 , , ,
1 1
dy1
. x = x 1 + , y = y1 + , y =
,
dx 1

.. y =

dy d (y1 + ) dy1 + d dy1 + 0


=
=
=
. x , y, y
dx d (x 1 + ) dx1 + d dx1 + 0

y =

x+y2
,
yx4

dy1
x + y1 + + 2
= 1
.
dx 1 x 1 + y1 + 4
147

(2.1)

+ 2 = 0,

+ 4 = 0.

(2.2)

, = 1, = 3 . (2.2) (2.1)

dy1
x + y1
= 1
.
dx 1 x 1 + y1

(2.3)

(2.3) . y1 = t x 1 ,
t = t (x ) , y1 = t x 1 + t (2.3)

t x1 + t =

1+ t
;
t 1

t x1 =

1+ t
1 + 2t t 2
t =
.
t 1
t 1

dx1
t 1
1 d 1 + 2t t 2
= ln C x 1 ;
1 + 2t t 2 dt = x 2
2
1
+
2
t

t
1
1
1
1
2 2
2
ln 1 + 2 t t 2 = ln C1 x 1 ;
=
C
x
;
1
+
2
t

t
=
.
1
2
1 + 2t t 2
C 2 x 12
y
t = 1 ,
x1

y1 y12
1
1+ 2 2 = 2 2
x1 x1 C x1

1
x12 2 x1 y1 y12
1
=

C
=
,
1
2
2 2
2
x1
C x1
C
x12 + 2 y1 x1 y12 = C1 .

y =

y4
+
x 1

2.10.

1
.
y 4x
ln

x 1

(2.4)

y 4x y 4
=
4 . x 1
x 1
dy d (y1 + 4 ) dy1 + 0 dy1
x 1 = x 1 y1 = y 4 . y =
=
=
=
= y1 ,
dx d (x 1 + 1) dx1 + 0 dx1
. ,

148

y1 =

y1
+
x1

y1 = t + x 1 t ,

t =

ln 1 4
x1

y1
= t,
x1

y1 = x 1 t ,

dt
dx1

t = t (x 1 ) .

1
1
x 1 t =
. ,
ln(t 4)
ln(t 4)
dx
ln(t 4)dt = 1 . .
x1
1
t ln (t 4 ) t
dt = ln x1 + ln c
t4
4

t ln (t 4 ) 1 +
dt = ln cx 1
t 4

t ln (t 4 ) t 4 ln t 4 = ln cx 1 .
y
y4
y 4x
.. t = 1 =
, t4=
,
x1 x 1
x 1
y4
y 4x y 4
y 4x
ln

4 ln
= ln c (x 1) .
x 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
t + x 1t = t +

(2.4)

(x + 1)2 + 2(x + 1)(y 3) (y 3)2

x 1 = x + 1 y1 = y 3 ,
= C1 x 2 + 2xy y 2 4x + 8y = C1 .

2.5

y + P (x ) y = Q(x )
y y (y y , ) .
Q(x ) = 0 , ,
Q(x ) 0 .
y + P(x ) y = 0 :
dy
dy
P ( x )dx
= y P(x );
= P(x ) dx; ln C y = P(x ) dx = 0 C y = e
;

dx

149

1
P ( x )dx
y = C1 e
, C1 = .
C

(2.5)

y + P ( x ) y = Q( x ) .

(2.6)

1 . ( ).
y = u (x ) v(x ) y = u v + u v (2.6)
u v + u v + P(x )u v = Q(x ) u v + u (v + P(x ) v ) = Q(x ).
v ,
P ( x )dx
P ( x )dx
v=e
, v u = Q(x ) u e
= Q (x ) ;
P ( x )dx
u = C + Q (x ) e
dx . y = u v ,

v + P (x ) v = 0 ;

P ( x )dx
P ( x )dx dx + C .
y=e
Q
(
x
)
e

(2.7)

. x
x, .. x + P(y )x = Q(y ) , x = u (y ) v(y ) (x = x (y ), x = u v + uv) .

2.11.

dy
2x
2
y = x x 2 + 4 .
dx x + 4

.
. P(x ) =

2x
2
Q(x ) = x x + 4
2
x +4

.
y = u (x ) v(x ), y = u v + u v

2x
2x

2
2

u
v
=
x
x
+
4

u
v

v
+
u
v
=
x
x
+ 4.

2
2
x +4
x +4

2x
dv
2x
v , v 2
v=0 ;
= 2
dx
v x +4
x +4
ln v = ln x 2 + 4 ; v = x 2 + 4 . v
u v + u v

150

u v = x x 2 + 4 : u x 2 + 4 = x x 2 + 4 u =
,

u=

x
x2 + 4

1
2
x +4
2

dx =

1 2

, y = u v = x + u

y = x2 + 4

)(

d x2 + u =

x2 + 4 + C.

)(

x
x +4
2

. -

x2 + u + C ,

x 2 + 4 + C .

2 . ( ).
(2.6)
,
P ( x )dx
y + P(x ) y = 0 y = C e
, C

x , C = (x ) . ,
y = C(x ) e

P ( x )dx

P ( x )dx

y = C(x ) e
(2.6)

.
2
2.12. 2 x y y = 3 x .
.

1
3
y = x 2x
2

. . ,

1
y = 0.
2x

ln y =

dy 1 dx
=
;
y 2 x

1
ln x + C ; y = C x - .
2


y = C(x ) x , y = C(x ) x +

1
2 x

C(x ) . y y

C(x ) x +

1
2 x

C(x )

1
3
C(x ) x = x ;
2x
2

3
x;
2

C(x ) =

3
x .
2

3 32 2
x + C1 = x 3 2 + C1 . ,
2
3
2
+ C1 = x + C1 x , y = x 2 + C1 x -

, : C(x ) =

y = C( x ) x = x x 3 2

C(x ) x =

151

2.6
y + P(x ) y = Q(x ) y , R , 0 , 1 .

y + P (x ) y = y Q ( x )
y

(2.8)

: y y

z = y1 , z = (1 ) y y

+ P(x ) y1 = Q(x ) .

z
+ P(x ) z = Q(x )
1

z + (1 ) P(x ) z = (1 x ) Q(x ) . ,
1
1
z = (x; C ) , y , y = n 1 =
.
z n 1 (x; C )
. y = u (x ) v(x ) .

2.12. y +
.

ln x
1
y = y2
.
x
x

1 1 ln x
y =
z = y 1
x
x
ln x
ln x
1
z
; z =
z = y 2 y , z + z =

x
x
x
x
z, z . (2.7) z = u (x ) v(x ) :
2

y : y

z=e

y +

dx

dx

ln x x
, z = e ln x ln x e ln x dx + C ,

e
dx
+
C
x
x

ln x ln 1

ln x 1

z = x
e dx + C , z = x
dx + C .

x
x x

1
u = ln x du = dx
ln x
ln x
dx
ln x 1
x
.. 2 dx =
=
+ 2 =
,
dx
1
x
x
x
x
x
=dv v =
2
x
x

152

ln x 1

z = x
+ + C z = ln x + Cx + 1 . z = y 1 , x
x

1
1
.
y : y = . y =
z
ln x + Cx + 1

2.13.

y y tg x + y 2 cos x = 0
.


y y tg x = y cos x .
2

y = u (x ) v(x ), y = u v + u v ; u v + u v u v tg x = u 2 v 2 cos x;

u v + u (v v tg x ) = u 2 v 2 cos x .
( )
v v tg x = 0

2 2

(
)
u
v
=

u
v
cos
x

v v tg x = 0

2
u = u v cos x

().

dv
v tg x
dx

dv
= tg x dx
x

ln v = ln cos x

v=

v () u = u 2

y = uv =

du

1
.
cos x

1
cos x .
cos x

u 2 = dx , u = x + C , u = x + C , C1 = C .
1

1
sec x ;
x + C1

sec x
1
sec x =
, y =
.
x
+
C
cos
x

2.7 .

P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy = 0

(2.9)

,
P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy
u (x; y ) , .. P(x; y )dx + Q(x; y )dy = d u (x; y ) .
(2.9) d u = 0 .
u (x; y ) = C .

153

(2.9) .
, (2.9)

Q P
=
.
x y

(2.10)

(2.9) ,

u
u
= P(x; y ) (a ),
= Q(x; y ) ( ) . () ,
x
y
u (x; y ) = P(x; y ) dx + C(y ) . C(y ) , ,

u
P
P
=
d x + C(y ) (): dx + C(y ) = Q(x , y ) .
y
y
y

C(y ) , C(y ) .
u (x, y )
y

u = P(x , y )dx + Q(x 0 , y )d y ,


x0

(2.11)

y0

x 0 y 0 ; .
.
,

P (x , y ) x + Q (x , y ) y = C .
(2.9) (2.10) , ..

(2.12)

Q P

,
x y

(2.8) .
(x , y ) , , .
, x ,

(x ) = e

P Q

y x
Q dx

154

(2.13)
,

(y ) =

P Q

y x

dy
P
e
.

(2.14)


2.14.

(e

+ y + sin y dx + e y + x + x cos y dy = 0 .

. , x
y
. P(x; y ) = e + y + sin y, Q(x; y ) = e + x + x cos y .

P
Q
P Q
= 1 + cos y ,
= 1 + cos y . ..
=
, y
x
y x

. , u (x, y ) , ..

(e

+ y + sin y dx + e y + x + x cos y dy =

u
= e x + y + sin y (a )
x

u
u
dx + dy ;
x
y

u
= e y + x + x cos y ( ) .
y
u
x
() x : dx = e + y + sin y dx ;
x
x
u = e + x y + x sin y + C(y ) . u

u
= x + x cos y + C(y ) , ().
y
x + x cos y + C(y ) = e y + x + x cos y , C(y ) = e y . ,

y :

(y ) = e y .

u (x, y ) = e x + x y + x sin y + e y .

u (x, y ) = e x + xy + x sin y + C(y ),

u (x , y ) = C

e x + x y + x sin y + e y C = 0 .
2.15. (2.11)
(x + y 1)dx + e y + x dy = 0 .

. P(x , y ) = x + y 1, Q(x , y ) = e + x .
y

P
Q
= 1,
= 1. , .
y
x

155

y
(x + y 1)dx + (e + x 0 )dy = C .

x0

y0

(2.11)

x 0 = 0 , y 0 = 0 ,

( )

x2

x2
y y
+ x y x + e
= C,
+ x y x + e y e0 = C ,
2

0
2

0
x2
+ x y x + e y 1 = C . C + 1 = C1 ,
2
x2
+ x y x + e y = C1 .
2

2.16. 2 x y dx + x + y dy = 0 .
. , P(x , y ) = 2 x y
2

Q(x , y ) = x + y . ,
2

P
Q
= 2x .
= 2x
x
y
(2 x y )x + x 2 + y 2 y = C ; 2 x 2 y + x 2 y + y 3 = C ; 3x 2 y + y 3 = C .

2.17.

(x cos y y sin y )dy + (x sin y + y cos y )dx = 0 .


. Q(x , y ) = x cos y y sin y, P(x , y ) = x sin y + y cos y

P
Q
P Q
, , = x cos y y sin y + cos y,
= cos y,

y
x
y x

P Q

y x x cos y y sin y + cos y cos y



=
= 1. Q
x cos y y sin y
, x . -

.
P Q

y x
Q dx

=e
= e = e x . e x , :
e x (x cos y y sin y )dy + e x (x sin y + y cos y )dx = 0 .
P1 (x , y ) = e x (x sin y + y cos y ), Q1 (x , y ) = e x (x cos y y sin y ).
dx

P1
Q1
= e x (x cos y y sin y + cos y );
= e x (x cos y y sin y + cos y ) .
y
x
156

P1 Q1
, .
=
y
x

u
= e x (x cos y y sin y ) (a ),
y

u
= e x (x sin y + y cos y ) ( ) .
x

() y , :

u = e x (x cos y y sin y )dy = x e x sin y + e x y cos y e x sin y + C(x )


u
= e x sin y + x e x sin y + e x y cos y e x sin y + C(x ) =
x
= x e x sin y + e x y cos y ; C(x ) = 0, C(x ) = C .
u (x , y ) = x e x sin y + e x y cos y e x sin y = C .
e x (x sin y + y cos y sin y ) = C .

2.8 .

F x, y , y , K , y (n ) = 0

(2.15)

n .
n y = (x ) ,
(2.15) (2.15).
(2.15) ,
, y = y 0 , y = y0 K , y (n 1) = y (0n 1)

x = x 0 , x 0 , y 0 , y0 , K , y (0n 1) .
y = (x , C1 , K , C n )


C1 , C 2 ,K , C n , .
, , , .. ,
.
, ,
, .
(2.15),

157

2.9 ,

1. y (n ) = f (x ) .
n , :

y (n 1) = f (x )dx + C1 = f1 (x ) + C1

y (n 2 ) = (f1 (x ) + C1 )dx + C 2 = f 2 (x ) + C1 x + C 2
.........................................................................
C1
C2
x n 1 +
x n 2 + K C n 1 x + C n ,
(n 1)!
(n 2)!
f n (x ) = K f (x )dx n .
144244
3
y = f n (x ) +

y = f n (x ) + C1x n 1 + K + C n 1x + C n , C1 =

C1
C2
, C2 =
,K
(n 1)!
(n 2)!

2.18. y = e 2 x , y(0) = 1,
y(0 ) = 1; y(0) = 0 .
.

1
1
1

y = e 2 x dx + C1 = e 2 x + C1 , y = e 2 x + C1 dx + C 2 = e 2 x + C1x + C 2 ,
4
2
2

1
C
1

y = e 2 + C1x + C 2 dx + C3 = e 2 x + 1 x 2 + C 2 x + C3 .
8
2
4

C1 , C 2 , C3 ,

1
+ C1
2
1
y(0 ) = 1 : 1 = + C 2
4
1
y(0 ) = 1 :
1 = + C3
8

1
2
5
C2 =
4
7
C3 =
8
1
1
5
7
: y = e 2 x x 2 x + .
8
4
4
8
y (0) = 0 :

0=

C1 =

158

2. F x, y (k ) , y (k +1) , K , y (n ) = 0 ,
y
y (k ) = z(x ) ,

y (k +1) = z, y (k + 2 ) = z K , y (n ) = z (n k )

F x, z, z, K , z (n k ) = 0 , k .
y
2.19. x y = y ln .
x
. y = z(x ) , y = z ,
z z
z
, : x z = z ln z = ln .
x x
x

, .

z
= t (x ) , z = t x z = t x + t , t x + t = t ln t
x
dt
dt
dx
x
= t (ln t 1) .
.
=
dx
t (ln t 1) x
d(ln t 1)
dx
ln t 1 = x , ln(ln t 1) = ln x + ln C1 ln t 1 = C1x ;

t = e C1x +1 . z = xt , z = x e C1x +1 .
z = y , y = xeC1x +1 dy = xe C1x +1dx . , u dv = uv vdu .
du = dx
y = xe
dx = e C1x +1 dx = dv v = 1 e C1x +1 .
C1
x C 1 x +1 1 C 1 x + 1
y =
e
2e
+ C2 .
C1
C1
C 1 x +1

u=x

K , y (n ) = 0 , 3. F y , y , y
x
y = p(y ) ,

y = p p , p= p

dp
. dy

159

.
x , y (k 1) ,

.. F y (k ) , y (k +1) , K , y (n ) = 0 ,

(k + 1) , y (k ) = z(x ) ,
z = p( y ) .

2.20. y =
.

, x .

y = p(y ), y = p

dp = y

1
2

dp
dp
p
. p
=
,
dy
dy
y

1
2 dy

= 2 y + C1 . p y ,
dy

= dx .

2 y + C1

dy p = y

y = 2 y + C1 .

y
.
y

y = t2
dy
2 t dt
2 t + C1 C1
C
2 dt
.
x=
=
=
=
dt = dt 1
2 t + C1
2 t + C1
2 2 t + C1
2 y + C1 dy = 2 t dt
C
x = t 1 ln 2 t + C1 + C 2 . .. t = y , x = y 0,5 C1 ln 2 y + C1 + C 2
2
.
2.21.
y 3 y = 1 y(0) = 1, y(0) = 1 .
. ,
. y = p( y) . , ,

p = p p , y 3pp = 1.
dp
, p =
,
dy

dy
dy
pdp = 3 , pdp = 3 ,
y
y
p2
1
C
1
= 2 + 1 , p 2 = 2 + C1 .
2 2y
2
y

dp
y
p = 1 ,
dy
3

160

p2
p2
y 3 +1 C1
3
= y dy ,
=
+ ,
2
2
3 +1 2


.
1 , y(0) = 1 y(0) = 1,
y = p( y) p(1) = 1 . y = 1 p = 1

1
1
:
+
C
1
=
+ C1 , C1 = 0 .
1
1
y2
1
1
1
, p 2 = 2 p = . y = p( y) , y = .
y
y
y
p 2 =

C
dy
1
y2
= , ydy = dx , ydy = dx ,
= x + 2 , y 2 = 2 x + 2 .
2
2
dx
y
, : y = C 2 2 x .
C 2 , x = 0 y = 1
1 = 2 0 , C2 = 1 .
y 2 = 2 x + 1
y = 1 2x
2.10

y (n ) + a1 (x ) y (n 1) + a 2 (x ) y (n 2 ) + K + a n (x ) y = f (x ) .

(2.16)

(2.16) a1 (x ), a 2 (x ), K, a n (x ) f (x )
(a , b ) .
f (x ) 0 , (2.16)
. f (x ) 0 , .
y1 ,
y = y1 z dx .
y1 , y 2 , K , y n

y (n ) + a 1 (x ) y (n 1) + K +, a n (x ) y = 0 ,
161

(2.17)

y = C1y1 + y 2C 2 + K + y n C n

(2.18)

(C1 , C 2 , K , C n const ) .
, 2-

y + a1 (x ) y + a 2 (x ) y = 0

(2.19)

y = C1y1 + C 2 y 2 ,

(2.20)

y1 y 2 .
y1 (x ) y 2 (x ) ,
, ..

y1
const .
y2



(a , b ) , ()
W (y1 , y 2 ) 0 , ..

W (y 1 , y 2 ) =

y1 y 2
0.
y 1 y 2

(2.19) y1 (x ) ,
, ,
x

a 1 ( x )dx

e
y 2 (x ) = y1 (x )

x0

y12

dx ,

x 0 (a , b )

(2.21)

(2.21)
2- , , .

2.22. y +

2
y + y = 0 :
x

1) ; 2) (2.21).

162

. 1)

sin x
sin x
. y =
z dx ;
x
x
sin x
x cos x sin x
y =
z+
z dx ,
x
x2
sin x
(
x cos x sin x ) x 2 2 sin x + 2x cos x
y = z
+ 2z

z dx .
x
x2
x3
, : z sin x + 2z cos x = 0
dz
2 cos x

=
z.

dx
sin x
d(sin x )
C1
ln z = 2
= 2 ln sin x + ln C1 z =
. ,
sin x
sin 2 x
sin x C1 dx
sin x
sin x

y=
C1
ctg x.
2 + C2 = C2
x sin x
x
x

sin x
cos x
.
C1
y = C2
x
x
y1 =

2) , (2.21)

1
sin x e
sin x
x 2 dx = sin x dx =
y 2 (x ) =
dx
=

x sin x 2
x sin x 2
x sin 2 x

x
x
sin x
cos x
.
=
( ctgx ) =
x
x
sin x
cos x
y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 , y = C1
.
C2
x
x
2

dx
x

2.11
n

y (n ) + a 1 y (n 1) + K + a n 1 y + a n y = 0 ,
a 1 , K, a n - .

163

n-

(2.22)

(2.22) (2.17)
(2.18)

y = C1 y1 + C 2 y 2 K + C n y n ,

y1 ( x ),K , y n ( x ) (2.22),
; C1 , C 2 ,K, C n - .
. (
)
,
(2.22). ,
(2.22):

k n + a1k n 1 + K + a n 1k + a n = 0 .

(2.23)

(2.22)
y
k :

y ( n ) k n , y ( n 1) k n 1 , K , y' k , y 1.
(2.23)

n
( )
(). , k j

(k k j ) .


(2.23) :
1. ( 1) k
e kx ;
2. k m
m e kx , xe kx , K , x m 1e kx ;
3. k1 = + i k 2 = i
e x cos(x ), e x sin(x );
4. k1 = + i k 2 = i

2m

e x cos( x ), e x sin( x ),

xe x cos(x ), xe x sin(x ),K, x m 1e x cos(x ), x m 1e x sin( x )


, n ( ) n
(2.22). (2.18),
(2.22) .

164

n
( n 1)
y( x 0 ) = y 00 , y' ( x 0 ) = y10 , K , y
( x 0 ) = y n 1,0 ( ).

2.23. y' '+2 y'3y = 0.
.
, k ,

k 2 + 2k 3 = 0 .

k1 = 3, k 2 = 1 .

y1 = e 3 x , y 2 = e x .

, y( x ) = C1 e

3 x

+ C2e x .

2.24. y (4 ) + 2 y + 5 y = 0.

. k 4 + 2k 3 + 5k 2 = 0 ,
: k1 = 0 2,
k 3 = 1 + 2 i, k 4 = 1 2 i. ,

y 3 = e x cos (2 x ), y 4 = e x sin (2 x );

y1 = e 0 = 1, y 2 = xe 0 = x,

y( x ) = C1 + C 2 x + C 3 e x cos(2x ) + C 4 e x sin(2x ).
2.25. y y + 4 y 4 y = 0,
y(0) = 0, y(0) = 2, y(0) = 10. .
. .

k 3 k 2 + 4k 4 = 0
k 2 (k 1) + 4(k 1) = 0 ,

(k 1)(k 2 + 4) = 0 .
k 3 = 2 i.

: k 1 = 1 , k 2 = 2 i,

y( x ) = C1e x + C 2 cos (2 x ) + C3 sin (2 x ).

y' ( x ) = C1e x 2C 2 sin(2 x ) + 2C 3 cos(2 x ),

y' ' ( x ) = C1e x 4C 2 cos(2 x ) 4C 3 sin(2 x ) .



x = 0 , y = 0 , y = 2 , y = 10 :
,

0 = C1 + C 2 ,
2 = C 1 + 2C 3 ,
10 = C1 4C 2 .

C1 = 2, C 2 = 2, C 3 = 0 , y( x ) = 2e x 2 cos(2x ) .
165

2.26. m
k . x (t )
x = 0, x (t ) , x (t ) .
. m x = F .
, ,
Fgh = k x (t ), k > 0 , F = x (t ), > 0 ,


m x + x + k x = 0 . m k 2 + k + k = 0

k1, 2

2 4m k
.
=
2m

:
1) 4mk > 0 ( ,
), ,
.
x (t ) = C1e k 1 t + C 2 e k 2 t .
. ,
x = 0 t . k1 , k 2 < 0 .
2

2)

2 4mk = 0 ,

k1 = k 2 =

= r < 0 .
2m

x (t ) = (C1 + C 2 t ) e

r t

3) 4mk < 0 .
2

k1 = + i , k 2 = i ,

=
, =
2m

2 4mk
.
2m

x (t ) = e (C1 sin t + C 2 cos t ).



. , k = 0
t

k
k
t + C 2
t .
m
m

x (t ) = C1 sin

166

2.12
n
.

y (n ) + a 1 y (n 1) + K + a n 1 y + a n y = f (x ).

(2.24)

f (x ) ,
.
a 1 , a 2 , K , a n (

x ).
(2.24)

y( x ) = Y * ( x ) + Y ( x ) ,

(2.25)

Y * ( x ) - - , Y ( x ) -
(n )

(n 1)

y + a 1 y
+ K + a n 1 y + a n y = 0 .


: y1 ( x ), y 2 ( x ),K, y n ( x ) .
Y ( x ) = C1 y1 ( x ) + C 2 y 2 ( x ) + K + C n y n ( x ). ,

- Y * (x ) .

.
. (2.24)
y1 ( x ), y 2 ( x ),K, y n ( x ) , x :

Y * ( x ) = C1 ( x ) y1 ( x ) + C 2 ( x ) y 2 ( x ) + K + C n ( x ) y n ( x ).

C1 ( x ), C 2 ( x ),K, C n ( x )

C1 ( x ) y1 + C2 ( x ) y 2 + K + Cn ( x ) y n = 0,

C1 ( x ) y1 + C2 ( x ) y2 + K + Cn ( x ) yn = 0,

C1 ( x ) y1( n 1) + C2 ( x ) y (2n 1) + K + Cn ( x ) y (nn 1) = f ( x ),


167

(2.26)

f(x) (2.24).
W ( y1 , y 2 ,K, y n )
. .

C2 ( x ), C2 ( x ), K , Cn ( x ) ; .
,

C1 ( x ) y1 + C2 ( x ) y 2 = 0,

C2 ( x ) y1 + C2 ( x ) y2 = f ( x ).

(2.27)

1 ( ) 2 ( )

0
y2
y1
0
y f ( x )
f ( x ) y2
y f (x)
y1f ( x )
,
C1 =
= 2
, C2 = 1
=
W ( y1 , y 2 )
W ( y1 , y 2 )
W ( y1 , y 2 ) W ( y1 , y 2 )
W ( y1 , y 2 ) =

y1
y1

y2
= y1 y2 y 2 y2 . .
y2

(2.28)

C1 ( x ) =

x0

y 2 f (x)
dx , C 2 ( x ) =
W ( y1 , y 2 )

x0

y1 f ( x )
dx.
W ( y1 , y 2 )

(2.29)


2.27. y + 9 y =

9
.
sin 3x

. ,
y = Y* + Y .
Y y + 9 y = 0 .
k 2 + 9 = 0 k1, 2 = 3 i ,

Y = C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x ,

168

y1 = cos 3x y 2 = sin 3x .

Y * = C1 (x ) cos 3x + C 2 (x ) sin 3x .

C1 (x ) cos 3x + C2 sin 3x = 0

9 .

(
)

3
C
x
sin
3
x
+
3
C
cos
3
x
=
1
2

sin 3x

=W=

cos 3x
sin 3x
=30
3 sin x 3 cos 3x

cos 3x
0
0
sin 3x
9 = 9ctg 3x .
C1 = 9
= 9 ; C2 =
3 cos 3x
3 sin 3x
sin 3x
sin 3x
C1
C2
C1 =
= 3, C2 =
= 3 ctg3x . ,

C1 (x ) C 2 (x ).
C1 = 3x , C 2 = ln sin 3x .

Y * = 3x cos 3x + ln sin 3x (sin 3x ),

y = C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x 3x cos 3x + ln sin 3x (sin 3x ).

2.13

.

n

y (n ) + a 1 y (n 1) + a 2 y (n 2 ) + K + a n y = f (x ) ,

(2.30)

f (x ) = e x (Pn (x ) cos x + Q m (x ) sin x ) ,

(2.31)

a 1 , a 2 , K, a n R
Y * (x ) = x r e x (PS (x ) cos x + Q S (x ) sin x ) .
169

(2.32)

r + i

k n + a 1 k n 1 + K + a n = 0 .

(2.33)

(2.33) , r = 0; PS (x ) QS (x )
x S , , S
n m

S = max (n; m ).

(2.34)
Ps ( x ) Q s ( x ) ,
Y * y .
(2.30)
(2.31), ,
, ..

y (n ) + a 1 y (n 1) + K + a n y = f1 (x ) + f 2 (x ) + K + f n (x ) ,

Y* = Y1* + Y2* + K + Yn* ,

y (n ) + a y (n 1) + K + a n y = f i (x ) .

Yi*

(2.35)


2.28. y 2 y 3y = x e 4 x .
. y = Y + Y* . Y y 2 y 3y = 0 .

k 2 2k 3 = 0 , k1 = 1, k 2 = 3 , Y = C1e x + C 2 e 3x .

y f (x ) = x e .
= 4 , = 0 , Pn (x ) = x , Q m (x ) = 0 , n = 1.
+ i = 4 + 0 i = 4 , r = 0 . (2.32)
4x

Y* = e 4 x (ax + b ) . a b . Y * , Y * , Y * -

(Y ) = 4 e

(Y ) = 4 e
*

4x`

4x`

(ax + b ) + a e 4 x

(4ax + 4b + a ) + 4a e 4 x
170

= e 4 x (4ax + 4b + a )

= e 4 x (16ax + 16b + 8a ) ,

y 2 y 3y = x e 4 x :

e 4 x (16ax + 16b + 8a ) 2e 4 x (4ax + 4b + a ) 3e 4 x (ax + b ) = x e 4 x .


4x
e 5ax + 6a + 5b = x .
x .

x:

5a = 1,

x 0 : 6a + 5b = 0.
1
6
6
1
a = , b = , Y * = e 4 x x
.
5
25
5
25

y = y + y ,

y(x ) = e 4 x

5x 6
+ C1 e 3 x + C 2 e x .
25

2.29.
sin(t ) :

x + 2 x = sin(t ).

2 , 2 = k / m.

. x + 2 x = sin(t )
k1, 2 = i :

x ( t ) = C1 cos(t ) + C 2 sin(t ) .
+ i = i , ,
,
u ( t ) = (A cos(t ) + B sin(t )) t ,
u ' ( t ) = (A sin(t ) + B cos(t )) t + A cos(t ) + B sin(t ),
u ' ' ( t ) = t (A 2 cos(t ) + B 2 sin(t )) + 2(A sin(t ) + B cos(t )) .

2A sin(t ) + 2B cos(t ) = sin(t ) .
1
A =
, B = 0. ,
2
t
x ( t ) = C1 cos(t ) + C 2 sin(t )
cos(t ).
2
t
. .

.
( ), : , , .
171

2.30. y + y' ' = 12 x + 6e


y' ' ' (0) = 11, y' ' (0) = 3, y' (0) = 6, y(0) = 4.
. , .
f1 ( x ) = x f 2 ( x ) = e x .
( 4)

. Y
: k1 = k 2 = 0,
k 3 = i, k 4 = i : Y = C1 + C 2 x + C 3 cos x + C 4 sin x. Y * = Y1* + Y2* .
f1 ( x ) = 0 , = 0 , Pn ( x ) = x , n = 1.
+ i = 0 - 2, (n = 1) , x 2 (r = 2) :

Y1* = (a 1 x + a 2 ) x 2 = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 .
f 2 ( x ) = 6e = 1, = 0, Pn ( x ) = 6, n = 0.
+ i = 1 , x

Y2* ( x ) = be x .

( ) (Y )( ) 4

Y* = a1x 3 + a 2 x 2 + be x . a 1 , a 2 , b . Y
.

(Y ) = 3a x + 2a x
(Y ) = 6a + be ,
*

* ///

+ be x ,

(Y ) = 6a x + 2a
(Y )( ) = be ,
*

* 4

+ be x ,

+ y' ' = 12 x + 6e x :
be x + 6a 1 x + 2a 2 + be x = 12x + 6e x .
a 1 = 2, a 2 = 0, b = 3.
y

( 4)

y( x ) = Y + Y * , y( x ) = C1 + C 2 x + C3 cos x + C 4 sin x + 2x 3 + 3e x .
, . y x = 0

y(0) = C1 + C 2 x + C 3 cos x + C 4 sin x + 2 x 3 + 3e x


y (0) = C 2 C 3 sin x + C 4 cos x + 6x 2 + 3e x
y (0) = C 3 cos x C 4 sin x + 12x + 3e x
y (0) = C 3 sin x C 4 cos x + 12 + 3e x

x =0

x =0

172

x =0

x =0

= C1 + C 3 + 3 = 4 ,

= C2 + C4 + 3 = 6 ,

= C 3 + 3 = 3 , .. y(0) = 3 ,

= C 4 + 15 = 11 , .. y(0) = 11.

C1 = 1 , C 2 = 1 , C 3 = 0 , C 4 = 4 .
y = 1 x + 2x 3 + 4 sin x + 3e x .
2.14
, y1 ,K, y n . .
,
, . , :

dy1
dx = f1 ( x , y1 , K y n ),
dy
2 = f 2 ( x , y1 , K y n ),
dx

M
dy n
= f n ( x, y1 , K y n ).

dx

(2.36)

y1 ( x ),K , y n ( x ),
.
(2.36) ,

y1 ( x 0 ) = y10 , y 2 ( x 0 ) = y 20 , K ,

y n (x 0 ) = y n 0 .

(2.37)

(2.36)
y1 ( x , C1 , C 2 , K , C n ), K , y n ( x , C1 , C 2 , K , C n ),
(C1 , C 2 ,K, C n ) D R (2.36); , (2.37), ,
~ ~
~
~ ~
~
C1 , C 2 ,K , C n , y1 x , C1 , C 2 , K , C n , K

~ ~
~
K y n ( x , C1 , C 2 , K , C n ), (2.37). , -

- , .

173

dy1
dx = a 11 y1 + K + a 1n y n ,
dy
2 = a 21 y1 + K + a 2 n y n ,
dx

M
dy n
= a n1 y1 + K + a nn y n ,

dx

(2.38)

a ij - .

. , ,

y1 = a11y1 + K + a1n yn .
y2 , K , yn . , :

y1 a11y1 + 21y1 = 22 y 2 + K + 2 n y n

(2.39)

ij . ,

a11y1 + 21y1 + 31y1 = 32 y 2 + K + 3n y n ,


y1

(2.40)

y1( n 1) a 11 y1( n 2 ) + K + n 1,1 y1 = n 1, 2 y 2 + K + n 1, n y n ,

(2.41)

y1( n ) a 11 y1( n 1) + K + n1 y1 = n 2 y 2 + K + nn y n

(2.42)

(2.38) (2.39)-(2.42)
y 2 ,K, y n ,
y1 ( x ) y1( n ) , y1( n 1) ,K, y1' .
(2.42),
n- y1 . y1 , y 2 , K , y n .

174

2.31. -

dy1
dx = y1 + y 2 + y 3 ,
dy
2

= y1 y 2 + y 3 ,
dx

dy 3 = y + y + y .
1
2
3
dx
.

y1 = y1 + y2 + y3 = y1 + ( y1 y 2 + y 3 ) + ( y1 + y 2 + y 3 ) =

= y1 + 2 y1 + 2 y 3

y1 + y1 2 y1 = 2 y 3 .

(2.43)

y1 + y1 2 y1 = 2 y3 = 2 y1 + 2 y 2 + 2 y 3 .

y1 + y1 2 y1 2 y1 = 2 y 2 + 2 y 3 .

y1 ( x ) , y 2 , y 3 y1 .
(2.43),

y 2 + y 3 = y1 + y1 ,
y = y1 + y1 2 y1 .
3
2

y 2 , y 3

y1 + y1 2 y1

y
=
,
3
2

y = y1 y1 4 y1 .
2
2

(2.44)

(2.43)

y1 + y1 4 y1 4 y1 = 0.

(2.45)

(2.45)
: 3 + 2 4 4 = 0 , 2 ( + 1) 4( + 1) = 0 , ( + 1) 2 4 = 0 , 1 = 1 ,
2 = 2 , 3 = 2 . 2 = 2, 3 = 2.
, (2.45)

175

y 1 ( x ) = C 1 e x + C 2 e 2 x + C 3 e 2 x .
(2.44) y 2 (x ) y 3 (x )
1
y 2 ( x ) = (C1e x + 4C 2 e 2 x + 4C 3 e 2 x + C1e x 2C 2 e 2 x + 2C 3 e 2 x
2

4C1e x 4C 2 e 2 x 4C 3 e 2 x = C1e x + C 2 e 2 x 2C 3 e 2 x .
1
y3 ( x ) = (C1e x + 4C 2e 2 x + 4C3e 2 x C1e x + 2C 2e 2 x 2C3e 2 x
2

2C1e x 2C 2 e 2 x 2C 3 e 2 x ) = C1e x + 2C 2 e 2 x .

y 1 ( x ) = C1 e x + C 2 e 2 x + C 3 e 2 x ,

x
2x
2 x
y 2 ( x ) = C 1 e + C 2 e 2C 3 e ,

x
2x
y 3 (x ) = C1e + 2C 2 e .

x = a11x + a12 y,

y = a 21x + a 22 y.
t

(2.46)
t

x = p1e , y = p 2 e . . x , y ,
t

e ,

(a 11 )p1 + a 12 p 2 = 0,

a 21 p1 + (a 22 )p 2 = 0.

(2.47)

,
0:

a 11
a 21

a 12
a 22

= 0.

(2.48)

(2.48) (2.46),
.
1 2 ( , ). .
1) 1 , 2 R , 1 2 .
176

,
: - x (1) = p11e 1t , y (1) = p12 e 1t , -

x ( 2) = p12 e 2 t , y ( 2) = p 22 e 2 t . p11 , p12 p12 , p 22 -

(2.47) = 1,2 .

:

x = C1 x (1) + C 2 x ( 2 ) = C1 p11e 1t + C 2 p12 e 2 t ,


y = C1 y (1) + C 2 y ( 2 ) = C1 p12 e 1t + C 2 p 22 e 2 t .
2) 1 = + i, 2 = i, 0.

p1 p 2 - (2.47), = 1

.
( + i ) t
( + i ) t
x* = p1 e
, y* = p 2 e
. ,
x*, y * :

x (1) = Re(p1 e ( +i) t ), y (1) = Re(p 2 e ( +i) t ),


x ( 2) = Im(p1 e ( +i ) t ), y ( 2 ) = Im(p 2 e ( +i) t ).

x = C1 Re(p1 e ( +i ) t ) + C 2 Im(p1 e ( +i ) t ),
y = C1 Re(p 2 e ( + i) t ) + C 2 Im(p 2 e ( +i ) t ).

3) - 2.

x = e t (a 1 t + a 2 ), y = e t (a 3 t + a 4 ).

(2.49)

a 1 , a 2 , a 3 , a 4 ,
. , (2.49) (2.46).
t , . , , a 1 = C1 , a 2 = C 2 , a 3 , a 4 .
2.32. .

x = 4 x 3 y,

y = 3x + 4 y.
t
t
. x = p1e , y = p 2 e . p1 , p 2

177

(a 11 )p1 + a 12 p 2 = 0,

a 21 p1 + (a 22 )p 2 = 0.

4
= 4 3i. p1 , p 2 , 1 = 4 + 3i :
3

1, 2

= (4 ) 2 + 9 = 0.

3ip 1 3p 2 = 0,

3p 1 + 3ip 2 = 0.
( ,
0). p1 = 1 , p 2 = i.
x = p1e

x (1) = Re(e ( 4 +3i ) t ) = e 4 t cos(3t ),


x ( 2 ) = Im(e ( 4+ 3i ) t ) = e 4 t sin(3t ),

y = p2e :

y (1) = Re(ie ( 4 +3i ) t ) = e 1t sin(3t ),


y ( 2 ) = Im(ie ( 4+3i ) t ) = e 1t cos(3t ),

x = C1 x (1) + C 2 x ( 2) = e 4 t (C1 cos(3t ) + C 2 sin(3t )),


y = C1 y (1) + C 2 y ( 2 ) = e 4 t (C1 sin(3t ) + C 2 cos(3t )).
2.15
, , , .. . ,
().
: f (x ) I : y = f (x ) .
, X0Y . ,

y = (x , c 1 , c 2 , K , c n )

(x , y, c1 , c 2 , K , c n ) = 0
(y

x; c1 , c 2 , K , c n ).
y = (x , c1 , c 2 , K , c n ) n . (n + 1) :

178

y = (x , c1 , K , c n ),

y = (x , c1 , K , c n ),

y = (x , c1 , K , c n ),
K K K K K K K K ,

y (n ) = (n ) (x , c1 , K , c n ).
c1 , c 2 , K , c n . ,
n y = (x , c1 ,K, c n ) .
, (x , c1 , K , c n ) = 0 ,
, y x

x = 1, y = y . , x 4 = 4 x 3 , y 4 = 4 y 3 y .
. I
: x 2 = x + c y 3 .

( )

( )

. x 2 = x + c y 3 .

, x 2 = 2 x x + c y 3 = 1 + 3 c y 2 y . :

( )

x2 x
,
c =
3
x 2 = x + c y 3 ,
y

2
2 x = 1 + 3 c y 2 y ,
2 x = 1 + 3 x x y 2 y .

y3
, :
3 x (x 1) y = y (2 x 1) .
. II
: x = c 1+

c2
.
y2

. x = c 1+

c2

y2

c2

1) (x ) = c1 + 2 , 1 = 0 + c 2 ( 2 )y 3 y .
y

2) (1) = 2 c 2 y 3 y , 0 = 2 c 2 3y 4 y y + y 3 y .

179

c2

x
=
c
+
1

y2

: 1 = c 2 ( 2 )y 3 y

4
3 4
0 = 2 c 2 3 y y y + y y .

2
II y y = 3 (y ) .
I . y = f (x ) ; (x 0 , f (x 0 )) . f (x 0 ) = k f (x 0 ) = tg , 0X . y = f (x )
x 0 :
y = f (x 0 ) + f (x 0 ) (x x 0 ) y = y 0 + y 0 (x x 0 ) , (x 0 , y 0 ) . (x 0 , y 0 ) y = f (x ) . (x , y ) , , ( !). ,
, :
1
y = y0
(x x 0 ) .
y 0
. y
, ,


C (x , 0 )
2
0
2 y = x .
B x
A (x 0 , y 0 )
.
L,

(x 0 , y 0 )
L
.
,
y . , , 1

:
y = y0
(x x 0 )
y 0
1
0 = y0
(x x 0 ) x = x 0 + y 0 y 0 . C (x 0 + y 0 y 0 ; 0) .
y 0

180

x +(x 0 + y 0 y 0 ) y 0 + 0
, : 0
;
.
2
2

. 2 y 2 = x .
x + (x 0 + y 0 y 0 )
y
2 0 = 0
,
2
2
y 02 = 2 x 0 + y 0 y 0 . A (x 0 , y 0 ) L , . , I
y y y 2 + 2 x = 0 .
. , : ,
(0; 1) .
.

y
C (x 0 , y 0 ) L ,
A (0, y )
. L

0,
x0
C (x 0 , y 0 )

tg = y(x 0 ) tg = y 0 .

D
= 1800 ,
0
B (x , 0 ) x
tg = y 0 .
., 0. . ,
:
y = y 0 + y 0 (x x 0 )
y = y 0 + y 0 (0 x 0 ) .A (0; y 0 x 0 y 0 ) 0A = y 0 x 0 y 0 .
AD = A 0 0D , 0D = 1, AD = (y 0 1) x 0 y 0 .
DE . D ,
DE = x 0 .
1
1
cos =
=
.
2
2
1 + tg
1 + ( y 0 )
2

AD, DE, cos : DE = AD cos


( ADE ).
1
: x 0 = ((y 0 1) x 0 y 0 )
.
2
1 + (y 0 )

x 02 1 + (y 0 ) = (y 0 1) 2 (y 0 1) x 0 y 0 + x 02 (y 0 )
2

2 x 0 (y 0 1) y 0 = (y 0 1) x 02 .
2

181

C (x 0 , y 0 ) , . I
2
2 x (y 1) y = (y 1) x 2 .
f (x ) .
y = f (x ) ,
, y = f (x ) .
.
, 10 0 . , 0,02. .
.
dT
t. T (t ) , T (t )

dt
t. T (t )

T 10 0 , (T 10) dT
0,02.
= 0,02 (T 10) .
dt
.
T = 0,02 (T 10 ) .
, I ,
y = 0,02 (x 10 ) 50 y = 10 x .
2.33. 6 4 . , , 1/12 ,
?
. , V ( /) , h :

V = 2gh
g = 9,8 /2 - , - () , ( 0,6 ).
t h , dt dh (dh<0).
, dt, .
, d
|dh| , r (r=2 ).
, d = r 2 dh = r 2 dh .
182

, , , V dt ( V -
).

( = 1 / 12 ),

d = 2 dt = 2 2ghdt .
,

r 2 dh = 2 2ghdt.
,

dt =

r2
2

dh
2r 2

; t =C 2
h.
2g h
2g

t = 0 h = h0 = 6 .

2r 2
C= 2
h0 .
2g
, t h

2r 2
t= 2
2g

h0 h ,

, h = 0:

T=

2r 2 h 0
2 2g

(r = 2 , h = 6 , = 0,6, = 1/12 , g = 9,8 /2), 1062 17,7 .


2.34. , 20,
20 100 60. ;
30 ? .
. (
) :

dT
dT
= k (T 20),
= k dt , .. ln(T 20) = kt + ln C
dt
T 20
t = 0, T=100; = 80. t = 20, T = 60; , ln 40=
=20k+ln 80, k = -(1/20) In 2. ,

T 20 = 80 e (1 / 20 )t ln 2 = 80(1 / 2 )(t / 200 ) , T = 20 + 80(1 / 2)( t / 20 ) .

T=300 10=80(1/2)t/20, (1/2)t/20=1/8. , t/20=3,


t=60 .
2.35.
, ; ,

183

, , . .
. x& - ; &x& - ;
: f1 = ax f1 = bx .
,

m&x& = bx ax , m&x& + bx& + ax = 0


. mk 2 + bk + a = 0

k1, 2 = b b 2 4ma / (2m )

1). b 2 4ma > 0 , -, ;

k1 = b + b 2 4ma / (2m ) = r1 , k 2 = b + b 2 4ma / (2m ) = r2 ,

x = C1e r1 t + C 2 e r2 t
(- ).
2
2). b 4ma = 0 ,
:

k1 = k 2 = b / (2m ) = r .

x = C1e rt + C 2 te rt .
3). , b 2 4ma < 0 ,
:

k1 = + i , k 2 = i , = b / (2m ), =

( 4am b )/(2m).
2

x = e t (C1 cos t + C 2 sin t ), x = e t sin (t + 0 ) ,


= C12 + C 22 , sin 0 = C1 / , cos 0 = C 2 /

2.16
.


,
.
, , .
.

184

F(x, y, U, U x , U y ) = 0 ,

(2.50)

F(x, y, U, U x , U y , U xx , U xy , U yy ) = 0 ,

(2.51)

F .
, F U
.
(2.51) ,
A(x , y ) U xx + 2B(x , y )U xy + C(x , y )U yy + F x , y, U, U x , U y = 0 .(2.52)

(2.52)

A(x, y ) U xx + 2B(x , y )U xy + C(x, y )U yy + D(x , y )U x +


+ E(x , y )U y + F(x , y )U = f (x , y ),

(2.53)

A, B, C, D, E, F, f , G x y , A, B, C . .
(2.53) f (x , y ) = 0 , ; f (x , y ) 0 ,
.
,
, U
,
.
,

y (n ) = f x , y, y , K, y (n 1)
y = (x, C1 , K , C n ) , n , -

( , , , ).
.
, ,
.
.

2.36. ,
:

) U xx + U yy U xx U yy
2

)2 = 0 ,

185

) sin U xy U yy sin U xy cos U x sin U x cos U xy + 2 U = 0 .


. )

U 2xx + U 2yy U 2xx + 2 U xx U yy U 2yy = 2 U xx U yy = 0 .


,

U xx

2U

=
x2

U yy

2U
.
=
y2

) ,
U = U ( x , y) . ,

sin ( U xy U yy ) ,
sin U xy cos U x + sin U x cos U xy sin U xy cos U x
sin U x cos U xy + 2 U = 0 2 U = 0 U( x , y) = 0.
2.37. , ( ) :
) 3 U xy 6 U xx + 7 U y U x + 8x = 0 ,
) U x U xy + 2x U U xy 3 xy U y U = 0 ,
2

) x y U xxy + 2 e y U xy x y + 1 U xx 2 U = 0 .
2

. (1.4), ,
- ) ,
A = 6, 2B = 3, C = 0, D = 1, E = 7, F = 0, f = 8x ;
- ) , ;
- ) .

U
= 0.
x
. , U(x , y )
x , y : U(x , y ) = (y ) , , (y ) x , , , 2.38.

. ,
(y ).
2.39.

U
= f (y ) , f (y ) y

.
. y ,
186

U (x , y ) =

U
dy + (x ) = f (y ) dy + (x ) ,
y

(x ) .
, 2.38 2.39 ((y ) (x )) . .
, ,
.

2U
2.40.
= 0.
x y
U
U
= 0 .
. :

= V,
x y
y
V

= 0 .
x
2.38, : V = f (y ) ,
U
f (y ) . :
= f (y ) .
y
y ,
U(x , y ) = f (y ) dy + (x ) ,
U(x , y ) = (y ) + (x ) ,
(x ) (x ) .
, U(x , y )
.
, . .

: ,
.
, .
, , , . . , , .

187

2.17


(
) (). , .
()
.
,
.
(2.52) 2
= B AC .
, (1.3) G
2
) , B AC > 0 ,
2
) , B AC = 0 ,
2
) , B AC < 0 .

2U
U U
= F x , y, U,
,

x y

(2.54)

.
:

2 U U
U U

=
F

x
,
y
,
U
,
,

2
2
x y
x
y

(2.55)

2U
U U

=
F
x
,
y
,
U
,
,

y
y

(2.56)

2U 2U
U U
+
=
F

x
,
y
,
U
,
,

y
x 2
y 2

.
188

(2.57)

A(dy ) 2B dxdy + C(dx ) = 0


2

(2.58)

(2.52), (x , y ) = C1 (x, y ) = C 2 .
(2.52) . (2.52) , , ,
, x y
= (x , y ), = (x , y ).

, ..
(x , y ) = C1 (x, y ) = C 2 ,
,
= (x , y ), = (x, y ) ,
(2.54) (
(2.55) =

, =
,
2
2

).
, .. (x , y ) = C ,
= (x, y ), = (x, y ) ,
(x, y ) , , = x .
(2.56).

(x , y ) 1 (x, y ) i 2 (x , y ) = C1, 2 ,

(x , y ) , , 1 (x , y )
2 (x , y ) .

= 1 (x , y ), = 2 (x , y )

(2.52) (2.57).
, , . ,
x y 189

:
U x = U x + U x , U y = U y + U y .
U x
U y .
, , (2.52) .
, (2.52)
.

2.41.
2
2U
2 U
y
x
=0
x2
y2
2

.
2
2
. B AC . A = y ,

C = x 2 , B = 0 , B 2 AC = x 2 y 2 0 . ,
,
x = 0 y = 0 . . ,
(2.54) . :

y 2 (dy ) x 2 (dx ) = 0
(y dy x dx )(y dy + x dx ) = 0,
y dy x dx = 0, y dy + x dx = 0 .
2

,
y 2 x 2 = C1 y 2 + x 2 = C 2 .
: = y x , = x + y .

:
2

U U U U
U
=
+

=
( 2x ) +
2x ,
x x x

U U U U
U
=
+

=
2y +
2y
y y y

190

U U
2U
U
U
U
=

2
x
+
2
x
=

2
x

+
+

x 2 x

x

U U
U
+2
+ 2x
+
=

x

2 U

2U

U
2U
U
2U
2
2x 2 ( 2 x ) +
2x + 2
+ 2x
( 2x ) + 2 2x =

2
2
2U
U
U
2 U
2 U
= 4 x

8
x
+
4
x

2
+
2
.
2
2
2


2
2
2
2U
U
U
2 U
2 U
2 U
=
4
y
+
8
y
+
4
y
+
2
+
2
.

y 2
2
2
U xx U yy , -

2
2
2U
2 2 U
2 2
2 2 U
4 x y 4x y
16x y
+ 4x y 4x y

2
2
U
U
2 x 2 + y2
+ 2 y2 x 2
=0

2 U x 2 + y 2 U y 2 x 2 U

+
+
= 0.
2 2
2 2
8x y
8x y
2

.
2
2
2
2
2
2
x + y = y x = 2 y = + , 2x = .

2U

U
+
+
= 0.
2 2 2 2 2 2

2.18


.
1.

191

2
2U
2U 2U
2 U
= 2 + 2 + 2 + f (x , y, z, t ),
2
t
y
z
x

(2.59)

, . x , y, z , t .
( )
2
2U
2U
2 U
= 2 + 2 + f (x , y, t ) .
2
t
y
x

(2.60)

(2.60)
2
2U
2 U
=
+ f (x , t ) .
2
2
t
x

(2.61)

, , , , . , :
) ( U = U (x , t ) x
t );
) ( U
);
) , ;
) ,
( U ).

2U
2U
U
=
A
+
B
+ CU
t
x 2
t 2

(2.62)

. ( U ),
( U ).
.
2.

192

2
U
2U 2U
2 U
= a 2 + 2 + 2 ,
t
y
z
x

(2.63)

a , , .

2
U
2U
2 U
= a 2 + 2 ,
t
y
x

(2.64)

2
U
2 U
=
.
t
x 2

(2.65)


- . , 2
( , U
t ), 2
, , ( a =
, U ), 2
( a = D , U ), ( U
).
,
,

2
U
2U 2U
2 U
+ f (x, y, z, t ) = a 2 + 2 + 2 ,
t
y
z
x

(2.66)

f (x , y, z, t ) .
(2.63) (2.66) .
3.

193

2U 2U 2U
+ 2 + 2 = f (x , y, z )
2
x
y
z

(2.67)

.
f (x , y, z ) = 0 , :

2U 2U 2U
+ 2 + 2 = 0.
2
x
y
z

(2.68)


: , , , .
.
, , , ; , , ,
.
, , (
). , , ,
,
.
, , .
;
, - , . , ,
, .
,
. , .

, ,
.

, .
, ,
, , .
194

,
, , ,
.
2.19 .
.

Fdx
T0

T0

x2

x1
dx
. 2.2


0 .
- , . U(x , t ) ,
( (. 2.2)). t
U = U(x , t 0 ) X 0U
t 0 .

U = U (x , t )
2
2U
2 U
=a
+ f (x , t ) ,
t2
x2

(2.69)

T0
F
, f = , = (x ) (

), F , 0 -

a =
2

, .. f = 0 ,
2
2U
2 U
=a
t2
x2

(2.70)

.
(2.69) .
(2.69) (2.70) .

195

: ().
, :

U(x , 0 ) = (x ),

U(x ,0 )
= (x ) .
t

(2.71)


. , l
, U(x , t ) x = 0 x = l :

U(0, t ) = 0, U(l, t ) = 0 .

(2.72)

:
U x =0 = 1 (t ), U x =l = 2 (t )
I

U
U
=1 (t ),
= 2 (t )
x x =0
x x =l
U

III
+ h1U
= 1 (t ),
+ h2U
= 2 (t ) ,

x
x =0
x
x =l
1 (t ), 2 (t ), 1 (t ), 2 (t ), 1 (t ), 2 (t ) ,
h 1 h 2 .
II


, , . I ,
(, ..) ;
II , ; III
.
, , , . , (2.72)
. ,
.
,
, , .
: (2.69) < x <
t > 0 ,

U t =0 = (x ),

U
t

= (x ) .
t =0

196

, 0 x < . I - III x = 0 .


2.42. l . U(x , t )
, t = 0 (x ) ( 0 x l )
(x ) . :
) ;
) ;
) x = 0 x = l , t = 0 ,
F(t ) (t ) ;
) , ..
, .
. , U(x , t )
(2.70)
2
2U
2 U
=a
.
t2
x2
a 2 = T0 0 , T0 , = 0 = const ,

.. .
:

U t = 0 = (x ) ,

U
= (x ) , 0 x l .
t t =0

.
). ,
U(x , t ) x = 0 x = l t , ..

U x =0 = 0 ,

U x =l = 0 ,

t > 0.

,
: U(x , t ), 0 < x < l t > 0 ,
2
2U
2 U
=a
t2
x2


197

U x =0 = 0 ,

U x =l = 0

U t = 0 = (x ) ,

U
= (x ) .
t t =0

). , , , . , , T , , : T = K

U
, x

K .

U
= 0,
x x =0

U
= 0,
x x =l

t > 0,

:
2
2U
2 U
=a
, 0 < x < l, t > 0,
t2
x2

U
= 0,
x x =0

U
=0
x x =l

U t = 0 = (x ) ,

U
= (x ) .
t t =0

). (0; x ) (l -x; l ) . (l -x; l ) ,

(t ) T2 T2 = T sin T tg = T

U
:
x

x U tt = (t ) T U x (l x, l )
x 0 ,
(t ) T U x (l; t ) = 0 ,

U(l; t ) (t )
=
= 2 (t ) .
x
T

U(0; t )
F (t )
=
= 1 (t ) .
x
T
, : 0 < x < l , t > 0 ,

198

2
2U
2 U
=a
,
t2
x2

II

U
= 1 (t ) ,
x x =0

U
= 2 (t )
x x =l

U
= (x ) .
t t =0

U t = 0 = (x ) ,

).
, , ..
F(t ) = k U(0, t ) , (t ) = k U(l, t ) ,
k - .
)
T U x (0, t ) k U(0, t ) = 0 , T U x (l, t ) + k U(l, t ) = 0 ,

U (0, t )
+ h1 U(0, t ) = 0 ,
x

U (l, t )
+ h 2 U(l, t ) = 0 .
x

:
2
2U
2 U
,
=a
t2
x2

III

U (0, t )
+ h1 U(0, t ) = 0 ,
x

U (l, t )
+ h 2 U(l, t ) = 0 ,
x

t>0

U(x ,0 ) = (x ) ,

U(x,0 )
= (x ) , 0 x l .
t

2.20
( )

, . , = x + a t , = x - a t
2
2U
2 U
=a
t2
x2

199

(2.73)

2U

= 0 ,

U( , ) = ( ) + F( ) ,
F - (.
2.40). F , ..

, ,
. x t ,

U( x , t ) = ( x + a t ) + F( x a t ) .

F( x a t ) ( F( x )
a ), ( x + a t ) - ( ( x ) a ).

< x < ,

U( x,0) = ( x ) , U t ( x,0) = ( x )

(2.74)

F ,

( x a t ) + ( x + a t ) 1 x +a t
U(x, t ) =
+ (z) d z .
2
2a x a t

(2.75)

(2.75) . .
, ( ( x ) = 0 ),

U( x, t ) =

(x a t) + (x + a t)
,
2

; , ( x ) 2 , .
, (2.74), 0 x < , (
x = 0 )

U (0, t ) = 0
x = 0 ,
200

(2.76)

U (0, t )
=0
x

(2.77)

x = 0 ,

U (0, t )
h U (0, t ) = 0 .
x
x = 0 .

(2.76) (2.77)
(2.76), .. ( x ) = ( x ) ,
( x ) = ( x ) , (2.77), .. ( x ) = ( x ) ,
( x ) = ( x ) .


2.43. ,

2
2U
2 U
=a
, t = 2 , t = ,
t 2
x 2

) U ( x ,0) = sin x ,

U t ( x,0) = cos x ;
) U ( x ,0) = 0, U t ( x ,0) = cos x ;
) U ( x ,0) = sin x , U t ( x ,0) = 0 .
. U ( x , t )
(2.73), (2.74) : < x < , t > 0 .
(2.75).
). ( x ) = sin x , (x ) = cos x ,
U ( x , t ) t :

1
1 x+t
U( x , t ) = [sin (x t ) + sin (x + t )] + cos z d z =
2
2 xt
1
1
= [sin (x t ) + sin (x + t )] + [sin (x + t ) sin (x t )] = sin (x + t ).
2
2
:

U ( x , 2) = cos x , U ( x , ) = sin x .
. 2.3.
201

U (x, y)

t= 2

t=

t=0

3
2

2
0

. 2.3
) , .. U ( x ,0) = 0 .
( x ) = 0

1 x+t
1
1
x+t
U( x , t ) = cos z d z = sin z x t = [sin (x + t ) sin (x t )] =
2 x t
2
2
1
x+t+xt
x+tx+t
= 2 cos
sin
= cos x sin t .
2
2
2
t = 2 : U t = 2 = cos x ,
t = : U t = = 0 .
). , , ,
(x ) = 0 .

sin ( x t ) + sin ( x + t ) 1
xt+x+t
xtxt
= 2 sin
cos
=
2
2
2
2
= sin x cos t .

U(x, t ) =

U ( x , 2) = 0 , U ( x , ) = sin x .
2.21
.
,
, . , , , .

, 202

,
- .

- .

.

1 2 U 2 U
=
a2 t2
x2

(2.78)

1 2 U 2 U
=
,
a2 t
x2

(2.79)

U(0, t ) = 0,

U(l, t ) = 0 .

(2.80)

U t ( x , 0 ) = (x )

(2.81)

U(x , 0 ) = (x ),
(2.78)

U(x , 0 ) = (x )

(2.82)

(2.79).
: I ; II .
I. (2.78)

U (x , t ) = X (x ) T (t ) .

(2.83)

(2.78)

1
T (t )
X (x )

(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
X
x
T
t
=
X
x
T
t

=
= (const ) .
a2
a 2 T (t ) X (x )

203


X(t ) T (t ) :

T (t ) + a 2 T(t ) = 0 .

(2.84)

X (x ) + X(x ) = 0 .

(2.85)

, (2.78) .
(2.83) (2.80),
X(0 ) T(t ) = 0, X(l ) T(t ) = 0 ,

X(0 ) = 0, X(l ) = 0

(2.86)

(.. T(t ) = 0 , U 0 ).
X(x ) : ,
(2.85), (2.86). , (2.85) (2.86)
, , . (2.85)
(2.86)

k
k =
, k = 1,2,3,K
l
2

X k (t ) = sin

kx
.
l

= k (2.84)

Tk (t ) = a k cos

k a t
k a t
+ b k sin
,
l
l

a k b k .
, X k (t ) Tk (t )
(2.78), (2.80)

ka
ka
k

U k (x, t ) = a k cos
t + b k sin
t sin x , k = 1,2, K.
l
l
l

II. ,
-
204

U (x , t ) = U k (x , t ) .
k =1

(2.87)

(2.78)

ka
ka
k

U (x , t ) = a k cos
t + b k sin
t sin x .
l
l
l
k =1

(2.88)

(2.88) (2.81), a k b k , (x ) (x )
( {X n (t ) }).

ak

kx

2 l
kx
= (x )sin
dx , b k =

(
x
)
sin
dx .

l
ka 0
l0
l
2l

(2.89)

(2.79)
, (2.84)

1 T (t )
= T + a 2 T = 0 ,
2
a T (t )

Tk (t ) = a k e

k a

t
l

a k .
, U k (x, t ) = Tk (t ) sin

, k = 0,1, K

kx
(2.87)
l

ka 2
kx
U(x , t ) = a k exp
.
t sin
l
l
k =1

(2.90)

(2.82), a k
(x ) :

2l
kx
a k = (x )sin
dx .
l0
l

205

(2.91)


.

2.44. ,
x = 0 x = l . x 0
h (. 2.4) .

A
h
0

x0

x
l

. 2.4

U tt = a 2 U xx
U(0, t) = U(0, x) = 0

h
0 < x x0
x ,
0
U(0, x) =
U t (x,0) = 0,
h (l x )

, x0 < x l
l x 0

0 < x l,

h
h (l x )
x = U - ,
= U
x0
l x0

( ).
(2.88)

a
a
k

U(x, t) = a k Cos t + b k Sin t Sin x ,


l
l
l
k =1

206

a k , b k - ,
(2.89).

2 l
k
a k = (x ) Sin x dx , (x) = U(x,0) .
l 0
l

l

2 x o h
k
h (l x )
k
ak =
x Sin x dx +
Sin x dx .
l 0 xo
l
l
xo l - x o

k
x dx = dv
h
k
l
=
x Sin x dx =
l
k
xo 0
l
dx = du, v = Cos x
l
k
x = u,

xo

h
=
xo

Sin

x
xl

l xo
k o
k
Cos x +

Cos x dx =
l 0
l
k x o
k

hl
k
hl
l
k
= Cos x 0 +

Sin
x0
k
l
x o k k
l
=

xo

hl
k
hl
k
Cos x 0 +
Sin x 0 .
2
k
l
l
x o (k)
2

h (l x )
kx
h l
kx

Sin
dx
=
dx =

(l x ) Sin
l
x
l
l
x
l
xo
o
o xo
l

kx
dx = dv
l
=
=
l
kx
du = dx, v = Cos
k
l
l
h l (l x )
kx
l l
kx
=

Cos

Cos
dx =

l - x o k
l x o k x o
l

l
kx 0
hl
hl
l
kx
=
Cos

Sin
=
k
l
k (l x o ) k
l xo
l x = u,

Sin

207

kx 0
kx 0
hl
hl 2
=
Cos
+

Sin
.
k
l
l
(k)2 (l x o )

kx o
kx o
2 hl
hl 2
a k =
Sin
Cos
+

+
l k
l
l
x o (k) 2
kx o
kx o
hl
hl 2
+
Cos
+

Sin
=
2
l
l
k
(k) (l x o )

2 hl 2
=
l (k) 2

1
1

+
xo l xo

kx o
kx o
2 hl 2
Sin
=
Sin
.

2
l
l
x
(
l

x
)
(
k

o
o

b k .

bk =

U( x,0)
2 l
k
.
(x ) Sin x dx , ( x ) =
a k 0
l
t

( x ) = 0 , b k = 0 U ( x , t )

kx o
2 hl 2
1
a
k
2 Sin
Cos t Sin x .
U( x, t ) = 2
l
l
l
x o (l x o ) k =1 k

: U(x , t )
x t .
t 0 , U(x , t 0 ) , .

2.22 .

. 2.18 , ,
(2.63)
(2.66). , ,
U .
2
U
2 U
=a
+ f (x , t ) .
t
x2

208

(2.92)


2.45.
0 x l .
, .. . x ,
:
)
a , a ;
) ;
) ;
)
, .
.
(2.92),
f (x , t ) 0 , ..
2
2U
2 U
=a
,
t
x2

o < x < l, t > 0 ,

k
( k c
, c ,

a =

).
U(x ,0 ) = (x ), 0 x l ,
(x ) , t = 0 . .
) ( x = 0, x = l )
,
a
:
2
U
2 U
=a
,
t
x2

0 < x < l,

t>0

U(x,0) = ( x) ,

0xl ,

U(0, t) = u 1 ,

U(l, t) = u 2 ,

t > 0, u 1 = u 2 = const .

a ,
, :

209

2
U
2 U
=a
,
2
t
t

0 < x < l,

t>0

U(x,0) = ( x) ,

0xl ,

U(0, t) = 1 ( t) , U(l, t) = 2 ( t) ,

t > 0;

) q ( ,
t )

q = k

U
.
x

,
; Q1 ( t ) Q 2 ( t ) .
:

U(0, t )
= Q1 ( t )
x

Q (t)
U(0, t )
= 1 = 1 (t ) ,
x
k

U ( l, t )
= Q 2 ( t )
x

U ( l, t ) Q 2 ( t )
=
= 2 (t ) .
x
k

, ,
x = l , , 0X . .
, :

2
U
2 U
=a
,
2
t
x

0 < x < l,

t > 0,

U(x,0) = ( x) ,

0xl ,

Q (t)
U(0, t )
= 1 ,
x
k

U(0, t ) Q 2 ( t )
=
;
x
k

t > 0 ;

) , q(0, t ) = Q1 (t ) q(l, t ) = Q 2 (t ) , x = 0
210

x = l , . , , -

U(0, t )
U(l, t )
=0
=0
x
x

) ,
.
q(l, t) = [ U (l, t) - 2 ( t )] ,
q(0, t) = [ U (0, t) - 1 ( t )] ,
U(0, t ) U(l, t ) ,
1 ( t ) 2 ( t ) ( x = 0 ) ( x = l ) ;
.
, , q = k
x = l

U
.
x

U ( l, t )
= [ U (l, t) - 2 ( t )]
x

U ( l, t )

= h [ U (l, t) - 2 ( t )] , h = ,
x
k
x = 0

U (0, t )
= h [ U (0, t) - 1 ( t )] .
x
, , 0 , q = k U x . q = k U x .
, :

2
U
2 U
=a
,
t
x2

0 < x < l,

t > 0,

U(x,0) = ( x) ,

0xl ,


211

U (0, t )
= h [ U (0, t) - 1 ( t )] ,
x
U ( l, t )
= h [ U (l, t) - 2 ( t )] ,
x

t > 0.

.

k ( >> k ), )
). , ,
( 0 ), )
), Q1 ( t ) = Q 2 ( t ) = 0 , .
2.23

.

2.46. l = 3 , .
2
f (x ) = 3x x . . U(x , t ) . ( a 4 ).
. U(x , t )

U
2U
= 16 2 , 0 < x < 3, t > 0 ,
t
x

U(0, t ) = 0, U(3, t ) = 0, t > 0

U(x ,0 ) = 3x x 2 , 0 x 3 .

, .6, (2.90)

212

ka 2
kx
U(x , t ) = a k exp
,
t sin
l
l
k =1


a k (2.91)
2l
kx
a k = (x ) sin
dx, (x ) = U(x,0).
l0
l
2
, l = 3, a = 4, (x ) = 3x x .

, :

kx
dx
2
kx
2
3
a k = (3x x ) Sin
dx =
=
3
kx
30
3
du = (3 2 x ) dx, v = Cos
k
3
u = 3x x 2 ,

2 x (3 x ) 3
kx
=
Cos
3
k
3

3
0

dv = Sin

3 3
kx
+
(
3

2
x
)
Cos
dx =

k 0
3

kx
dx
3
kx
3
= 0+
dx =
=
(3 2x ) Cos
3
kx
k 0
3
du = 2 dx , v =
Sin
k
3
3

2
3
kx
6 3
kx
(
)
=
+
dx =
3 2 x Sin
Sin
k
k
3 0 k 0
3

3
2
6 3
kx
kx
2 18
=
0+
dx =
2 2 Cos
=
Sin
k
k 0
3
k

k
0

36
36
36
= 3 3 [Cosk Cos 0] = 3 3 ( 1)k 1 = 3 3 1 ( 1)k .
k
k
k
u = 3 2x,

dv = Cos

36 1 ( 1) 4 k t
kx
U(x, t) = 3
.
3 Sin

e
3
k =1
k3
k -
0
k
, 1 ( 1) =
2 k - ,
k

, k = 2n + 1 ( k = 1 n = 0 ),

213

16 ( 2 n +1) 2 2 t
72
1
(2n + 1)

U(x, t) = 3

Sin
x.
9
e
3
3
n =0 (2n + 1)

U(x , t )
.


2.47. l
U 0 = const , :
x = 0 U = U 1 ,

x = l U = U 2 .

U(x , t ) , ,
.
.
2
U
2 U
=a
,
t
x2

0 < x < l,

t>0

U(0, t) = u1 , U(l, t) = u 2 ,
U(x,0) = U 0 ,

t > 0,
0xl ,


sin

U (x, t) = Tn ( t ) Sin
n =1

nx
:
l

nx
l

(2.93)

2l
nx
Tn ( t ) = U ( x , t ) Sin
dx ,
l0
l

(2.94)

t . Tn (t ) .
,

2
2l l 2 U
nx
n
Tn ( t ) =
U (0, t ) (1) U (l, t ) 2 2 2 Sin
dx .
n
l
n 0x

214

2
U
2 U
U ( x, t )
=a
,
t
x2

Tn ( t ) =

2
2l l U
nx
U (0, t ) (1) n U (l, t )

Sin
dx

2
l
n
(na ) 0 t

(2.95)

(2.94) t ,

d Tn 2 l U
nx
=
Sin
dx
dt
l 0 t
l

(2.96)

(2.95), (2.96), Tn ( t ) :

d Tn ( t ) na
2na 2
U (0, t ) (1) n U (l, t )
+
Tn ( t ) =
2
dt
l
l
2

1-

na 2
2na 2
Tn ( t ) = exp

t C n +
2
l
l

na 2
n
exp
U (0, ) (1) U (l, ) d ,
l

(2.97)

C n Tn (0 ) = C n , Tn (0 )
(2.94):

C n = Tn (0) =

2l
nx
dx
U(x,0) Sin
l0
l

U(x,0) = U 0 , U(0, t) = U 1 , U(l, t) = U 2 , (2.97)

na 2
2
n
Tn ( t ) =
U1 (1) U 2 1 exp
t +
n
l

na 2 2 l
nx
+ exp
dx =
t U 0 Sin
l
l
l

215


na 2
2
n
=
U1 (1) U 2 1 exp
t
n

na 2 2 U 0 l
nx
exp
Cos
t
l
l l n

=
0

na 2
2
n
=
U1 (1) U 2 1 exp
t
l
n

na 2
2 U0

exp
t (Cos n Cos 0 ) =
n
l

na 2
2
n
[
=
U1 (1) U 2 ] 1 exp
t
n

l
na 2
2 U0
n

exp
t (1) 1 .
n
l

(2.98) (2.93),

U (x , t ) =

2U1

n =1

sin

nx
nx
n 1
(

1
)
sin
l + 2U 2
l +

n
n
n =1

n
na 2
2 ( 1) U 2 U1
nx
+
exp
+
t sin
n =1
n
l
l

na 2
2 U 0 ( 1)n 1
nx
+
exp
.
t sin

n =1
n
l
l


-
sin n (
0 < < 2
= 2

n
n =1
0
= 0, 2, K

< <
n 1 sin n
= 2
( 1)
n
n =1
0
= , ,K,

216

(2.98)

l = (l x )
0 < x < 2l ,

n
2l
n =1
x
n 1
(

1
)
sin
n

l = x l < x < l .

n
2l
n =1
sin n

x
U (x , t ) = U 1 + (U 2 U 1 ) +
l
n
n
na 2
2 ( 1) U 2 U1 + ( 1) 1 U 0
nx
+
exp
.
t sin
n =1
n
l
l

.
, U 1 = U 1 (0, t ) U 2 = U 2 (l, t ) .
, : U(x , t )

U (x , t ) = v(x , t ) + w (x , t ) ,
w (x , t ) ,
v(x , t ) . w (x , t )
, , , x

w (x , t ) = (t ) +

(t ) (t )
x.
l

x

l
. , w (0, t ) = U 1 , w (l, t ) = U 2 . , v(x , t ) ,
,

w (x , t ) = U 1 + (U 2 U 1 )

, w (x , t ) .
w (x , t ), .
.


2.48. 0 X 1 f (x, t) = t ( x + 1) .
217

Q( t ) = t , 2

( t ) = t . .
( t > 0 ).
.
2

U 2U

= t ( x + 1),
t x2

0 x 1,

t > 0,

(2.99)

U(x,0) = 0

U(0, t) 2
= t U(1, t) = t 2 .
x

(2.100)

U(x, t) = v (x, t) + w (x, t) .

(2.101)

w ,
2
(2.100). , , w = x t . ,
(2.100):

w (0, t ) 2
= t , w (1, t ) = t 2
x
w (x ,0 ) = 0 .

v = U x t2

(2.102)

v 2v

= t (1 x ) ,
t x2

(2.103)

v(0, t)
=0
x

v(1, t) = 0

218

(2.104)

v(x,0) = 0 .

(2.105)

v 2v
=
+ (1 x ) t ,
t x2
v(0, t)
v(x,0) = 0 ,
= 0,
x

v(1, t) = 0 .

v 2v

=0
t x2

(2.104), (2.105), v = X(x) T(t) .

X( x ) + 2 X( x ) = 0 ,

X(0) = 0 , X(1) = 0 ,

n =

+ n
2

n = 0, 1, 2,

X n (x) = Cos( n x) .

(2.106)

(2.103) - (2.105)

v(x, t) = Tn ( t ) Cos( n x)

(2.107)

n =0

v(x, t) (2.107) (2.103)

[Tn ( t ) + 2n Tn ( t )] Cos( n x) = (1 - x) t .

(2.108)

n =0

1 x (2.106) (0,1):

219

1 - x = a n Cos( n x) .
n =0

a n = (1 - x) Cos( n x) dx =
0

2
,
2
n

(2.109)

(2.108) (2.109)

Tn ( t ) + 2n Tn ( t ) =

2t
.
2n

(2.110)

(2.110) Tn (0) = 0

Tn ( t ) = 2 n6 [exp ( 2n t ) + 2n t 1 ] .

(2.111)

(2.102), (2.107) (2.111) (2.99) (2.100),

U ( x , t ) = x t + 2 n6 [exp ( 2n t ) + 2n t 1] Cos( n x) ,
2

n =0

n =

+ n , n = 0, 1, 2, .
2

220

3.

3.1
1. .
.
.
2. :
, .
3. , .
4. .
5.
.
6. . .

. . .
7. , .
8. , .
, .
9. .
. .
10. - - .
.
11.
.
12. .
.
13. .
14.
( ).
15.
( ).
16.
. .
17. . .

.
222

18. .
.
19.
( ).
20.
.
21. . .
22. .
23. .
24. . .

223

3.2

3.2.1.

1). x 1 + y dx + y 4 + x dy = 0
2

1 + y 2 + ln( 4 + x 2 ) = C

ey
x
2). 2
dy + dx = 0
x 4
y
3). y = tgx tgy
2x
sec y
4). y =
y
x
x
2
5). 5e tgydx + (1 e ) sec ydy = 0

2
1 2
x 4) + C
(
2
. sin y cos x = C
2
. x + y sin y + cos y = C

. e

y2

. y = arctgC 1 e

x 5

3.2.2.
1). y sin x = y ln y


y = e
2

. y = e

y y
2).
+ ey = 0
y(1) = 0
x
x
x
2
3). 3e tgydx + (1 + e ) sec ydy = 0

y( 0) =
4
2x
2
x
4). (1 + e ) y dy = e dx y(0) = 0
5). S = S cos t ln S
2

. 2 e
.

tg

x
2

( y + 1) = x 2 + 1

(1 + e x ) tgy = 8
3

1 3
y + = arctge x
3
4
2
. ln S 2 tgt = 0

1
2

3.2.3. 2; .
. OX
, . .
: y =

1
x

3.2.4. , M( 0;3) ,

.
224

x2
2

: y = 3 e .
3.2.5. ,
, , 2 .
: 4 ,6 .
0

3.2.6. , 20 C , 20
0

100 60 C . ;
0
30 C ? .
: t = 60 .
3.2.7.
1). x y y =

.:

y
y
arctg = ln x 2 + y 2
x
x
y
2
2
.: arctg = ln x + y
x
2
2
2
.: y = x lnx

y
arctg
x

x+y
xy
2
2
3). ( x + y ) dx x y dy = 0
2). y =

4). xy y + xe

.: y = x ln ln Cx , C 0

y
x

=0
y2
y
5). 3y = 2 + 9 + 9
x
x

.: y = x

3x
C + ln x

3.2.8.

y
1). ( x y y)arctg = x;
y|x =1 = 0
x
2
2
2). ( y 3x )dy + 2 xy dx = 0; y(0) = 1

.: y = y x

y 2 2 xy x 2
3). y = 2
; y|x =1 = 1
y + 2 xy x 2
2
2
2
4). 2x y = x + y ; y(1) = 0

.: y = x

5). xy = y +

x 2 + y 2 ; y(1) = 0

.:

x +y =e
2

y
y
arctg
x
x

.: y = x

.: y =

225

x
1 + ln

1 2
x 1
2

3.2.9. , ,
, .
2

y
x

: x = Ce
.
3.2.10. ,
.
: x = y ln C y .
3.2.11.
1). ( x 2 y + 3)dy + ( 2 x + y 1)dx = 0 .: x 2 + xy y 2 x + 3y =

2). ( x + y + 2)dx + ( 2 x + 2 y 1)dy = 0 .: = x + 2 y + 5 ln x + y 3


.: (x + y 1) = (x y + 3)

2y x 5
3). y =
2x y + 4
2x y + 1
4). y =
x 2y + 1

.: x xy + y + x y =
2

5). .: x 2 y 2 + 2 xy 4 x + 8y 6 = 0 .

x+y2
,
yx4
M(1;1)
y =

3.2.12.
1). y + 2 y = x + 2 x
2

1
;
x sin y + 2 sin 2 y
2
3). x y y = x cos x ;
2). y =

4). y + 2 x y = x e

x2

5). 1 + x 2 y + y = arctg x;

1 2
1
2 x
x + x + Ce
2
2
2 y
. x = 8 sin
+ C e cos y
2
. y = x (sin x + C )
. y =

1 2

x + C
2

arctg x
. y = arctg x 1 + C e
. y = e

x 2

. y = e

arcsin x


6). y 1 x + y = arcsin x ;
2

7). y

y
= x ln x ;
x ln x

. y =

226

+ arcsin x 1

1 2
x ln x
2

y sin x y cos x = 1

. y = cos x

8).

y = 0
2

9). y + ytgx =

1
cos x
y() = 1

. y = sin x cos x

3.2.13. ,
.
. y = 2 + x ln x + C x
3.2.14. , ,
,
2
, .

a2
. y = C x
2x
3.2.15. m ,
, (k 1 ), ,
. ,
, (k ) .
.
k

k m m mt
. v =
t + e
k1
k k1
3.2.16.

2y
= 3x 2 y4 3 ;
x
y
y2
2). y
=
;
x 1 x 1
1). y +

3). y +

2 y
2y
=
;
x
cos 2 x

4). 4 x y + 3 y = e x y ;

5). xy + y = xy ln x;

3
= C x 2 3 x3.
7
x 1
y=
.
Cx
ln cos x + C
y1 2 tg x =
.
x
y 4 = x 3 e x + C .
2
y=
x (C + ln 2 x )

. y

227

1 3

3.2.17.
1).

y + y = e x 2 y

y(0) = 1

ex

. y = e
+ 1 .
2

sec x
. y = 3
.
x +1
x

3x2 y
y + 3
= y 2 x 3 + 1 sin x
2).
;
x +1
y(0 ) = 1
3.2.18. .

1). (x + sin y )dx + (x cos y + sin y )dy = 0 ;


.

1 2
x + x sin y cos y = C
2

2). 3x y + sin x dx + x cos y dy = 0 ;


2

. x y cos x sin y = C
3

+ 3x 2 dx + e x + y + 4 y 3 dy = 0 : y(0) = 0
x+y
+ x3 + y4 = 1
. e
x2 x
x2
4). 2 x y e + ln y dx + e + dy = 0 , : y(0) = 1
y

3). e

x+y

. y e

( = (x ))

5). y dx x dy + ln x dx = 0.

x2

+ x ln y = 1

. y = C x ln x 1

6). x cos x y dx + x dy = 0,

( = (x ))

. y = x (C sin x )

7). x + y dx x dy = 0
. x

y
=C
x

3.2.19.
1). y sin x = sin 2x ;

. y = ln sin x + C1 x + C 2 x + C 3

2). y = 2 sin x cos x sin x ;


2

. y =

228

1 3
sin x + C1 x + C 2
3

3). y = x + sin x ;
4). y = ln x ;

( )
6). (1 + x )y + 1 + y

5). 1 x y x y = 2 ;
2

= 0;

7). y (2 y + 3) = 2 y 2 ;
8). y y y = y ln y ;
2

9). 3y = 4 y y + y ;
2

x3
. y =
sin x + C1 x + C 2
6
x2
2
ln
x

+ C1 x + C 2
. y =
2
3
2
. y = arcsin x + C1 arcsin x + C 2
.

y = 1 + a 2 ln (1 + C1 x )

1
x + C2
C1

1
ln(2 y + 3) = C1 x + C 2
2
x
x
. ln y = C1 e + C 2 e
x
4
. y = C 2 cos C1
4

3.2.20.
1).

2).

y = x e x

y(0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 2
y v = cos 2 x
1
, y (0 ) = 0,
32
1
y (0) = , y (0 ) = 0;
8
y(0 ) =

y x 2 + 1 = 2xy
3).
y(0 ) = 1, y (0) = 3;

y x 2
y = +
4).
x y
y(0) = 0, y (2 ) = 4;
y y y 2 = 0
5).

6).

y(0) = 1, y(0 ) = 2;
y 3 y = 1
y(1) = 1, y(1) = 0;

. y = (x + 3) e

3
+ x2 + 3
2

1 4 1 2 1
x + x + cos 2 x
48
8
32

. y = x + 3x + 1
3

. y =

2 2
16
x 2x
5
5

. y = e

2x

. y =

2x x 2

229

3.2.21. , 0Y
, a .
. e

y
a

= C 2 sec + C1
a

3.2.22. , ,
.
. ,
m .
kt
mg t
m 2 g m
. S = 2 e 1 +

k
k

3.2.23.
m , , ,
, ,
. k .
3

m 2k

3
. S =
t + C C

3k m

2
3.2.24. y sin x = 2 y ,
y = ctg x .
. y = C 2 + (C1 C 2 x )ctgx
y y
3.2.25. y + 2 = 0 y = x .
x x

1
x ln 2 x + C1 x ln x + C 2 x
2
2
3.2.26. y + (tgx 2 ctgx )y + 2 y ctg x = 0
y = sin x . .
2
. y = C1 sin x + C 2 sin x
. y =

3.2.27. ,
y y tgx + 2 y = 0 .

x
+
4
2

. y = C1 sin x + C 2 1 sin ln tg

230

3.2.28. ,

y y +

y
= 0.
x
e x dx
. y = C1 x + C 2 x
x2
+ C 2 e 3 x

3.2.29. , y = C1e
y 9 y = 0 .
3.2.30. y y = 0
y = sh x, y 2 = ch x . ?
3x

3.2.31.

1
1

y + 1 2 y = 0 ( x 0 )
x
4x
1
1
y =
sin x , y 2 =
cos x ?
x
x

y +

3.2.32.
x
2x
1). y' ' y'2 y = 0.
. y(x ) = C1e + C 2 e ;
2). y' '+16 y = 0.
. y(x ) = C1 sin 4x + C 2 cos 4 x;
3). y' ' y' = 0.

4). y' ' '2 y' '+ y = 0.

. y(x ) = C1 + C 2 e ;
x

1+ 5
x
e 2

5). y (4 ) 16 y = 0

1 5
x
e 2 ;

. y(x ) = C1e + C 2
+ C3
2 x
2x
. y(x ) = C 1 e + C 2 e + C 3 cos 2x + C 4 sin 2x
x

6). y (4 ) + 5y' '+4 y = 0.

7). y (4 ) + 20 y' '+25y = 0.

. y(x ) = C1 cos 3x + C 2 sin 3x +

8). y (4 ) + 2 y' '+ y = 0.


9). y + 10 y + 25y = 0
10). y + y + y = 0

y(x ) = C1 sin x + C 2 cos x + C 3 sin 2 x + C 4 cos 2x

+ C 3 cos 9x + C 4 sin 9x

. y(x ) = (C1 + C 2 x ) cos x + (C1 + C 2 x ) sin x


. y = (C1 x + C2 )e

x
2

. y = e C1 cos

231

5 x

3
3
x + C2 sin
x
2
2

3.2.33.
a .

g
t .
a

. x (t ) = a cos

, .

3.2.34. y + 5 y + 6 y =

1
.
1 + e 2x

e 2 x
. y = C1 e
+ C2 e +
ln 1 + e 2 x e 2 x + e 3x arctg e x
2
3.2.35. y + 4 y = ctg x .
2 x

( (

3 x

. y = C1 cos 2 x + C 2 sin 2 x +

( ))

x 1
1
1
+ sin 2x + cos x ln sin x sin 2 x
2 4
2
4

3.2.36. 4 y + y =

4
x
cos
2

x
x
x
+ C 2 sin + 4 cos 2 x ln cos .
2
2
2
2
3.2.37. y 6 y + 9 y = 2x x + 3 .
2 2 5
11
2x
. y = (C1 + C 2 x )e + x +
x+ .
9
27
27
2x
3.2.38. y 3y + 2 y = 3 e .
x
2x
2x
. y = C1 e + C 2 e + 3x e .
x
3.2.39. 2 y + 5 y = e
. y = C1 cos

. y = C1 + C 2 e

5
x
2

1
+ ex .
7

ctg x
2
y + y =
.
x
x
sin x
cos x sin x
x
. y = C1
+ C2
+
ln tg .
x
x
x
2
3.2.41. y + y = tg x ,

y(0) = y = 0 .
0
3
x
. y =
ln 3 sin x cos x ln tg + .
2
2 4
3.2.40. y +

232

y + y + sin 2x = 0 ,

3.2.42.
y( ) = y ( ) = 1 .
. y =

1
1
sin 2x sin x cos x .
3
3

3.2.43.
1). y' '+4 y = 5e .

. y = e + C1 cos 2 x + C 2 sin 2 x

2). x ' '2 x = te .

. x = ( 2 t )e
2 x

+ C1 e

2t

+ C2e t 2 .

3). y' '+ y'2 y = 4x .

. y = C1 e

4). y' '2 y'+ y = xe .

. y = e x (C1 + C 2 x + x 3 6).

5). y' '2 y'+5 y = 5e sin 2 x.


x

+ C 2 e x 2 x 2 2 x 3.

. y = e (C1 sin 2 x + C 2 cos 2 x


x

xe x (sin 2x + 2 cos 2 x )

3.2.44. :

x' ' '+ x' ' = e - t ,


1).
x' ' (0) = -2, x' (0) = 0, x(0) = 1.

. x ( t ) = 1 t + te .

4y'
'
'
+
y
'
=
2
sin
,
2
2).

y' ' (0) = - 5 , y' (0) = 0, y(0) = 5.

. y( x ) = 4 + cos

y y = 2 shx
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1

3).

x
x
x sin .
2
2

. y = x chx

3.2.45. m ,
,

, ,
F = A sin t .

A
sin t , =
a m 2

. x = C1 cos t + C 2 sin t +

a
m

x = 4 y 2 x ,
3.2.46. :
y = 3y x.
. x = C1e
233

+ C 2e 2t , y =

1
C1 e t + C 2 e 2 t .
4

x = 3x y,
x (0) = 1, y(0) = 1.

y
=
x

y
.

2 t
2 t
. x = e , y = e .

3.2.47. :

3.2.48.

x ' x 7 y + 5 = 0,

2 y'+ x + y z = 0,
3z' x + 2 y z = 0.

. x = C1 + C 2 cos(t ) + C 3 sin( t ), y = 2C1 +

z = 3C1

C3 C 2
C + C2
sin( t ),
cos(t ) 3
2
2

C 2 + C3
C C3
cos( t ) + 2
sin( t ).
2
2

y = 2 y 3z
.

z
=

1
3 t
t
3 t
t
. y = C1e + C 2 e , y = C1e C 2 e .
3
u = 2 y + 4 v ,
3.2.50.
v = u 2 v.
. u =C1 (1 + 2x ) 2C 2 , y = C1 x + C 2 .
3.2.49.

3.2.51. ,
:

) Ln U x U y Ln U x + 5U 6 = 0 ;
) sin ( U xx + U xy ) + cos ( U xx + U xy ) U = 1 ;
2

) U xy + U y + U xy = 0 .
: ) ; ) ; ) .
3.2.52. :

) 2 U x 2 U U xy
)

U x 2U
y

xy = 0 ;

U 2yy U y 2 U yy
U xy U x
x
y

: ) ; ) .
234

2 Ux + 2 = 0.

3.2.53. ,
( ) :
) U xx U xy 3U yy 6 x U y xy U = 0 ;
)

y U y + U 2y 2 U x U xy + U x 6 U = 0 .
y
: ) ;

) .

3.2.54. :

U
)
= x;
y

2 U
)
= 1.
y x

2 U
)
= 2y ;
y2

y3
x2
2
: ) U(x , y ) =
+ ( y ) ; ) U(x , y ) =
+ y (x) + (x) ;
3
2
) U(x , y ) = ( y) dy + (x ) + xy , .
3.2.55. ,

) U(x , y ) = x (x + y ) + y (x + y ) ,

2U
2U 2U
2
+
= 0;
x y y 2
x 2

) U(x, y ) = (x + ay ) + (x ay )
2
2U
2 U
a
= 0;
y 2
x 2

) U(x , y ) =

) (

2 x t + 2 x + t

2 U U 2 U
2x 2 +

= 0.
x y 2
x
3.2.56 3.2.58

3.2.56. x U xx y U yy = 0 .
2

: U = 0; =

235

y
, = y.
x

3.2.57. U xx + 2 U x y 3 U y y + 2 U x + 6U y = 0 .
: U +

1
U = 0; = x + y, = 3x y .
2

3.2.58. U xx 2 U xy + 2 U yy = 0 .
: U + U = 0; = x + y; = x .
3.2.59. l
, t = 0
. ,
,
t > 0 . :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) , ..
,
.
.
:
) U tt ( x , t ) = a U xx ( x, t ) , 0 < x < l , t > 0
2

a 2 = E , E - , -

U( x ,0) = ( x ) , U t ( x ,0) = ( x ) , 0 < x < l


U(0, t ) = U(l, t ) = 0 , t > 0 ;
) U tt ( x , t ) = a U xx ( x , t ) .
2

U( x,0) = ( x ) , U t ( x ,0) = ( x ) , 0 < x < l


U(0, t ) = 1 ( t ) , U(l, t ) = 2 ( t ) , t > 0 ;
1 ( t ) 2 ( t ) - ;
) U tt ( x , t ) = a U xx ( x , t ) .
2

U( x ,0) = ( x ) , U t ( x ,0) = ( x ) , 0 < x < l

236

F (t)
F1 ( t )
, U x ( l, t ) = 2
, t > 0;
E S
E S
F1 ( t ) F2 ( t ) - , ,
U x (0, t ) =

S - .
) U tt = a U xx .
2

U( x ,0) = ( x ) , U t ( x ,0) = ( x ) , 0 x l
U x (0, t ) = 0 , U x (l, t ) = 0 , t > 0 ;
) U tt = a U xx .
2

U( x ,0) = ( x ) , U t ( x ,0) = ( x ) , 0 x l
U x (0, t ) h U(0, t ) = 0 ,
U x ( l, t ) + h U ( l , t ) = 0 ,

h=

K
, .
E S

3.2.60.
l , x = C
h t = 0
. .
: U tt = a U xx
2

U(0, t ) = U(l, t ) = 0 ,

U t ( x ,0 ) = 0

h
0xc
c x,
U( x ,0) =
xl
h
, c x l.
cl
3.2.61. l , ,
. t = 0
, V0 .
U ( x, t ) t > 0 ,

, x = c .
h

.
237

: U tt = a U xx ,

U(0, t ) = U (l, t ) = 0 ,

U( x ,0) = 0 ,

0 x < c 2h
0,

U t ( x ,0) = V0 , c 2h < x < c + 2h


0, c + 2h < x l.

, U ( x , t )
( < x < , t > 0 ), 3.2.61 3.2.64.
3.2.62.
, . 3.1. 1

U
h

x
0

. 3.1.
: ( x ) = 0,

U( x, t ) =

( x + at ) + ( x at )
.
2

3.2.63. U x x = U t t

U( x,0) =

x
, U t ( x ,0) = sin x .
1+ x2
: U(x , t ) =

1 x+t
xt
+

+ sin x sin t .
2 1 + (x + t )2 1 + (x t )2

3.2.64. ,
2
2U
2 U
,
=a
t 2
x 2

238

t = (2a ) ,
) U ( x ,0) = sin x ,

U t ( x,0) = 1;

) U ( x ,0) = sin x ,

U t ( x,0) = 0 ;

) U ( x ,0) = 0,

U t ( x ,0) = 1

: ) U = (2a ) ; ) U = 0 ; ) U = (2a ) .

3.2.65. 0 < x <


x = 0 , 0

[c, 2c]

U ( x , t )
,
OX , .. , .
, U = U ( x, t )

t = 0, c a .
:

.

U ( x , t ) = ( x + at ) ( x at ) ,
< z < 2c
0,
, 2c < z < c
z
0
1
(z ) =
( ) d , (z ) = 0,
c< z <c
2a 2 c
,
c < z < 2c
0
0,
2c < z < .
U

x
-2

. 3.2.
239

. V = V(x , t )

3.2.66. U (x, t ) x = 0 x = l
,
x = l 2
h , .
: U ( x , t ) =

32 h
1
2n + 1
2n + 1

Sin

Cos
a t.

l
l
3 n =0 (2n + 1) 3

3.2.67. x = 0 x = l

x = l 3,

(const )
U(x,0) 0
=
t
0

h - .

,
<
3 2h
l

x >
,
3 2h
x

, .
:

40 l 1
k
k 2
k a t
k x
U( x , t ) = 2 2 Sin
Sin
Sin
Sin
,
a k =0 k
3
2l h
l
l
3.2.68. , x = 0 x = 1,

U = h x 2 x + x .
4

t , .

96 h Sin (2n + 1) x Cos(2n + 1) at


: U ( x , t ) = 5

(2n + 1) 5
n =0
3.2.69. x = 0 x = l .
,

240

(x - l 2 )

Cos
U(x,0)
h
=
t
0

l
h
<
2
2
.
l
h

x <
2
2
t .

4h l 2
k h
kx
k a t
1
k
U(x, t ) = 2 2 2

Sin

Cos

Sin

Sin
2
l
l
l
a k =1 k l k 2 h 2

.
3.2.70. ,
( x = 0 ) , ( x = l ) ,

U(x,0) = kx ,

U(x,0)
=0
t

0 x l .

.
- .

8 kl (1) n
2n + 1
2n + 1
: U ( x , t ) = 2

Sin

Cos
at .
2l
2l
n =0 (2n + 1) 2
3.2.71. ,
, .
.
, ,
U t t + 2 hU t = a U x x , h < a l ,
2

,
. .
:

U( x, t ) = e

h t

[a k Cos(q k t ) + b k Sin (q k t )] Sin


k =0

2 l
k
a k = (x ) Sin
x dx ,
l 0
l
h
2 l
k
bk =
+
(x ) Sin x dx ,
qk l qk 0
l
241

k a
2
qk =
h .
l
2

kx
,
l

3.2.72. l , x = 0 ,
. t = 0

F0 = const ( ), .

U(x , t ) ( )

t > 0.
:

F0 x 8 F0 l (1) n
2n + 1
2n + 1
U( x, t ) =

Sin

Cos
at ,

E
2l
2l
E 2 n =0 (2n + 1) 2
E .

3.2.73. ( ). x = l
0 x l Q = (
, ) t = 0
A = const ; x = 0
, . ,
x = l
, t > 0
x = l t > 0 .
.

P Q
x = t + 2 a Q
P
Q

= c2
.
t
x
,


P(x ,0 ) = 0, Q(x ,0 ) = 0, 0 x l
P(0, t ) = 0, Q(l, t ) = A, t > 0

P(x , t ) ,

Q(x , t ) :

2
Q
2Q
2 Q
=
c

2
a
,
2
2

t
t
x

242

Q(x ,0 )
= 0, 0 x l ,
t

Q ( x ,0) = 0 ,

Q(0, t )
= 0, Q (l, t ) = A ,
x
:

Q( x , t ) = A
+

t > 0.
4 A a t
1
[Cos n t +
e

n = 0 2n + 1

(2n + 1)(l x )
a
Sin n t Sin
,
n
2
l

c (2n + 1)
n =
a 2 , P x = l

2l

P(l, t ) = P(0, t )
+ 2 a Q dx =
0 t

4 c A a t Sin ( n t 2 n )
= 2 a l A +
e
,

n =0 (2n + 1) Cos n

a
tg n =
.
n
l

3.2.74.
0 x l , ,

(x = 0) U 0 ,
(x = l ) q 0 .
.
2
U
2 U
:
=a
, 0 < x < l, t > 0 ,
2
t
x
q
U(0, t ) = U 0 , U x (l, t ) = 0 , t > 0 ;
k
U(x ,0 ) = f (x ), 0 x l ,

k ;

.
3.2.75. ,

243

2
U
2 U
, 0 < x < l, t > 0
=a
2
t
x
U(0, t ) = U(l, t ) = 0, t > 0;

U(x ,0 ) = U 0 = const, 0 x l .

3.2.76.

0xl

,
x .
2
U
2 U
:
, 0 < x < l, t > 0
=a
t
x 2
U(0, t ) U(l, t )
=
= 0, t > 0;
x
x
U(x ,0 ) = f (x ), 0 x l .

3.2.77. ( ,
t
, ) :

U
2U
=D
,
2
t
x

0 < x < l,

t > 0 ( D - ).

, ,
0 x l , :

)
;
) ;
) ,
,
.

U
2U
:
=D
,
2
t
x

0 < x < l,

U( x ,0) = f ( x ) , 0 x l ,
) U (0, t ) = U (l, t ) = 0 ,

t > 0,
244

t > 0.

U(0, t) U(l, t)
=
= 0,
x
x

t > 0,

U
= h [U (0, t ) 1 (t )]

x =0
)
, t > 0.

= h [U (l, t ) 2 (t )]
x x =l
h = D , - .
3.2.78. l
. f(x) .
, x = 0
U 1 , ,
x = l
.
2
U
p
2 U
:
=a

,
t
x2 qs

0 < x < l,

t > 0.

U( x ,0) = f ( x ) , 0 x l ,
U

U(0, t ) = U 1 ,
+ h U
= 0,

x =l

t > 0,

p ; h = k ;
; k .

3.2.79. l = 4,
.

x 2 2 , 0 x 2
f (x) =
4 x , 2 x 4.
.

.
(

a 2).

8 1
: U ( x , t ) = 2 2
k =1 k

k 4
k

3
Sin
+
Cos


2 k
2

245

k 2 2 t
kx
Sin
exp
.
4
4

3.2.80. , 9.4,

U
f (x) = 0
0,

0xl 2
l 2 x l.

U 0 2 U 0 ( 1)m
2m +1

: U ( x , t ) =
+
Cos
x

2
m=0 2 m + 1
l

(2 m + 1)2 a 2 2 t
exp
.
2
l

3.2.81.
1. 0 x l
( x = 0 ) , ( x = l )
U 1 ; U 0
. ( t > 0 ).
2
U
2 U
:
=a
,
t
x2

U(0, t )
= 0,
x

0 < x < l,

t > 0.

U ( l, t ) = U 1 ,

U( x ,0) = U 0 ;

4 (U 0 U1 ) ( 1)n
2n +1

U ( x, t ) = U1 +
Cos
x

n =0 2 n + 1
2l

(2 n + 1)2 a 2 2 t
exp
.
2
4l

3.2.82. 0 x l ,
,

U1 ,

(x) = U 0 x l .

4 (U 0 + U1 ) ( 1)n
2n +1

: U ( x , t ) = U 1 +
Cos
x

n =0 2 n + 1
2l

246

(2 n + 1)2 a 2 2 t 8 U 0
1

exp

2
2
+
2
n
1
l

4
n
=
0

(2 n + 1)2 a 2 2 t
2n +1

Cos
x exp
.
2
4
l
2l

2.

3.2.83.
0 x l
3.
, x = 0
, , x = l
A t , A = const , t > 0 .
.
:
2
U
2 U
=a
,
t
x2

0 < x < l,

U(0, t ) = 0 , U(l, t ) = A t ,
U( x ,0) = 0 , 0 x l
:

U (x, t ) =

t > 0.
t > 0;

Axt Ax
+ 2 x 2 l 2 + V( x, t ) , 0 x l , t > 0 ,
l
6a l

na 2
n
V ( x , t ) = a n exp
x,
t Sin
l
l
n =0


l
n
A
a n = 2 2 z z 2 l 2 Sin
z dz .
l
3a l 0

3.2.84. l ,
,
;
U 1 . U ( x, t ) ,

x = l
U 2 = const , U 0 ( x ) ;
)

) ,
; .

247

. U (0, t ) = 1 ( t )

U ( l, t ) = 2 ( t )

w w = 1 ( t ) +

U = v + w,

x
[ 2 ( t ) 1 ( t )] .
l

)
2
U
2 U
2
=a

h
U
t
x2

0 < x < l,

U (0, t ) = U 1 ,

t > 0.

(*)

U ( l, t ) = U 2

U ( x ,0) = U 0 ( x ) .
U (x, t) = v (x) + w (x, t) , v a v h v = 0 ,
2

, w (x, t)
w (x,0) = U 0 (x) - v (x) .
)

U(0, t ) = U 1 ,
+ h 1 U
= 0,

x =l

U (x, t) = v (x) + w (x, t) , v(x )


a v h v = 0 ,
2

=
U
,
+
h
v
= 0,
1
x =0
1
x

x =l

w (x, t) - (*) (. )

w x =0 = 0 ,
+ h 1 w
= 0,

x =l

w (x,0) = v (x) .

h
h
U 2 Sh x U1 Sh (x l )
a
a
: ) U (x, t) =
+
h
Sh l
a
n

n x
2 n ( 1) U 2 U1
2 2
+

+
a

exp

Sin
,
n
n
l n =1 l
l
2n

248

n h
= + ,
l a
2

a n = U 0 ( x ) Sin

2
n

) U (x, t) =

n x
dx ;
l

h
(l x ) + h 1 a Sh h (l x )
a
a

h
h
h Ch l + h 1 a Sh l
a
a

h Ch

n 2n + h 12
Sin ( n x )
2 2
2
2 U1 a

exp

+
h
t
n
2
2
2
2
l
a

+
h

+
h
+
h
n =1
n
n
1
1
2

n (n = 1, 2, ...)

tg (l ) = h 1 .

249

[ (

)]

3.3
1

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.
1.10.
1.11.

e x +3 y dy = x dx.
y sin x = y ln y.
y = (2 x 1) ctg y.

(1 + e ) y dy e

dx = 0;
sec 2 x tg y dy + sec 2 y tg x dx = 0.
x y 2 + 3 dx e x y dy = 0.
sin y cos x dy = sin x cos y dx.
y = (2 y + 1) tg x.
[sin (x + y ) + sin (x y )] dx + dy = 0.
cos y
1 + e x y y = e x .
dy
sin x tg y dx
= 0.
sin x
x

1.12. 3 e sin y dx + 1 e
x

1.13. y ln y = e

2x

) cos y dy = 0.

x2 +y

1.14. 3
dy + x dx = 0.
1.15. [cos (x 2 y ) + cos (x + 2 y )] y = sec x.
1.16. y = e

x2

x 1 + y2 .

1.17. cos y ctg x dx + sin x tg y dy = 0.


1.18. sin x y = y cos x + 2 cos x.
2

1.19. 1 + (1 + y ) e = 0.
1.20. y ctg x + y = 2.
x

e x dy
dx
1.21.
+
= 0.
x
cos 2 y
1.22. e sin y dx + tg y dy = 0.
x

1.23. 1 + e

3y

) x dx = e

3y

dy.

1.24. [sin (2x + y ) sin (2x y )] dx =

250

dy
.
sin y

1.25. cos y dx = 2 1 + x dy + cos y 1 + x dy.


2

1.26. y 1 x cos y = 0.
2

1.27. e tg y dx = 1 e sec y dy.


1.28. y + sin (x + y ) = sin (x y ).
x

1.29. cos y y cos (2x + y ) = cos (2 x y ).


3

1.30. x 3

y2 x 2

= y y .

2.2.

2.3. y x y = 2 1 + x y ;
2

2.5. (x + 4 ) dy x y dx = 0;

2.7. y ln x dx (y 1) x dy = 0;

2.8. (x + x y ) dy + y dx y dx = 0;
2

2.9. y + 2 y y = 0;

( )
( )
2.12. (1 + y ) dx (y + y x )dy = 0;
2.14. y x y = 3 (1 + x y );
2.16. (x 1) y x y = 0;
2.18. (1 + x ) y dx (y 1)x dy = 0;

2.11. x y + x dx + x y y dy = 0;
3

2.13. y = 2 x y + x;

2.15. 2 x y y = 1 x ;
2.17. y x + y

2.10. x + x y dx + y + 1 dy = 0;

= 3;
7 y x
2
2.4. y x y = 1 + x y;
2
2.6. y + y + y = 0;

2.1. x y + x y y = 1 + y ;

)dy + x dx = 0;

2.19. x y y = y ;

2.20.

2.21. y x y = 2 x y;

2.22. 2 x y y + y = 2;

2.23. y =

1 + y2
1+ x

2.27. x yy =

x2
2.24. y 1 + y =
;
y
1 x

1+ x2

2.29. x y y

1 y

y 2 + 1 dx = x y dy;
2

2.25. (y + 1) y =

+ x y;

2.26. 1 + x

)y + y

1 + x 2 = x y;

2.28. (x y x ) dy + y (1 x ) dx = 0;
2

y = x 2 y y + x 2 1;

251

2.30.

1 y 2 dx + y 1 x 2 dy = 0.

) dy + 2 x y dx = 0;

y
;
x
3.3. (x + 2 y ) dx x dy = 0;

3.2. y 3 x

3.5. y 2 x y dx + x dy = 0;

3.6. y + x y = x y y ;

3.1. y x y = x sec

3.4. (x y ) dx + (x + y ) dy = 0;

3.7. x y y = x tg

y
;
x

3.8. x y = y x e

x+y
;
x
x y dx = x dy;

y x

3.15. x y + x + y = 0;

y
;
x
2
2
3.12. x y = x y + y;
x
3.14. y = 1;
y
3.16. y dx + 2 x y x dy = 0;

3.17. x dy y dx =

3.18. (x y ) y dx = x dy;

3.9. x y y = (x + y ) ln

3.11. y +

3.13. y = x y e

y x

);

3.20. x y + y = 2 x
2

x 2 + y 2 dx;

3.19. 4 x + 3 x y + y

)dx = (4 y
+ x y ) y;

3.22. 2 x y y dx + x dy = 0;

3.24. x + y dx + 2 x y dy = 0;
3.26. (x + 2 y ) dx + x dy = 0;
2

3.28. 2 x y = y 2 x y ;
3

3.30. y =

3.10. x y = y ln

+ 3 x y + x 2 dy;

y(0) = 0;
y(0 ) = 0;
y(0 ) = 0;

4.1. x + 1 y + 4 x y = 3,
4.2. y + y tg x = sec x ,

4.3. (1 x ) (y + y ) = e

y(1) = 0;

4.4. x y 2 y = 2 x ,
4

y(0) = 0;

4.5. y = 2 x x + y ,
2

y
= 0;
x
2
2
3.25. y 2 x y dx x dy = 0;
3.27. (2 x y ) dx + (x + y ) dy = 0;
2
3.29. x y = y (x + y );
3.23. x y + y ln

x y
+ .
y x

3.21. x 2 x y y = x y y ;

252

y(0 ) = 1;
1
y(1) =
;
2e
y(1) = 0;

4.6. y y = e ,
x

4.7. x y + y = x e

x 2

4.8. x y + x y + 1 = 0,
2

y(2) = 1;

4.9. y x + x = 4 y + 3 y ,
3

4.10. y =

y(0 ) = 1;

,
3x y2
4.11. (1 2 x y )y = y (y 1),
x
4.12. x (y y ) = e ,

y(0 ) = 2;
y(1) = 0;

y = 0;
2
y(e ) = 0;
y(0) = 0;

4.13. y = x (y x cos x ),
4.14. (x y 1) ln x = 2 y,

(
)
4.16. (x + y )dy = y dx,
4.15. 2 e x y = 1,
y

y(0 ) = 1;

4.17. x y + (x + 1) y = 3 x e
2

y(1) = 0;

y(1) = 0;

y(0 ) = ;
2
y(0) = 0;
2
y = ;
2
y 2 = 1;

4.18. x y 2 y + x = 0,
2

4.19. sin y + x ctg y y = 1,


2

4.20. (x + 1) y + y = x + x ,
3

4.21. x y + y = sin x ,

( )
4.23. (1 x ) y + x y = 1 x

( )
y( 2 ) = 1;

4.22. x 1 y x y = x x ,
2

,
2
4.24. y ctg x + y = 2 cos x ctg x ,
2
4.25. x y = 2 x y + 3,
4.26. y + 2 x y = x e

x 2

y(0 ) = 0;

x3

4.27. y 3 x y x e
4.28. x y + y = ln x + 1,

y(0 ) = 2;
y(1) = 1;
y(0 ) = 0;

= 0,

4.29. cos y dx = (x + 2 cos y ) sin y dy,


4.30. x y + y = ln x ,
253

y(1) = 0;

y(0 ) = ;
4
y(1) = 0.

5

5.1. y + y = x y ;

5.2. y dx + 2 x dy = 2 y x sec y dy;

5.3. y + 2 y = y e ;

5.4. y = y cos x + y tg x;

5.5. x y dy = y + x dx;

5.6. x y + 2 y + x y e = 0;

5.7. y x sin y = x y 2 y;

5.8. 2 x y ln y x y = y;

xy
2x
= 2
;
y x 1
2
2
3
5.11. x y y = x + y ;

5.10. x y 2 x

5.12. (x + 1) y + y

5.13. y x + y = x y ;

5.14. y x y = y e

5.15. x y 2 x y = y;

5.16. y + x y = x y ;

x 2x
e + y;
y
3
5.19. x (x 1) y + y = x y;

dx 1
5.21.
= 2 x dy;
x y

2
5.23. x y + y = y ln x;

5.18. y = x

5 3 x

5.9. y

5.17. y =

5.20.
5.22.
5.24.

5.25. y + 2 x y = 2 x y ;

5.26.

5.27. y y tg x + y cos x = 0;

5.28.

5.29. y y + y cos x = 0;

5.30.

6.2.

)dx + 8 x y dy = 0;

x dy y dx
x 2 + y2

) = y;

= 0;

6.3. x dx + y dy +

y dx x dy
x +y
2

= 0;
254

y+

2 x 2

xy

;
x 2 1
2 x 3 y y + 3 x 2 y 2 + 1 = 0;
2y
y +
= 2 y;
x
y + x 3 y = 3 y;
x
y + y = 2 ;
y
x2

x dx =
y 2 dy;
y

2
y x + x = y x ;

6

2

y = 4 y;

6.1. 2 x + 4 y

6.4. 3 x + 4 y

x dx

6.5.

6.6.

6.7.

x y
2

2 x 1 ey

(1 + x )

2 2

2x
y3

dx

)dx + 8 x y dy = 0;
y dy

x y
2

) dx +

ey
1+ x2

3 x 2 + y2
y4

)dx + e

= 0;

dy = 0;

dy = 0;

x
1 dy = 0;
y

6.8. 1 + e x

(
6.10. (3 x

)+ y (x + 2 y )y = 0;
+ 6 x y )dx + (6 x y + 4 y )dy = 0;

6.9. x 2 x + y
2

x y

1 1
y
1 x
+ dx +
+ 2 dy = 0;
x 2 + y2 x y
x 2 + y2 y y

2
3
2 y3
3 y2
2
3

6.12. 3 x tg y + 3 dx + x sec y + 4 y 2 dy = 0;

x
x

2
2
3
6.13. 3 x y + y dx + x + 2 x y dy = 0;

sin 2 x

sin 2 x
dy = 0;
6.14.
+ x dx + y
2
y
y

2
2
6.15. 3 x 2 x y dx + 2 y x + 3 y dy = 0;
x

6.11.

(
6.16. (3 x

y + y 3 dx + x 3 + 3 x y 2 dy = 0;
x dx + y dy x dy y dx
6.17.

= 0;
2
2
2
x
x +y

6.18. y x + y + a

)dy + x (x

+ y 2 a 2 dx = 0;

1
1

6.19. sin y + y sin x + dx + x cos y cos x + dy = 0;


x
y

y + sin x cos 2 ( x y )
x

dy = 0;
6.20.
dx
+

sin
y
cos 2 ( x y )

cos 2 (x y )

2
6.21. 3 x y cos (x y ) + y dx + (x x cos (x y )) dy = 0;

255

6.22. 12 x e
3

y x

1
x
dx + 16 y + e y x 2 dy = 0;
y
y

( )

( ) dy = 0;

2
dx + x + x 2 sin x 2 y
+
2
x
y

sin
x
y
+
4
2 xy

2 xy

6.23.

6.24. y 3

ln 3 dx + x 3 x y ln 3 3 dy = 0;
1

1
+ 3 x 2 y 7 dx + 7 x 3 y 6
6.25.
dy = 0;

x
y
x
y

2y

6.26. 3 + y cos x y dx 2 x cos x y dy = 0;


x

x dy
y

6.27.
2 x dx +
= 0;
2 2
1 x 2 y2

1 x y

4 4
6
5 3
2
6.28. 5 x y + 28 x dx + 4 x y 3 y dy = 0;
2 2
x 2 + y2
+ 2 dx + 2 y e x + y 3 dy = 0;
6.29. 2 x e

2
6.30. 3 y cos 3x + 7 dx + (2 y sin 3x 2 y ) dy = 0.
xy

(
(

7
, A(x 0 ; y 0 ) ,
,
, k .
7.1. A(0;2 ), k = 3.
7.2. A(0;5), k = 7.
7.3. A( 1;3), k = 2.
7.4. A( 2;4 ), k = 6.
7.5. A( 2;1), k = 5.
7.6. A(3;2 ), k = 4.
, A(x 0 ; y 0 ) ,
, n
,
.
7.7. A(2;5 ), n = 8.
7.8. A(3;1 ), n = 3 2 .
7.9. A(2;4 ), n = 2.
7.10. A( 2;8 ), n = 3.
, A(x 0 ; y 0 ) ,
, , ,
,
.
256

7.11. A(4; 0 ).
7.12. A(16;0 ).
7.13. A(1; 0 ).
7.14. A(9; 0 ).
, A(x 0 ; y 0 )
: ,
, .
7.16. A( 4; 2 ).
7.17. A(1; 2 ).
7.15. A(2;4 ).
7.18. A( 2; 2).
7.19. A( 2; 4 ).
7.20. A(5; 0 ).
, A(x 0 ; y 0 )
: ,
0Y , .
7.21. A(4;1).
7.22. A( 2; 5).
7.23. A(3; 2).
7.24. A( 2; 4 ).
7.25. A(3; 0 ).
7.26. A(2; 8).
, A(x 0 ; y 0 ) ,
, , ,
.
7.27. A(9; 6).
7.28. A(4;10 ).
7.29. A( 4;16).
7.30. A(1; 7 ).
8

8.1. y = sin x , y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0, y (0) = 0;

1
1
, y(1) = , y (1) = 0, y (1) = 0;
x
4
1
3

y =
,
y
(
0
)
=
1
,
y
(
0
)
=
;
5
cos 2 x
6
y = 3 , y(1) = 0, y (1) = 5, y (1) = 1;
x
y = 4 cos 2 x, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 3;
1
y =
, y(0) = 0, y (0) = 0;
2
1+ x
1
x y = 2, y(1) = , y(1) = y (1) = 0;
2
9
1
1
y = e 2 x , y(0 ) = , y (0 ) = , y (0 ) = ;
8
4
2
1
y = cos x, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = , y (0 ) = 0;
8

8.2. y =
8.3.
8.4.
8.5.
8.6.
8.7.
8.8.
8.9.

257

8.10. y =

1
1 x
1

, y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 3;


,
y
= , y = 1;
2
sin 2 x 4 4
4
8.12. y = x + sin x , y(0 ) = 3, y (0 ) = 0;
8.13. y = arctg x , y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0;
tg x
1
8.14. y =
,
y
(
0
)
=
, y(0) = 0;
2
2
cos x

8.11. y =

+ 1, y(0 ) = 8, y (0 ) = 5, y (0) = 2;
x
1
1
y = 2 x , y(0 ) = , y (0) = ;
4
4
e
1
y = sin 2 3x , y(0) = , y (0 ) = 0;
72
y = x sin x , y(0) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 0;

y sin 4 x = sin 2 x , y = , y = 1, y = 1;
2 2
2
2
y = cos x + e x , y(0) = 2, y(0 ) = 1;
7

y = sin 3 x , y = , y = 0;
9
2
2
1
1
y = x sin 2x , y(0 ) = , y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = ;
8
2
1
y =
, y(0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 1;
2
cos (x 2)
5
2
y = 2 sin x cos 2 x , y(0 ) = , y (0) = ;
9
3
1
y = 2 sin 2 x cos x, y(0 ) = , y (0 ) = 1;
9
2
3
y = 2 sin x cos x sin x , y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
2
y = 2 cos x sin 2 x cos 3 x , y(0 ) = , y (0 ) = 2;
3
5
3
y = x ln x , y(1) = , y (1) = ;
12
2

8.15. y =
8.16.
8.17.
8.18.
8.19.
8.20.
8.21.
8.22.
8.23.
8.24.
8.25.
8.26.
8.27.
8.28.

x
e2

258

8.29. y =

, y(1) = 3, y (1) = 1;

x2

8.30. y = cos 4 x, y(0 ) = 2, y (0) =

15
, y (0 ) = 0.
16

9.1. 1 x

) y x y = 2;

9.2. 2 x y y = (y ) 1;
2

9.3. x y + x y = 1;

9.4. y + y tg x = sin 2x;

9.5. y x ln x = y ;

9.6. x y y = x e ;

9.7. x y ln x = 2 y ;

9.8. x y + x y = 1;

x
;
y
9.11. y = y + x;

9.10. x y = y ;

9.9. y =

9.12. x y = y + x ;
2

y
;
x
9.15. y tg x = y + 1;

9.13. x y = y ln

2
9.17. 2 x y y = (y ) + 1;

9.19. y + y tg x = sec x;
9.21. y + 4 y = 2 x ;
9.23. x (y + 1) + y = 0;
2

9.25. y + y = sin x;

9.14. x y + y = ln x;
9.16. y + 2 x (y ) = 0;
2

y
= x (x 1);
x 1
3
9.20. y 2 y ctg x = sin x;
2 x
9.22. x y y = 2 x e ;
9.24. y + 4 y = cos 2x;
9.18. y

9.26. x y = (y) ;
2

9.27. 2 x y y = (y ) 4;
2

9.29. y ctg x + y = 2;

9.28. x y ln x = 4 y ;

9.30. y x + 1 = 2 x y.

10

10.1. y = e y , y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
y

10.2. (y ) + 2 y y = 0, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 1;
2

10.3. y y + (y ) = 0, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 1;
2

259

10.4. y + 2 y (y ) = 0, y(0) = 2, y(0 ) =


3

1
;
3

, y (1) = 2;
2
2
10.6. 2 y y = (y ) , y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 1;
10.5. y tg y = 2 (y ) , y(1) =
2

10.7. y y (y ) = y , y(0) = 1, y (0) = 1;


2

10.8. y =

1
,
y
(
0
)
=
, y (0 ) = 2;
3
2
2y

10.9. y = 1 (y ) , y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0;
2

2
, y (0 ) = 1;
3
2 y y (y )2 + 1 = 0, y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 1;
y = 2 y, y(0 ) = 2, y(0 ) = 2;
1
y = 3 , y(0 ) = 1, y(0 ) = 0;
y
y y 2 (y)2 = 0, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 2;

10.10. y = (y ) , y(0 ) =
2

10.11.
10.12.
10.13.
10.14.

10.15. y = (y ) + y , y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
2

2
(y)2 = 0, y(0) = 0, y(0) = 1;
1 y
2
10.17. y (1 + y ) = (y ) , y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
10.16. y +

10.18. y (2 y + 3) 2 (y ) = 0, y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
2

10.19. 4 y = 1 + (y ) , y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0;
2

10.20. 2 (y ) = y (y 1), y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 2;


2

10.21. 1 + (y) = y y, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0;


2

10.22. y + y (y) = 0, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 2;


3

10.23. y y + (y ) = 0, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 2;
2

10.24. y y (y ) = y , y(0 ) = 1, y(0) = 1;


2

10.25. y (1 ln y ) y + (1 + ln y ) (y ) = 0, y(0) = 1, y(0 ) = 1;


2

10.26. y (1 + y ) = (y ) + y , y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 2;
2

10.27. y =

y
, y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 2;
y
260

10.28. y = 1 + (y ) , y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
2

10.29. y y 2 y y ln y = (y ) , y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 1;
2

10.30. y =

1
, y(0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 0.
y

11

11.1. ) y + 6 y = 0,
11.2. ) y y 2 y = 0,
11.3. ) y 4 y = 0,
11.4. ) y 5 y + 6 y = 0,
11.5. ) y 2 y + 10 y = 0,
11.6. ) y 4 y = 0,
11.7. ) y + y 6 y = 0,
11.8. ) y 49 y = 0,
11.9. ) y + 7 y = 0,
11.10. ) y 6 y + 8 y = 0,
11.11.) 4 y 8 y + 3y = 0,
11.12. ) y + 4 y + 20 y = 0,
11.13. ) 9 y + 6 y + y = 0,
11.14. ) 2 y + 3 y + y = 0,
11.15. ) y 10 y + 21y = 0,
11.16. ) y + 5 y = 0,
11.17. ) y + 25 y = 0,
11.18. ) y 3 y = 0,
11.19. ) y 3 y 4 y = 0,
11.20. ) y + 25 y = 0,
11.21. ) y 3 y 18 y = 0,
11.22. ) y 6 y + 13 y = 0,
11.23. ) y + 2 y + y = 0,
11.24. ) y + 10 y = 0,
11.25. ) y + 5 y = 0,
11.26. ) y + 6 y + 10 = 0,
11.27. ) y y = 0,
11.28. ) y + 8 y + 25 y = 0,

) y 10 y + 25 y = 0,
) y + 9 y = 0,
) y 4 y + 13 y = 0,
) y + 3 y + 6 y = 0,
) y + y 2 y = 0,
) y + 2 y + 17 y = 0,
) y + 9 y = 0,
) y 4 y + 5 y = 0,
) y 5 y + 4 y = 0,
) y + 4 y + 5 y = 0,
) y 3 y = 0,
) y 3 y 10 y = 0,
) y 4 y 21 y = 0,
) y + 4 y + 8 y = 0,
) y 2 y + 2 y = 0,
) y + 10 y + 29 y = 0,
) y + 6 y + 9 y = 0,
) y 7 y + 6 y = 0,
) y + 6 y + 13 y = 0,
) y 10 y + 16 y = 0,
) y 6 y = 0,
) y 2 y 15 y = 0,
) y + 6 y + 25 y = 0,
) y 6 y + 8 y = 0,
) 9 y 6 y + y = 0,
) y 4 y + 4 y = 0,
) 4 y + 3 y 5 y = 0,
) y + 9 y = 0,
261

) y + 3 y + 2 y = 0;
) y + 4 y + 4 y = 0;
) y 3 y + 2 y = 0;
) y + 2 y + 5 y = 0;
) y 2 y = 0;
) y y 12 y = 0;
) y 4 y + 20 y = 0;
) y + 2 y 3 y = 0;
) y + 16 y = 0;
) y + 5 y = 0;
) y 2 y + 10 y = 0;
) y 16 y = 0;
) y + y = 0;
) y 6 y + 9 y = 0;
) y + 4 y = 0;
) y 8 y + 7 y = 0;
) y + 2 y + 2 y = 0;
) y + 4 y + 13 y = 0;
) y + 2 y = 0;
) y 8 y + 16 y = 0;
) y + 2 y + 5 y = 0;
) y 8 y = 0;
) y 4 y = 0;
) 4 y + 4 y + y = 0;
) y + 6 y + 8 y = 0;
) y 5 y + 4 y = 0;
) y 6 y + 10 y = 0;
) y + 3 y 2 y = 0;

11.29. ) 6 y + 7 y 3 y = 0,
11.30. ) 9 y 6 y + y = 0,

) y + 16 y = 0,
) 4 y 4 y + y = 0;
) y + 12 y + 37 y = 0, ) y 2 y = 0.

12

12.1. y + y = 2 x 1;
x

12.2. y 2 y + 5 y = 10 e cos 2 x;
12.3. y 2 y 8 y = 12 sin 2 x 36 cos 2 x;
12.4. y 12 y + 36 y = 14 e

6x

12.5. y 3 y + 2 y = (34 12 x ) e

12.6. y 6 y + 10 y = 51 e ;
12.7. y + y = 2 cos x (4 x + 4) sin x;
12.8. y + 6 y + 10 y = 74 e ;
12.9. y 3 y + 2 y = 19 sin x + 3 cos x;
3x

12.10. y + 6 y + 9 y = (48 x + 8) e ;
x

12.11. y + 6 y = 72 e ;
12.12. y 5 y 6 y = 3 cos x + 19 sin x;
2x

12.13. y 8 y + 12 y = 36 x 96 x + 24 x + 16 x 2;
4

12.14. y + 8 y + 25 y = 18 e

5x

12.15. y 9 y + 20 y = 126 e

2 x

y + 36 y = 36 + 68 x 36 x 2 ;
y + y = 4 cos x 2 sin x;
y + 2 y 24 y = 6 cos 3x 33 sin 3 x;
y + 6 y + 13 y = 75 sin 2 x;
y + 5 y = 39 cos 3x 105 sin 3x;
x
12.21. y + 2 y + y = 6 e ;
2 x
12.22. y 4 y + 5 y = (24 sin x + 8 cos x ) e
;
12.23. y + 16 y = 8 cos 4 x;
4
2
12.24. y + 9 y = 9 x + 12 x 27;

12.16.
12.17.
12.18.
12.19.
12.20.

12.25. y 12 y + 40 y = 2 e

6x

12.26. y + 4 y = e (2 sin 2 x + 24 cos 2 x );


x

12.27. y + 2 y + y = 6 e

;
262

12.28. y + 2 y + 37 y = 3 7 x 33 x + 74;
2

12.29. 6 y y y = 3 e ;
12.30. 2 y + 7 y + 3 y = 222 sin 3x.
2x

13

13.1. y 8 y + 17 y = 10 e

2x

13.2. y + y 6 y = (6 x + 1) e

3x

;
4x
2
13.3. y 7 y + 12 y = 3 e ;
13.4. y 2 y = 6 + 12 x 24 x ;
13.5. y 6 y + 34 y = 60 sin 5x + 18 cos 5x; 13.6. y 2 y = (4 x + 4 ) e 2 x ;
3
2
13.8. y 4 y = 8 16 x;
13.7. y + y + y = 4 x + 24x + 22x 4;
13.9. y 8 y + 20 y = 16(sin 2x cos 2 x ); 13.10. y 2 y + y = 4 e x ;
3 x
2 x
13.11. y 6 y + 13 y = 34 e
sin 2x;
13.12. y + 4 y + 4 y = 6 e
;
13.13. 4 y + 3 y y = 11 cos x 7 sin x;
13.14. y + 3 y = 10 6 x;
2
3
13.15. y + 10 y + 25 y = 40 + 52x 240 x 200 x ;
13.16. y + 4 y + 20 y = 4 cos 4 x 52 sin 4x;
3x
2
13.17. y + 6 y + 9 y = 72 e ;
13.18. y + 4 y + 5 y = 5x 32 x + 5;
2x
2x
13.19. y + 16 y = 80 e ;
13.20. y + 2 y + y = (12x 10) e ;
x
2x
13.21. y + 4 y = 15 e ;
13.22. y 4 y = ( 24 x 10) e ;
3x
13.24. y + y 2 y = 9 cos x 7 sin x;
13.23. y + 9 y = 10 e ;
2x
13.26. y 14 y + 49 y = 144 sin 7 x;
13.25. y + 2 y + y = (18 x + 8) e ;
13.27. 4 y 4 y + y = 25 cos x;
13.28. 3y 5 y 2 y = 6 cos 2 x + 36 sin 2 x
13.29. 4 y + 3y y = 11 cos x 7 sin x; 13.30. y + 4 y + 29 y = 26 e x .
14

14.1. y 2 y + y = 12 cos 2 x 9 sin 2 x ,
14.2. y 6 y + 9 y = 9 x 39 x + 65,
2

14.3. y + 2 y + 2 y = 2 x + 8x + 6,
14.4. y 6 y + 25 y = 9 sin 4 x 24 cos 4x ,
2

14.5. y 14 y + 53 y = 53 x 42 x + 59 x 14,
3

14.6. y + 16 y = e (cos 4 x 8 sin 4 x ),


x

263

y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 0;
y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 1;
y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 4;
y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 7;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 5;

14.7. y 4 y + 20 y = 16 x e ,
14.8. y 12 y + 36 y = 32 cos 2x + 24 sin 2x ,
2x

14.9. y + y = x 4 x + 7 x 10,
3

14.10. y y = (12 16 x ) e
14.11.
14.12.
14.13.
14.14.
14.15.
14.16.
14.17.
14.18.
14.19.
14.20.
14.21.
14.22.
14.23.
14.24.
14.25.
14.26.
14.27.
14.28.
14.29.
14.30.

,
y + 8 y + 16 y = 16 x 2 16 x + 66,
y + 10 y + 34 y = 9 e 5 x ,
y 6 y + 25 y = (32 x 12) sin x 36 x cos x ,
y + 25 y = e x (cos 5x 10 sin 5x ),
y + 2 y + 5y = 8 e x sin 2 x ,
y + 10 y + 25 y = e 5 x ,
y + y 12 y = (16x + 22 ) e 4 x ,
y 2 y + 37 y = 36 e 4 x cos 6 x,
y + 8 y + 16 y = 16 x 3 + 24 x 2 10x + 8,
y 2 y + 5y = 5x 2 + 6 x 12,
y 8 y = 16 + 48 x 2 128 x 3 ,
y + 12 y + 36 y = 72 x 3 18,
y + 3 y = (40 x + 56 ) e 2 x ,
y 9 y + 18 y = 26 cos x 8 sin x ,
y 8 y = 18 x + 60 x 2 32 x 3 ,
y 3 y + 2 y = sin x 7 cos x ,
y + 2 y = 6 x 2 + 2 x + 1,
y + 16 y = 32 e 4 x ,
y + 5 y + 6 y = 52 sin 2 x ,
y 4 y = 8 e 2 x ,

y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 4;
y(0 ) = 3, y (0) = 3;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
y(0 ) = 3, y (0) = 0;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 6;
y(0 ) = 4, y (0 ) = 5;
y(0 ) = 3, y (0 ) = 4;
y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 6;
y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0;
y(0 ) = 3, y (0) = 5;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 6;
y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 3;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0;
y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 5, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 7;
y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 0;
y(0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 2;
y(0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 8.

15

15.1. y 7 y + 6 y = 0, y (0) = 0, y (0) = 0, y (0 ) = 30;

IV
15.2. y 9 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
15.3. y y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0) = 1;
15.4. y 4 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 2, y (0) = 4;

264

15.5. y + y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 1, y(0 ) = 1;


15.6. y y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 4;

15.7. y + 2 y y 2 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0) = 8;
15.8. y + y 5 y + 3 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 14;
15.9. y + y = 0, y (0) = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 1;
15.10. y 5 y + 8 y 4 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0) = 0;
15.11. y + 3 y + 2 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0) = 2;
15.12. y + 3 y + 3 y + y = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0, y (0) = 1;
15.13. y 2 y + 9 y 18 y = 0, y (0 ) = 2,5, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0;
15.14. y + 9 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 9, y (0 ) = 18;
15.15. y 13 y + 12 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 133;
IV

5 y + 4 y = 0, y (0) = 2, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 2, y (0) = 0;
y IV 10 y + 9 y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1;
y y + y y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 8;
y 3 y + 3 y y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0) = 4;
y y + 4 y 4 y = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 6;
y IV 2 y + y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 2;
y IV y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 4, y (0 ) = 0;
y IV 16 y = 0, y (0) = 0, y (0) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 8;
y + y 4 y 4 = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0) = 12;
y + 2 y + y + 12 y = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 3, y (0) = 9;
y IV 6 y + 9 y = 0, y (0 ) = y (0 ) = y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 2;
y + 2 y + y = 0, y (0 ) = 0, y (0 ) = 2, y (0 ) = 3;
y y y + y = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 0, y(0 ) = 1;

15.16. y
15.17.
15.18.
15.19.
15.20.
15.21.
15.22.
15.23.
15.24.
15.25.
15.26.
15.27.
15.28.

IV

15.29. y IV + 5 y + 4 y = 0, y (0) = 1, y(0 ) = 4, y (0 ) = 1, y (0) = 16;


15.30. y

IV

10 y + 9 y = 0, y (0 ) = 1, y (0 ) = 3, y (0) = 9, y (0 ) = 27.

16

x = 2 x + y,
y = 3 x + 4 y;
x = 2 x 3 y,
16.3.
y = x + y;
16.1.

x = x y,
y = 4 x + y;
x = 2 x 3y,
16.4.
y = x;
16.2.

265

x = x y,
y = 4 x + 4 y;
x = 6 x y,
16.7.
y = 3 x + 2 y;
x = y,
16.9.
y = x;
16.5.

x = 2 y,
y = x;

16.11.

x = 8 x 3 y,
y = 2 x + y;
x = 2 x + 3 y,

y = 5 x + 4 y;
x = 5 x + 4 y,

y = 4 x + 5 y;
x = x + 4 y,

y = x + y;
x = x + 4 y,

y = 2 x + 3 y;
x = 4 x y,

y = x + 4 y;
x = 5 x + 8 y,

y = 3 x + 3 y;
x = x 5 y,

y = x 6 y;
x = 6 x + 3 y,

y = 8 x 5 y;

16.13.
16.15.
16.17.
16.19.
16.21.
16.23.
16.25.
16.27.
16.29.

x = 2 x + y,
y = 3 x + 2 y;
x = 2 x + y,
16.8.
y = x 3 y;
x = x 2 y,
16.10.
y = 3 x + 4 y;
x = 4 x + 2 y,
16.12.
y = 4 x + 6 y;
x = 3 x + y,
16.14.
y = x + 3 y;
x = x + 2 y,
16.16.
y = 3 x + 6 y;
x = x + 2 y,
16.18.
y = 4 x + 3 y;
x = 3 x 2 y,
16.20.
y = 2 x + 8 y;
x = 7 x + 3 y,
16.22.
y = x + 5 y;
x = 2 x + 8 y,
16.24.
y = x + 4 y;
x = 3 x + y,
16.26.
y = 8 x + y;
x = 5 x + 2 y,
16.28.
y = x 6 y;
x = 4 x 8 y,
16.30.
y = 8 x + 4 y.
16.6.

266

17

17.1. y y =

ex
ex +1

1
;
cos 2 x
sin x
17.4. y + y =
;
2
cos x

17.2. y + 4 y =

e 2x
;
17.3. y 4 y + 5 y =
sin x
1
17.5. y + 9 y =
;
sin 3x

17.6. y + 2 y + y =

e x
17.7. y + 2 y + y =
;
cos x
17.9. y + 2 y + y = e
17.11. y 2 y + y =
17.13.
17.15.
17.17.
17.19.

17.23. y + 2 y + y = 3 e
17.25. y y = e

2x

17.29. y + 4 y =

1
;
sin 2 x

sin x
ex
17.10. y 2 y + y = 2 ;
x

e x
17.16. y + 2 y + y =
;
x
1
17.18. y + y =
;
sin x
17.20. y + 4 y = tg 2x;

( )

cos e x ;

17.27. y + y = tg 2 x;

17.14. y + y = ctg x;

e 2 x
x

ex

17.12. y + y = tg x;

x
y + 4 y = ctg 2x;
ex
y 2 y + y = ;
x
1
y + y =
;
cos x
1
y + 4 y =
;
sin 2x

17.21. y + 4 y + 4 y =

x ex

17.8. y 2 y + y =

ctg x;

ex

x + 1;

17.22. y 4 y + 4 y =

e 2x
3

x
17.24. y + y = ctg x;
2x
x
17.26. y y = e sin e ;
2

( )

2
;
2
sin x
1
17.30. y + 9 y =
.
cos 3x
17.28. y + y =

267

18
.

u tt = u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.1 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

u tt = u xx , 0 < x < 3 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.2 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9u xx , 0 < x < 3, 0 < t < ,

18.3 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3, t ) = 0.

u tt = 4u xx , 0 < x < 2, 0 < t < ,

18.4 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 1 / 4u xx , 0 < x < 1 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.5 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 4u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.6 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

u tt = 4 / 9u xx , 0 < x < 2 / 3, 0 < t < ,

18.7 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 / 3), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2 / 3, t ) = 0.

u tt = 4u xx , 0 < x < 1 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.8 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1 / 2, t ) = 0.

268

u tt = u xx , 0 < x < 2, 0 < t < ,

18.9 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 16u xx , 0 < x < 3, 0 < t < ,

18.10 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3, t ) = 0.

u tt = 16u xx , 0 < x < 2, 0 < t < ,

18.11 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.12 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

u tt = 1 / 9u xx , 0 < x < 1 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.13 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = u xx , 0 < x < 3, 0 < t < ,

18.14 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3, t ) = 0.

u tt = 16u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.15 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9u xx , 0 < x < 3 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.16 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 4u xx , 0 < x < 3, 0 < t < ,

18.17 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3, t ) = 0.

269

u tt = 1 / 4u xx , 0 < x < 2, 0 < t < ,

18.18 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 1 / 4u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.19 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

u tt = u xx , 0 < x < 1 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.20 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 1 / 9u xx , 0 < x < 2, 0 < t < ,

18.21 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9 / 1u xx , 0 < x < 3 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.22 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 1 / 9u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.23 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9 / 1u xx , 0 < x < 3, 0 < t < ,

18.24 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9u xx , 0 < x < 1 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.25 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9u xx , 0 < x < 2, 0 < t < ,

18.26 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2, t ) = 0.

270

u tt = 1 / 4u xx , 0 < x < 3, 0 < t < ,

18.27 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3, t ) = 0.

u tt = 1 / 9u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.28 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

u tt = 4 / 9u xx , 0 < x < 3 / 2, 0 < t < ,

18.29 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 3 / 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (3 / 2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 1 / 9u xx , 0 < x < 2, 0 < t < ,

18.30 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 2 ), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (2, t ) = 0.

u tt = 9 / 4u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

18.31 u (x ,0 ) = x (x 1), u t (x ,0 ) = 0,

u (0, t ) = 0, u (1, t ) = 0.

19

:

, 0 < x < 3, t > 0,


19.1 u t = 16u xx
x 2 / 3, 0 x 3 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
3 x, 3 / 2 < x 3
u (0, t ) = u (3, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 2, t > 0,


19.2 u t = u xx
x 2 , 0 x 1
u (x,0 ) =
2 x , 1 < x 2
u (0, t ) = u (2, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 5, t > 0,


19.3 u t = 25u xx
271

2 x 2 / 5, 0 x 5 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
5 x, 5 / 2 < x 5

u (0, t ) = u (5, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 4, t > 0,


19.4 u t = 16u xx
x 2 / 2, 0 x 2
u (x,0 ) =
4 x , 2 < x 4
u (0, t ) = u (4, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 5, t > 0,


19.5 u t = 4u xx
2 x 2 / 3, 0 x 5 / 2
u (x,0 ) =
5 x , 5 / 2 < x 5
u (0, t ) = u (5, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 3, t > 0,


19.6 u t = u xx
2 x 2 / 3, 0 x 3 / 2
u (x,0 ) =
3 x, 3 / 2 < x 3
u (0, t ) = u (3, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 8, t > 0,


19.7 u t = 25u xx
x 2 / 4, 0 x 4
u (x,0 ) =
8 x , 4 < x 8
u (0, t ) = u (8, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 2, t > 0,


19.8 u t = 9u xx
x 2 , 0 x 1
u (x,0 ) =
2 x , 1 < x 2
u (0, t ) = u (2, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 1, t > 0,


19.9 u t = 16u xx
2 x 2 , 0 x 1 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
1 x , 1 / 2 < x 1
u (0, t ) = u (1, t ) = 0

272

, 0 < x < 4, t > 0,


19.10 u t = 4u xx
x 2 / 2, 0 x 2
u (x,0 ) =
4 x , 2 < x 4
u (0, t ) = u (4, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 10, t > 0,


19.11 u t = 9u xx
x 2 / 5, 0 x 5
u (x ,0 ) =
10 x , 5 < x 10
u (0, t ) = u (10, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 9, t > 0,


19.12 u t = 25u xx
x 2 / 9, 0 x 9 / 2
u (x,0 ) =
9 x , 9 / 2 < x 9
u (0, t ) = u (9, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 3, t > 0,


19.13 u t = 9u xx
2 x 2 / 3, 0 x 3 / 2
u (x,0 ) =
3 x, 3 / 2 < x 3
u (0, t ) = u (3, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 5, t > 0,


19.14 u t = u xx
2 x 2 / 5, 0 x 5 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
5 x, 5 / 2 < x 5
u (0, t ) = u (5, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 7, t > 0,


19.15 u t = 4u xx
2 x 2 / 7, 0 x 7 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
7 x , 7 / 2 < x 7
u (0, t ) = u (7, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 1, t > 0,


19.16 u t = 25u xx
2 x 2 , 0 x 1 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
1 x , 1 / 2 < x 1
u (0, t ) = u (1, t ) = 0
273

, 0 < x < 4, t > 0,


19.17 u t = 9u xx
x 2 / 2, 0 x 2
u (x,0 ) =
4 x , 2 < x 4
u (0, t ) = u (4, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 10, t > 0,


19.18 u t = u xx
x 2 / 5, 0 x 5
u (x ,0 ) =
10 x , 5 < x 10
u (0, t ) = u (10, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 2, t > 0,


19.19 u t = 4u xx
x 2 , 0 x 1
u (x,0 ) =
2 x , 1 < x 2
u (0, t ) = u (2, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 8, t > 0,


19.20 u t = 16u xx
x 2 / 4, 0 x 4
u (x,0 ) =
8 x , 4 < x 8
u (0, t ) = u (8, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 1, t > 0,


19.21 u t = u xx
2 x 2 , 0 x 3 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
3 x, 3 / 2 < x 3
u (0, t ) = u (1, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 4, t > 0,


19.22 u t = 25u xx
x 2 / 2, 0 x 2
u (x,0 ) =
4 x , 2 < x 4
u (0, t ) = u (4, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 16, t > 0,


19.23 u t = 16u xx

274

x 2 / 3, 0 x 3
u (x ,0 ) =
6 x , 3 < x 6
u (0, t ) = u (6, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 1, t > 0,


19.24 u t = 4u xx
2 x 2 , 0 x 1 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
1 x , 1 / 2 < x 1
u (0, t ) = u (1, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 5, t > 0,


19.25 u t = 9u xx
2 x 2 / 5, 0 x 5 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
5 x, 5 / 2 < x 5
u (0, t ) = u (5, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 6, t > 0,


19.26 u t = 25u xx
x 2 / 3, 0 x 3
u (x ,0 ) =
6 x , 3 < x 6
u (0, t ) = u (6, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 12, t > 0,


19.27 u t = 16u xx
x 2 / 6, 0 x 6
u (x,0 ) =
12 x, 6 < x 12
u (0, t ) = u (12, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 2, t > 0,


19.28 u t = 16u xx
x 2 , 0 x 1
u (x,0 ) =
2 x , 1 < x 2
u (0, t ) = u (2, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 6, t > 0,


19.29 u t = 4u xx
x 2 / 3, 0 x 3
u (x ,0 ) =
6 x , 3 < x 6
u (0, t ) = u (6, t ) = 0

275

, 0 < x < 3, t > 0,


19.30 u t = 36u xx
x 2 / 3, 0 x 3 / 2
u (x ,0 ) =
3 x, 3 / 2 < x 3
u (0, t ) = u (3, t ) = 0

, 0 < x < 8, t > 0,


19.31 u t = 9u xx
x 2 / 4, 0 x 4
u (x,0 ) =
8 x , 4 < x 8
u (0, t ) = u (8, t ) = 0

276

3.4.
3.4.1. 1
1 ,
.

y = f (x, y ) , y(x 0 ) = y 0 .

y1 ; y 2 ;...; y n y(x ) x1 ; x 2 ;...; x n .

x i = x 0 + ih, i = 1,2...; n. x i , h
(h > 0 ) .

y i

y i +1 = y i + h f (x i ; y i ), i = 0,1,2,...

(3.4.1)

( x i +1 ; y i +1 )

(x i ; y i ) .
x i :

( )

y(x i +1 ) = y(x i + h ) = y(x i ) + y(x i ) h + 0 h 2 =

( )

= y(x i ) + h f (x i y i ) + 0 h 2

(3.4.2)

(3.4.1) (3.4.2) ,
h, (3.4.1)

( )

0 h 2 .
hp, p
. , .

277

1
1
,
[0;3] 0,1

dy
= f (x, y1 , y 2 ), y(0 ) = y 0
dx

.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

f (x , y 1 , y 2 )

y1

y 2 e 0 , 8 x + 2 y1

sin 2x

tg (x y 2 ) + e y1

2 x2 1

cos (x y 2 ) y1 x 2

cos (x y 2 ) y1 x 2

e x

e x

278

y2

y0

0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,08
0,09
0,10
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,08
0,09
0,10
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,08
0,09
0,10

0,5
1/3
0,25
0,2
1/6
1/7
0,125
1/9
0,1
1/11
0,5
1/3
0,25
0,2
1/6
1/7
0,125
1/9
0,1
1/11
0,5
1/3
0,25
0,2
1/6
1/7
0,125
1/9
0,1
1/11

3.4.2. 2


yi = f1 (x; y1 ; y 2 ;...; y n ),

1
= f 2 (x; y1 ; y 2 ;...; y n ),
y2
yn = f n (x; y1 ; y 2 ;...; y n ),

y1 (x 0 ) = y10 , y 2 (x 0 ) = y 20 ,

y n (x 0 ) = y n 0 .
y ki y k (x i ) x i

y ki = y ki 1 + hf k x1 i , y1(i 1) , y 2(i 1) , y n (i 1) ,
(3.4.3.)

k = 1,2,..., n, i = 1,2,...

2

[0;3]
h=0,3

d y1
d x = y 2 ,

d y 2 = f (x , y , y );
1
2
dx

.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

y1 (0 ) = 0,

y 2 (0 ) = y 20 .

f (x , y 1 , y 2 )

a e 0,8x

a x y 2 y1
279

y 20

0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,08
0,09
0,01
0,02
0,03

0,5
1/3
0,25
0,2
1/6
1/7
0,125
1/9
0,1
0,5
1/3
0,25

13
14
15
16
17
18

a y1 e x

0,04 e 1, 2 x
0,04 e 0,8 x

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

a x y 2 x 2 y1

0,04
0,05
0,01
0,02
0,03
-

0,2
1/6
0,5
1/3
0,25
0,2

0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,08
0,09
0,10
0,10

0,2
0,5
1/3
0,25
0,2
1/6
1/7
0,125
1/9
0,1
1/11
1/12

3.4.3. 3


[a , b ]

y + p(x )y + g(x ) y = f (x ) ,
(3.4.4)
:

c1y(a ) + c 2 y(a ) = c; d1y(b ) + d 2 y(b ) = d


c1 + c 2 0;

(3.4.5)

d1 + d 2 0


y 0 , y1 , y 2 ,..., y n y(x ) x 0 , x1 ,..., x n .
x 0 , x1 ,..., x n - . ,
x i = x 0 + ih , i = 0,1,2,..., n.
x 0 = a , x n = b, h = (b a ) / n. h .

p(x i ) = p i ; g(x i ) = g i ; f (x i ) = f i ; y(x i ) = y i ; y(x i ) = yi ; u (x i ) = yi.

y(x i ) y(x i )

y(x i ) =

( )

( )

y i +1 y i 1
y 2 y i + y i 1
+ 0 h 2 , y (x i ) = i +1
+ 0 h2
2
2h
h

280

y0 =

yn =

y n y n 1
+ 0(h ).
h

y1 y 0
+ 0(h ),
h

y i +1 2 y i + y i 1
y i + 1 y i 1
+
p
+ q i y i = f i ; i = 1,2,..., n 1
i
2h
h2
y y2
y y1
c1y 0 + c1 1
= c, d1y n + d 2 n
= d.
h
h

(3.4.6)

y0,y1,,yn ,
n+1 (3.4.5) n+1
.
. (3.4.6)
, ,
.
(3.4.6) :

0 y 0 + 0 y1 = 0

1y i 1 + i y i + i y i +1 = i ; i = 1,2,..., n 1
y + y =
n n
n
n n 1

(3.4.7)

1
0 = c1h c 2 ; 0 = c 2 ; 0 = hc, i = i h 2 ; i = 1 p i h ,
2
1
i = d i h 2, i = 1 + p i h, i = 1,2,..., n 1, n = d 2 ,
2
n = hq1 + d 2 ; n = hd.

y i = U i + Vi y i +1

(3.4.8)

Ui Vi :

i
i U i 1
, Ui = i
; i = 0,1,2,..., n.
i + i Vi 1
i + i Vi
, 0 = 0, n = 0 .
Vi =

Vi Ui,
V0 = 0 / 0 ; U 0 = 0 / 0 .
(3.4.8.) y n , y n 1 ,..., y n .
n = 0, Vn = 0 y n = U n , ..
U i , Vi yn
. y n 1 , y n 2 ,..., y 0
281

(3.4.8). ,
(3.4.6), ,
(3.4.4) (3.4.5)
(3.4.6) 0(h). h=(ba)/n, n ,

(3.4.6).

. y(xi)
x i ; a yi y i ,
h h/2, yi

y i y ( x i ) y i y i / 3.

3
[; b]

y + p (x ) y + q (x ) y = f (x ),
c1 y(a ) + c 2 y(a ) = c,
d1 y(b ) + d 2 y (b ) = d.
c1 = d1 = 1, c 2 = d 2 = 0, f (x ) = 0.

.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

p( x )

q (x )

1 + 2 x

x2 1

1 x2

1 + 2 x

x2 1

1 x2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,6
0,8
0,8
0,8

-0,5
0
-0,37
0
0
0
0
0
0
0,2
0,15
-,05
-0,1
-0,2
-0,5
0,4
0
1
0

0,5
0,1
-0,2
-0,4
-0,1
-0,3
-0,5
-0,8
-1,3
0,8
0,2
0,2
-0,6
-1,2
-1,2
-0,9
0,89
-0,13
-1,1

282

1 2
2
2
2
2
1,4
1,8
2,2
2,6
3
1,5
1,7
1,9
2,1
2,3
2,5
2,3
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,5
2,7
2,9
3,1
3,3
3,5
2,7
3
3
3

6
12
20
30
27
29
31
33
35
33
33,5
34,5
35,5
36,5
37,5
33,5
15
24
35

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

2x

2
4
6

1 x
x

0
0
0
0
0
0,5
0,5
0,5
1
1
1

0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
0,8
3
3
3
5
5
5

0
0
0
0
0
1
-1
-5
-0,5
-0,67
-0,63

-0,35
-0,84
-0,99
-0,75
-0,21
6
3,4
1,8

0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1

9
16
25
49

2
3
4

3.4.4. 4

:
(
).

.

. , ,

.
.
.


1.
(
)

2U
t 2

=c

2U
x 2

, 0 < x < l, t > 0

(3.4.9)

U
(x,0) = (x )
t

(3.4.10)

U(x,0) = (x ) ,
:

283

U(0, t ) = 0 , U(l, t ) = 0 .

(3.4.11)

(3.4.11) .
(3.4.9) (3.4.11)

nct
l
nct
nx
U(x, t ) = n cos
+
n sin
,
sin
l
nc
l
l
n =1

(3.4.12)

n n - (x ) (x ) :

2l
nx
n = (x ) sin
dx ,
l0
l
nx
2l
n = (x ) sin
dx .
l0
l


x i = ih , t j = j , i = 1, ... , m ; j = 1, ... , n , h =

l
-
m

x , - t .
x i , t j

N
nct j l n
nct j
nx i
~
sin
U ij = n cos
+
sin
,
l
nc
l
l
n =1

(3.4.13)

N ,
, ..

nct j n l
nct j

sin

cos
+
sin
xi < .
n
l
nc
l
l
n = N +1

(3.4.13) .
, , -
N.
F N, x i , t j ,
:

lim F = 0 , rN (x i , t j ) < F(N, x i , t j ).

N ( (3.4.13)
n,

F n, x i , t j < .
, , .

284

2U

, 0 < x < l, t > 0 ;


x 2
x (l x ) U
U(x,0 ) =
,
(x,0) = 0 ;
t
l2
U(0, t ) = U(l, t ) = 0 .

3.4.1.

t 2

=c

2U

: (3.4.12)

U (x , t ) =

8
3

k =0

(2k + 1)3

cos

(2k + 1)ct
(2k + 1)x
sin
.
l
l

rN (x i , t j )

k = N +1

(2k + 1)3

8
3

dx

(2k + 1)3

2
3 (2 N + 1)2

2.

2
U
2 U
=a
+ f (x , t ) , 0 < x < l , t > 0
t
x 2

+ 1 U
= 1 (t ) ,
1
x
x =0
U

+ 2 U
= 2 (t )
2
x

x =l

U(x,0) = (x ) .

U(x, t ) = U 0 (x , t ) + C k Tk (t ) X k (x ) ,
k =1

(3.4.14)

U 0 (x , t ) , Tk (t ) , X k (x ) - , f (x , t )
; k - , .
U(x , t )
(3.4.14) .1.
2
U
2 U
3.4.2.
=a
+ f (x , t ) , 0 < x < l , t > 0 ;
t
x 2
U (x ,0 ) = 1 , t > 0 ;
U(0, t ) = 0 , U(l, t ) = 1 , 0 < x < l .

. ,
285

x 2 e (na ) t
n
U (x , t ) = +
sin
x.
l n =1 n
l
2

2
e

k
k = N +1

r N (x , t )

ka

t
l

sin

k
2
x
e
l
(N + 1) k = N +1

ka

t
l

a
tk 2
l

k = N +1

tx 2

dx e

1
a
dx = e N , = t .

,
2

2
a
l
r N (x , t )
exp tN .
(N + 1)t a
l
4
1.
,

(l x ) ,
x l2 x 2
(x ) = U(x,0 ) =
+

l
l
l2
((x ) 0 ).
( l
1).

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0,45
0,4
0,375
0,35
0,325
0,3
0,25
0,2
0,15
0,125
0,1
0,075
0,05
0,025
0

0,1
0,2
0,25
0,3
0,35
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1

286

2.

U (x ,0 ) = U 1

lx
(U 1 U 0 )
l

U(l, t ) = U1 ; U(0, t ) = U 2 .
U 0 , U 1 , U 2 , ,
. l 1.

U0
U1
U2
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,9
0,2
1,0
0,8
0,8
0,2
0,1
0,2
0,1
0

0,4
0,5
0,4
0,1
0,9
0,5
0,1
0,7
0,1
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,4
1

0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,9
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5
0,4
0,7
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9

:
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
.
.

287


:
1. .. . . 2. .
, 2003. 416 .
2. .. . . . , 1964.
688 .
3. .. . .
, 1983. 126 .
4. .., .., ..
. . . 2004. 415 .
5. .., .. . .:
, 1977. 735 .
6. .., .. . .:
1969. 286 .
7. .., .., ..
. .: , 1962. 767 .
8. .. .: , 1980. 687 .

:
1. .. . .: , 1965.
283 .

:
1.
( )/. .. , ..
: , 1989. 41 .
2.
( )/. .. ,
.. . : , 1991. 40 .
3.

/. ..
, .. , .. : , 1987.
4. . . .. ,
.. , .. . : , 2000.

288