Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 137

6

. .

1
1. O-.
4
2. .
5
3. .
10
2
4. .
14
5. .
18
3
6. .
24
7. . .
32
8. .
36
4
9.
.
.
42
5
10. 1- (2 ).
49
6
11.
.
52
12. W 00 + (a1 + b1 z)W 0 + (a0 + b0 z)W = 0. 62
7
13. zW 00 + (a1 + b1 z)W 0 + (a0 + b0 z)W = 0. 67
14. - .
71
8
15. .
75
16. .
81
9
17. .
86
18. 2- (1 ).
95
10
19. .
96
20. .
100
21. .
105
11
22. .
114
8 2011 .
1

23. .
12
24. .
25. R3 .
13
26. 3- (2 ).

119
127
130
137

. ,
.
13 , - . .
.

, , . , , : sof yto@mail.ru ( ).

. .

1.

O-.

1.1.

f () = O(g()) 0
, C V 0 ,
|f ()| 6 C|g()| V.

f () = o(g()) 0
, ,
f () = ()g(),

lim () = 0.

2. .

Zb

f (x)eS(x) dx,

(2.1)

[a, b] , f S C [a, b],


S .
(2.1) +.




Z


f (x)eS(x) dx 6 CeM , M = max S(x), > 0,


x

, (2.1) (
), S .
c Fc ().
2.1. f S C [a, b], S
. S
[a, b] c1 , . . . , cn . .
ck = a S 0 (a) < 0.

 
1
1
S(a)
Fck () = e
f (a) + O
+.
(2.2)
0
S (a)

ck = b S 0 (b) > 0.
S(b)

Fck () = e

1
S 0 (b)

 
1
f (b) + O
+.

S 0 (ck ) = 0 S 00 (ck ) < 0. , ck 6= a ck 6= b,


s

 
2
1
S(ck )
Fck () = e
f (ck ) + O
+,
00
|S (ck )|

ck = a ck = b,
s



1 S(ck )
2
1
+.
Fck () = e
f (ck ) + O
2
|S 00 (ck )|

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5)

(2.1) +
Zb
n
X
S(x)
f (x)e
dx =
Fck ().
a

k=1

2.2.
Z1
2
(1 + x)ex dx +.
0

. .

. S(x) = x2 [0, 1]
c = 1. (2.3)

 

 
1
1
1
1
Fc=1 () = e
2+O
=e
1+O
+. 
2

R1
0

(1 + x)ex dx = e 1 1 + O



+.

2.3.
Z1

(1 + x)e cos(2x) dx +.

.
. S(x) = cos(2x) [1, 1] c = 0. (2.4)
S 0 (0) = 2 sin(2x)|x=0 = 0, S 00 (0) = 4 cos(2x)|x=0 = 4,
r 
r 
 
 
1
1
2

Fc=0 () = e
1+O
=e
1+O
+. 
4

S(0) = 1,

R1

(1 + x)e cos(2x) dx = e

p
2

1+O



+.

2.4.
Z4

(4 + x2 )e(x

3 12x)

dx +.

.
. S(x) = x3 12x [3, 4]
c1 = 2 c2 = 4. c1 = 2 (2.4)
S(2) = 16, S 0 (2) = (3x2 12)|x=2 = 0, S 00 (2) = 6x|x=2 = 12,
r
r

 

 
2
1
32
1
16
16
Fc1 =2 () = e
8+O
=e
1+O
+.
12

c2 = 4 (2.3)
S(4) = 16, S 0 (4) = (3x2 12)|x=4 = 36,

 

 
1
1
16 1
16 5
Fc2 =4 () = e
20 + O
=e
1+O
+. 
36

R4
3

(4 + x2 )e(x

3 12x)

dx = e16

q

32
3

5
9

+O

1
3/2



+.

2.5.
Z4
3
(4 + x2 )e(x 12x) dx .

(2.6)

.
.
. (2.6)
Z4
3
(4 + x2 )e||(12xx ) dx || +.
3
3

S(x) = 12x x [2, 4] c = 2.


(2.4)
S(2) = 16, S 0 (2) = (12 3x2 )|x=2 = 0, S 00 (2) = 6x|x=2 = 12,
s
s

 

 
2
32
1
1
16||
16||
Fc=2 () = e
8+O
=e
1+O
|| +. 
12||
||
3||
||
:

R4

(4 + x2 )e(x

3 12x)

dx = e16||

32
3||

1+O



:
2.6.
Z1
2
(2 + x)ex dx .
1

.
:

R1

(2 + x)ex dx = e

1+O



+;

R1

(2 + x)ex dx =

4
||

.
2.7.
Z4
(2 + cos(x))e cos 2x dx +.
1

.
:

R4

(2 + cos(x))e cos 2x dx = e

1+O



+.

2.8.
Z3
(3 2 cos(x))e3(2 sin xx) dx +.
1

1+O



. .

R3

(3 2 cos(x))e3(2 sin xx) dx = e(3

3)

3 3

1+O



+.

2.9.
Z3
3
2
(1 + 2x)e(x 5x +7x) dx +.
0

.
:

R3

(1 + 2x)e(x

3 5x2 +7x)

p
dx = e3 3 2
+

7
4

+O

1
3/2



+.

2.10.
Z2
3
(2 + x)e(x 3x1) dx +.
2

.
:

R2

(2 + x)e(x

3 3x1)

dx = e

4
9

+O

1
3/2



+.

2.11.
Z
cos x e(1x sin x) dx +.
0

.
:

1
2

cos x e(1x sin x) dx = e

+O



+.

2.12.
Z2
4
2
(2 + x)e(x 4x ) dx +.
1

.
:

R2

(2 + x)e(x

4 4x2 )

dx =

1
4

+O

1
3/2

+.

2.13.

Z2

cos(2x)e sin x sin(2x) dx +.

R2
0

cos(2x)e sin x sin(2x) dx =

1
2

p
2

+O

+.

2.14.
Z1
1 (ln x+arccos x)
e
dx +.
x2
1/2

.
:

10

. .

3. .

Zb

f (x)eiS(x) dx,

(3.1)

[a, b] , f S C [a, b],


S .
(3.1) +.
3.1. S c [a, b] , S 0 (c) = 0.
(2.1), (3.1) S a b.
c Fc ().
3.2. f S C [a, b], S
. c1 , . . . , cn S.
.
S 0 (a) 6= 0. a

 
1
1
iS(a)
Fa () = e
f (a) + O
+.
(3.2)
0
iS (a)

S 0 (b) 6= 0. b

 
1
1
iS(b)
Fb () = e
f (b) + O
+.
(3.3)
0
iS (b)

S 00 (ck ) 6= 0. , ck 6= a ck 6= b,
s

 

1
2
00
iS(ck )+i 4 sign(S (ck ))
f (ck ) + O
+,
(3.4)
Fck () = e
00
|S (ck )|

ck = a ck = b,

1
00
Fck () = eiS(ck )+i 4 sign(S (ck ))
2

2
|S 00 (ck )|




1
f (ck ) + O
+,

(3.5)

(3.1) +
Zb
X
f (x)eiS(x) dx = Fa () + Fb () +
Fck ().
ck 6=a,b

3.3.
Z2
2
(1 + x)eix dx +.
1

11

. S(x) = x2 [1, 2].


a = 1 (3.2)

 

 
1
1
i 1
i 1
Fa=1 () = e
2+O
= e
1+O
+.
2i

b = 2 (3.3)

 

 
1
1
4i 1
4i 3
Fb=2 () = e
3+O
=e
1+O
+. 
4i

4i

R2
1

3
1
(1 + x)eix dx = e4i 4i
ei i
+O

1
2

+.

3.4.

Z2

sin x ei sin(2x) dx +.

.
. S(x) = sin(2x) c = 4 .
(3.4)
 
 
 
= 1, S 0
= 2 cos(2x)|x= 4 = 0, S 00
= 4 sin(2x)|x= 4 = 4,
S
4
4
4
r 
r 
 
 

2
1
1

1
ii
ii
4
4
+O
Fc= 4 () = e
=e
1+O
+.
4

2
a = 0 (3.2)

 
 
1
1
1
0+O
=O
+.
Fa=0 () =
2i

2
b =

(3.3)

 

 
1
1
1
1
Fb= 2 () =
1+O
=
1+O
+. 
(2)i

2i

R2

sin x ei sin(2x) dx = eii 4

p
4

1
2i

+O

1
3/2

+.

3.5.
Z2

(2 x) sin((x3 3x)) dx +.

(3.6)

.
. , 3.2 (3.6)
2

Z2
Z
3
(2 x) sin((x3 3x)) dx = Im (2 x)ei(x 3x) dx .
(3.7)
0

12

. .


Z2

(2 x)ei(x

3 3x)

dx

3.2. S(x) = x3 3x c = 1.
(3.4)
S 0 (1) = (3x2 3)|x=1 = 0, S 00 (1) = 6x|x=1 = 6,
r 
 

1
2i+i 4
Fc=1 () = e
1+O
+.
3

S(1) = 2,

a = 0 (3.2)

 

 
1
2
1
1
2+O
=
1+O
+.
Fa=0 () =
3i

3i

b = 2 (3.3)

 
 
1
1
2i 1
Fb=2 () = e
0+O
=O
+.
9i

2
,
Z2

i(x3 3x)

(2 x)e

2i+i 4

dx = e

+
+O
3 3i


+.

3/2

(3.8) (3.7),
Z2
0

r




1
2
2i+i 4
(2 x) sin((x 3x)) dx = Im e
+
+O
=
3 3i
3/2
r



1

2


+O
+. 
= sin 2
4
3 3
3/2
3

R2

(2 x) sin((x3 3x)) dx = sin 2

p
3

2
3

+O

1
3/2

+.

:
3.6.
Z2

(x2 2)e4ix dx +.

.
:

R2
2

(x2 2)e4ix dx =

sin(8)

+O

1
2

+.

(3.8)

13

3.7.
Z1
2
(1 + x)eix dx +.
1

.
:

R1

(1 + x)eix dx = ei 4

1 i
e
i

+O

3/2

+.

3.8.
Z1
(1 + x) sin((x + x3 ) dx +.
0

.
:

R1

(1 + x) sin((x + x3 ) dx =

1
2

1
2

cos(2) + O

+.

3.9.
Z1
(1 x) cos((x2 + 2x)) dx +.
1

.
:

R1

(1 x) cos((x2 + 2x)) dx =

cos

+O

+.

3.10.

Z2
cos x cos((cos x + x sin x) dx +.
0

R2

cos x cos((cos x + x sin x) dx =

cos +

+O

+.

3.11.

Z2
sin(2x) cos((x + 2 cos x) dx +.
0

R2
0

sin(2x) cos((x + 2 cos x) dx =

cos

 
3 4 +O

1
3/2

+.

14

. .

4.
.
4.1.
Z+
1
e x x dx +.

(4.1)

.
. 2.1 (4.1)
. S(x) = x [0, +)
1
c = 0. f (x) = e x c = 0 .
 
Z+
1
x1 x
e
dx = O
+.
2
0

, (4.1) +.
, S
( ) f .
x = y
Z+
Z+
1
+1

x1 x
dx =
e
e y y dy.
0

,
()S(y). ,
1
= + 1 = ,
2
Z+
Z+
1
1
x1 x
e
dx =
e ( y +y) dy.

(4.2)

2.1
Z+
1
e( y +y) dy,
0

= . S(y) = y y1 c = 1.
(2.4)



2
1
0
00
S(1) = 2, S (1) = 1 + 2
= 0, S (1) = 3
= 2,
y
y y=1
y=1
 
r 
Z+

1
( y1 +y )
2
dy = e
1+O
+.
e

(4.3)

(4.3) (4.2), =

15




Z+

1
x1 x
2
+. 
e
dx = e
1+O
3/4

+
R

e x x dx = e2

3/4

1+O



+.

4.2.
Z+
2
ex +x dx +.

(4.4)

.
. S(x) = x +, 2.1
. , , , (4.4) +.
x = y (4.4)
Z+
Z+
2 2
+1
x2 +x

e
dx =
e y + y dy.
0

,
()S(y). ,
2 = + 1 = 1,
Z+
Z+
2
2
2
ex +x dx =
e (yy ) dy.
(4.5)
0

2.1
Z+
2
e(yy ) dy.
0

S(y) = y y 2 c = 21 .
(2.4)
 
 
 
1
1
1
1
0
00
S
= , S
= (1 2y)|y= 1 = 0, S
= 2,
2
2
4
2
2
 
r 
Z+
1

1
(yy 2 )

e
dy = e 4
1+O
+.

(4.6) (4.5), = 2 ,

 
Z+
1 2
1
x2 +x

4
1+O
+. 
e
dx = e
2
0

(4.6)

16

. .

+
R

ex

2 +x

dx = e 4

1+O

1
2



+.

4.3.
zW 00 + (3 iz)W 0 iW = 0

(4.7)

z +.
. , . . 67,
(4.7)
Z0

Zi

zt

(t i) e dt,

W1 (z) =

W2 (z) =

(t i) ezt dt.

W1 2.1
 
i
1
W1 (z) = + O
z +.
z
z2
W2 3.2
 
Zi
Z1
1
i
zt
izx
z +. 
W2 (z) = (t i) e dt = (t = ix) = (1 x) e dx = + O
z
z2
0

4.4. , W1 W2
. ,
W1 W2 , , .
: W1 (z) =

R0

(t i) ezt dt = zi + O

1
z2


Ri
, W2 (z) = (t i) ezt dt =
0

i
z

+O

1
z2

z +.

:
4.5.
Z+
3
ex +3x dx +.
0

.
:

+
R

ex

3 +3x

dx = e2

3/2

1+O

1
3/2



+.

4.6.
W 00 zW 0 W = 0
z +.
: W1 (z) =
z +.

R0

1 2
+zt

e 2 t

dt =

1
z

+O

1
z2

, W2 (z) =

+
R
0

1 2
+zt

e 2 t

dt =

1 2

2 e 2 z

1+O

1
z2



4.7.
Z1
2
e(|x|x ) dx +.
1

.
:

R1
1

(|x|x2 )

dx = e

1+O



+.

17

18

. .

5. .

Z

f (z)eS(z) dz,

(5.1)

, f , S .
(5.1) +.
5.1. S zs C ,
S 0 (zs ) = 0.
f S , .
(5.1) ,
. , ,

Im(S(z)) = Const

Re(S(z)) = Const.

, , . , , Im(S(z)) = Const, (5.1)



2.1. , , Re(S(z)) = Const, (5.1)
3.2. , ,
(5.1) ,
Re(S(z)).
.
5.2.
Z
2
ez dz

(5.2)

+, 1 2i 1 + 2i.
.
. S(z) = z 2 , S(z)
. Im(S(z)) = C
2xy = C,

C R.

(5.3)

(5.3) C 1.
Re(S(z)) = C
x2 y 2 = C,

C R.

(5.4)

(5.4) C 2. , Im(S(z)) = C
Re(S(z)) = C. . 3 4 1 2 . S(z) = z 2 zs = 0.
Im(S(z)) Re(S(z)) = C. ,

19

. 1. Im(S(z)) = C . 2. Re(S(z)) = C
C = 0, 0.2, 1 . C = 0, 1, 3 .

. 3. 1 - . 4. 2 .
.

, ,
Im(S(z)) Re(S(z)) = C.
1 , 3.
.

1 1
2i i 3 1 ;
i 3 i 3 2 i 3 1 + 2i 3 , 3.

20

. .

,
Z

z 2

Z
dz =

z 2

dz =

z 2

Z
e

dz +

z 2

Z
dz +

ez dz.

(. . 2.1), ,
1 , 2 3 ,
Re(S(z)) .
, 1 , 2 3 .
1 3 S(z) ,

Re(S(z)) = Re(S( 3)) = 3


z 1 ,

Re(S(z)) = Re(S( 3)) = 3


z 3 .
2 S(z)
Re(S(z)) = y 2 ,

z = iy,


y [ 3, 3].

, Re(S(z))
z = 0, Re(S(0)) = 0. , Re(S(z)) 2 ,
(5.2)
Z
Z
2

ez dz + O(e3 ).

ez dz =

(5.5)

z = iy 2 ,
2.1,

r 
 
Z3
Z

1
z 2
y 2
e dz = i
e
dy = i
1+O
(5.6)

+. (5.5) (5.6) , (5.2). 



R
p
2
: ez dz = i 1 + O 1 .

5.3.
Z
3
2
e(2z 3z ) dz

+, 3 + i, 3 2i.
.
. S(z) = 2z 3 3z 2 , S(z)
. Im(S(z)) = C Re(S(z)) = C
C 5. Im(S(z)) = C
Re(S(z)), . 6.
7 8 . ,
, Re(S(z))
. 6, , 1 2 , , z = 0.
, 2 , ,

21

. 5. Im(S(z)) = C . 6.
C = 56, 0, 70 ; Re(S(z)), S(z) = 2z 3 3z 2 .
Re(S(z)) = C C =
60, 33, 1, 0, 50 .

. 7. 1 - . 8. 2 .
.

5 9 . , 1 2 ,
, 1 .

22

. .


Z
Z
4 Z
X
3
2
(2z 3 3z 2 )
(2z 3 3z 2 )
dz =
e(2z 3z ) dz =
e
dz = e

(2z 3 3z 2 )

=
2

n=1

dz + O(e

Z1
)=

(2x3 3x2 )

dx + O(e

r
)=


 
1
1+O

+. , 2
, z = 0 2.1. 

R
p
3
2
1 + O 1 +.
: e(2z 3z ) dz = 3

:
5.4.
Z
2
e(iz 6z) dz

+, 5i 2. .

R
2
: e(iz 6z) dz =? 1 + O 1 .

5.5.
Z
2
e(z 4iz) dz

+, 0 10i. .

R
2
: e(z 4iz) dz =? 1 + O 1 .

5.6.
Z
2
e(z 2z) dz

+, 1 i 2 + i. .

 
R
p
2
+.
: e(z 2z) dz = i e 1 + O 1

5.7.
Z
2
e(z +4iz) dz

+, 2 1 4i. .

e(z

2 +4iz)

dz = i

23


 
4
1
1
+
O
+.
e

5.8.
Z
ez sin z dz

+, 2i 3. .
q

R
1
zs sin zs
: ez sin z dz = (2 cos zs2
e
1
+
O
+, zs zs sin zs )

tg zs = zs , zs 2.03; 9.

. 9. Im(z sin z) = C
C = 0 ; Re(z sin z) = C C =
0, zs sin zs , zs 2.03
; Re(z sin z); .

. 10. Im(z 3 + 3z) =


C C = 2 ; Re(z 3 + 3z) = C
C = 0, 8 ; Re(z 3 + 3z);
.

5.9.
Z
3
e(z +3z) dz

+, 2 i 1 + 2i.
.

R
p 2i+i
3
4
: e(z +3z) dz = 6
e
1 + O 1 +;

10.

24

. .

6.



W1

.
..
W (z) = F (z, W (z)), W =
.
Wn
6.1. F (z, W1 , . . . , Wn ) -
|z z0 | < 0 z |Wp Wp0 | < p Wp p = 1, . . . , n
k > 0 k = 0, . . . , n. > 0 ( 6 0 ) ,

0
W1


W (z) = F (z, W (z)), W (z)
= ...
(6.1)
z=z0
0
Wn
, |z z0 | < .
6.2.


W 0 = W 2,
W (0) = w0 6= 0.

(6.2)

. (6.2) .

1
W (z) =
.
(6.3)
z w01
, z = w01 ,
(6.2) .
(6.1) 0 = + < w01 .
, (6.1) , F .
6.1, , 0 . 
: W (z) = (z w01 )1 .
6.1 , (6.1)
z0 . ,
z0 . , 6.1 (6.1)
z0 . , ,
.
6.3.
 0
W = W 2,
W (0) = 1

(6.4)

O(z 3 ).
. z0 = 0

X
W (z) =
wn z n = w0 + w1 z + w2 z 2 + O(z 3 ).
n=0

(6.5)

25

(6.5) (6.4),
w1 + 2w2 z + O(z 2 ) = w0 + w1 z + w2 z 2 + O(z 3 )

2

= w02 + 2w0 w1 z + O(z 2 ).

(6.6)

z 0 , z 1 , . . (6.6), wn .
w1 = w02 ,

2w2 = 2w0 w1 .

(6.7)

W (0) = 1 ,
W (0) = w0 = 1.
w0 = 1 (6.7),
w1 = w02 = 1,

w2 = w0 w1 = 1.

, ,
. 6.2,

X
1
1
W (z) =
=
=
zn. 
(6.8)
z1
1z
n=0
: W (z) = 1 + z + z 2 + O(z 3 ).
6.4.
 0
W = W 2,
W (0) = 1
.
.

X
wn z n .
W (z) =

(6.9)

n=0

(6.9) (6.4),

wn nz n1 =

n=0

n=0

wn nz n1 =

n=1

!2
wn z n

,
!

wn z n

n=0

wp+1 (p + 1)z p =

wk z k

k=0

p=0

wn wk z n+k .

(6.10)

n=0 k=0

(6.10). k = p n
X

wn wk z

n+k

n=0 k=0

wn wpn z p =

n=0 p=n

n p
=

p
X
X
p=0 n=0

wn wpn z =

X
p=0

p
X
n=0

wn wpn .

26

. .

wn wk z

n+k

n=0 k=0

p
X

wn wpn .

(6.11)

n=0

p=0

(6.11) (6.10),

wp+1 (p + 1)z =

p=0

X
p=0

p
X

wn wpn .

(6.12)

n=0

z p , p = 0, 1, . . . (6.12),
wp
wp+1 (p + 1) =

p
X

wn wpn .

(6.13)

n=0

W (0) = 1 ,
W (0) = w0 = 1.
w0 = 1 (6.13),
w1 = w02 = 1, w2 = w0 w1 = 1, . . . ,
p
1 X
wp+1 =
1 = 1, p = 2, 3, . . . . 
p + 1 n=0
: W (z) =

zn.

n=0

6.5.
 00
W + (W 0 )2 sin(W ) = 3 z,
W (0) = , W 0 (0) = 1

(6.14)

O(z 4 ). (6.14) (6.1).


. (6.14)
W 00 = (W 0 )2 + sin(W ) + 3 z.

(6.15)

z0 = 0
W (z) =

wn z n = w0 + w1 z + w2 z 2 + w3 z 3 + O(z 4 ).

(6.16)

n=0

(6.16) (6.15),
2

2w2 + 6w3 z + O(z 2 ) = w1 + 2w2 z + O(z 2 ) + sin w0 + w1 z + O(z 2 ) + 3 z =
= w12 4w1 w2 z + sin(w0 ) + cos(w0 )w1 z + 3 z + O(z 2 ) =
= 3 w12 + sin(w0 ) + (4w1 w2 + cos(w0 )w1 1)z + O(z 2 ).
z 0 , z 1 , . . . wn .
2w2 = 3 w12 + sin(w0 ),

6w3 = 4w1 w2 + cos(w0 )w1 1.

(6.17)

27

(6.16) (6.14),
W (0) = w0 = ,
W 0 (0) = w1 = 1.
w0 = 1 w1 = 1 (6.17),
1
w2 = (3 w12 + sin(w0 )) = 1,
2
1
w3 = (4w1 w2 + cos(w0 )w1 1) = 1.
6

(6.14) (6.1). - W

   

W1
W
W =
=
,
W2
W0
W (6.14).

 0   0  

0
W (z)
W2 (z)
W1 (z)
=
=
=
W (z) =
W 00 (z)
(W 0 (z))2 + sin(W (z)) + 3 z
W20 (z)


W2 (z)
=
,
(W2 (z))2 + sin(W1 (z)) + 3 z

 
  
W1 (0)
W (0)

=
=
.
W2 (0)
W 0 (0)
1
, (6.14)
 



W2
W (z) = F (z, W (z)), W (0) =
, F (z, W ) =
.
1
(W2 )2 + sin(W1 ) + 3 z
: W (z) = + z + z 2 z 3 + O(z 4 ).


W1
F11 F1n
G1

.
.
..
W (z) = F (z)W + G (z), W =
, F = .. . . . .. , G = ... .
Wn
Fn1 Fnn
Gn
6.6. F (z) - D

G (z) - D.

0
W1


..

W (z) = F (z)W (z) + G (z), W (z)


=
(6.18)
.
z=z0
0
Wn
, D.
6.7.
 0
W W = 0,
W (0) = 1
.

(6.19)

28

. .

.
W (z) =

wn z n .

(6.20)

n=0

, (6.19) ,
6.6 , (6.20) ,
, z.
(6.20) (6.19),

wn nz

n1

n=0

wn z n ,

n=0

wp+1 (p + 1)z p =

p=0

wp z p .

(6.21)

p=0

z p , p = 0, 1, . . . (6.21),
wp
wp+1 (p + 1) = wp , p > 0.
n = p + 1,
wn1
, n > 1.
n
W (0) = 1 ,
wn =

(6.22)

W (0) = w0 = 1.
, . w0 = 1 (6.22),
wn =

wn2
w0
w0
1
wn1
=
= =
=
= .
n
n(n 1)
n(n 1) 2 1
n!
n!

X
1 n
W (z) =
wn z =
z = ez . 
n!
n=0
n=0

: W (z) =

P
n=0

wn z n , w0 = 1, wn =

wn1
,
n

n > 1, |z| < .

6.8.
 0
W z 2 W = 1,
W (0) = 0

(6.23)

.
.
W (z) =

X
n=0

wn z n .

(6.24)

29

(6.24) (6.23),

X
X
n1
wn nz

wn z n+2 = 1,
n=0

n=0

wp+1 (p + 1)z p = 1 +

p=0

wp2 z p .

(6.25)

p=2
p

z , p = 0, 1, . . . (6.25),
wp . ,
p = 0, p = 1 p > 2, (6.25) p = 0, p = 2
z 0 : w1 = 1,
z 1 : 2w2 = 0, w2 = 0,
z p : wp+1 (p + 1) = wp2 , p > 2 = wn =

wn3
, n > 3.
n

W (0) = 1 ,
W (0) = w0 = 0.
, (6.24)
w1
w3p = 0, p > 0, w3p+2 = 0, p > 0, w3p+1 =
, p > 0,
1 4 (3p 2)(3p + 1)

X
X
1
n
wn z =
W (z) =
z 3p+1 .
1

.
.
.

(3p

2)(3p
+
1)
p=0
n=0
(6.23) ,
(6.24) z. 

P
: W (z) =
wn z n , w0 = 0, w1 = 1, w2 = 0, wn = wn3
, n > 3, |z| < .
n
n=0

6.9.
 00
W z 2 W 0 + W = 1,
W (0) = 1, W 0 (0) = 6

(6.26)

.
.

X
W (z) =
wn z n .

(6.27)

n=0
0

W (0) = 1 W (0) = 6 ,
W (0) = w0 = 1,

W 0 (0) = w1 = 6.

W 0 W 00

X
X
0
n1
W (z) =
wn nz
=
wp+1 (p + 1)z p ,
n=0

W 00 (z) =

X
p=0

(6.28)

p=0

wp+1 (p + 1)pz p1 =

X
p=0

wp+2 (p + 2)(p + 1)z p .

(6.29)

30

. .

(6.27) (6.29) (6.26),

X
X
X
(p + 2)(p + 1)wp+2 z p
(p + 1)wp+1 z p+2 +
wp z p = 1,
p=0

p=0

p=0

n=2

n=0

(n + 2)(n + 1)wn+2 z n

n=0

(n 1)wn1 z n +

wn z n = 1.

(6.30)

z n , n > 0 (6.30), wn . n = 0,
n=1n>2
z 0 : 2w2 + w0 = 1, = w2 = 0,
z 1 : 6w3 + w1 = 0, = w3 = 1,
(p 3)wp3 wp2
, p > 4.
p(p 1)
(6.26) ,
(6.27) z. 

P
p3 wp2
: W (z) =
wn z n , w0 = 1, w1 = 6, w2 = 0, w3 = 1, wp = (p3)w
, p > 4, |z| < .
p(p1)
z n : (n + 2)(n + 1)wn+2 (n 1)wn1 + wn = 0, n > 2 = wp =

n=0

:
6.10.
 0
W = W 4 + 2z,
W (0) = 1
O(z 3 ).
: W (z) = 1 + z + 3z 2 + O(z 3 ).
6.11.
 0
W = eW + z,
W (0) = 0
O(z 4 ).
: W (z) = z + z 2 + 21 z 3 + O(z 4 ).
6.12.
 0
W = cos(W ) 2,
W (0) = 0
O(z 4 ).
: W (z) = z 61 z 3 + O(z 4 ).
6.13.
 0
W = 2 cos(W ) + z 2 ,
W (0) = 4
O(z 4 ).

: W (z) =

31

+ z 21 z 2 + 13 z 3 + O(z 4 ).

6.14.
 0
W + zW = 1 z,
W (0) = 1
.
: W (z) =

P
n=0

wn z n , w0 = 1, w1 = 1, w2 = 1, wn = wn2
, n > 3, |z| < .
n

6.15.
 00
W + W 0 zW = z,
W (0) = 1, W 0 (0) = 2
.
: W (z) =

wn z n , w0 = 1, w1 = 2, w2 = 1, w3 = 0, wn =

n=0

wn3 (n1)wn1
,
n(n1)

6.16.

(1 z)W 00 W = 0,
W (0) = 1, W 0 (0) = 0
.
: W (z) =

P
n=0

wn z n , w0 = 1, w1 = 0, wn =

1
n(n1)

n2
P
p=0

wp , n > 2, |z| < 1.

n > 4, |z| < .

32

. .

7.

. .


W 00 + p(z)W 0 + q(z)W = 0,

(7.1)

p q , W . ,
p q z0 .
7.1. z0 6= (7.1),
p q .
7.2. z0 6= (7.1),
p , q ,
. . p q z0
p0
q1
q0
p(z) =
+
+ , q(z) =
+ .
2
z z0
(z z0 )
z z0
7.3. z0 , .
7.4. 1 2
( 1) + p0 + q0 = 0
, Re 1 > Re 2 . 1 2 (7.1).
7.5 (). 1 2 . (A) (B1) (B3).
(A) z0 (7.1).
(B1) 1 2 6 Z, (7.1)
W1 (z) =

n+1

cn (z z0 )

W2 (z) =

n=0

dn (z z0 )n+2

n=0

, c0 6= 0 d0 6= 0.
(B2) 1 2 Z \ {0}, (7.1)
W1 (z) =

X
n=0

cn (z z0 )n+1 ,

W2 (z) =

dn (z z0 )n+2 + AW1 (z) ln(z z0 )

(7.2)

n=0

, c0 6= 0 d0 6= 0. A .
(B3) 1 = 2 , (7.1) (7.2) ,
c0 6= 0, d0 = 0 A 6= 0.
, (B1) (B3), |z z0 | 6 R,
(7.1).
7.5 (7.1)
. z0 = 1.
1

7.7 7.5 z = 1/t.

33

7.6. z0 = (7.1),
p q z0 =

p0 X pn1
q0 X qn2
p(z) =
+
q(z) = 2 +
.
z
zn
z
zn
n=2
n=3
7.7 (). 1 2
( 1) + p0 + q0 = 0,

Re 1 6 Re 2 .

(A) (B1) (B3).


(A) z0 = (7.1).
(B1) 1 2 6 Z, (7.1)

X
X
n+1
, W2 (z) =
dn z n+2
W1 (z) =
cn z
n=0

n=0

, c0 6= 0 d0 6= 0.
(B2) 1 2 Z \ {0}, (7.1)

X
X
n+1
W1 (z) =
cn z
, W2 (z) =
dn z n+2 + AW1 (z) ln z
n=0

(7.3)

n=0

, c0 6= 0 d0 6= 0. A .
(B3) 1 = 2 , (7.1) (7.3) ,
c0 6= 0, d0 = 0 A 6= 0.
, (B1) (B3), |z| > R,
(7.1).
7.8. ,
z 2 (1 z)W 00 + (1 + z)W 0 + zW = 0.

(7.4)

. (7.4)
1+z
1
W 00 + 2
W0 +
W = 0.
(7.5)
z (1 z)
z(1 z)
(7.5) z = 0, 1 .
p q z = 0
1+z
1
1
1
p(z) = 2
= 2 + , q(z) =
= + .
z (1 z)
z
z(1 z)
z
, z = 0 .
p q z = 1
2
1
1
1+z
p(z) = 2
=
+ , q(z) =
=
+ .
z (1 z)
z1
z(1 z)
z1
, z = 1 , p0 = 2, q0 = 0.

2 3 = 0.
, 1 = 3, 2 = 0.
p q z =
1+z
1
1
1
p(z) = 2
= 2 + , q(z) =
= 2 + .
z (1 z)
z
z(1 z)
z

34

. .

, z = , p0 = 0, q0 = 1.

2 1 = 0.
,

1 5
1+ 5
1 =
, 2 =
.
2
2
: z = 0 ; z = 1 ,
1 = 3, 2 = 0; z = ,

1 5
1 = 2 , 2 = 1+2 5 .
7.9. ,
z 2 W 00 + zW 0 + (z 2 2 )W = 0, Re > 0.
(7.6)
. (7.6)
1
z2 2
W 00 + W 0 +
W = 0.
z
z2
(7.7) z = 0 .
p q z = 0

(7.7)

1
z2 2
2
p(z) = , q(z) =
= 2 + 1.
z
z2
z
, z = 0 , p0 = 1, q0 = 2 .

2 2 = 0.
, 1 = , 2 = .
p q z =
z2 2
2
1
p(z) = , q(z) =
=
1

.
z
z2
z2
, z = . 
: z = ; z = 0 , 1 = , 2 = .
:
7.10. ,
z 2 (2 z)W 00 + 2zW 0 2W = 0.
: z = 0 , 1 = 1, 2 = 1; z = 2 ,
1 = 2, 2 = 0; z = , 1 = 0, 2 = 1.
7.11. ,
1
1
W = 0.
W 00 + W 0 +
z
z(1 z)
: z = 0 , 1 = 2 = 0; z = 1 , 1 = 1,
2 = 0; z = , 1 = 1, 2 = 1.

35

7.12. ,
(1 z 2 )W 00 2zW 0 + ( + 1)W = 0.
: z = 1 1 , 1 = 2 = 0; z = ,
1 = , 2 = + 1.
7.13. ,
(z 2 + 1)2 W 00 + 4(z + i)W 0 4W = 0.
: z = i ; z = i , 1 = 2 = 1;
z = , 1 = 0, 2 = 1.
7.14. ,
(z 2 + 1)W 00 + 2zW 0 + zW = 0.
: z = i , 1 = 2 = 0; z = ,
1 = 1, 2 = 0.
7.15. ,
(z 2 1)W 00 + zW 0 + W = 0.
: z = 1 , 1 = 21 , 2 = 0; z = ,
1 = i, 2 = i.
7.16. ,
z 2 (z 2)2 W 00 + 4(z 2)W 0 + z 2 W = 0.
: z = 0 ;
z = 2
, 1 = i, 2 = i;

1+i 3
1i 3
z = , 1 = 2 , 2 = 2 .
7.17. ,
z(1 z)2 W 00 + (1 + z 2 )W 0 + (1 z)W = 0.
: z = 1 ; z = 0 , 1 = 2 = 0;
z = , 1 = 1, 2 = 1.

36

. .

8.

8.1.
2zW 00 + W 0 + W = 0

(8.1)

z0 = 0.
.
1
2 = 0,
2
1 = 1/2, 2 = 0. 1 2 = 1/2 6 Z, 7.5 ,
(8.1)
W (z) =

cn z +n .

(8.2)

n=0

W 0 W 00
0

W (z) =

cn ( + n)z

+n1

00

W (z) =

n=0

cn ( + n)( + n 1)z +n2 .

(8.3)

n=0

(8.2) (8.3) (8.1),

2cn ( + n)( + n 1)z

+n1

cn ( + n)z

+n1

cn z +n = 0.

(8.4)

n=0

n=0

n=0

(8.4) ,
z. n = k 1,
k n

2ck ( + k)( + k 1)z +k1 +

k=0

ck ( + k)z +k1 +

k=0

ck ( + k)(2 + 2k 1)z

ck1 z +k1 = 0,

k=1
+k1

k=0

ck1 z +k1 = 0.

k=1

z,
z 1 : c0 (2 1) = 0,
z +k1 (k > 1) : ck ( + k)(2 + 2k 1) + ck1 = 0.

(8.5)
(8.6)

8.2. (8.5) 2c0 . (8.5) , 6= 1,2 , c0 = 0


W 0.
(8.1) = 1,2 .
= 1 = 1/2 c0 = 1. (8.6) ck
ck1
ck1
=
, k > 1.
ck =
(1 + k)(21 + 2k 1)
(2k + 1)k

(8.7)

37

, k > 1.
(8.7). , W1 , 1 ,

X
1
ck1
W1 (z) =
cn z 2 +n , c0 = 1, ck =
, k > 1.
(2k + 1)k
n=0
= 2 = 0 c0 = 1. (8.6)
ck
ck1
ck1
ck =
=
, k > 1.
(2 + k)(22 + 2k 1)
k(2k 1)

X
dk1
W2 (z) =
dn z n , d0 = 1, dk =
, k > 1.
(2k

1)k
n=0
, , ck dk . 
:
W1 (z) =

cn z 2 +n ,

c0 = 1, cn =

n=0

W2 (z) =

dn z n ,

d0 = 1, dn =

n=0

cn1
, n > 1,
(2n + 1)n

dn1
, n > 1.
(2n 1)n

8.3. (8.1)
W (z) = C1 W1 (z) + C2 W2 (z),
C1 C2 .
8.4.
3zW 00 + 2W 0 zW = 0

(8.8)

z0 = 0.
.
1
2 = 0,
3
1 = 1/3, 2 = 0. 1 2 = 1/2 6 Z, 7.5 ,
(8.8)
W (z) =

cn z +n .

(8.9)

n=0

W 0 W 00

X
0
W (z) =
cn ( + n)z +n1 ,

00

W (z) =

n=0

cn ( + n)( + n 1)z +n2 .

n=0

(8.9) (8.10) (8.8),

X
n=0

3cn ( + n)( + n 1)z

+n1

X
n=0

2cn ( + n)z

+n1

X
n=0

cn z +n+1 = 0,

(8.10)

38

. .

3ck ( + k)( + k 1)z

+k1

k=0

2ck ( + k)z

+k1

k=0

ck ( + k)(3 + 3k 1)z +k1

k=0

ck2 z +k1 = 0,

k=2

ck2 z +k1 = 0.

k=2

z,
z 1 : c0 (3 1) = 0,
z : c1 ( + 1)(3 + 2) = 0,
z +k1 (k > 2) : ck ( + k)(3 + 3k 1) ck2 = 0.

(8.11)
(8.12)
(8.13)

8.5. (8.11) 3c0 .


= 1 = 1/3 c0 = 1. (8.12) , c1 = 0. (8.13)
ck
ck2
ck2
=
, k > 2.
(8.14)
ck =
(1 + k)(31 + 3k 1)
(3k + 1)k
k > 1.
(8.14). W1 , 1 ,
W1 (z) =

cn z 3 +n ,

c0 = 1, c1 = 0, ck =

n=0

ck2
, k > 2.
(3k + 1)k

= 2 = 0 c0 = 1. (8.12) , c1 = 0. (8.13)
ck
ck2
ck2
ck =
=
, k > 2.
(2 + k)(32 + 3k 1)
k(3k 1)

W2 (z) =

dn z n ,

dk2
, k > 2.
k(3k 1)

d0 = 1, d1 = 0, dk =

n=0

, ck dk . 
:
W1 (z) =

cn z 3 +n ,

c0 = 1, c1 = 0, cn =

n=0

W2 (z) =

dn z n ,

d0 = 1, d1 = 0, dn =

n=0

cn2
, n > 2,
(3n + 1)n

dn2
, n > 2.
n(3n 1)

8.6.
2z 2 (3 + 2z)W 00 + z(9 + 2z)W 0 3W = 0
z0 = 0. .
.
1
1
2 + = 0,
2
2

(8.15)

39

1 = 1/2, 2 = 1. 1 2 = 3/2 6 Z, 7.5 ,


(8.15)

X
W (z) =
cn z +n .
(8.16)
n=0
0

00

W W

X
0
W (z) =
cn ( + n)z +n1 ,

00

W (z) =

n=0

cn ( + n)( + n 1)z +n2 .

(8.17)

n=0

(8.16) (8.17) (8.15),

X
X
X
(6z 2 + 4z 3 )
cn ( + n)( + n 1)z +n2 + (9z + 2z 2 )
cn ( + n)z +n1 3
cn z +n = 0,
n=0

n=0

6cn ( + n)( + n 1)z

+n

n=0

4cn ( + n)( + n 1)z +n+1 +

n=0

9cn ( + n)z +n +

n=0

n=0

2cn ( + n)z +n+1

n=0

6ck ( + k)( + k 1)z

+k

3cn z +n = 0,

n=0

4ck1 ( + k 1)( + k 2)z +k +

k=1

k=0

9ck ( + k)z

k=0

+k

2ck1 ( + k 1)z

k=1

+k

3ck z +k = 0.

(8.18)

k=0




1
F (n) = 6n(n 1) + 9n 3 = 3(2n + n 1) = 6 n
(n + 1),
2
G(n) = 4(n 1)(n 2) + 2(n 1) = 2(n 1)(2n 3).
2

(8.18)

X
X
+k
ck F ( + k)z
+
ck1 G( + k)z +k = 0.
k=0

k=1

z,
z : c0 F () = 3c0 (22 + 1) = 0,
z

+k

(8.19)

(k > 1) : ck F ( + k) + ck1 G( + k) = 0.

(8.20)

(8.19) 6c0 . = 1 = 1/2 c0 = 1. (8.20) ck


ck = ck1

(2k + 21 2)(2k + 21 3)
G( + k)
= ck1
,
F ( + k)
3(2k + 21 1)(k + 1 + 1)

k > 1.

2(2k 1)(k 1)
, k > 1.
(8.21)
3k(2k + 3)
, (8.21) k > 1.
(8.21). , (8.21)
ck = ck1

40

. .

k = 1 . , c1 = 0, ck = 0 k > 2.
, W1 , 1 , ,

W1 (z) = z.
= 2 = 1 c0 = 1. (8.20)
ck
ck = ck1

(2k + 22 2)(2k + 22 3)
2(k 2)(2k 5)
= ck1
,
3(2k + 22 1)(k + 2 + 1)
3(2k 3)k

k > 1.

(8.22)

, (8.22) k > 1. ,
(8.22) k = 2 . , c2 = 0, ck = 0 k > 3.
c1

2(k 2)(2k 5)
= 2.
c1 = c0
3(2k 3)k k=1

W2 (z) =
: W1 (z) =

z, W2 (z) =

1
z

1
+ 2. 
z

+ 2.

8.7.
2(2z 3 3z 2 + 1)W 00 + (2z 2 + 5z 7)W 0 3W = 0

(8.23)

z0 = 1. .
. , . (8.23) z = + z0 = 1
2z 3 3z 2 + 1|z=1 = 2 (3 + 2),

2z 2 + 5z 7|z=1 = (9 + 2),

0 = z0 + 1 = 0,

Wz0 = W0 ,

00
2 2 (3 + 2)W
+ (9 + 2)W0 3W = 0.

(8.24)

, z (8.24) (8.15) .
8.6,
p
1
W1 = , W2 = + 2.

z,

W1 (z) = z + 1,
: W1 (z) =

z + 1, W2 (z) =

1
z+1

W2 (z) =

1
+ 2. 
z+1

+ 2.

:
8.8.
9z 2 W 00 + 9zW 0 (1 + z + z 2 )W = 0
z0 = 0.

:
W1 (z) =

cn z 3 +n ,

c0 = 1, c1 =

n=0

W2 (z) =

41

1
cn1 + cn2
, cn =
, n > 2,
15
(3n + 1)2 1

dn1 + dn2
1
, n > 2.
d0 = 1, d1 = , dn =
3
(3n 1)2 1

dn z 3 +n ,

n=0

8.9.
3z 2 (2 + z)W 00 2z(1 + 2z)W 0 + 2(1 + z)W = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = z + 15 z 2 , W2 (z) =

3
z.

8.10.
2z 2 (1 + z)W 00 z(5 + 7z)W 0 + 3(2 + 3z)W = 0
z0 = 0. .
3

: W1 (z) = z 2 + 31 z 3 , W2 (z) = z 2 .
8.11.
2z(1 + z 2 )W 00 + (3 z 2 )W 0 2zW = 0
z0 = 0. .
1

: W1 (z) = 1 + 51 z 2 , W2 (z) = z 2 .
8.12.
(24z + 2z 3 )W 00 + (12 3z 2 )W 0 (6 3z)W = 0
z0 = 0. .
1

: W1 (z) = z 2 + 61 z 2 , W2 (z) = 2 + z.
8.13.
(2z 2 + 10z 4 )W 00 (z + 15z 3 )W 0 + (1 + 5z + 10z 2 )W = 0
z0 = 0. .
1

: W1 (z) = z + z 2 , W2 (z) = z 2 5z 2 .
8.14.

cn z n+

n=0

z W 000 + zW 0 W = 0
Z?
: = 0 3 ; > 4 6= 0
2; = 2 6= 1 3 ; = 2 = 1
1 ; = 1, 2 6= 0 2 ; 6 0 3 .
2 , , |z|

> 0.

42

. .

9.


.
.

9.1.
zW 00 + W 0 zW = 0

(9.1)

z0 = 0.
.
2 = 0,
1 = 2 = 0. 7.5 ,
(9.1)

X
cn z n , c0 = 1.
(9.2)
W (z) =
n=0

(9.2) (9.1),

n(n 1)cn z n1 +

ncn z n1

cn z n+1 = 0,

n=0

n=0

n=0

n2 cn z n1

cn2 z n1 = 0.

(9.3)

n=2

n=0

z,
z 1 : c0 0 = 0,
z 0 : c1 = 0,

c0 = 1,

cn2
.
(9.4)
n2
, (9.4)
n > 2. ,
z n1 (n > 2) : n2 cn cn2 = 0,

W1 (z) =

cn z n ,

cn =

c0 = 1, c1 = 0, cn =

n=0

cn2
, n > 2.
n2

(9.1) (. 7.5 . 32)


W (z) =

dn z n + AW1 (z) ln z.

(9.5)

n=0

(9.5) (9.1),

X
n=0

n dn z

n1

X
n=2

dn2 z

n1

2AW10 (z)

= 2A

ncn z n1 .

(9.6)

n=0

, (9.6) (9.3), dk ck . z

43

(9.6),
z 1 : d0 0 = 0, d0 , d0 = 0,
(9.7)
0
z : d1 = 2Ac1 = 0, A , A = 1,
(9.8)
dn2 2ncn
z n1 (n > 2) : n2 dn dn2 = 2Ancn , dn =
.
n2
. (9.7) 0 = 0,
d0 . , d0 .
, , , . d0 = 0 .
, d0 :
, , , .
. ,
W2 d0 = 0. W3 = W2 + DW1 .
, W3 , W2 , (9.5), d0 = D. ,
d0 , W2 DW1 (,
W2 , ).
, (7.1)
1 2 6 Z (. . W2 ),
W1 W2 .
c0 d0 .
W1 W2 .
(9.8) d1 = 2Ac1 .
d1 A. ,
W2 . , W2
. , A = 0,
. 
:
W1 (z) =
W2 (z) =

X
n=0

cn z n ,

c0 = 1, c1 = 0, cn =

dn z n + W1 (z) ln z,

cn2
, n > 2,
n2

d0 = 0, d1 = 0, dn =

n=0

dn2 2ncn
, n > 2.
n2

9.2.
z(1 + z)W 00 + 3(1 + z)W 0 zW = 0

(9.9)

z0 = 0.
.
2 + 2 = 0,
1 = 0, 2 = 2. 1 2 = 2 Z, 7.5 ,
(9.9)

X
W (z) =
cn z +n
(9.10)
n=0

= 1 = 0.

44

. .

(9.10) (9.9),

cn ( + n)( + n 1)z

+n1

n=0

n=0

3cn ( + n)z

+n1

n=0

+k1

3cn ( + n)z

+n

cn z +n+1 = 0,

n=0

ck1 ( + k 1)( + k 2)z +k1 +

k=1

3ck ( + k)z

+k1

k=0

X
n=0

ck ( + k)( + k 1)z

k=0

cn ( + n)( + n 1)z +n +

3ck1 ( + k 1)z

+k1

k=1

ck ( + k)( + k + 2)z

+k1

X
k=2

ck1 ( + k 1)( + k + 1)z

+k1

ck2 z +k1 = 0. (9.11)

k=2

k=1

k=0

ck2 z +k1 = 0,

= 1 = 0 z,
z 1 : c0 0 = 0,

c0 = 1,

z 0 : 3c1 c0 = 0,

c1 =

1
c0
= ,
3
3

z k1 (k > 2) : k(k + 2)ck + (k 2 1)ck1 ck2 = 0,

ck =

ck2 (k 2 1)ck1
.
k(k + 2)

(9.12)

(9.12) k > 2.
(9.12).
, W1 , 1 = 0,
W1 (z) =

cn z n ,

c0 = 1, c1 =

n=0

1
ck2 (k 2 1)ck1
, ck =
, k > 2.
3
k(k + 2)

, = 2 = 2, (. 7.5
. 32)

X
W (z) =
dn z n2 + AW1 (z) ln z.
(9.13)
n=0

(9.13) (9.9),

X
n=0

dn (n 2)nz

n3

X
n=1

dn1 (n 3)(n 1)z

n3

dn2 z n3 =

n=2


= 2A (z +

1)W10 (z)


1
+ W1 (z) + W1 (z) . (9.14)
z

, (9.14) (9.11), 2 dk ck .
(9.14)

X
X
X
1
(z + 1)W10 (z) + W1 (z) + W1 (z) =
cn+1 z n +
(cn + cn+1 (n + 1))z n +
cn nz n . (9.15)
z
n=1
n=0
n=1

45

(9.15) (9.14) k = n + 3 (9.14)

dn+3 (n + 1)(n + 3)z +

n=3

dn+2 n(n + 2)z

n=2

= 2A

n=1

cn+1 z n +

dn+1 z n =

n=1

(cn + cn+1 (n + 1))z n +

n=0

!
cn nz n .

n=1

z,
z 3 : d0 0 = 0, d0 = 1,
z 2 : d1 + d0 0 = 0, d1 = 0,
d0 + d1
1
= , d2 , d2 = 0,
2c0
2
5
d1 2A(c0 + 2c1 )
= ,
z 0 : 3d3 + d2 0 d1 = 2A(c1 + c0 + c1 ), d3 =
3
9
n
z (n > 1) : dn+3 (n + 1)(n + 3) + dn+2 n(n + 2) dn+1 = (cn (n + 1) + cn+1 (n + 2)) ,
z 1 : d2 0 d1 d0 = 2Ac0 ,

dn+3 =
:

A=

dn+1 dn+2 n(n + 2) cn (n + 1) cn+1 (n + 2)


.
(n + 1)(n + 3)

c0 = 1, c1 =

1
cn2 (n2 1)cn1
, cn =
, k > 2,
3
n(n + 2)

1
dn z n2 + W1 (z) ln z,
2
n=0

5
d0 = 1, d1 = 0, d2 = 0, d3 = ,
9

W1 (z) =

cn z n ,

n=0

W2 (z) =

dn+3 =

dn+1 dn+2 n(n + 2) cn (n + 1) cn+1 (n + 2)


, n > 1.
(n + 1)(n + 3)

9.3.
z(1 + z 2 )W 00 + (1 z 2 )W 0 = 0

(9.16)

z0 = 0. .
.
2 = 0,
1 = 2 = 0. (9.16)
W (z) =

X
n=0

cn z n .

(9.17)

46

. .

(9.17) (9.16),

n(n 1)cn z n1 +

n=0

n(n 1)cn z n+1 +

n=0

ncn z n1

n=0

n2 cn z n1

k 2 ck z k1

k=0

ncn z n+1 = 0,

n=0

n=0

n(n 2)cn z n+1 = 0,

n=0

(k 2)(k 4)ck2 z k1 = 0.

(9.18)

k=2

z (9.18),
z 1 : c0 0 = 0,
z 0 : c1 = 0,

c0 = 1,

z k1 (k > 2) : k 2 ck (k 2)(k 4)ck2 = 0,

ck =

(k 2)(k 4)ck2
.
k2

(9.19)

, (9.19) , ck = 0 k > 2.
,
W1 (z) = 1.
(9.16)
W (z) =

dn z n + A ln z.

(9.20)

n=0

(9.20) (9.16),

n dn z

n1

n=0

(n 2)(n 4)dn2 z n1 = 2Az.

(9.21)

n=2

(9.21) (9.18),
dk ck . z
(9.21),
z 1 : d0 0 = 0,
z 0 : d1 = 0,

d0 , d0 = 0,

1
A , A = 1, d2 = ,
2
(n

2)(n

4)dn2
z n1 (n > 3) : n2 dn (n 2)(n 4)dn2 = 0, dn =
.
2
n
, dn = 0 n > 3. 
z 1 : 4d2 = 2A,

: W1 (z) = 1, W2 (z) = 21 z 2 + ln z.
9.4.
z(1 z 2 )W 00 + 2W 0 = 0
z0 = 0. .

(9.22)

47

.
( + 1) = 0,
1 = 0, 2 = 1. (9.22)
W (z) =

cn z n .

(9.23)

n=0

(9.23) (9.22),

n(n 1)cn z

n1

n=0

n(n 1)cn z

n+1

+2

n=0

ncn z n1 = 0,

n=0

n(n + 1)cn z n1

n=0

n(n 1)cn z n+1 = 0,

n=0

k(k + 1)ck z k1

k=0

(k 2)(k 3)ck2 z k1 = 0.

(9.24)

k=2

z (9.24),
z 1 : c0 0 = 0, c0 = 1,
z 0 : 2c1 = 0, c1 = 0,
z k1 (k > 2) : k(k + 1)ck (k 2)(k 3)ck2 = 0,

ck =

(k 2)(k 3)ck2
.
k(k + 1)

(9.25)

(9.25) , ck = 0 k > 2. ,

W1 (z) = 1.
(9.22)
W (z) =

dn z n1 + A ln z.

(9.26)

n=0

(9.26) (9.22),

(n 1)ndn z

n2

n=0

(n 3)(n 4)dn2 z

n=2

n2


= A


1
+z .
z

z (9.27),
z 2 : d0 0 = 0, d0 = 1,
z 1 : d1 0 = A, A = 0,

z n2

d1 , d1 = 0,
(n 3)(n 4)dn2
(n > 2) : (n 1)ndn (n 3)(n 4)dn2 = 0, dn =
.
n(n 1)

, d2 = d0 = 1 dn = 0 n > 3. 
: W1 (z) = 1, W2 (z) =

1
z

+ z.

(9.27)

48

. .

:
9.5.
z(1 + z)W 00 + W 0 = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = 1, W2 (z) = z + ln z.
9.6.
z(1 + z 2 )W 00 + (1 z 2 )W 0 = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = 1, W2 (z) = z 2 + 2 ln z.
9.7.
z 2 W 00 3zW 0 + 4W = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = z 2 , W2 (z) = z 2 ln z.
9.8.
z(1 z)W 00 + zW 0 W = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = z, W2 (z) = 1 + z ln z.
9.9.
z 2 (1 + z)W 00 + z(3 + 2z)W 0 + W = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = z 1 , W2 (z) = 1 + z 1 ln z.
9.10.
z(1 + z 2 )W 00 + (1 z 2 )W 0 (1 z)W = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = 1 + z, W2 (z) = 2z + (1 + z) ln z.
9.11.
z 2 (1 + z)W 00 z(1 + 2z)W 0 + (1 + 2z)W = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = z, W2 (z) = z 2 + z ln z.
9.12.
(z + z 3 )W 00 + (1 z 2 )W 0 (1 z)W = 0
z0 = 0. .
: W1 (z) = 1 + z, W2 (z) = 2 + (1 + z) ln z.

10.

49

1- (2 ).

1.
(1)

Z2
cos x cos( ch x)) dx +.
2

 q 2

R2
1
:
cos x cos( ch x)) dx = cos + 4
+ O 3/2
+.

(2)
Z
cos(2z) e sin z dz

+, 2 i + 2i.
.
q

R
: cos(2z) e sin z dz = 2
e 1 + O 1 +;

11.

. 11. Im(sin z) =
C C = 0, 1 ; Re(sin z) =
C C = 1, 0 ; Re(sin z); .

. 12. Im(z 4 +
z 2 ) = C C = 0 ;

Re(z 4 z 2 );
.

50

. .

(3) ,
z 2 (1 z)2 W 00 + zW 0 4W = 0.
: z = 0 , 1 = 2, 2 = 2; z =
, 1 = 1, 2 = 0; z = 1 .
(4) z0 = 0
3z(1 + 2z)W 00 + 2(1 z)W 0 + 2W = 0.
.
1

: W1 (z) = z 3 , W2 (z) = 1 z.
(5)
zW 00 + sin2 (z a)W 0 + sin(2z)W = 0,

aC

?
: a = n, n Z; a 6= n, n Z.
2.
(1)
Z3

(1 + 2x)e(x

3 3x2 +2)

dx +.

.

R3
p
3
2
1
1
9
+ O 3/2
+.
: (1 + 2x)e(x 3x +2) dx = e2 5 3
1

(2)
Z
1
4
2
e(z +z +1) dz
2
z +1

+, 2, 2i 3.
.

R
p
4
2
1
+;
: z21+1 e(z +z +1) dz = e + + O 3/2

12; 1
; 2
2.1.
(3) ,
z(1 z)W 00 + (2 z)W 0 = 0.

(10.1)

: z = 0 , 1 = 0, 2 = 1; z = 1
, 1 = 2, 2 = 0; z = , 1 = 2 = 0.
(4) (10.1) z0 = 0.
.
: W1 (z) = 1, W2 (z) = z 1 + ln z.

51

(5) , W1 = 1 + z W2 = 1 + z + z ln z

W 00 + p(z)W 0 + q(z)W = 0.
, z = 0 ?
: .

52

. .

11.

.

(an + bn z)W (n) + (an1 + bn1 z)W (n1) + + (a1 + b1 z)W 0 + (a0 + b0 z)W = 0.

(11.1)

ak bk , W . ,
n
X

|ak | =
6 0,

k=1

n
X

|bk | =
6 0,

k=1

n1
X

(|ak | + |bk |) 6= 0,

|an | + |bn | =
6 0.

(11.2)

k=1

(11.2) , (11.1)
. , 3
.
n (11.1).
. .
.
(1)
Z
(11.3)
W (z) = V (t)ezt dt,

C. V
.
(2) (11.3) (11.1), ,
Z

[A(t)V 0 (t) + B(t)V (t)] ezt dt + C(t)V (t)ezt = 0,
(11.4)

(k)

Z
(z) =

V (t)tk ezt dt,

zW

(k)

Z
(z) = z

k zt

V (t)t e dt =

zt

V (t)t de = V (t)t e

k zt

(V (t)tk )0 ezt dt.

(11.4),

A(t)V 0 (t) + B(t)V (t) = 0,



C(t)V (t)ezt = 0.
3

(11.5)
(11.6)

. .
, . . V
.

53

(3) (11.5) V

Zt
B( )
V (t) = exp
d .
A( )
, V , .

(11.1).
(11.6) . , (11.6) z. , ,
( ) C(t)V (t)ezt . ,
(11.3).
, n , (11.3) n (11.1).
(11.3).
11.1.
zW 0 2W = 0.

(11.7)

.
.
Z
W (z) =

V (t)ezt dt.

(11.8)

(11.8) (11.7),
Z
Z
Z
Z
0
zt
zt
zt
zW 2W = z tV (t)e dt 2 V (t)e dt = tV (t) de 2 V (t)ezt dt =

Z
=

(tV (t))0 ezt dt 2


V (t)ezt dt + tV (t)ezt =


(tV 0 (t) + 3V (t)) ezt dt + tV (t)ezt = 0.

V
tV 0 (t) + 3V (t) = 0,


tV (t)ezt = 0.

V ,
Z
Z
3
dV
3
dV
= dt
=
dt ln V = 3 ln t + C1 V = Ct3 ,
V
t
V
t
C . -
(11.7), C = 1.



tV (t)ezt = t2 ezt = 0.

54

. .

|t| = 1, . ,
V (t) = t3 |t| > 0, .
(11.8) .

I
1 zt
W (z) =
e dt.
(11.9)
t3
|t|=1




I
1 zt
1 zt
= iz 2 .
e dt = 2i res 3 e
t=0
t3
t
|t|=1

, (11.7) W (z) = Cz 2 , C
. 
H 1 zt
: W (z) =
e dt = iz 2 .
t3
|t|=1

11.2.
W 0 2zW = 0.

(11.10)

.
.
Z
W (z) =

V (t)ezt dt.

(11.11)

(11.11) (11.10),
Z
Z
Z
Z
zt
zt
zt
0
W 2zW = tV (t)e dt 2z V (t)e dt = tV (t)e dt 2 V (t) dezt =

tV (t)ezt dt + 2


ezt V 0 (t) dt 2V (t) ezt =


(tV (t) + 2V 0 (t))ezt dt 2V (t) ezt .

V
2V 0 (t) + tV (t) = 0,


V (t)ezt = 0.

1 2

V , V (t) = e 4 t .



zt
14 t2 +zt
V (t)e = e
= 0.

(11.12)

V . (11.11) . ,
, (11.11) (11.12),
, .
1 2
e 4 t t t Re(t2 ) > 0.
1 2
Re(t2 ) > 0 13 . , e 4 t
t . ,

55

. 13. Re(t2 ) > 0 .

. ,
(11.11) z C.

Z
1 2
W (z) = e 4 t ezt dt.
R






Z
Z
Z

1
1 2
2
2
2
z2
41 t2 zt
dt = e
exp [t 2z] dt =
e
e dt = exp t 4tz + 4z + z
4
4
R
R
R
Z

1 2
2
z2
=e
e 4 x dx = 2 ez . 
R

: W (z) =

1 2
2
e 4 t ezt dt = 2 ez .

11.3.
zW 0 + (1 + z)W = 0.

(11.13)

.
.
Z
W (z) =

V (t)ezt dt.

(11.14)

(11.14) (11.13),
Z
Z
Z
0
zt
zt
zW + (1 + z)W = tV (t) de + V (t)e dt + V (t) dezt =

Z
=

Z
=

(tV (t))0 ezt dt +

V (t)ezt dt


V 0 (t)ezt dt + (t + 1)V (t) ezt =


(t + 1)V 0 (t)ezt dt + (t + 1)V (t) ezt .

56

. .

V
(t + 1)V 0 (t) = 0,


(t + 1)V (t)ezt = 0.

V , V (t) = 1.



(t + 1)V (t)ezt = (t + 1)ezt = 0.

(11.15)

(t + 1)ezt 1. (11.15) ,
1. ,
, (11.15),
(11.14) ( ).
.
, .
, (t+1)ezt t
. , z = 0 (t + 1)ezt = (t + 1)
, W z = 04.
z 6= 0. (t + 1)ezt , , ,
Re(zt) 6 |zt| < 0,
(11.16)
. , (11.16) (11.14).
, ,
(t + 1)ezt , z, z.
z = |z|ei , t = |t|ei . (11.16)

Re(zt) = |zt| Re ei(+) = |zt| cos( + ) 6 |zt| < 0 cos( + ) 6 ,



3
+
+ ,
, = arcsin > 0.
(11.17)
2
2
ei , . 14.
z, (11.17), 15.
, , , (11.14) z
(, , (11.14) ), , 15,
z, (11.14) , .
. , , = [1, +),
(11.13) (11.14) z D0 D , . 17.
, , D+ ,
. , z
D0 . , D+ ,
. 16. z D0
. , z D0 D+ .
, z D0 D+ .
.
11.4. (
z) 2 , W , .
4

, (11.13) z = 0.

. 14. .

57

. 15. z,
(11.17),
.

. 16. , . 17. (11.14) D0 D


D+ , . - , D0 D+ 17.
.

(, ),
.

58

. .

(11.14). z < 0,
[1, +).
Z+
W (z) =
ezt dt.
1


Z+
1
1 +
ezt dt = ezt 1 = ez . 
z
z
1

: W (z) =

+
R
1

ezt dt, z < 0; W (z) = z1 ez .

11.5.
2zW 0 (1 + 2z)W = 0.

(11.18)

.
Z
W (z) =

V (t)ezt dt.

(11.19)

(11.19) (11.18),
Z
Z
Z
0
zt
zt
2zW (1 + 2z)W = 2 tV (t) de V (t)e dt 2 V (t) dezt =

Z
= 2

Z
=

(tV (t))0 ezt dt

V (t)ezt dt + 2


V 0 (t)ezt dt + 2(t 1)V (t) ezt =


[2(1 t)V 0 (t) 3V ] ezt dt + 2(t 1)V (t) ezt .

V
2(1 t)V 0 (t) 3V = 0,


(t 1)V (t)ezt = 0.
3

V , V (t) = (t 1) 2 . V
t = 1. , V
, t = 1 . ,
, = [1, +).



1

(t 1)V (t)ezt = (t 1) 2 ezt = 0.
(11.20)

(t 1) 2 ezt , . 11.3, ,
, z. , z > 0,
18. z W (11.18)
(11.19), . 11.3.

59

. 18. , . 19. ,
.
.

11.6. 11.3. ,
, ,
, . 19. ,
3
V (t) = (t 1) 2 ,
W (z).
(11.19). z > 0, 18.
Z
3
W (z) = (t 1) 2 ezt dt.

= z(t 1)
Z
Z
Z
z
z
3
32
23 zt
e d = C ze , C = 2 e d.
(t 1) e dt = ze

C z.
, = z(t1) , ,
. , .
, ,
. 
R

3
: W (z) = (t 1) 2 ezt dt, z > 0; W (z) = C zez .

11.7.
zW 00 + W 0 = 0.
.

(11.21)

60

. .

.
Z
W (z) =

V (t)ezt dt.

(11.22)

(11.22) (11.21),
Z
Z
Z
Z
00
0
2
zt
zt
2
zt
zW + W = z t V (t)e dt + tV (t)e dt = t V (t) de + tV (t)ezt dt =

Z
=

(t2 V (t))0 ezt dt +


tV (t)ezt dt + t2 V (t)ezt =



t2 V 0 (t) + tV (t) ezt dt + t2 V (t)ezt = 0.

V
tV 0 (t) + V (t) = 0,


t2 V (t)ezt = 0.

V , V (t) = t1 .



tV (t)ezt = ezt = 0.
1 |t| = 1, . (11.21)
I
1 zt
W1 (z) =
e dt = 2i.
(11.23)
t
|t|=1

, ,
W1 . 
H 1 zt
e dt = 2i,
: W1 (z) =
t
|t|=1

.
:
11.8.
zW 0 W = 0.
.
: W (z) =

R
|t|=1

1 zt
e
t2

dt = 2iz.

11.9.
zW 0 + (2 + z)W = 0.
.
: W (z) =

1
R

(t + 1)ezt dt, z > 0; W (z) = z 2 ez .

61

11.10.
2zW 0 + (3 4z)W = 0.
.
R2

: W (z) =

2 t ezt dt, z > 0; W (z) = Cz 2 e2z .

11.11.
zW 00 (2 + z)W 0 + W = 0.
.
H
ezt
: W1 (z) =
dt = 2i(z + 2), W2 (z) =
t2 (t1)2
|t|= 21

H
|t1|= 12

ezt
t2 (t1)2

dt = 2i(z 2)ez .

11.12.
W 0 ez W = 0.
.
R
z
: W (z) = (t)ezt dt = 2i ee , (t) -

18.
11.13.
W 00 ez W = 0.
: W1 (z) =

2 (t)ezt dt, (t) - 18.

62

. .

12.


W 00 + (a1 + b1z)W 0 + (a0 + b0z)W = 0.

(11.1)
W 00 + (a1 + b1 z)W 0 + (a0 + b0 z)W = 0.
: , z ( 11.5).
12.1.
3W 00 + zW = 0.

(12.1)

.
Z

V (t)ezt dt.

W (z) =

(12.2)

(12.2) (12.1),
Z
Z
Z
Z

00
2
zt
zt
2
zt
3W + zW = 3t V (t)e dt + V (t) de = 3t V (t)e dt V 0 (t)ezt dt + V (t)ezt =

Z
=



3t2 V (t) V 0 (t) ezt dt + V (t)ezt = 0.

V
V 0 (t) 3t2 V (t) = 0,


V (t)ezt = 0.

V ,
Z
Z
dV
dV
3
2
= 3t dt
= 3 t2 dt ln V = t3 + C1 V (t) = Cet .
V
V
, C = 1.



3

V (t)ezt = et +zt = 0.

(12.3)

(12.3) , , V ,
(12.2) . , 3
, ( et +zt ).
3
et +zt t ,
3
t < 0. , . 20,
t = |t|,

t = ei 3 |t|,

t = ei 3 |t|.

,
, . 21. , (Re(t3 ) 6 0),
3
, et +zt - .
1 , 2 3
(12.2).

63

. 20. . 21.
t3 6 0, Re(t3 ) 6 0. 1 , 2 3 .

,
Z
Z
Z
3
t3 +zt
t3 +zt
W1 (z) = e
dt, W2 (z) = e
dt, W3 (z) = et +zt dt.
1

, . ,
. ,
W1 (z) W2 (z) = W3 (z).
, (12.1) , ,
W (z) = AW1 (z) + BW3 (z),
A B .
.
W1 , W2 W3 . 
R 3
R 3
: W1 (z) = et +zt dt, W3 (z) = et +zt dt.
1

12.2.
2W 00 + zW 0 W = 0.

(12.4)

.
.
Z
W (z) =

V (t)ezt dt.

(12.5)

64

. .

(12.5) (12.4),
Z
Z
Z
00
0
2
zt
zt
2W + zW W = 2t V (t)e dt + tV (t) de V (t)ezt dt =

Z
=

(2t2 1)V (t)ezt dt


(tV (t))0 ezt dt + tV (t)ezt =



(2t2 2)V (t) tV 0 (t) ezt dt + tV (t)ezt = 0.

V
(2t2 2)V (t) tV 0 (t) = 0,


tV (t)ezt = 0.

V ,
V (t) =

1 t2
e .
t2


tV (t)e

zt


1 t2 +zt
= e
= 0.
t

t1 et +zt t , t2 < 0. t = i|t| t = i|t|. , 1


22. , 1 t = 0,
V . , V t = 0

. 22. 1 2 .
, 2 t = 0, .
22.
,
Z
Z
1 t2 +zt
1 t2 +zt
W1 (z) =
e
dt,
W
(z)
=
e
dt.
2
t2
t2
1

65

2


Z
1 t2 +zt
1 t2 +zt
 t2 +zt 
e
e
dt = 2i res 2 e
= 2i
= 2i z. 
t=0
t2
t
t
t=0
2

: W1 (z) =

R
1

1 t2 +zt
e
t2

dt, W2 (z) =

1 t2 +zt
e
t2

dt = 2i z.

:
12.3.
W 00 zW 0 W = 0.
: W1 (z) =

1 2
+zt

e 2 t

dt, W2 (z) =

1 2
+zt

e 2 t

dt.

12.4.
W 00 + 2zW 0 + W = 0.
1

: W1 (z) =

1 2
+zt

e4t

dt, W2 (z) =

+i
R
0

1 2
+zt

e4t

dt, 1 -

22, . 64.
12.5.
4W 00 + zW 0 2W = 0.
.
H 1 2t2 +zt
R
2
: W1 (z) =
e
dt
=
i(4
+
z
),
W
(z)
=
2
3
t

|t|=1

1
t3

2 +zt

e2t

dt, 1

22, . 64.
12.6.
3W 00 + 2W 0 + zW = 0.
R 3 2
R 3 2
: W1 (z) = et +t +zt dt, W2 (z) = et +t +zt dt, 1 2
1

21, . 63.
12.7.

: W1 (z) =

|t+1|=1

1
(t+1)3

2W 00 zW 0 zW = 0.
R 1
2
t2 +2t+zt
et +2t+zt dt, W2 (z) = (t+1)
dt, 1
3 e
1

23, . 66.
12.8.

: W1 (z) =

t 2

W 00 2zW 0 + W = 0.
R 3 12
1 2
e 4 t +zt dt, W2 (z) = t 2 e 4 t +zt dt, 1 2

23 24.

66

. .

. 23. 1 - . 24. 2 .
.

12.9.
2W 000 + (z 2)W 00 zW 0 = 0.
.
R
2
1
: W1 (z) =
et +zt dt = 2i, W2 (z) =
t(t1)
|t|= 21

R
1

2
1
et +zt
t(t1)

R
|t1|= 12

2
1
et +zt
t(t1)

dt = 2iez1 , W3 (z) =

dt, 1 23.

13.

67


zW 00 + (a1 + b1z)W 0 + (a0 + b0z)W = 0.

(11.1)
zW 00 + (a1 + b1 z)W 0 + (a0 + b0 z)W = 0.
: ,
z (. 11.5).
13.1.
zW 00 (1 + z)W 0 = 0.

(13.1)

.
.
Z

V (t)ezt dt.

W (z) =

(13.2)

(13.2) (13.1),
Z
Z
Z
00
0
2
zt
zt
zW (1 + z)W = t V (t) de tV (t)e dt tV (t) dezt =

Z
=

(t2 V (t))0 ezt dt

Z
=

tV (t)ezt dt +


(tV (t))0 ezt dt + (t2 t)V (t)ezt =




(t t2 )V 0 (t) + (1 3t)V (t) ezt dt + (t2 t)V (t)ezt = 0.

V
(t t2 )V 0 (t) + (1 3t)V (t) = 0,


t(t 1)V (t)ezt = 0.

V ,
V (t) =

1
.
t(t 1)2




1
zt
t(t 1)V (t)e =
e = 0.
(t 1)





1
1 = t : |t| = 2 2 = t : |t 1| = 12 .
,
I
I
1
1
zt
W1 (z) =
e dt, W2 (z) =
ezt dt.
2
2
t(t 1)
t(t 1)

zt

|t|= 12

|t1|= 21




I
1
1
zt
zt
e dt = 2i res
e
= 2i,
t=0
t(t 1)2
t(t 1)2
|t|= 12

68

. .

1
ezt dt = 2i res
t=1
t(t 1)2

1
ezt
t(t 1)2

= 2i(z 1)ez .

|t1|= 21

, (13.1)
W (z) = A + B(z 1)ez ,
A B . 
H
1
: W1 (z) =
ezt dt = 2i, W2 (z) =
t(t1)2
|t|= 12

H
|t1|= 12

1
t(t1)2

ezt dt = 2i(z 1)ez .

13.2.
zW 00 + 2zW 0 + (z + 1)W = 0.

(13.3)

.
Z
W (z) =

V (t)ezt dt.

(13.4)

(13.4) (13.3),
Z
Z
Z
Z
zt
zt
2
zt
00
0
zW + 2zW + (z + 1)W = t V (t) de + 2 tV (t) de + V (t) de + V (t)ezt dt =

Z
=

(t2 V (t))0 ezt dt 2

(tV (t))0 ezt dt

V 0 (t)ezt dt +


V (t)ezt dt + (t + 1)2 V (t)ezt =




(t + 1)2 V 0 (t) (1 + 2t)V (t) ezt dt + (t + 1)2 V (t)ezt = 0.

V
(t + 1)2 V 0 (t) + (1 + 2t)V (t) = 0,


(t + 1)2 V (t)ezt = 0.

V ,
V (t) =

1
1
e t+1 .
2
(t + 1)

zt

(t + 1) V (t)e

=e

1
t+1


e = 0.
zt

1 = {t : |t + 1| = 1}. 2 = (1, +) z < 0, z


, 11.5. (13.4) 2
1
e t+1 t 1 + 0. 
+
H
R
1
1
t+1
1
1
zt
: W1 (z) =
e
e
dt,
W
(z)
=
e t+1 ezt dt.
2
2
(t+1)
(t+1)2
|t+1|=1

69

13.3. ,
W ,
Z

W (z) = t ezt dt, (t2 1)ezt = 0.

. ,
W .
, (t2 1)ezt . , z >
0, 1, 1 . , ,
. , 1 = (1, 1) 2 = (, 1]
z > 0. 
: 1 = (1, 1) 2 = (, 1) z > 0.
:
13.4.
zW 00 W 0 (1 + z)W = 0.
.
H
ezt
: W1 (z) =
dt =
(t+1)(t1)2
|t1|=1

i
(2z
2

ezt
(t+1)(t1)2

1)ez , W2 (z) =

|t+1|=1

dt =

i
2

ez .

13.5.
2zW 00 (2z + 1)W 0 + 2W = 0.
.
: W1 (z) =

H
|t|= 21

1
t2 t1

ezt dt = (2z + 1); W2 (z) =

+
R
1

1
t2 t1

ezt dt, z < 0.

13.6.
zW 00 + (2z + 1)W 0 2W = 0.
.
: W1 (z) =

H
|t|=1

t+2
t2

ezt dt = 2i(2z + 1); W2 (z) =

2
R

t+2
t2

ezt dt, z > 0.

13.7.
2zW 00 + (2 2z)W 0 3W = 0.
: W1 (z) =

R0 q

t
(t1)3

ezt dt, z > 0; W2 (z) =

Rq
2

t
(t1)3

ezt dt, z > 0, 2

18, . 59.
13.8.
zW 00 + (1 + 2z)W 0 + (1 + z)W = 0.
.

70

: W1 (z) =

. .

R
|t+1|=1

1
t+1

ezt dt = 2iez ,

.
13.9. ,
W ,

Z
t 1 zt
1
zt
e dt,
e
= 0.
W (z) =
t5
t 3

: 1 = {t : |t 5| = 1} 2 = (, 1) z > 0.

71

14. - .
-
u00 = u.
14.1. - , [a, b] ()

u00 (x) = u(x),


(14.1)


1 u(a) + 1 u0 (a) = 0,
(14.2)
2 u(b) + 2 u0 (b) = 0.
k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0
k = 1, 2.
14.2. , (14.1) (14.2) , () , .
14.3. - (14.1) (14.2) .
(1) () . .
(2) , 1 < 2 < < n < .
.
(3) k uk ,
.
(4) 5 L2 (a, b), . .
Z b
def
uk (x)up (x) dx = 0, k 6= p.
(uk , up ) =
a

(5) , ,
L2 (a, b).
14.4. -
u00 = u,
u(0) = u() = 0.

(14.3)
(14.4)

. (14.3) 6= 0
ex .
ex (14.3),

2 + = 0 = i .
(14.3) 6= 0
u(x) = C1 ei
5

+ C2 ei

def

L2 (a, b) (u, v) =

(14.5)
Rb
a

u(x)v(x) dx.

72

. .

6, (14.5) sin cos

u(x) = A sin( x) + B cos( x).

(14.6)

(14.6) (14.4)



B = 0,
A sin( 0) + B cos( 0) = 0,

A sin( ) = 0.
A sin( ) + B cos( ) = 0,
7
p

sin( ) = 0 n = n, n Z n = n2 , n Z.
, n = 1, 2, . . . n = 1, 2, . . . , . .
1 = 1 , . . .. , n N ( n = 0,
= 0).
n (14.6)
un (x) = A sin(nx), n N.
A 8.
= 0. (14.3)
u(x) = A + Bx.

(14.7)

(14.7) (14.4), , A = 0 B = 0. , = 0
. 
: n = n2 , un (x) = sin(nx), n N.
14.5. -
u00 = u,
u0 (0) = u0 (1) = 0.

(14.8)
(14.9)

. ex (14.8),

2 + = 0 = i .
(14.8) 6= 0
u(x) = C1 ei

+ C2 ei

(14.10) sin cos

u(x) = A sin( x) + B cos( x).

(14.10)

(14.11)

(14.11) (14.9)


A =0,
A = 0,

sin( ) = 0.
A cos( ) B sin( ) = 0,

p

sin( ) = 0 n = n, n Z n = (n)2 , n Z.
6

ei = cos + i sin ei = cos i sin C.


A , (14.3) (14.4).
8 , ku k = 1,
n
kuk2 = (u, u). , .
7

73

, 14.4 n ,
n N.
n (14.11)
un (x) = B cos(nx), n N.
B .
= 0. (14.8)
u(x) = A + Bx.

(14.12)

(14.12) (14.9), , B = 0 u(x) = A


- = 0. A . , = 0
u0 (x) = 1. 
: n = n2 , un (x) = cos(nx), n = 0, 1, . . ..
14.6. -
u00 = u,
u(1) = u0 (2) = 0.

(14.13)
(14.14)

. (14.13) 6= 0

+ C2 ei

(x+1)

+ D2 ei

u(x) = C1 ei

(14.15)

(14.15)
u(x) = D1 ei

(x+1)

(14.15) sin cos






u(x) = A sin
(x + 1) + B cos
(x + 1) .

(14.16)

(14.17)

(14.17) (14.14) ( (14.17)


u(x) )


B = 0,
B= 0,

cos(3 ) = 0.
A cos(3 ) B sin(3 ) = 0,

p

2 (2n + 1)2
cos(3 ) = 0 3 n = + n, n Z n =
, n Z.
2
36
, 14.4 n , n =
0, 1, . . ..
n (14.17)


(2n + 1)
(x + 1) , n = 0, 1, . . . .
un (x) = A sin
6
A .
= 0. (14.13)
u(x) = A + Bx.

(14.18)

(14.18) (14.14), , A = 0 B = 0. , = 0
. 


2
2
(2n+1)
: n = (2n+1)
,
u
(x)
=
sin
(x
+
1)
, n = 0, 1, . . ..
n
36
6

74

. .

14.7. f (x) = 1
- (14.3) (14.4).
. (14.3) (14.4) un (x) = sin(nx), n N.
14.3 un L2 (0, ),
fn , 9

X
f (x) =
fn un (x).
(14.19)
n=1

, fn , (14.19) up
, . 14.3
!

X
X
(f, up ) =
fn un , up =
fn (un , up ) = fp (up , up ).
n=1

n=1

(f, up )
,
(up , up )
Z
Z

1
1 cos(2nx) dx = ,
(up , up ) =
sin2 (nx) dx =
2 0
2
Z 0
n
1
1

(1)
(f, up ) =
sin(nx) dx = cos(nx)|0 =
.
n
n
0
fp =

: f (x) =

P
n=1

1(1)n
n

sin(nx).

:
14.8. -
u00 = u,

u(0) = u0 (/2) = 0.

: n = (2n 1)2 , un (x) = sin ((2n 1)x), n N.


14.9. -
u00 = u, u0 () = u0 () = 0.

: n = n2 /4, un (x) = cos n2 (x + ) , n = 0, 1, . . ..
14.10. -
u00 = u,
: n = n


1 2
,
2

u0 (/2) = u(/2) = 0.


un (x) = cos (n 12 )(x + /2) , n N.

14.11. f (x) = 1
-
u00 = u, u0 (0) = u(/2) = 0.
: f (x) =

P
n>0

4(1)n+1
(2n+1)

cos ((2n + 1)x) .

(14.19).

75

15. .
15.1. u(x, t),
t > 0
ut = a2 uxx + f (x, t),
(15.1)


1 u + 1 ux |x=a = 0,
(15.2)
2 u + 2 ux |x=b = 0,

u|t=0 = (x).
(15.3)
f , k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0 k = 1, 2 a .
f ,
, (15.1) (15.3) .
(15.1) (15.3) .
(1) n un -

1 u + 1 ux |x=a = 0,
uxx = u,
(15.4)
2 u + 2 ux |x=b = 0.
(2) f (x, t) (x)
- (15.4)
X
X
f (x, t) =
fn (t)un (x), (x) =
n un (x).
(15.5)
n

fn n , . 14.7,
. 74
Z b
(, un )
(f, un )
def
fn (t) =
, n =
, (u, v) =
u(x)v(x) dx.
(un , un )
(un , un )
a
(3) (15.1) (15.3)
X
u(x, t) =
Tn (t)un (x),
(15.6)
n

Tn . un
(15.2), (15.6) (15.2).
(15.1) (15.3). (15.5) (15.6) (15.1) (15.3).
X
X
X
Tn0 (t)un (x) = a2
n Tn (t)un (x) +
fn (t)un (x),
n

X
n

Tn (0)un (x) =

n un (x).

, Tn 10
 0
Tn (t) = a2 n Tn (t) + fn (t),
(15.7)
Tn (0) = n .
10

T , ,
( un ).

76

. .

(15.7) .
(15.6).
15.2.

ut = uxx ,
u|x=0 = u|x= = 0,

u|t=0 = 1.

(15.8)

. .
1: -
uxx = u,

u|x=0 = u|x= = 0.

, . 14.4 . 71,
un (x) = sin(nx), n = n2 , n N.
2: (x) = 1 un .
, . 14.7 . 74,

X
2 1 (1)n
n un (x), n =
(x) =
.
(15.9)

n
n=1
3: (15.8)
u(x, t) =

Tn (t)un (x).

(15.10)

n=1

(15.9) (15.10) (15.8).

Tn0 (t)un (x) =

n=1

Tn (t)u00n (x) =

n=1

n2 Tn (t)un (x),

n=1

Tn (0)un (x) =

n un (x).

n=1

n=1

Tn
Tn0 (t) = n2 Tn (t),
Tn (0) = n .

(15.11)
(15.12)

(15.11) 11 An en t , An . An (15.12)

2
Tn (0) = An en t = An = n .
t=0

,
2 1 (1)n n2 t
e
.

n
(15.13) (15.10), (15.8). 

P
1(1)n n2 t
e
sin(nx).
: u(x, t) = 2
n
2

Tn (t) = n en t =

n=1

11

(15.11) et .

(15.13)

15.3.

ut = uxx + 2t sin(x),
u|x=0 = ux |x=/2 = 0,
u| = 3 sin 3x.
t=0

77

(15.14)

. .
1: -
uxx = u,

u|x=0 = ux |x=/2 = 0.

, . 14.8 . 74,
un (x) = sin ((2n + 1)x) , n = (2n + 1)2 , n = 0, 1, . . . .
2: f (x, t) = 2t2 sin(x) (x) = 3 sin(3x) un .
f (x, t) = 2tu0 (x),

(x) = 3u1 (x).

3: (15.14)

X
u(x, t) =
Tn (t)un (x).

(15.15)

(15.16)

n=0

(15.15) (15.16) (15.14).

X
X
0
n Tn (t)un (x) + 2tu0 (x),
Tn (t)un (x) =
n=0

n=0

Tn (0)un (x) = 3u1 (x).

n=0

Tn
 0
T0 (t) + T0 (t) = 2t,
T0 (0) = 0,
 0
T1 (t) + 9 T1 (t) = 0,
T1 (0) = 3,
 0
Tn (t) + n Tn (t) = 0,
n = 2, 3, . . . .
Tn (0) = 0,

(15.17)
(15.18)
(15.19)

(15.17). (15.17)
. at + b (15.17),


a + b = 0,
a = 2,
a + at + b = 2t

a=2
b = 2.
T00 (t) + T0 (t) = 0 T0 (t) = A0 et .
(15.17)
T0 (t) = A0 et + 2t 2.
A0 T0 (0) = 0,
T0 (0) = A0 2 = 0 A0 = 2.

T0 (t) = 2(et 1 + t).

78

. .

(15.18). (15.18)
T1 (t) = A1 e9t .
A1 T1 (0) = 3,
T1 (0) = A1 = 3.

T1 (t) = 3e9t .
(15.19). (15.19)
Tn (t) = An et .
An Tn (0) = 0,
Tn (0) = An = 0.

Tn (t) = 0.
, (15.14) (15.16). 
: u(x, t) = 2(et 1 + t) sin x + 3e9t sin(3x).
15.4. , u
, f
. , u
un , f .
15.5.

ut = uxx + 2 sin t cos x,


ux |x=0 = u|x=/2 = 0,
u| = cos x cos(5x).
t=0

(15.20)

. .
1: -
uxx = u,

ux |x=0 = u|x=/2 = 0.

, . 14.11 . 74,
un (x) = cos ((2n + 1)x) , n = (2n + 1)2 , n = 0, 1, . . . .
2: f (x, t) = 2 sin t cos x (x) = cos x cos(5x)
un .
f (x, t) = 2 sin(t)u0 (x),

(x) = u0 (x) u2 (x).

(15.21)

3: (15.21) u0 u2 , (15.20) , . 15.4,


u(x, t) = T0 (t)u0 (x) + T2 (t)u2 (x) = T0 (t) cos x + T2 (t) cos(5x).
(15.21) (15.22) (15.20).
T00 (t) cos x + T20 (t) cos(5x) = T0 (t) cos x 25T2 (t) cos(5x) + 2 sin t cos x,
T0 (0) cos x + T2 (0) cos(5x) = cos x cos(5x).

(15.22)

T0 T2



79

T00 (t) + T0 (t) = 2 sin t,


T0 (0) = 1,

(15.23)

T20 (t) + 25 T2 (t) = 0,


T2 (0) = 1.

(15.24)

(15.23). (15.23)
a sin t + b cos t. (15.23),


a + b = 0,
a = 1,
a cos t b sin t + a sin t + b cos t = 2 sin t

ab=2
b = 1.
T00 (t) + T0 (t) = 0 T0 (t) = A0 et .
(15.23)
T0 (t) = A0 et + sin t cos t.
A0 T0 (0) = 1
T0 (0) = A0 1 = 1 A0 = 2.

T0 (t) = 2et + sin t cos t.


(15.24). (15.24)
T2 (t) = A2 e25t .
A2 T2 (0) = 1
T2 (0) = A2 = 1.

T2 (t) = e25t .
, (15.14) (15.22). 
: u(x, t) = (2et + sin t cos t) cos x e25t cos(5x).
:
15.6.

ut = uxx ,
u|x=0 = u|x=2 = 0,
u| = 2 sin(3x).
t=0
: u(x, t) = 2e9t sin(3x).
15.7.

ut = 4uxx sin x,
u|x=0 = u|x= = 0,
u| = sin x + 2 sin(2x).
t=0
: u(x, t) = 14 (5e4t 1) sin x + 2e16t sin(2x).

80

. .

15.8.

ut = uxx + et cos x,
ux |x= = ux |x= = 0,
u| = cos 2x.
t=0
: u(x, t) = tet cos x + e4t cos(2x).
15.9.

ut = uxx + t,
u|x=0 = u|x= = 0,
u| = sin x.
t=0
: u(x, t) = et sin x +

P
n=1

1(1)n
n5


2
en t 1 + n2 t sin(nx).

81

16. .
16.1.
u(x, t),
t > 0
utt = a2 uxx + f (x, t),
(16.1)



1 u + 1 ux |x=a = 0,
2 u + 2 ux |x=b = 0,

(16.2)

u|t=0 = (x),
ut |t=0 = (x).

(16.3)

f , , k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0 k = 1, 2 a .
f , ,
, (15.1) (15.3) . (16.1)
(16.3) (15.1) (15.3) .
.
(16.1) (16.3) .
(1) n un -

1 u + 1 ux |x=a = 0,
uxx = u,
(16.4)
2 u + 2 ux |x=b = 0.
(2) f (x, t), (x) (x)
- (16.4)
X
X
X
f (x, t) =
fn (t)un (x), (x) =
n un (x), (x) =
n un (x).
(16.5)
n

fn n n , . 14.7
. 74
Z b
(f, un )
(, un )
(, un )
def
fn (t) =
u(x)v(x) dx.
, n =
, n =
, (u, v) =
(un , un )
(un , un )
(un , un )
a
(3) (16.1) (16.3)
X
u(x, t) =
Tn (t)un (x),

(16.6)

Tn . (16.5) (16.6) (16.1)


(16.3).
X
X
X
Tn0 (t)un (x) = a2
n Tn (t)un (x) +
fn (t)un (x),
n

Tn (0)un (x) =

X
n

n un (x),

Tn0 (0)un (x) =

X
n

n un (x).

82

. .

, Tn

Tn0 (t) = a2 n Tn (t) + fn (t),


Tn (0) = n ,
(16.7)
T 0 (0) = .
n
n
(16.7) .
(16.6).
16.2.

u = uxx + 3 sin 2t sin x,

tt
u|x=0 = u|x= = 0,
u|t=0 = sin x sin(2x),

u | = 2 sin(2x).
t t=0

(16.8)

. .
1: -
uxx = u,

u|x=0 = u|x= = 0.

, . 14.4 . 71,
un (x) = sin(nx), n = n2 , n = 1, 2, . . . .
2: f (x, t) = 3 sin 2t sin x, (x) = sin x sin(2x) (x) = 2 sin(2x)
un .
f (x, t) = 3 sin(2t)u1 (x),

(x) = u1 (x) u2 (x),

(x) = 2u2 (x).

(16.9)

3: (16.9) u1 u2 , (16.8)
u(x, t) = T1 (t)u1 (x) + T2 (t)u2 (x) = T1 (t) sin x + T2 (t) sin(2x).

(16.10)

(16.9) (16.10) (16.8).


T100 (t) sin x + T200 (t) sin(2x) = T1 (t) sin x 4T2 (t) sin(2x) + 3 sin(2t) sin x,
T1 (0) sin x + T2 (0) sin(2x) = sin x sin(2x),
T10 (0) sin x + T20 (0) sin(2x) = 2 sin(2x).
T1 T2

T100 (t) + T1 (t) = 3 sin(2t),


T1 (0) = 1,
0
T1 (0) = 0,

T200 (t) + 4 T2 (t) = 0,


T2 (0) = 1,
T 0 (0) = 2.
2

(16.11)

(16.12)

(16.11). (16.11)
a sin(2t) + b cos(2t). (16.11),

a = 1,
4a sin(2t) 4b cos(2t) + a sin(2t) + b cos(2t) = 3 sin(2t)
b = 0.
T100 (t) + T1 (t) = 0 T1 (t) = A1 sin t + B1 cos t.
(16.11)
T1 (t) = A1 sin t + B1 cos t sin(2t).

83

A1 B1 T1 (0) = 1 T10 (0) = 0




T1 (0) = B1 = 1,
B1 = 1,

T10 (0) = A1 2 = 0,
A1 = 2.
, (16.11)
T1 (t) = 2 sin t + cos t sin(2t).
(16.12). (16.12)
T2 (t) = A2 sin(2t) + B2 cos(2t).
A2 B2 T2 (0) = 1 T20 (0) = 2


B2 = 1,
T2 (0) = B2 = 1,

0
A2 = 1.
T2 (0) = 2A2 = 2,

T2 (t) = sin(2t) cos(2t).


, (16.8) (16.10). 
: u(x, t) = [2 sin t + cos t sin(2t)] sin x + [sin(2t) cos(2t)] sin(2x).
16.3.

u = uxx + t2 et cos x,

tt
ux |x=0 = ux |x= = 0,
u|t=0 = 1,

u | = cos x.
t t=0

(16.13)

. .
1: -
uxx = u,

ux |x=0 = ux |x= = 0.

, . 14.5 . 72,
un (x) = cos(nx), n = n2 , n = 0, 1, . . . .
2: f (x, t) = t2 et cos x, (x) = 1 (x) = cos x
un .
f (x, t) = t2 u0 (x) et u1 (x),

(x) = u0 (x),

(x) = u1 (x).

(16.14)

3: (16.14) u0 u1 , (16.13)
u(x, t) = T0 (t)u0 (x) + T1 (t)u1 (x) = T0 (t) + T1 (t) cos x.
(16.14) (16.15) (16.13).
T000 (t) + T100 (t) cos x = T1 (t) cos x + t2 et cos x,
T0 (0) + T1 (0) cos x = 1,
T00 (0) + T10 (0) cos x = cos x.

(16.15)

84

. .

T0 T1

T000 (t) = t2 ,
T0 (0) = 1,
T 0 (0) = 0,
0

T100 (t) + T1 (t) = et ,


T1 (0) = 0,
0
T1 (0) = 1.

(16.16)

(16.17)

(16.16). (16.16) at4 .


(16.16),
1 2
t.
12

12at2 = t2 a =

T000 (t) = 0 T1 (t) = A0 + B0 t.


(16.16)
T0 (t) = A0 + B0 t +

1 2
t.
12

A0 B0 T0 (0) = 1 T00 (0) = 0



T0 (0) = A0 = 1,
T00 (0) = B0 = 0.
, (16.16)
T0 (t) = 1 +

1 2
t.
12

(16.17). (16.17) bet .


(16.17),
1
2bet = et b = .
2
T100 (t) + T1 (t) = 0 T1 (t) = A1 sin t + B1 cos t.
(16.17)
1
T1 (t) = A1 sin t + B1 cos t et .
2
A1 B1 T1 (0) = 0 T10 (0) = 1


T1 (0) = B1 21 = 0,
B1 = 21 ,

1
0
T1 (0) = A1 + 2 = 1,
A1 = 12 .

1
1
1
sin t + cos t et .
2
2
2
, (16.13) (16.15). 
T1 (t) =

: u(x, t) = 1 +

1 2
t
12

+ 12 (sin t + cos t et ) cos x.

:
16.4.

u = 4uxx + sin(3x),

tt
u|x=0 = u|x=2 = 0,
u|t=0 = 0,

u | = 6 sin x.
t t=0
: u(x, t) = 3 sin(2t) sin x +

1
(1
36

cos(6t)) sin(3x).

16.5.

u = uxx + sin t sin x,

tt
u|x=0 = ux |x=/2 = 0,
u|t=0 = sin x,

u | = 0.
t t=0
: u(x, t) = 12 (sin t + 2 cos t t cos t) sin x.
16.6.

u + 2ut = uxx + 2et sin x,

tt
u|x=0 = u|x=4 = 0,
u|t=0 = sin(2x),

u | = sin x.
t t=0


: u(x, t) = (t + t2 )et sin x + cos( 3t) +

1
3


sin( 3t) et sin(2x).

16.7.

u = uxx + t,

tt
u|x=0 = u|x= = 0,
u|t=0 = 0,

u | = 3 sin(2x).
t t=0
: u(x, t) = 23 sin(2t) sin(2x) +

P
n=1

1(1)n
(nt
n4

sin(nt)) sin(nx).

85

86

. .

17. .
17.1. u(x, t), t > 0
ut = a2 uxx + f (x, t),
(17.1)


1 u + 1 ux |x=a = g(t),
(17.2)
2 u + 2 ux |x=b = h(t),

u|t=0 = (x).
(17.3)
f , g, h , k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0 k = 1, 2 a .
(17.1) (17.3) .
(1) - w, (17.2). , . w , ,
w(x, t) = C1 (t) sin(d1 (x a)) + C2 (t) cos(d1 (x a)) +
+ C3 (t) sin(d2 (x b)) + C4 (t) cos(d2 (x b)),
w(x, t) = C1 (t) + C2 (t)x + C3 (t)x2 .
(2) (17.1) (17.3)
u(x, t) = v(x, t) + w(x, t),

(17.4)

v . (17.4) (17.1) (17.3), v


vt = a2 vxx + f (x, t) + a2 wxx (x, t) wt (x, t),

1 v + 1 vx |x=a = 0,
2 v + 2 vx |x=b = 0,

(17.5)

v|t=0 = (x) w(x, 0).

(17.7)

(17.6)

(17.5) (17.7) (17.6),


, . (15.1) (15.3) . 75.
(17.4).
17.2.

ut = uxx ,
u|x=0 = u|x= = 1,

u|t=0 = 0.

(17.8)

. .
1: w, w|x=0 = w|x= = 1.

w(x, t) = 1.
2: (17.8)
u(x, t) = v(x, t) + w(x, t) = v(x, t) 1.

(17.9)

(17.9) (17.8), v

vt = vxx ,
v|x=0 = v|x= = 0,

v|t=0 = 1.

87

(17.10)

(17.10) 15.2 . 76,

2 X 1 (1)n n2 t
v(x, t) =
e
sin(nx).
n=1
n

(17.8) (17.9). 

P
1(1)n n2 t
sin(nx).
: u(x, t) = 1 + 2
e
n
n=1

17.3.

ut = uxx ,
ux |x=0 = 0, u|x= = t2 ,

u|t=0 = 0.

(17.11)

. .
1: w, wx |x=0 = 0, w|x= = t2 .
, , w(x, t) = A(t) + xB(t),
w(x, t) = t2 .
2: (17.11)
u(x, t) = v(x, t) + w(x, t) = v(x, t) + t2 .
(17.12) (17.11), v

vt = vxx 2t,
vx |x=0 = 0, v|x= = 0,
v| = 0.
t=0

(17.12)

(17.13)

-

vxx = v,
(17.14)
vx |x=0 = 0, v|x= = 0,




2
2n + 1
2n + 1
vn (x) = cos
x , n =
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
2
2
2t -
(17.14)

X
8(1)n+1
2t = t
an vn (x), an =
.
(17.15)
(2n + 1)
n=0
(17.13)
v(x, t) =

X
n=0

Tn (t)vn (x).

(17.16)

88

. .

(17.15) (17.16) (17.13),

Tn0 (t)vn (x) =

n Tn (t)vn (x) + t

n=0

n=0

an vn (x),

n=0

Tn (0)vn (x) = 0.

n=0

Tn
 0
Tn (t) + n Tn (t) = an t,
Tn (0) = 0.

(17.17)

(17.17) . Tn (t) = An + Bn t (17.17),




An = an2 ,
Bn + n An = 0,
n

Bn + n An + n Bn t = an t
n Bn = an
Bn = ann .
Tn0 (t) + n Tn (t) = 0 Tn (t) = Cn en t .
(17.17)
an
Tn (t) = 2 (1 + n t) + Cn en t .
(17.18)
n
Tn (0) = 0 Cn = an /2n . (17.18) (17.16), (17.13)
v(x, t) =

X
an

2
n=0 n


en t 1 + n t vn (x).

(17.11) (17.12). 
7


P
2 (1)n+1
2n+1
n t
: u(x, t) = t2 +
x
.
e

1
+

t
cos
n
5
(2n+1)
2
n=0

17.4. u(x, t), t > 0


utt = a2 uxx + f (x, t),
(17.19)



1 u + 1 ux |x=a = g(t),
2 u + 2 ux |x=b = h(t),

(17.20)

u|t=0 = (x),
ut |t=0 = (x).

(17.21)

f , g, h, , k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0 k = 1, 2 a .
(17.19) (17.21) .
(1) - w, (17.20).

89

(2) (17.19) (17.21)


u(x, t) = v(x, t) + w(x, t),

(17.22)

v . (17.22) (17.19) (17.21),


v
vtt = a2 vxx + f (x, t) + a2 wxx (x, t) wtt (x, t),

1 v + 1 vx |x=a = 0,
2 v + 2 vx |x=b = 0,

v|t=0 = (x) w(x, 0),
vt |t=0 = (x) wt (x, 0).

(17.23)
(17.24)
(17.25)

(17.23) (17.25) (17.24),


, . (16.1) (16.3) . 81.
(17.22).
17.5.

utt = uxx ,
ux |x=0 = 1, u|x= = ,

u|t=0 = 0, ut |t=0 = 0.

(17.26)

. .
1: w, wx |x=0 = 1, w|x= = .
, , w(x, t) = A + Bx,
w(x, t) = x.
2: (17.26)
u(x, t) = v(x, t) + w(x, t) = v(x, t) + x.
(17.27) (17.26), v

vtt = vxx ,
vx |x=0 = 0, v|x= = 0,
v| = x, v | = 0.
t=0
t t=0

(17.27)

(17.28)

-

vxx = v,
(17.29)
vx |x=0 = 0, v|x= = 0,




2
2n + 1
2n + 1
vn (x) = cos
x , n =
, n = 0, 1, . . . .
2
2
x -
(17.29)

X
8
4(1)n+1
x =
an vn (x), an =
+
.
(17.30)
2
2n
+
1
(2n
+
1)
n=0
(17.28)
v(x, t) =

X
n=0

Tn (t)vn (x).

(17.31)

90

. .

(17.30) (17.31) (17.28),

X
X
X
00
Tn (t)vn (x) =
n Tn (t)vn (x) + t
an vn (x),
n=0

n=0

n=0

Tn (0)vn (x) = 0,

n=0

Tn0 (0)vn (x) = 0.

n=0

Tn

Tn00 (t) + n Tn (t) = 0,


Tn (0) = an ,
0
Tn (0) = 0.

(17.32)

(17.32)




2n + 1
2n + 1
Tn (t) = Cn sin
t + Dn cos
t .
2
2

(17.33)

(17.28) , Cn = 0, Dn = an . (17.33) (17.31), (17.28)







X
2n + 1
2n + 1
an cos
v(x, t) =
t cos
x .
2
2
n=0
(17.26) (17.27). 
i
h

P
4(1)n+1
8
: u(x, t) = x +
+
cos 2n+1
t cos
2
2n+1
(2n+1)
2
n=0

2n+1
x
2


.

17.6.

utt = uxx ,
ux |x=0 = 0, ux |x=/2 = sin t,
u| = u | = 0.
t=0
t t=0

(17.34)

. .
1: w, wx |x=0 = 0, w|x=/2 = sin t.
, , w(x, t) = A(t) cos(x) + B(t) sin(x),

B(t) = 0,
A(t) sin(/2) + B(t) cos(/2) = sin t.
= 1, A(t) = sin t B(t) = 0,
w(x, t) = cos x sin t.
2: (17.34)
u(x, t) = v(x, t) + w(x, t) = v(x, t) cos x sin t.
(17.35) (17.34), v

vtt = vxx ,
vx |x=0 = 0, vx |x=/2 = 0,

v|t=0 = 0, vt |t=0 = cos x.

(17.35)

(17.36)

-

vxx = v,
vx |x=0 = 0, vx |x=/2 = 0,

91

(17.37)


vn (x) = cos(2nx), n = 4n2 , n = 0, 1, . . . .
cos x -
(17.37)
cos x =

an vn (x),

an =

n=0

4(1)n
2
, n = 1, 2, . . . , a0 = .
2
(1 4n )

(17.38)

(17.36)
v(x, t) =

Tn (t)vn (x).

(17.39)

n=0

(17.38) (17.39) (17.36),

X
n=0

X
n=0

Tn00 (t)vn (x)

n Tn (t)vn (x),

n=0

Tn (0)vn (x) = 0,
Tn0 (0)vn (x) =

n=0

an vn (x).

n=0

Tn

Tn00 (t) + 4n2 Tn (t) = 0,


Tn (0) = 0,
0
Tn (0) = an .

(17.40)

(17.40)
Tn (t) = Cn sin(2nt) + Dn cos(2nt), n = 1, 2, . . . ,
T0 (t) = C0 t + D0 .

(17.41)
(17.42)

(17.36), Cn = an /(2n), Dn = 0 n = 1, 2, . . . C0 = a0 ,
D0 = 0. (17.41) (17.42) (17.39), (17.36)

X
an
v(x, t) = a0 t +
sin(2nt) cos(2nx).
2n
n=1
(17.34) (17.35). 

P
2(1)n
: u(x, t) = sin t cos x + 2t
+
sin(2nt) cos(2nx).

n(14n2 )
n=1

, .

92

. .

17.7.

u 2ut = uxx cos x + sin x

tt
ux |x=0 = u|x=/2 = 1,
u|t=0 = sin x,

u | = 2 cos x.
t t=0

(17.43)

. .
1: w, wx |x=0 = w|x=/2 = 1.
, , w(x, t) = A cos(x) + B sin(x),

B = 1,
A cos(/2) + B sin(/2) = 1.
= 1, A = 0 B = 1,
w(x, t) = sin x.
2: (17.43)
u(x, t) = v(x, t) + w(x, t) = v(x, t) + sin x.
(17.44) (17.43), v

vtt 2vt = vxx cos x,


vx |x=0 = 0, v|x=/2 = 0,
v| = 0, v | = 2 cos x.
t=0
t t=0
-

vxx = v,
vx |x=0 = 0, v|x=/2 = 0,

(17.44)

(17.45)

(17.46)


vn (x) = cos((2n + 1)x), n = (2n + 1)2 , n = 0, 1, . . . .
cos x -
(17.46)
cos x = v0 (x).
(17.47)
(17.45)
v(x, t) = T0 (t)v0 (x).

(17.48)

(17.47) (17.48) (17.45),


T000 (t)v0 (x) 2T00 (t)v0 (x) = 0 T0 (t)v0 (x) v0 (x),
T0 (0)v0 (x) = 0,
T00 (0)v0 (x) = 2v0 (x).
T0

T000 (t) 2T00 (t) + T0 (t) = 1,


Tn (0) = 0,
0
Tn (0) = 2.

(17.49)

93

(17.49) .
T0 (t) = C (17.49), C = 1. T000 (t) 2T00 (t) + T0 (t) = 0 T0 (t) = Aet + Btet .
(17.49)
T0 (t) = Aet + Btet 1.

(17.50)

(17.36)


A 1 = 0,
A = 1,

A+B =2
B = 1.
(17.50) (17.48), (17.45)
v(x, t) = (et + tet 1)v0 (x).
(17.43) (17.44). 
: u(x, t) = sin x + (et + tet 1) cos x.
:
17.8.

ut = uxx + et cos(x) + 5et sin(2x),


ux |x=0 = 2et , u|x=/2 = 0,
u| = sin(2x).
t=0

(17.51)

: u(x, t) = et sin(2x) + tet cos x.


17.9.

ut = uxx + 1 + e2t sin(x),


u|x=0 = u|x= = t,
u| = 0.
t=0

(17.52)

: u(x, t) = t + (et e2t ) sin x.


17.10.

ut = uxx + 2 cos t cos(x),


ux |x=0 = ux |x= = 3,
u| = 3x.
t=0

(17.53)

: u(x, t) = 3x + (sin t + cos t et ) cos x.


17.11.

ut = uxx t sin(x),
u|x=0 = u|x= = 2,
u| = 2.
t=0

(17.54)

: u(x, t) = 2 + (1 t et ) sin x.
17.12.

utt = uxx ,
u|x=0 = 0, u|x= = t,
u| = sin(2x), u | = 0.
t=0
t t=0

(17.55)

94

: u(x, t) = xt + cos(2t) sin(2x) +

. .

P
n=1

2(1)n
n2

sin(nt) sin(nx).

17.13.

utt + 4ut = 4uxx + 4 sin x,


u|x=0 = 0, ux |x=/2 = 1,
u| = x, u | = sin(3x).
t=0
t t=0
: u(x, t) = x + (1 e2t 2te2t ) sin x +

1
32

et sin( 32 t) sin(3x).

(17.56)

95

18. 2- (1 ).
2.
(1)
zW 00 (z + 1)W 0 + W = 0.
.
H
1
: W1 (z) =
ezt dt = 2i (z + 1), W2 (z) =
t2 (t1)
|t|= 21

(18.1)
H
|t1|= 12

1
t2 (t1)

ezt dt = 2i ez .

(2)

u = uxx + sin(3x),

tt
u|x=0 = ux |x=/2 = 0,
u|t=0 = sin x,

u | = 0.
t t=0
:

1
u(x, t) = cos t sin x + (1 cos(3t)) sin(3x).
9
(3) z = 0 (18.1).
?
2.
(1)
4W 000 zW = 0.
: W1 (z) =

4 +zt

et

dt, W2 (z) =

+i
R

4 +zt

et

dt, W3 (z) =

4 +zt

et

dt, -

xy = 1, z = x + iy.
(2)

ut = uxx + x,
ux |x=0 = t, u|x=1 = 0,
u| = 0.
t=0



 
P
16(1)n
1
14 2 (2n+1)2 t
: u(x, t) = (x 1)t +
1

e
cos

n
+
x .
3
3
(2n+1)
2
n=0

(3) , W1 = 1 W2 = cos z
W 00 + p(z)W 0 + q(z)W = 0.
, ?
: : z = n, n Z.

96

. .

19. .
19.1. , [a, b] [c, d]

u = u,

u + 1 n u = 0

1
2 u + 2 n u = 0
3 u + 3 n u = 0

u + u = 0
4
4 n

2
2
=
+
,
x2 y 2

x = a,
x = b,
y = c,
y = d,

y [c, d],
y [c, d],
x [a, b],
x [a, b].

(19.1)

(19.2)

k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0
k = 1, 2, 3, 4 n .
19.2. , (19.1) (19.2) , () , .
19.3. (19.1) (19.2) .
(1) () . .
(2) , 1 < 2 6 3 6 6 n 6 .
.
(3) k uk .
(4) L2 ((a, b) (c, d)), . .
Z b Z d
def
dy uk (x, y)up (x, y) = 0, k 6= p.
dx
(uk , up ) =
a

(5) , ,
L2 ((a, b) (c, d)).
(19.1) (19.2) .
.
19.4.
u = u,

u = 0

u = 0
u = 0

u = 0

(19.3)
x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

(19.4)

. (19.3)
u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y).

(19.5)

97

(19.5) (19.3),
X 00 (x)Y (y) X(x)Y 00 (y) = X(x)Y (y).
, X(x)Y (y),

X 00 (x)
Y 00 (y)
=
+ .
X(x)
Y (y)

(19.6)

(19.6) x,
y, , .
X Y
X 00 (x) = X(x),
Y 00 (y) = Y (y), = .

(19.7)
(19.8)

(19.5) (19.4),

X(0)Y (y) = 0 y [0, ],

X()Y (y) = 0 y [0, ],


X(x)Y (0) = 0 x [0, ],

X(x)Y () = 0 x [0, ].

(19.9)

, (19.3) (19.4),
, X(x) Y (y) .
(19.9) ,
X(0) = X() = 0,
Y (0) = Y () = 0.

(19.10)
(19.11)

(19.7) (19.8) (19.10) (19.11) ,


-

X 00 (x) = X(x),
(19.12)
X(0) = X() = 0,

Y 00 (y) = Y (y),
(19.13)
Y (0) = Y () = 0,
= + .
(19.12) (19.13) , . 14.4 . 71,
Xn (x) = sin(nx), n = n2 , n N,
Yp (y) = sin(py), p = p2 , p N.

(19.14)
(19.15)

(19.14), (19.15) (19.5), (19.3) (19.4)


unp (x, y) = Xn (x)Yp (y) = sin(nx) sin(py),

np = n + p = n2 + p2 ,

n N, p N.

(19.3) (19.4)
(19.5). 19.3 , , , , unp L2 ((0, ) (0, )).
, unp L2 ((0, ) (0, )).12 , , f L2 ((0, ) (0, ))
unp .
12

, . .

98

. .

y f (x, y) x. 14.3 Xn (19.12), . . cn (y),


f (x, y) =

cn (y)Xn (x).

(19.16)

n=1

cn (y) Yp (19.13)

X
cn (y) =
fnp Yp (y).
(19.17)
p=1

(19.17) (19.16),
f (x, y) =

cn (y)Xn (x) =

n=1

fnp Xn (x)Yp (y) =

n=1 p=1

fnp unp (x, y).

n=1 p=1

, f unp . 
: np = n2 + p2 , unp (x, y) = sin(nx) sin(py), n N, p N.
19.5.
u = u,

u=0

u=0
n u = 0

u = 0

(19.18)

x = ,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = /2,

y [0, /2],
y [0, /2],
x [, ],
x [, ].

(19.19)

. (19.18)
u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y).

(19.20)

(19.20) (19.18),

X 00 (x)
Y 00 (y)
=
+ = ,
X(x)
Y (y)

(19.21)

. X Y
X 00 (x) = X(x),
Y 00 (y) = Y (y),

(19.22)
(19.23)

= .
(19.20) (19.19),
X() = X() = 0,
Y 0 (0) = Y (/2) = 0.

(19.24)
(19.25)

, n = y y = 0, x
[, ].
(19.22) (19.23) (19.24) (19.25) ,
-

X 00 (x) = X(x),
(19.26)
X() = X() = 0,

99

Y 00 (y) = Y (y),
= + .
Y 0 (0) = Y (/2) = 0,
(19.26) (19.27)
n

n2
Xn (x) = sin
(x + ) , n = , n N,
2
4
Yp (y) = cos((2p + 1)y), p = (2p + 1)2 , p = 0, 1, . . . .


(19.27)

(19.28)
(19.29)

(19.28) (19.29) (19.20),


(19.18) (19.19)
n

unp (x, y) = Xn (x)Yp (y) = sin
(x + ) cos((2p + 1)y),
2
2
n
np = n + p =
+ (2p + 1)2 , n N, p = 0, 1, . . . . 
4

2
: np = n4 + (2p + 1)2 , unp (x, y) = sin n2 (x + ) cos((2p + 1)y), n N, p = 0, 1, . . ..
:
19.6.

u=0

n
n u = 0
u = u,
u=0

u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = /2,

y [0, /2],
y [0, /2],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

: np = n2 + 4p2 , unp (x, y) = cos(nx) sin(2py), n = 0, 1, . . ., p N.


19.7.

u=0

n u = 0
u = u,
n u = 0

u = 0
: np = n


1 2
2

+ 3p


3 2
,
2

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = /3,
n

unp (x, y) = sin

1
2

y [0, /3],
y [0, /3],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

 
x cos

3p

3
2

 
y , n N, p N.

19.8.

u=0
x = 0, y [0, 1],

n u = 0 x = 3, y [0, 1],
u = u,
u=0
y = 0, x [0, 3],

u = 0
y = 1, x [0, 3].
: np =


2n1 2
6

+ 2 p2 , unp (x, y) = sin

2n1
x
6

sin (py), n N, p N.

100

. .

20. .
20.1.
u(x, y),
u = f (x, y),

2
2
+
,
x2 y 2

x [a, b], y [c, d],

(20.1)

y [c, d],
y [c, d],
x [a, b],
x [a, b].

(20.2)

u + 1 n u = 0

1
2 u + 2 n u = 0
3 u + 3 n u = 0

u + u = 0
4
4 n

x = a,
x = b,
y = c,
y = d,

k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0
k = 1, 2, 3, 4 n .
, (20.1) (20.2) .
, (20.1) (20.2) , .
(20.1) (20.2) .
(1) np unp
u = u,
(20.2).
(2) f unp
X
fnp unp (x, y).
f (x, y) =

(20.3)

n,p

fnp
fnp

(f, unp )
=
,
(unp , unp )

def

Zb

(u, v) =

Zd
dy u(x, y)v(x, y).

dx
a

(3) (20.1) (20.2)


X
u(x, y) =
cnp unp (x, y),

(20.4)

n,p

cnp . unp (20.2), (20.4) (20.2).


(20.1). (20.3) (20.4) (20.1).

X
X

cnp np unp (x, y) =


fnp unp (x, y).
n,p

n,p

,
( unp ),
cnp np = fnp cnp =
(20.4).

fnp
.
np

(20.5)

101

(20.5)
cnp np = fnp .

(20.6)

, (20.6) np 6= 0.
np = 0 n p, (20.6) ( fnp 6= 0),
( fnp = 0). .
20.2.
= 0
(20.2). (20.1) (20.2) .
= 0
(20.2) v1 , ... vl , = 0.
f v1 , ... vl (. . (f, vp ) = 0, p =
1, . . . , l), (20.1) (20.2) , .
f v1 , ... vl ,
(20.1) (20.2) .
20.3.

u = 6 sin x sin y 26 sin(2x) sin(3y),

u=0

u=0
u=0

u = 0

. .
1:

u = 0

u = 0
u = u,
u = 0

u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

(20.7)


x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

(20.8)

(20.8) , . 19.4 . 96,


unp (x, y) = sin(nx) sin(py),

np = n2 + p2 ,

n N, p N.

2: f (x, y) = 6 sin x sin y 26 sin(2x) sin(3y) unp .


f (x, y) = 6u1,1 (x, y) 26u2,3 (x, y).

(20.9)

3: (20.7)
u(x, y) = c1,1 u1,1 (x, y) + c2,3 u2,3 (x, y).
(20.9) (20.10) (20.7).
1,1 c1,1 u1,1 (x, y) 2,3 c2,3 u2,3 (x, y) = 6u1,1 (x, y) 26u2,3 (x, y).
,
c1,1 =

6
6
= = 3,
1,1
2

: u(x, y) = 3 sin x sin y + 2 sin(2x) sin(3y).

c2,3 =

26
26
=
= 2. 
2,3
13

(20.10)

102

. .

20.4.

u=0

u=0
u = 1,
u=0

u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

. .
1:

u = 0

u = 0
u = u,
u = 0

u = 0

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

(20.11)


x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

(20.12)

(20.12) , . 19.5 . 98,


unp (x, y) = sin(nx) sin(py),

np = n2 + p2 ,

n N, p N.

2: f (x, y) = 1 unp .

X

f (x, y) =

fnp unp (x, y).

(20.13)

n=1 p=1

fnp
Z
Z Z
dy sin(nx) sin(py) =
dx
(f, unp ) =
0

sin2 (nx) dx

(unp , unp ) =
0

fnp =

sin(py) dy =
0

sin(nx) dx
Z

sin2 (py) dy =

(1 (1)n )(1 (1)p )


,
np

2
,
4

4
(f, unp )
= 2 (1 (1)n )(1 (1)p ).
(unp , unp )
np

3: (20.11)
u(x, y) =

cnp unp (x, y).

n=1 p=1

(20.13) (20.14) (20.11).

np cnp unp (x, y) =

n=1 p=1

X
X

fnp unp (x, y).

n=1 p=1

,
cnp =
: u(x, y) =

P
n=1 p=1

fnp
4
= 2
(1 (1)n )(1 (1)p ). 
np
np(n2 + p2 )

4
(1
2 np(n2 +p2 )

(1)n )(1 (1)p ) sin(nx) sin(py).

(20.14)

20.5.

u=0

n
n u = 0
u = A + 2 cos2 x,
n u = 0

u = 0
n

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ],

103

A R.

. .
1:

u = 0 x = 0, y [0, ],

n
n u = 0 x = , y [0, ],
u = u,
n u = 0 y = 0, x [0, ],

u = 0 y = , x [0, ].
n

(20.15)

(20.16)

(20.16)
np = n2 + p2 ,

unp (x, y) = cos(nx) cos(py),

n = 0, 1, . . . , p = 0, 1, . . . .

, 0,0 = 0 . (20.15)
, f (x, y) = A+2 cos2 x u0,0 = 1
(. 20.2).
Z Z
(f, u0,0 ) = dx dy(A + 2 cos2 x) = A 2 + 2 = 0,
0

A = 1. , (20.15) A = 1.
2: A = 1 f (x, y) = 1 + 2 cos2 x
unp .
f (x, y) = 1 + 2 cos2 x = cos(2x) = u2,0 (x, y).

(20.17)

3: A = 1 (20.15)
u(x, y) =

cnp unp (x, y).

(20.18)

n=0 p=0

(20.17) (20.18) (20.11).

np cnp unp (x, y) = u2,0 (x, y).

n=0 p=0

,
(

c2,0 = 41 ,

2,0 c2,0 = 1,
0 c0,0 = 0,

np cnp = 0, n 6= 2 p 6= 0,

cnp = 0, n 6= 0, 2 p 6= 0.

, 0 c0,0 = 0 c0,0 . (20.15)


.
(20.15) (20.18). 
: A = 1 u(x, y) = c0,0
; A 6= 1 .

1
4

cos(2x), c0,0

104

. .

:
20.6.

u=0

u=0
n u = 0

u = 0

u = 20 sin(2x) cos y 10 sin x cos(3y),

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = /2,

y [0, /2],
y [0, /2],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

: u(x, y) = 4 sin(2x) cos y + sin x cos(3y).


20.7.

u = 0

u=0
u = x(x ) cos(2y),
n u = 0

u = 0

: u(x, y) =

P
n=1

4(1(1)n )
n3 (4+n2 )

P
n=1 p=1

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

sin(nx) cos(2y).

20.8.

u=0

u=0
u = xy,
u=0

u = 0
: u(x, y) =

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

4(1)n+p+1
np(n2 +p2 )

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

sin(nx) sin(py).

20.9.

u=0

n
n u = 0
u = A sin2 x 8 cos2 y,
n u = 0

u = 0
n

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, 2],
y [0, 2],
x [0, ],
x [0, ],

A R.

: A = 8 u(x, y) = c0,0 + cos(2x) + cos(2y), c0,0


; A 6= 8 .

105

21. .
21.1.
u(x, y),
u = 0,

2
2
+
,
x2 y 2

x [a, b], y [c, d],

(21.1)

u + 1 n u = h1 (y)

1
2 u + 2 n u = h2 (y)
3 u + 3 n u = g1 (x)

u + u = g (x)
4
4 n
2

x = a,
x = b,
y = c,
y = d,

y [c, d],
y [c, d],
x [a, b],
x [a, b].

(21.2)

k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0
k = 1, 2, 3, 4 n .

u = f (x, y),

u + 1 n u = h1 (y)

1
2 u + 2 n u = h2 (y)
3 u + 3 n u = g1 (x)

u + u = g (x)
4
4 n
2

x [a, b], y [c, d],

x = a,
x = b,
y = c,
y = d,

(21.3)

y [c, d],
y [c, d],
x [a, b],
x [a, b].

(21.4)

, (21.3) (21.4) . ,
(21.3) (21.4) ,

u + 1 n u1 = 0 x = a, y [c, d],

1 1
2 u1 + 2 n u1 = 0 x = b, y [c, d],
u1 = f (x, y),
(21.5)
3 u1 + 3 n u1 = 0 y = c, x [a, b],

u + u = 0 y = d, x [a, b],
4 1

u2 = 0,

u3 = 0,

4 n 1

u + 1 n u2 = h1 (y)

1 2
2 u2 + 2 n u2 = h2 (y)
3 u2 + 3 n u2 = 0

u + u = 0
4 2
4 n 2

u + 1 n u3 = 0

1 3
2 u3 + 2 n u3 = 0
3 u3 + 3 n u3 = g1 (x)

u + u = g (x)
4 3
4 n 3
2

x = a,
x = b,
y = c,
y = d,

y [c, d],
y [c, d],
x [a, b],
x [a, b],

(21.6)

x = a,
x = b,
y = c,
y = d,

y [c, d],
y [c, d],
x [a, b],
x [a, b].

(21.7)

,
u(x, y) = u1 (x, y) + u2 (x, y) + u3 (x, y)
(21.3) (21.4).
(21.5) , , . . 100. (21.6) (21.7)
. (21.7).
(21.7) .

106

. .

(1)

1 u + 1 n u = 0
u = 0,
2 u + 2 n u = 0

x = a, y [c, d],
x = b, y [c, d].

(21.8)

(21.8)
u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y).

(21.9)

(21.9) (21.8),
X 00 (x)Y (y) + X(x)Y 00 (y) = 0,

X 00 (x)
Y 00 (y)
=
.
X(x)
Y (y)

(21.10)

(21.10) x,
y.
, .
X Y
X 00 (x) = X(x),
(21.11)
Y 00 (y) = Y (y).

(21.12)

(21.9) (21.8),

1 X(a) 1 X 0 (a) = 0,
2 X(b) + 2 X 0 (b) = 0.

(21.13)

, n = x x = a n = x x = b.
(21.11) (21.13) ,
-

X 00 (x) = X(x),
1 X(a) 1 X 0 (a) = 0,
(21.14)

0
2 X(b) + 2 X (b) = 0.
n Xn - (21.14).
(21.12)
Y 00 (y) = n Y (y).

(21.15)

(21.15)

Yn (y) = An ch( n ) + Bn sh( n ),


Rn (r) = An + Bn y,

n =
6 0,
n = 0.

(21.16)

, (23.3), (23.4).
un (x, y) = Xn (x)Yn (y).
(2) g1 g2 Xn
- (21.14)
X
X
g1 (x) =
gn1 Xn (x), g2 (x) =
gn2 Xn (x).
(21.17)
n

107

(3) (21.7)
u(x, y) =

Xn (x)Yn (y).

(21.18)

(21.18)
(21.7). An Bn (. (21.16)) ,
(21.7).
(21.17) (21.18) (21.7),

X
X
(3 Yn (c) 3 Yn0 (c)) Xn (x) =
gn1 Xn (x),
n

(4 Yn (d) +

4 Yn0 (d)) Xn (x)

gn2 Xn (x).

3 Yn (c) 3 Yn0 (c) = gn1 ,


4 Yn (d) + 4 Yn0 (d) = gn2 .

(21.19)

(21.19) An Bn . ,
(21.7) ,
(21.19).
(21.7) (21.18).
21.2.
u = 0 x [0, ], y [0, ],

u=0

u=0
u
= sin(2x)

u = 0

. .
1:

u = 0
u = 0,
u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

x = 0, y [0, ],
x = , y [0, ].

(21.20)

(21.21)

(21.22)

(21.22)
u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y).

(21.23)

(21.23) (21.22),

Y 00 (y)
X 00 (x)
=
= .
X(x)
Y (y)

X 00 (x) = X(x),
00

Y (y) = Y (y).

(21.24)
(21.25)

(21.23) (21.22),
X(0) = X() = 0.

(21.26)

108

. .

(21.24) (21.26) ,
-

X 00 (x) = X(x),
(21.27)
X(0) = X() = 0.
(21.27) Xn (x) = sin(nx), n =
n2 , n N.
(21.25)
Y 00 (y) = n2 Y (y).

(21.28)

(21.28)
Yn (y) = An sh(ny) + Bn ch(ny).
, (21.22), (21.23),
un (x, y) = (An sh(ny) + Bn ch(ny)) sin(nx).

(21.29)

2: sin(2x) Xn (x)
- (21.27).
sin(2x) = X2 (x).

(21.30)

P 3: (21.20) (21.21) u(x, y) =


n un (x, y). , (21.30), . . X2 ,
u(x, y) = (A2 sh(2y) + B2 ch(2y)) sin(2x).

(21.31)

(21.30) (21.31) (21.21),

B2 sin(2x) = sin(2x),
(A2 sh(2) + B2 ch(2)) sin(2x) = 0.

B2 = 1,
A2 sh(2) + B2 ch(2) = 0.

(21.32)

(21.32),


A2 = cth(2),
B2 = 1,

(21.20), (21.21) (21.31). 


: u(x, y) = (ch(2y) cth(2) sh(2y)) sin(2x).
21.3.
h i
u = 0 x [0, 1], y 0,
,
2

u = cos y
x = 0, y [0, 2 ],

u = 0
x = 2 , y [0, 2 ],
n

n u = sin x y = 0, x [0, 2 ],

u = sin(3x) y = 2 , x [0, 2 ].

(21.33)

(21.34)

109

. (21.33) (21.34) . u1 u2

u=0
x = 0, y [0, 2 ],

u = 0
x = 2 , y [0, 2 ],
n
u1 : u = 0,
(21.35)

n u = sin x y = 0, x [0, 2 ],

u = sin(3x) y = 2 , x [0, 2 ],

u = cos y x = 0, y [0, 2 ],

u = 0
x = 2 , y [0, 2 ],
n
(21.36)
u2 : u = 0,

n u = 0
y = 0, x [0, 2 ],

u=0
y = 2 , x [0, 2 ].
,
u = u1 + u2
(21.33) (21.34).
(21.35). .
1:

u = 0,
x = 0, y [0, 2 ],
u = 0,
n u = 0, x = 2 , y [0, 2 ].

(21.37)

(21.38)

(21.38)
u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y).

(21.39)

(21.39) (21.38),

X 00 (x)
Y 00 (y)
=
= .
X(x)
Y (y)

X 00 (x) = X(x),
(21.40)
00
Y (y) = Y (y).
(21.41)
(21.39) (21.38),
 
= 0.
(21.42)
X(0) = X 0
2
(21.40) (21.42) ,
-

X 00 (x) = X(x),

(21.43)
X(0) = X 0 2 = 0.
(21.43) Xn (x) = sin((2n + 1)x),
n = (2n + 1)2 , n = 0, 1, . . ..
(21.41)
Y 00 (y) = (2n + 1)2 Y (y).

(21.44)

(21.44)
Yn (y) = An sh((2n + 1)y) + Bn ch((2n + 1)y).
, (21.38), (21.39),
un (x, y) = (An sh((2n + 1)y) + Bn ch((2n + 1)y)) sin((2n + 1)x).

110

. .

2: sin x sin(3x) Xn (x)


- (21.43).
sin x = X0 (x),

sin(3x) = X1 (x).

(21.45)
P

3: (21.35) u(x, y) = n un (x, y).


, (21.45), . . X0 X1 ,
u(x, y) = (A0 sh y + B0 ch y) sin x + (A1 sh(3y) + B1 ch(3y)) sin(3x).

(21.46)

(21.45) (21.46) (21.35),


, n u = y u y = 0,


A0 sh

 
2

+ B0 ch

 
2

A0 sin x + 3A1 sin(3x) = sin x,



 
 
3
3
sin x + A1 sh
+ B1 ch
sin(3x) = sin(3x).
2
2




A0 = 1,

A0 sh 2 + B0 ch

3A1 = 0, 
A1 sh 3
+ B1 ch
2

3
2

(21.47)

= 0,

(21.47) (21.48),


A1 = 0,
A0 = 1, 

B0 = th 2 , B1 = ch

(21.48)

= 1.

3
2

1

, (21.46), u1 (21.35)
  1
  

3
u1 (x, y) = th
ch(3y) sin(3x).
ch y sh y sin x + ch
2
2
(21.36). .
1:
(
n u = 0 y = 0, x [0, 2 ],
u = 0,
u=0
y = 2 , x [0, 2 ].

(21.49)

(21.49)
u(x, y) = X(x)Y (y).

(21.50)

(21.50) (21.49),
X 00 (x)
Y 00 (y)
=
= .
X(x)
Y (y)

Y 00 (y) = Y (y).
X 00 (x) = X(x),
(21.50) (21.49),
 
Y 0 (0) = Y
= 0.
2

(21.51)
(21.52)

(21.53)

111

(21.51) (21.53) ,
-

Y 00 (y) = Y(y),
(21.54)
Y 0 (0) = Y 2 = 0.
(21.54) Yn (y) = cos((2n + 1)y),
n = (2n + 1)2 , n = 0, 1, . . ..
(21.52)
X 00 (x) = (2n + 1)2 X(x).

(21.55)

(21.55)
Xn (x) = An sh((2n + 1)x) + Bn ch((2n + 1)x).
, (21.49), (21.50),
un (x, y) = (An sh((2n + 1)x) + Bn ch((2n + 1)x)) cos((2n + 1)y).
2: cos y Yn (y)
- (21.54).
cos y = Y0 (y).

(21.56)
P

3: (21.36) u(x, y) = n un (x, y).


,
(21.56), . . Y0 ,
u(x, y) = (A0 sh x + B0 ch x) cos y.
(21.57)
(21.56) (21.57) (21.36),

B cos y = cos y,
 0
A0 ch
+ B0 sh
cos y = 0.
2
2
 

B0 = 1, 
A0 ch 2 + B0 sh

= 0.

(21.58)

(21.58),



A0 = th 2 ,
B0 = 1.
, (21.57), u2 (21.36)

 

u2 (x, y) = ch x th
sh x cos y.
2
(21.33) (21.34) (21.37). 


1



: u(x, y) = th 2 ch y sh y sin x + ch 3
ch(3y)
sin(3x)
+
ch
x

th
sh
x
cos y.
2
2
21.4.
u = 6 sin x sin y 26 sin(2x) sin(3y) x [0, ], y [0, ],

u=0
x = 0, y [0, ],

u=0
x = , y [0, ],
u = sin(2x) y = 0, x [0, ],

u = 0
y = , x [0, ].

(21.59)

(21.60)

112

. .

. (21.59) (21.60) . u1 u2

u=0
x = 0, y [0, ],

u=0
x = , y [0, ],
(21.61)
u1 : u = 0,
u = sin(2x) y = 0, x [0, ],

u = 0
y = , x [0, ],

u = 0 x = 0, y [0, ],

u = 6 sin x sin y
u = 0 x = , y [0, ],
(21.62)
u2 :

26 sin(2x) sin(3y), u = 0 y = 0, x [0, ],


u = 0 y = , x [0, ].
,
u = u1 + u2

(21.63)

(21.59) (21.60).
, (21.61) 21.2 . 107
u1 (x, y) = (ch(2y) cth(2) sh(2y)) sin(2x),
(21.62) 20.3 . 101
u2 (x, y) = 3 sin x sin y + 2 sin(2x) sin(3y).
u1 u2 (21.63), (21.59) (21.60). 
: u(x, y) = (ch(2y) cth(2) sh(2y)) sin(2x) 3 sin x sin y + 2 sin(2x) sin(3y).
:
21.5.

u=0

u=0
u = 0,
u=0

u = sin x

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

sh y
: u(x, y) = sin x sh
.

21.6.

u = sin(2y)

u = 0
n
u = 0,

u
= sin x

u=0

x = 0,
x = 2 ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, 2 ],
x [0, 2 ].

: u(x, y) = sin x (ch y sh y cth ) + (ch(2x) sh(2x) th ) sin(2y).


21.7.

u = sin(2y)

u=0
u = sin(3x) sin y,
u=0

u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

113

1
: u(x, y) = 10
sin(3x) sin y + (ch(2x) cth(2) sh(2x)) sin(2y).

21.8.

u=0

u=0
u = sin x sin y,
u = sin(2x)

u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

: u(x, y) = 12 sin x sin y + (ch(2y) cth(2) sh(2y)) sin(2x).


21.9.

u=0

u=0
u = sin(2x) sin(3y),
u=0

u = sin x
1
: u(x, y) = 13
sin(2x) sin(3y) +

1
sh

ch(2y)
2 sh(2)

sin(2x) sin x.

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

sh y sin x.

21.10.

u=0

u=0
u = sin x,
u=0

u = sin(2x)
: u(x, y) =

x = 0,
x = 2,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, 2],
x [0, 2].

114

. .

22. .
22.1. u(x, y, t), t > 0
utt = a2 u + f (x, t),

2
2
+
,
x2 y 2

(22.1)

u + 1 n u = 0

1
2 u + 2 n u = 0
3 u + 3 n u = 0

u + u = 0
4
4 n

x = a,
x = b,
y = c,
y = d,

y [c, d],
y [c, d],
x [a, b],
x [a, b].

(22.2)

u|t=0 = (x),
ut |t=0 = (x).

(22.3)

f , , k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0 k = 1, 2, 3, 4, a n
.
f , ,
, (22.1) (22.3) . (22.1)
(22.3) (15.1)
(15.3) (16.1) (16.3).
.
.
(1) np unp
u = u,
(22.2).
(2) f , unp
X
f (x, y, t) =
fnp (t)unp (x, y),

(22.4)

n,p

(x, y) =

np unp (x, y),

(x, y) =

n,p

np unp (x, y).

(22.5)

n,p

fn n n
fnp (t) =

(f, unp )
,
(unp , unp )
def

(, unp )
,
(unp , unp )

np =
Z

(u, v) =

Z
dx

np =

(, unp )
,
(unp , unp )

dy u(x, y)v(x, y).


c

(3) (22.1) (22.3)


X
u(x, y, t) =
Tnp (t)unp (x, y),
n,p

(22.6)

115

Tnp . (22.4) (22.6) (22.1)


(22.3).
X
X
X
00
np Tnp (t)unp (x, y) +
fnp (t)unp (x, y),
Tnp
(t)unp (x, y) = a2
n,p

n,p

Tnp (0)unp (x, y) =

n,p

X
n,p

n,p

np unp (x, y),

n,p
0
Tnp
(0)unp (x, y) =

np unp (x, y).

n,p

, Tnp
00
Tnp (t) + a2 np Tnp (t) = fnp (t),
Tnp (0) = np ,
(22.7)
T 0 (0) = .
np
np
(22.7) .
(22.6).
22.2.
utt = u + 2t sin x sin y,

u = 0 x = 0, y [0, ],

u = 0 x = , y [0, ],
u = 0 y = 0, x [0, ],

u = 0 y = , x [0, ],

u|t=0 = sin(4x) sin(3y),
ut |t=0 = sin x sin y.

(22.8)

(22.9)

(22.10)

. .
1:
u = u
(22.9). , . 19.4 . 96,
unp (x, y) = sin(nx) sin(py),

np = n2 + p2 ,

n N, p N.

2: f (x, t) = t sin x sin y, (x) = sin(4x) sin(3y) (x) = sin x sin y


unp .
f (x, y, t) = 2tu1,1 (x, y),

(x, y) = u4,3 (x, y),

(x) = u1,1 (x, y).

(22.11)

3: (22.8) (22.10)
u(x, y, t) = T1,1 (t)u1,1 (x, y) + T4,3 (t)u4,3 (x, y).

(22.12)

(22.11) (22.12) (22.8) (22.10).


00
00
T1,1
(t)u1,1 (x, y) + T4,3
(t)u4,3 (x, y) = 1,1 T1,1 (t)u1,1 (x, y) 4,3 T4,3 (t)u4,3 (x, y) + 2tu1,1 (x, y),

T1,1 (0)u1,1 (x, y) + T4,3 (0)u4,3 (x, y) = u4,3 (x, y),


0
0
(0)u1,1 (x, y) + T4,3
(0)u4,3 (x, y) = u1,1 (x, y).
T1,1

116

. .

T1,1 T4,3
00
T1,1 (t) + 2T1,1 (t) = 2t,
T1,1 (0) = 0,
T 0 (0) = 1,
1,1
00
T4,3 (t) + 25 T4,3 (t) = 0,
T4,3 (0) = 1,
T 0 (0) = 0.
4,3

(22.13)

(22.14)

(22.13). (22.13)

T1,1 (t) = A sin( 2t) + B cos( 2t) + t.


0
(0) = 1
A B T1,1 (0) = 0 T1,1


T1,1 (0) = B= 0,
A = 0,

0
B = 0.
T1,1
(0) = A 2 + 1 = 1,

(22.13)
T1,1 (t) = t.
(22.14). (22.14)
T4,3 (t) = C sin(5t) + D cos(5t).
0
C D T4,3 (0) = 1 T4,3
(0) = 0


D = 1,
T4,3 (0) = D = 1,

C = 0.
T20 (0) = 5C = 0,

(22.14)
T4,3 (t) = cos(5t).
, (22.8) (22.10) (22.12). 
: u(x, y, t) = t sin x sin y + cos(5t) sin(4x) sin(3y).
22.3.
utt = u + 4 sin t sin x sin(2y),

u=0
x = 0, y [0, /2],

n u = 0 x = /2, y [0, /2],


u=0
y = 0, x [0, /2],

u = 0
y = /2, x [0, /2],

u|t=0 = 5 sin(3x) sin(4y),
ut |t=0 = sin x sin(2y).

(22.15)

(22.16)

(22.17)

. .
1:
u = u
(22.16).
unp (x, y) = sin((2n + 1)x) sin(2py), np = (2n + 1)2 + 4p2 , n N, p N.

117

2: f (x, t) = 4 sin t sin x sin(2y), (x) = 5 sin(3x) sin(4y) (x) =


sin x sin(2y) unp .
f (x, y, t) = 4 sin t u0,1 (x, y),

(x, y) = 5u1,2 (x, y),

(x) = u0,1 (x, y).

(22.18)

3: (22.15) (22.17)
u(x, y, t) = T0,1 (t)u0,1 (x, y) + T1,2 (t)u1,2 (x, y).

(22.19)

(22.18) (22.19) (22.15) (22.17).


00
00
T0,1
(t)u0,1 (x, y) + T1,2
(t)u1,2 (x, y) = 0,1 T0,1 (t)u0,1 (x, y) 1,2 T1,2 (t)u1,2 (x, y) + 4 sin t u0,1 (x, y),

T0,1 (0)u0,1 (x, y) + T1,2 (0)u1,2 (x, y) = 5u1,2 (x, y),


0
0
T0,1
(0)u0,1 (x, y) + T1,2
(0)u1,2 (x, y) = u0,1 (x, y).

T0,1 T1,2
00
T0,1 (t) + 5T0,1 (t) = 4 sin t,
T0,1 (0) = 0,
0
T0,1 (0) = 1,
00
T1,2 (t) + 25 T1,2 (t) = 0,
T1,2 (0) = 5,
0
T1,2 (0) = 0.
(22.20). (22.20)

T0,1 (t) = A sin( 5t) + B cos( 5t) + sin t.


0
A B T1,1 (0) = 0 T1,1
(0) = 1


T0,1 (0) = B= 0,
A = 0,

0
B = 0.
(0) = A 5 + 1 = 1,
T0,1

(22.20)
T0,1 (t) = sin t.
(22.21). (22.21)
T1,2 (t) = C sin(5t) + D cos(5t).
0
C D T1,2 (0) = 5 T1,2
(0) = 0


T1,2 (0) = D = 5,
D = 5,

T20 (0) = 5C = 0,
C = 0.

(22.21)
T1,2 (t) = 5 cos(5t).
, (22.15) (22.17) (22.12). 
: u(x, y, t) = sin t sin x sin(2y) + 5 cos(5t) sin(3x) sin(4y).

(22.20)

(22.21)

118

. .

:
22.4.
utt = u + 2t2 cos x sin y,

u=0

n
u=0
u=0

u = 0

x = 0,
x = /2,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, /2],
x [0, /2],

u|t=0 = 2 cos(3x) sin(2y),


ut |t=0 = 0.

: u(x, y, t) = (cos( 2 t) + t2 1) cos x sin y + 2 cos( 13t) cos(3x) sin(2y).


22.5.
utt = u + 52et cos(4x) sin(3y),

n u = 0

n u = 0
u=0

u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

: u(x, y, t) = sin(3t) sin(3y) +

2
5

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ],

u|t=0 = 2 cos(4x) sin(3y),


ut |t=0 = 3 sin(3y).


sin(5t) + 2et cos(4x) sin(3y).

22.6.
utt = u + 8t2 sin(2y),

u=0

n
n u = 0
u=0

u = 0

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ],

: u(x, y, t) = (2t2 1 + 2 cos(2t)) sin(2y) +

u|t=0 = sin(2y),
ut |t=0 = cos(2x) sin(2y).

sin(2
2 t) cos(2x) sin(2y).
2

22.7.
utt = u + t2 sin(x),

u=0

u=0
n u = 0

u = 0
n

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

: u(x, y, t) = (t2 2 + 3 cos t) sin x +

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ],

1
5

u|t=0 = sin(x),
ut |t=0 = sin(2x) cos y.

sin( 5 t) sin(2x) cos y.

22.8.

u = 0 x = 0, y [0, ],

u = 0 x = , y [0, ],
ut = u,
u|t=0 = 1.
u = 0 y = 0, x [0, ],

u = 0 y = , x [0, ],
: u(x, y, t) =

P
n=1 p=1

4
(1
2 np

2 +p2 )t

(1)n )(1 (1)p )e(n

sin(nx) sin(py).

119

23. .
D, . r1 , r2
1 , 2 .
25 D . ,

. 25. D .
(x, y) (r, )
x = r cos ,

y = r sin .




1
v
1 2v
v =
r
+ 2 2.
r r
r
r
23.1.
v,
v = 0 (x, y) D,

(23.1)

v + 1 n v = h()

1
2 v + 2 n v = q()
3 v + 3 rn v = 0

v + r v = 0
4
4
n

r = r1 ,
r = r2 ,
= 1 ,
= 2 ,

[1 , 2 ],
[1 , 2 ],
r [r1 , r2 ],
r [r1 , r2 ].

(23.2)

k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0
k = 1, 2, 3, 4 n .
. ,
(23.2) ,
r. , ,
.

120

. .

, (23.1) (23.2) . ,
(23.1) (23.2) , .
.
(1)

3 v + 3 rn v = 0 = 1 , r [r1 , r2 ],
v(r, ) = 0,
(23.3)
4 v + 4 rn v = 0 = 2 , r [r1 , r2 ].
(23.3)
v(r, ) = R(r)().

(23.4)

(23.4) (23.3),
1
1
0
(rR0 (r)) () + 2 R(r)00 () = 0,
r
r
00 ()
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r)
=
.
(23.5)
R(r)
()
(23.5) r,
.
, .
R
00 () = (),

(23.6)

r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = R(r).

(23.7)

(23.4) (23.3),

3 (1 ) 3 0 (1 ) = 0,
4 (2 ) + 4 0 (2 ) = 0.

(23.8)

, n = r1 = 1 n = r1 = 2 .
(23.6) (23.8) ,
-

00 () = (),
3 (1 ) 3 0 (1 ) = 0,
(23.9)
( ) + 0 ( ) = 0.
4
2
4
2
n n - (23.9).
(23.7)
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = n R(r).

(23.10)

(23.10) 13

Rn (r) = An r n + Bn r
Rn (r) = An + Bn ln(r),

, n 6= 0,
n = 0.

(23.11)

, (23.3), (23.4).
vn (r, ) = Rn (r)n ().
13(23.10)

121

(2) h q n ()
- (23.9)
X
X
h() =
hn n (), q() =
qn n ().
(23.12)
n

(3) (23.1) (23.2)


X
v(r, ) =
Rn (r)n ().

(23.13)

(23.13) (23.1) (23.2). An Bn (. (23.11)) ,


(23.2).
(23.12) (23.13) (23.2),

X
X
(1 Rn (r1 ) 1 Rn0 (r1 )) n () =
hn n (),
n

(2 Rn (r2 ) +

2 Rn0 (r2 )) n ()

qn n ().

1 Rn (r1 ) 1 Rn0 (r1 ) = hn ,


(23.14)
2 Rn (r2 ) + 2 Rn0 (r2 ) = qn .
(23.14) An Bn . ,
(23.1) (23.2) ,
(23.14).
(23.1) (23.2) (23.13).


23.2.
v = 0

v = sin(2)

v = sin
v=0

v = 0

1 6 r 6 2, 0 6 6 ,

. .
1:

v = 0
v = 0,
v = 0

r = 1,
r = 2,
= 0,
= ,

[0, ],
[0, ],
r [1, 2],
r [1, 2].

= 0, r [1, 2],
= , r [1, 2].

(23.15)

(23.16)

(23.17)

(23.17)
v(r, ) = R(r)().

(23.18)

(23.18) (23.17),
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r)
00 ()
=
= .
R(r)
()

(23.19)

00 () = (),
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = R(r).

(23.20)
(23.21)

122

. .

(23.18) (23.17),
(0) = () = 0.

(23.22)

(23.20) (23.22) ,
-
(
00 () = (),
(23.23)
(0) = () = 0.
(23.23) n () = sin(n), n =
n2 , n N.
(23.21)
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = n2 R(r).

(23.24)

(23.24)
Rn (r) = An rn + Bn rn .
, (23.17), (23.18),
vn (r, ) = (An rn + Bn rn ) sin(n).

(23.25)

2: h() = sin(2) q() = sin


n () - (23.23).

h() = sin(2) = 2 (), q() = sin = 1 ().


(23.26)
3: (23.15) (23.16) . , (23.26),
. . 1 2 ,
v(r, ) = (A1 r + B1 r1 ) sin + (A2 r2 + B2 r2 ) sin(2).
(23.27)
(23.26) (23.27) (23.16),
(A1 + B1 ) sin + (A2 + B2 ) sin(2) = sin(2),




1
1
2A1 + B1 sin + 4A2 + B2 sin(2) = sin .
2
4




A1 + B1 = 0,
2A1 + 12 B1 = 1,

(23.28)

A2 + B2 = 1,
4A2 + 14 B2 = 0.

(23.29)

(23.28) (23.29),

A1 = 23 ,
B1 = 32 ,

1
A2 = 15
,
B2 = 16
.
15

(23.15), (23.16) (23.27). 





2
16
r2
: v(r, ) = 2r

sin

sin(2).
3
3r
15r2
15

123

23.3.
v = 0

6 r 6 1, 0 6 6 ,
2
2

v = 3 sin + sin(3)

n v = sin
v=0

v = 0
n

r = 12 ,
r = 1,
= 0,
= 2 ,

. .
1:

v=0

v = 0,
n v = 0

[0, 2 ],
[0, 2 ],
r [ 12 , 1],
r [ 21 , 1].

= 0, r [ 12 , 1],
= 2 , r [ 21 , 1].

(23.30)

(23.31)

(23.32)

(23.32)
v(r, ) = R(r)().

(23.33)

(23.33) (23.32),
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r)
00 ()
=
= .
R(r)
()

(23.34)

00 () = (),

(23.35)

r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = R(r).

(23.36)

(23.33) (23.32),
(0) = 0 (/2) = 0.

(23.37)

(23.35) (23.37) ,
-
(
00 () = (),
(23.38)
(0) = 0 (/2) = 0.
(23.38) n () = sin((2n+1)),
n = (2n + 1)2 , n = 0, 1, . . ..
(23.36)
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = (2n + 1)2 R(r).

(23.39)

(23.39)
Rn (r) = An r2n+1 + Bn r2n1 .
, (23.32), (23.33),
vn (r, ) = (An r2n+1 + Bn r2n1 ) sin((2n + 1)).

(23.40)

2: h() = 3 sin + sin(3) q() = sin n () - (23.38).


h() = sin(2) = 2 (), q() = sin = 1 ().
(23.41)

124

. .

3: (23.30) (23.31) . , (23.41),


. . 0 1 ,
v(r, ) = (A1 r + B1 r1 ) sin + (A2 r3 + B2 r3 ) sin(3).
(23.42)
(23.41) (23.42) (23.31),
, n = r r = 1,




1
1
A1 + 2B1 sin +
A2 + 8B2 sin(3) = 3 sin + sin(3),
2
8
(A1 B1 ) sin + (3A2 3B2 ) sin(3) = sin .

1

A1 + 2B1 = 3,
A1 B1 = 1,
2

(23.43)

1

A + 8B2 = 1,
8 2
3A2 3B2 = 0.

(23.43) (23.44),

A1 = 2,
B1 = 1,

A2 =
B2 =

(23.44)

8
,
65
8
.
65

(23.30), (23.31) (23.42). 




8
: v(r, ) = 2r + 1r sin + 65
r3 + r13 sin(3).
23.4.
v = 0 r 6 2,

(23.45)

v = 2 sin + 3 cos(4) r = 2.

(23.46)

. .
1:
v = 0,

v(r, ) = v(r, + 2).

(23.47)

, v
r 6 2.14 (23.47)
v(r, ) = R(r)().

(23.48)

(23.48) (23.47),
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r)
00 ()
=
= .
R(r)
()

(23.49)

00 () = (),

(23.50)

r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = R(r).


(23.48) (23.47),
() = ( + 2).
14,

(23.51)
(23.52)

v() =
2 , , r 6 2.

125

(23.50) (23.52) ,
-
(
00 () = (),
(23.53)
() = ( + 2).
+
(23.53) +
0 () = 1, n () =

2
cos(n), n () = sin(n), 0 = 0 n = n n N.
(23.51)

r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = n2 R(r).

(23.54)

(23.54)
R0 (r) = A0 + B0 ln r,

Rn (r) = An rn + Bn rn n > 1.

, ln r rn r = 0.
r 6 2 . ,
(23.47), (23.48),
v0 (r, ) = a0 ,

vn (r, ) = rn (an cos(n) + bn sin(n)) n > 1.

(23.55)

2: q() = 2 sin + 3 cos(4)


+
n (), n () - (23.53).

+
q() = 2 sin + 3 cos(4) = 2
(23.56)
1 () + 34 ().
3: (23.45) (23.46) . , (23.41),
+
. .
1 4 ,
v(r, ) = b1 r sin + a4 r4 cos(4).
(23.57)
(23.56) (23.57) (23.46),
2b1 sin + 16a4 cos(4) = 2 sin + 3 cos(4)

3
.
16
(23.45), (23.46) (23.57). 
b1 = 1,

: v(r, ) = r sin +

3 4
r
16

a4 =

cos(4).

:
23.5.
v = 0 1 6 r 6 2, 0 6 6

n v = 0

v = sin(2)

v=0

v=0
: v(r, ) =

4
17

r2 +

1
r2

sin(2).

r = 1,
r = 2,
= 0,
= 3
,
2

3
,
2

[0, 3
],
2
3
[0, 2 ],
r [1, 2],
r [1, 2].

126

. .

23.6.
v = 0 1 6 r 6 2, 0 6 6

v = sin(4)

n v = sin(2) sin(4)

v=0

v=0
: v(r, ) =

4
17

r2

1
r2

sin(2) +

1
257

264
r4

r = 1,
r = 2,
= 0,
= 3
,
2

3
,
2
[0, 3
],
2
3
[0, 2 ],
r [1, 2],
r [1, 2].


7r4 sin(4).

23.7.
1
6 r 6 1,
2

v = cos + 2 sin 15 cos(2) r = 12 ,
v = 2 cos + sin
r = 1.
v = 0

: v(r, ) = 2r cos + 1r sin + 4 r2

1
r2

cos(2).

23.8.
v = 0

v = sin(3)

n v = 0

v=0

v=0
: v(r, ) =

1
730

r3 +

729
r3

1 6 r 6 3, 6 6 0,

r = 1,
r = 3,
= ,
= 0,

[, 0],
[, 0],
r [1, 3],
r [1, 3].

sin(3).

23.9.
v = 0

v=0

v = cos(2)

n v = 0

n v = 0
: v(r, ) =

4
15

r2

1
r2

1 6 r 6 2, 0 6 6 ,

r = 1,
r = 2,
= 0,
= ,

[0, ],
[0, ],
r [1, 2],
r [1, 2].

cos(2).

23.10.
v = 0 1 6 r 6 2,
(

: v(r, ) = 1

ln r
ln 2

+ r2

v = 1 7 sin(2)
v = 2 sin(2)
8
r2

sin(2).

r = 1,
r = 2.

127

24. .
24.1. D
D u(x, y),
u(x, y) = f (x, y) (x, y) D,
(24.1)

(x, y)u(x, y) + (x, y)n u(x, y) = g(x, y) (x, y) D.

(24.2)

, , f g - , |(x, y)| + |(x, y)| =


6 0 (x, y) D n D.
.
24.2.
= 0
u(x, y) = u(x, y) (x, y) D,
(x, y)u(x, y) + (x, y)n u(x, y) = 0

(x, y) D.

(24.3)

(24.1) (24.2) .
= 0 (24.3). (24.1) (24.2)
, , .
24.3.

u(x, y) = f (x, y) (x, y) D,
u(x, y) = g(x, y) (x, y) D
.
24.4.

u(x, y) = f (x, y) (x, y) D,


u(x, y) = g(x, y) (x, y) D
n
,
ZZ
Z
f (x, y) dx dy g(x, y) dl = 0.
D

(24.4)

,
.
24.5.

u(x, y) = A (x, y) D,
u(x, y) = 2 (x, y) D,
n

(24.5)

D {(x, y) : x [0, 2], y [0, 4]} A .

128

. .

. (24.5) (24.4), f = A g = 2.
, (24.4),
ZZ
Z
f (x, y) dx dy = 8A,
g(x, y) dl = 24.
D

, (24.5) , (. 24.4)
ZZ
Z
f (x, y) dx dy g(x, y) dl = 0 A = 3.
D

(24.5), A = 3. (24.5) , (21.3) (21.4).


u1 (x, y) = 3 (x, y) D,
u2 (x, y) = 0 (x, y) D,
(24.6)
u1 (x, y) = 0 (x, y) D,
u2 (x, y) = 2 (x, y) D.
n
n
u1 u2 (24.6) , (24.5) u =
u1 +u2 . , , (24.6) (24.4)
u1 u2 .
(24.5) (24.6).
, .
v,
v(x, y)
= 2 (x, y) D.
n
, v
1
v(x, y) = (x 1)2 + (y 2)2 .
(24.7)
2
(24.5)
u(x, y) = w(x, y) + v(x, y),

(24.8)

w . (24.8) (24.5), w

w(x, y) = 3 v(x, y) (x, y) D,

(24.9)
w(x, y)
= 0 (x, y) D.
n
, (24.5) A = 3 . ,
(24.9). ,
(20.1) (20.2).
(24.7) (24.9),

w(x, y) = 0 (x, y) D,
(24.10)
w(x, y) = 0 (x, y) D.
n
(24.10) w(x, y) = C, C .
, (24.5) (24.8).

: A 6= 3 (24.5) ; A = 3 (24.5)
u(x, y) = (x 1)2 + 21 (y 2)2 + C, C .

129

:
24.6. A B,

u=0
x = 0, y [1, 2],

n
n u = B x = 1, y [1, 2],
u = Axy,
n u = 1
y = 1, x [0, 1],

u = 0
y = 2, x [0, 1].
n
: 3A 12B = 4.
24.7. A,

u = A
(x, y) D
n u = Bxy (x, y) D,
D (0, 0), (1, 0) (0, 2).

: A =

5
B.
3

24.8.

u = A cos2 y

n
n u = 0
u = 4 cos2 x,
n u = 0

u = 0
n

x = 0,
x = ,
y = 0,
y = ,

y [0, ],
y [0, ],
x [0, ],
x [0, ].

: A = 4 u(x, y) = c0,0 + (x )2 12 cos x + (cth(2) ch(2x)


sh(2x)) cos(2y), c0,0 ; A 6= 4 .

130

. .

25.
R3.
D R3 . , . , (x, y, z)
(r, , )

x = r sin cos ,
y = r sin sin ,
z = r cos ,

r [0, +), [0, ], [0, 2).







1

u
1
2u
1
2 u
r
+ 2
sin
+ 2 2
.
u = 2
r r
r
r sin

r sin 2
.

.
25.1. u,
u = 0 {r1 < r < r2 }

(25.1)

1 u + 1 n u = h(, ) r = r1 ,
(25.2)
2 u + 2 n u = q(, ) r = r2 ,
k k , |k | + |k | =
6 0
k = 1, 2 n .
, (25.1) (25.2) .
. , (25.1) (25.2) ,
.
.
(1)
u(r, , ) = 0,

r1 < r < r2 .

(25.3)

(25.3)
u(r, , ) = R(r)Y (, ).
(25.4) (25.3),
1 2 0
1
0
(r
R
(r))
Y
(,
)
+
R(r), Y (, ) = 0,
r2
r2



1
Y
1 2Y
, Y =
sin
+
sin

sin2 2

r2 R00 (r) + 2rR0 (r)


, Y (, )
=
.
R(r)
Y (, )

(25.4)

(25.5)

131

(25.5) r,
.
, .
R Y
, Y (, ) = Y (, ),

(25.6)

r2 R00 (r) + 2rR0 (r) = R(r).


(25.7)
,
(25.3). , u(r, , ) 2-
= 0 . , (25.6)


Y (, + 2) = Y (, ),
(25.8)
|Y (0, )| < , |Y (, )| < .
(25.6) (25.8) ,

, Y (, ) = Y (, ),
Y (, + 2) = Y (, ),
(25.9)
|Y (0, )| < , |Y (, )| < .
(25.9) . ,
. , (25.9)

n = n(n + 1),

n = 0, 1, . . .

(25.10)

Yn . ,
, ( ,
L2 ((0, ) (0, 2)) ).
Yn n = n(n + 1)

n
X
Yn (, ) = a0 Pn (cos ) +
(ak cos k + bk sin k)Pn(k) (cos ),
k=1

Pn (t)
Pn (t) =

1 dn (t2 1)n
2n n!
dtn

(k)

Pn (t)
dk Pn (t)
, 1 6 k 6 n.
dtk
, ,
1
P0 (cos ) = 1, P1 (cos ) = cos , P2 (cos ) = (3 cos2 1),
2
Pn(k) (t) = (1 t2 )k/2

(1)

P1 (cos ) = sin ,
(2)

(1)

P2 (cos ) = 3 sin cos ,

P2 (cos ) = 3 sin2 ,

(2)

(1)

P3 (cos ) = sin

P3 (cos ) = 15 sin2 cos .

15 cos2 3
,
2

132

. .

(25.7), , (25.10),
r2 R00 (r) + rR0 (r) = n(n + 1)R(r).

(25.11)

(25.11) 15
Rn (r) = An rn + Bn rn1

n = 0, 1, . . . .

(25.12)

, (25.3), (25.4).

un (r, , ) = rn Yn (, ) + rn1 Yn (, ), n = 0, 1, . . . .
(25.13)
, ,
Yn Yn ,
P
(k)
Yn (, ) = an0 Pn (cos ) + nk=1 (ank cos k + bnk sin k)Pn (cos ),
(25.14)
P
(k)
Yn (, ) = a
n0 Pn (cos ) + nk=1 (
ank cos k + bnk sin k)Pn (cos ).
(2) h q Yn (, ) (25.9)
X
X
h(, ) =
Yn(h) (, ), q(, ) =
Yn(q) (, ).
(25.15)
n>0

n>0

(3) (25.1) (25.2)


X
u(r, , ) =
un (r, , ),

(25.16)

n>0

un (25.13), (25.14). (25.16)


(25.1). , Yn Yn (. (25.14)),
, (25.2).
(25.15) (25.16) (25.2),

X
X
(1 un (r1 , , ) 1 r un (r1 , , )) =
Yn(h) (, ),
n>0

n>0

(2 un (r2 , , ) + 2 r un (r2 , , )) =

n>0

Yn(q) (, ).

n>0

,
cos(k)Pn(k) (cos ),

sin(k)Pn(k) (cos ),

ank , a
nk , bnk bnk . ,
,
(25.1) (25.2).
(25.1) (25.2) (25.16).
. , h(, )
q(, ) ,
.
25.2.

u = 0 1 < r < 2,
15(25.11)

u = 3 cos
u = 5 cos

r = 1,
r = 2.

(25.17)

133

. .
1: h(, ) = 3 cos q(, ) = 5cos Yn (, ).

h(, ) = 3 cos = 3P1 (cos ),

(25.18)

q(, ) = 5 2 cos = 5P0 (cos ) P1 (cos ).

2: (25.18) , (25.16), (25.13) ,


P0 (cos ) P1 (cos ). , (25.17)
u(r, , ) = (a + br1 )P0 (cos ) + (cr + dr2 )P1 (cos ).

(25.19)

, (25.18)
0 1, Y0 Y1 .
3: (25.19) , (25.18),
(
u|r=1 = (a + b)P0 (cos ) + (c + d)P1 (cos ) = 3P1 (cos ),
u|r=2 = (a + 21 b)P0 (cos ) + (2c + 41 d)P1 (cos ) = 5P0 (cos ) P1 (cos ).
, P0 (cos ) P1 (cos ),
(
(
c + d = 3,
a + b = 0,
P
(cos
)
:
P0 (cos ) :
1
2c + 41 d = 1.
a + 21 b = 5,

(25.20)

(25.20),
(

a = 10,
b = 10,

c = 1,
d = 4,

u(r, , ) = 10(1 r )P0 (cos ) + (4r


: u = 10 1

1
r

4
r2


 

1
4
r cos . 
+
r)P1 (cos ) = 10 1
r
r2


r cos .

25.3.

u = 0 1 < r < 3,

u = 2 cos sin
u = 26 cos

r = 1,
r = 3.

(25.21)

. .
1: h(, ) = 2 cos sin q(, ) = 8 cos Yn (, )
(1)

h(, ) = 2 cos sin = 2P1 (cos ) cos ,

(25.22)

q(, ) = 26 cos = 26P1 (cos ).


2: (25.18) , (25.17)
(1)

u(r, , ) = (ar + br2 )P1 (cos ) + (cr + dr2 )P1 (cos ) cos .

(25.23)

, , (25.23), Y1 . , (25.23) R1 (r) (


a b, c d).

134

. .

3: (25.23) , (25.22),
(
(1)
(1)
u|r=1 = (a + b)P1 (cos ) + (c + d)P1 (cos ) cos = 2P1 (cos ) cos ,
(1)

u|r=3 = (3a + 91 b)P1 (cos ) + (3c + 91 d)P1 (cos ) cos = 26P1 (cos ).
(1)

, P1 (cos ) P1 (cos ) cos ,


(
(
a + b = 0,
c + d = 2,
(1)
P1 (cos ) :
P1 (cos ) cos :
1
3a + 9 b = 26,
3c + 91 d = 0.

(25.24)

(25.24),
(

a = 9,
b = 9,

c=
d=

1
,
13
27
13
,




1
1
27
(1)
u(r, , ) = 9 r 2 P1 (cos ) +
r 2 P1 (cos ) cos . 
r
13
r

 (1)
1
: u = 9 r r12 P1 (cos ) + 13
r 27
P1 (cos ) cos .
2
r
25.4.
u = 0 r < 1,

u = 3 cos2

r = 1.

(25.25)

. .
1: q(, ) = 3 cos2 Yn (, )
q(, ) = 3 cos2 = 2P2 (cos ) + P0 (cos ).

(25.26)

2: (25.26) , (25.25)
u(r, , ) = (a + br1 )P0 (cos ) + (cr2 + dr3 )P2 (cos ).

(25.27)

, r < 1,
r = 0. (25.27) , b = 0
d = 0. ,
u(r, , ) = aP0 (cos ) + cr2 P2 (cos ).

(25.28)

3: (25.28) , (25.26),
u|r=1 = aP0 (cos ) + cP2 (cos ) = 2P2 (cos ) + P0 (cos ).
, P0 (cos ) P2 (cos ),
P1 (cos ) : a = 1,

P2 (cos ) : c = 2,

u(r, , ) = P0 (cos ) + 2r2 P2 (cos ). 


: u = cos + r2 (3 cos2 1).
25.5.
u = 0 r < 2,
A .

n u = A + 3 sin 2 cos r = 2,

(25.29)

135

. .
1: q(, ) = A + 3 sin 2 cos Yn (, )
(1)

q(, ) = A + 3 sin 2 cos = AP0 (cos ) + 2P2 (cos ) cos .

(25.30)

2: (25.30) , (25.29)
(1)

u(r, , ) = (a + br1 )P0 (cos ) + (cr2 + dr3 )P2 (cos ) cos .

(25.31)

, r = 0, b = 0
d = 0. ,
(1)

u(r, , ) = aP0 (cos ) + cr2 P2 (cos ) cos .

(25.32)

3: (25.32) , (25.30),
(1)

(1)

n u|r=2 = r u|r=2 = 4cP2 (cos ) cos = AP0 (cos ) + 2P2 (cos ) cos .
(1)

, P0 (cos ) P2 (cos ) cos ,


1
(1)
P0 (cos ) : A = 0, P2 (cos ) cos : c = .
2
, (25.29) A = 0.
: a
1
(1)
u(r, , ) = aP0 (cos ) + r2 P2 (cos ) cos . 
2
: A = 0, u = a + 43 r2 sin 2 cos , a R.
:
25.6.
1
u = 0
< r < 1,
3

: u = 3 1r cos .

u=0
u = 2 cos

25.7.
1
u = 0 r < , u = 3 cos 2 + cos
2

r = 13 ,
r = 1.

1
r = .
2

: u = 1 + 2r cos + 8r2 (3 cos2 1).


25.8.

u = 0 1 < r < 2,
: u =

16
67

r2

1
r3

sin2 sin 2 +

1
67

u = sin 2 sin
n u = sin2 sin 2

3r2 +

64
r3

r = 1,
r = 2.

sin 2 sin .

25.9.
u = 0 r < 3,

u n u = 4 sin cos r = 3.

: u = 2r sin cos + r3 Y3 (, ), Y3 (, )
.

136

. .

25.10.
u = 0 r > 3,
: u =

1
r

9
r2

cos .

2u + 3n u = 1 + 4 cos

r = 3.

137

26. 3- (2 ).
3.
(1)
u = sin(2x) cos(3y) x [0, ], y [0, ],

u=0
x = 0, y [0, ],

u = cos y x = , y [0, ],
n u = 0
y = 0, x [0, ],

u = 0
y = , x [0, ].
n
1
: u(x, y) = 13
sin(2x) cos(3y) +

sh x
sh

cos y.

(2)
v = 0 1 6 r 6 3, 0 6 6 ,

= sin
r = 1,
= 5 sin + sin(2) r = 3,
=0
= 0,
=0
= ,


9
r2 r12 sin(2).
: v(r, ) = 2r 3r sin + 80

[0, ],
[0, ],
r [1, 3],
r [1, 3].

(3)
utt = u + 3 sin t sin x cos y,
u=0
x = 0, y [0, ],

u=0
x = , y [0, ],
n u = 0 y = 0, x [0, ],

u = 0 y = , x [0, ],
n

u|t=0 = 2 sin(2x),
ut |t=0 = 3 sin x cos y.
: u(x, y, t) = 3 sin t sin x cos y + 2 cos(2t) sin(2x).
(4)
u = 0 r > 2,

u = 3 sin2 + 1 r = 2.

: u = 6r r83 (3 cos2 1).


(5) r < 1,
.