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Start Here A

2mL test solution + 8 drops 6M HCl (avoid excess)

If no ppt forms proceed to B



Precipitate (Group I Cations: Insoluble clorides) Decantate + 2mL boiled H2O centrifuge and decant immediately (repeat)

Adjust pH to 0.5 by adding 6M NaOH/HCl

If ppt forms warm in water bath and dissolve

+ 2mL 5% thioacetamide and stir


+ add 2 drops of 1M K2CrO4

No ppt? Proceed to part C.

Heat in boiling water bath (10 mins)

+ 5 drops 6M NH3 (stir to break ppt) then centrifuge and decant (repeat)

Yellow ppt Pb 2+ Precipitate (black) Group II Cations: Insoluble Sulfides White ppt Ag +

Precipitate (discard)


Acidify with 6M HNO3 (litmus paper)

Cool, centrifuge & decant



pH 0.5 by adding dropwise 0.5 M NaOAc/HOAc Stir after drop

+ 15 drops 6M HNO3 heat in bath(few mins) & centrifuge
Precipitate (discard): Elemental S

+ 2 mL 1M NH4Cl + 2 mL H2O stir, centrifuge

Decantate (discard) Precipitate Precipitate

Boiling bath (3mins), cool, centrifuge, decant


+ 2-3 drops 6M HCl, centrifuge, decant (white ppt means theres lead)

+ 1 mL water centrifuge, discard decantate

+ 1 mL M NH4Cl + 1 mL H2O stir, combine w/

+ 2mL, 5% thioacetamide, warm bath

Precipitate Decantate
+ 10 drops 1M NaOAc, heat to dissolve ppt

If colorless +6M NH3 basic to litmus

Yellow ppt Cd 2+
+pinch Na2S2O4, warm bath, centrifuge & discard ppt

If Blue, divide to 2

+ pinch Na2S2O4, warm bath, centrifuge (discard ppt)

+ 2 drops 1M K2CrO4

Yellow ppt Pb2+

+6M HOAc Acidic & colorfades +1drop K4Fe(CN)6

Red ppt Cu2+ Decantate

Group 3 Cations: Base insoluble Sulfides & OH

+ 1mL 5% thioacetamide, warm bath (5mins)

+ 1mL 15M NH3 (stir ppt), warm bath (5mins), centrifuge

Wash w/ few drps H2O

Decantate Precipitate
+ 10drps 1M HCl, centrifuge at once


Decantate Group IV Cations: Insoluble Phosphates

Wash with + 4 drops of 1M HCl, centrifuge Precipitate


Evaporate to dryness & ignite in evap dish

Dissolve residue in 1M HCl

+ 3 drops 12M HCl + 1 drop 16M HNO3, heat in warm bath, Centrifuge

Precipitate (discard)

+ 6M NH3 until alkaline + 1 extra drop


Acidify w/ 6M HOAc + several KNO2 crystals, warm Yellow ppt Co 3+

+ 2 drops 1M NH4CO3 or more until complete precipitation.

No ppt? Proceed to E.

Boil + 6M NH3 until slightly basic to litmus, dilute to 1mL, divide to 3

Warm in hot bath, then cool. Centrifuge.


Dissolve in 2 drps 4M HOAc + 4 drps 1M NH4Oac + 1 drp K2CrO4, centrifuge

+ 1 drop DMG, let stand for 1 min

Red ppt Ni 2+

Acidify w/ 1M HCl + NH4CNS crystals + equal acetone. Agitate.

Blue soln Co 2+ Precipitate

No ppt?


Flame test

+ 2 drops 12M HCl to dissolve ppt, divide to 2

+ 6M NH3 until orange to yellow + equal volume EtOH, centrifuge


Green Flame Ba 2+

+ 1 drop 6M H2SO4


Heat to boiling + 2 drops 0.4M (NH4)2C2O4

Group V Cations: Alkali metal and ammonium ions

White ppt Ba 2+

+ 2 drops 12M HCl to dissolve ppt & flame test

Crimson Flame Sr 2+

Dissolve white Ca2+ ppt with 2 drops 12M HCl, flame test

+ 1 drop 0.4M (NH4)2C2O4 + 1 drop (NH4)2SO4, centrifuge


Red orange Flame Ca 2+_ 2+

Transfer to evap dish + 1mL 4M HNO3 (evaporate) to moist residue

Precipitate (discard)

+ 6M NH3 (basic to litmus) + 1 drop excess + 2 drops 1M Na2HPO4, centrifuge 1 drop 0.4M (NH4)2C2O4 + 1 drop (NH4)2SO4, centrifuge

Yellow ppt Mg 2+ Dissolve residue with 1mL H2O, transter in TT Dissolve with 2 drops 1m HOAc + 3 drops H20 + 1 drop titan yellow + 6M NaOH until basic

Decantate (discard)

+ 4M NaOH until ppt forms

No ppt? Go to D

White ppt Mg 2+

+ 10 drops 4M NaOH excess + 6 drops 3% H2O2 Precipitate


Decantate Heat in hot water bath (5 mins). Centrifuge

+ 6M HOAc til acid to litmus + 2-3 drps excess. Centrifuge + Aluminon reagent + 1M (NH4)2CO4 til basic

+ 10 drops H20 w/ 1 drop 4M NaOH. Centrifuge Precipitate

Decantate Precipitate
+ 6M HOAc to dissolve + 2 drops 0.2 K4Fe(CN)6 + 10 drops 0.2 KSCN


+ 1M HOAc til acid to litmus + 2 drops 0.1M Pb(OAc)2

+ 5 drops 5% thioacetami d (heat in bath)

Red Lake Al 3+

Yellow ppt Cr 3+

+ 1mL 4M HNO3 + 2 drops 1M NaNO3 (stir and heat in warm bath) Centrifuge Discard ppt (S) Decantate

Blue Soln Fe 3+
+ 6M HCl to dissolve ppt then heat

Red Soln Fe 3+

+ NaBIO3 grain + 2 drops 4M HNO3

Purple Soln Mn 2+

+ Neutralize with 6M NH3 + 10 drps 1M HCl + 5 drps 0.1M K4FeCN6

Gray Green ppt Zn 2+


Use an untreated sample and flame test 10 drops

Use fresh sample only into a 50mL beaker. Moisten red litmus paper and place under small watch glass.

Blue Litmus NH4

Compare flames with: Distilled Water 0.1M NaCl Soln

+ 10 drops 6M NaOH to sample and swirl stir. Cover with the watch glass

Heat. (DO NOT BOIL. NO LIQUID SHOUD TOUCH LITMUS) Observe color of litmus.

Yellow flame Na+

Purple flame K+