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Ratio between Input power and Output Power

Output Power Input Power

Input Output Losses

Output Power Output Power Losses
Input Power Losses Input Power

Efficiency is normally expressed as a percentage

Output Power % 100 Input Power

Transformer Efficiency
Power In

= 100% 90% 95%

Power Out

Some Power is used to:

Overcome Copper Losses

Overcome Iron Losses

Transformer Losses
Copper Losses (Cu)
Varies with load current
Produces HEAT Created by resistance of windings Short circuit test supplies copper losses

Short Circuit Test

Limited Supply Voltage 5-10 %

Copper Losses (Cu)

Secondary Short Circuited

Wattmeter indicates Copper Losses (Cu)

Short Circuit Test

Finds Cooper losses at full load

Copper Losses (Cu)

Copper losses vary with the square of the load

Full load Cu loss = 100 W Transformer loaded at 50%

Copper loss 0.5 100


Copper loss 0.25 100

PCu = 25 W

Copper Losses (Cu)

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

Cu Losses (W)

% Load

Transformer Losses

Iron Losses (Fe)

Always present Related to transformers construction

Eddy Currents
Reduced by laminations Produces HEAT

Reduced by using special steels in laminations

Open Circuit Test

Finds Iron Losses (Fe)

Full Supply Voltage

Secondary Open Circuit

Wattmeter indicates Iron Losses (Fe)

The core of a transformer is usually constructed of some type of ferromagnetic material because it is a good conductor of magnetic lines of flux.

To minimize the loss resulting from eddy currents, transformer cores are LAMINATED. Since the thin, insulated laminations do not provide an easy path for current, eddy-current losses are greatly reduced.

Hence by using these methods we can reduce the iron losses in transformers.