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Justice Blackmun, Dissent, Webster v. Reproductive Health service, 109 S. Ct. 3040 (1989),
p. 3079.
,
, , , +

. , +
/ (, ,
) ; 10 +
() . +
, ,
+
: , , +
,
, . . E. J. Dionne Jr., Poll on Abortion Finds the
nation is Sharply Divided, New York Times, 26 April 1989, . 1, 25; Poll Finds
Ambivalence on Abortion Persists in U.S., New York Times, 3 August 1989, p. 18.
, +
,
. . ibid., Hickman+Maslin, Confidential Analytical
Report, , National Abortion Rights Action League (NARAL),
18 1988 . ( 1987 .). +
, +
51 % , , 60 %
, 60 % 46 % . 70 %
, 76 % 81 % ,
, .

166
3

10

11

12

13

Patricia Donovan, When the Conventional Wisdom Is Wrong: A Reexamination of the


Role of Abortion as an Issue in Federal Elections, 19741986, Special report from the
Alan Guttmacher Institute, June 1988. , (Donovan),
,
+
. NARVAL (. 2).
+
. , +

(. , . xxiii n.
40). , , . (Dr. C. Everett
Koop), ,
, +
. , +
, ,
,
(Washington Memo, Alan Guttmacher Insitute, 28 March 1989, p. 1).
1977 1980 . 61 +
, 4 , 35 , 1 , 18 +
. 1982 1985 . 411, 27 +
, 111 , 86 , 13
, 18 . , +
+
;
. Thornbirg et al. V.
American college of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Brief Amici Curiae of the
American civil Liberties Union, Pennsylvania Civil Liberties Union, and AntiDefamation
League (1985), n. 51.
. Susan Faludi, Where did Randy Go Wrong? Mother Jones 14 (November 1989), .
2228, 6164; Philip Green, Abortion: the Abusable past, Nation, 7/14 August 1989,
.177179, Operation Rescue +
.
Stuart Ewen, AllConsuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture (New
York: Basic Books, 1988), . 263266; Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky,
Manufacturing Consent: the Political economy of mass Media (New York: Pantheon, 1988),
passim.
Carole Joffe, Abortion Recipients are Not victims, Abortion Providers are Not Villians,
; Lisa Belkin, Women in Rural Areas Face Many Barriers to Abortions, New
York Times, 11 July 1989, p. A1, B4.
William L. Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (October term, 1988), Brief of 281
American Historians as Amici Curiae Supporting Appellees, .12, 11, 25. +
400 .
Fetal Images: The Power of Visual Culture
in the Politics of Reproduction, Reproductive Technologies, ed. M. Stanworth (London:
Polity, 1987), p. 5780; Feminist Studies 13 (Summer 1987): 26392.
Geraldo Rivera, Twenty+Twenty, ABC Television (,
, ), 24 January 1985.
Barbara Katz Rothman, The Tentative Pregnancy: Prenatal Diagnosis and the Future of
Motherhood (New York: Viking, 1986), p. 114.
. . R.

14

15

16

17
18

19

20

21

22

167

Arditti, R. Klein, and S. Minden, eds., TestTube Women: What future for Motherhood?
(London: Pandora, 1984); Janet Gallagher, The Fetus and the Law: Whose Life Is It
Anyway? Ms. (September 1984); Gena Corea, The Mother Machine: Reproductive
Technologies from Artificial Insemination to Artificial Wombs (New York: Harper and Row,
1985); Michelle Fine and Adrienne Asch, Who Owns the Womb? Womens Review of
Books 2 (May 1985); P. Spalone and D. Steinberg, eds., Made to Order: The Myth of
reproductive and Genetic Progress (Oxford: Pergamon, 1987); Stanworth, Reproductive
Technologies; Rorie Sherman, Keeping Baby Safe from Mom, National Law Journal (3
October 1988); and Ellen Willis, The Wrongs of Fetal Rights, Village Voice, 11 April
1989, p. 4144.
(OConnor) +
(City
of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health, 462 U.S. 416 (1983), p. 458). +
Hill Streets Blue 1985
, + +
, . +
+
.
Thornburg v. ACOG, Brief Amici Curiae of the Center for Constitutional Rights et al. (1985),
p. 2627 ; Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, Brief
Amici Curiae of the American Medical Association et al. (October Term, 1988), p. 58.
David A. Grimes, Second Trimester Abortions in the United States, family Planning
Perspectives 16 (November+December 1984: 26066).
. , 2.
Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood (Berkley: University of California
Press, 1984), p. 132, 138139, 150151; Faye D. Ginsburg, Contested Lives: The Abortion
debate in an American Community (Berkley: University of California Press, 1989),
6, 7 10. . Faludi, Where Did Rand Go Wrong? , +
Operation Rescue , +

.
Stanley K. Henshaw, Characteristics of U. S. Women having Abortions, 19821983,
Family Planning Perspectives 19 (January+February 1987): 59; Stanley K. Henshaw and
Jane Silverman, The Characteristics and Prior Contraceptive Use of U. S. Abortion
Patients, Family Planning Perspectives 20 (JulyAugust 1988):15868; Aida torres and
Jacquline Darroch Forrest, Why Do Women Have Abortions? Family Planning Perspectives
20 (JulyAugust 1988):16976 and Stanley K. Henshaw and Jennifer Van Vort, Teenage
Abortion, Birth and Pregnancy Statistics: An Update, Family Planning Perspectives 21
(March+April 1989):8588.
Elise f. Jones et al., Teenage Pregnancy in Industrial Countries (New haven: Yale University
Press, 1986); Jeannie I. Rosoff, Not Just Teenagers, and Elise F. Jones et al.,
Unintended Pregnancy, Contraceptive Practice and Family Planning Service in
Developed Countries, Family Planning Perspectives 20 (MarchApril 1988): 8588.
Rosoff, Not Just Teenagers, and Jones et al., Unintended Pregnancy (1988); and
Charles F. Westoff, Unintended pregnancy in America and Abroad, Family Planning
Perspectives 20 (NovemberDecember 1988): 25461.
(Jane Gross), , ,
+
, ; Anti+
Abortion Revival: Homes for the Unwed, New York Times 23 July 1989, p. 1, 25.

168

23

24

25
26

27

28
29
30

+ ++
(Margaret Atwood) The Handmaids Tale
,
.
17 210 13 175 + 1984 .
, , 
, ,
Medicaid, , , (T. Joyce, The Social and Economic Correlates
of pregnancy Resolution Among Adolescents in New Yourk City, by Race and Ethnicity:
A Multivariate Analysis, American Journal of Public Health 78 [1988]: 626 ). ,
, +
, . (. Henshaw and Van
Vort, Teenage Abortion).
Gloria Joseph, Styling, Profiling, and Pretending: The Games Before the Fall Gloria I.
Joseph and Jill Lewis, Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminict
Perspectives (garden City, N.Y.: Anchor/Doubleday, 1981), p. 196 Gerda Lerner, The
Myth of the Bad Black Women, Black Women in White America (New York: Vintage,
1973) Winthrop Jordan, White over Black (New York: Norton, 1968) +
XVIII , , +
+
,
(. 35). (Deborah Gray White) +
+
, , ;
Jewebel (Arnt I a Woman? Female Slaves in the
Plantation South [New York: Norton, 1985], 1) Barbara Omolade, Hearts of
Darkness, Power of Desire, ed. A.Snitow, C. Stansell, and S. Thompson (New York:
Monthly Review, 1983), . 350367.
Omolade, Hearts of Darkness, . 358 White Arnt I a Woman? . 39.
Lerone Bennet Jr., Ebony, August 1986, Jewell Handy Gresham, The
Politics of Family in America, Nation (24/31 July 1989), . 118.
Joseph, Styling, Profiling and Pretending, . 181182; . Omolade, Hearts
of Darkness, . 358359.
Joseph, Styling, Profiling and Pretending, . 203.
Ibid., . 185.
Ibid., . 181185 Omolade, Hearts of Darkness, . 362263 ,
(Toni Morrison) (Sula) ,
(Joseph) (Omolade). +
:
? . .
, .
. .
.
.
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, , +
: , , +

31

32

33

34

35
36

169

, , , ,
, (Sula [New
York: Bantam, 1975], . 3738).
Joseph, Styling, Profiling and Pretending, . 186187, +
, +
, +

().
Michele Russell, . Joseph, Styling, Profiling and Pretending, . 183. .
Harriet A. Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of Slave Girl, ed. Jean Fagan Yellin (Cambridge,
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987). (Suzanne
Lynn) Abortion and Race.
Joseph, Styling, Profiling and Pretending, . 226. +

( Omolade, Hearts of Darkness, . 362363;
[Ida Cox] ), , (Neale
Hurston) Their Eyes Were Watching God;
(Morrison); Ntozake Shange for Colored girls Who Have
Considered Suicide; (Shug), (Alice Walker) The Color
Purple. .
Joseph, Styling, Profiling and Pretending, . 40 Gerald D. Jaynes and Robin M.
Williams, Jr., eds., A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society (Washington, D. C.:
National Academy Press, 1989), 8. (Jewell Handy Gresham) +
(Margaret B. Wilkerson) +
(National Cener for Health Statistics) 1988 ., +


!
(The Burden of History, Nation, 24/31 July 1989, . 115).
Patricia J. Williams, on Being the Object of Property, Signs 14(Autumn 1988), . 16.
, +
( , ), +
. , +
, 95%+ .
, RU 486,
, Roussel+UCLAF, +
, +
, . +
+
. +
++ +
(Malcolm Potts, British Control Methods in
the United States, Family Planning Perspectives 20 [November +December 1988]: 295
97; Steven Greenhouse, Drug Maker Stops All Distribution of Abortion Pill, New York
Times, 27 October 1988, . A1, B18; Marlise Simons, Doctors Protest Companys Action
on Abortion Pill, New York Times, 27 October 1988, . A1, A18).
, , +
, , +
,
.

170
37

38
39

40

41

42
43
44
45

46

47

48

49
50

Jed Rubenfeld, The Right of Privacy, Harvard Law Rev. 102 (February 1989):737807,
esp. 749750.
Hickman+Maslin Report, . 20.
(Bowers v. Hardwick), 106 S. Ct. 2841 (1986), +
, , +
+
,
. , ,
+ ,
,
, , , , +
privacy rights ( ), ,
.
Marjorie Bell Chambers, New Mexico Platform Committee Chair, 10 August
1988 () Republican Platform Puts Fetus before Mother, +
, New York Times, 27 1988, . A41.
Thornburgh et al. v. ACOG, Brief for the united States as Amicus Curiae in Support of
Appelants (1985), . 19.
448 U.S. 297 (1981), . 316; . 295302 .
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, 109 S. Ct. 3040 (1989), . 3052.
Ibid., Ct. 3051, 3054; . 316319.
Hodgson v. Minnesota, 853 F.2d 1452 (8th Cir. 1988) (en banque), cert. granted, 109 S. Ct.
3240 (1989); and Arkon Centre for Reproductive Health v. Slaby, 854 F.2d 852 (6th Cir.
1988), prob. juris. noted sub. nom. Ohio v. Arkon Center for reproductive Health, 109 S.
Ct. 3239 (1989).
Raymond Tatalovich, Byron W. Daynes, The Geographic Distribution of U.S. Hospitals
with Abortion Facilities, Family Planning Perspectives 21 (MarchApril 1989): 8184.
.
(Fred Block) Rethinking the Political Economy of the Welfare State Fred
Block, Richard A. Cloward, Barbara Ehrenreich, Frances Fox Piven, The Mean Season (New
York: Pantheon, 1987), . 13538.
Childrens Defense Fund, Lack of Health Insurance Makes a Difference (Washington, D.C.,
1989).
Joseph, Styling, Profiling, and Pretending, . 40.
Dazon Dixon, Operation Oppress You: Womens Right under Siege, Common Ground
Different Planes, The Women of Color Partnership Program Newsletter, December 1988,
. 1. . Billye Avery, Black Womens Health, A Conspiracy of Silence, Sojourner
The Womens Forum, January 1989, . 15.
. :
Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, Abortion and Womans Choice: the State, Sexuality and
Reproductive Freedom. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990, p. ixxxvi.

171

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180

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182

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183

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184

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185

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1
2

Edith Abbott, Women in Industry New York: Appleton, 1910, p. 374376.


Barbara Welter, The Cult of True Womanhood, 18201860, American Quarterly XVIII
(Summer 1964), p. 160.
Riley Glenda Gates, The Subtle Subversion: Changes in the Traditional Image of the
American Woman, The Historian XXXII (February 1970), p. 220.
William Chafe, The American Women: Her Changing Social Economic and Political Roles,
19201970 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972).
Edmund Morgan, The Puritan Dilemma (Boston: Little, Brown, 1958), p. 71; .
John Demos, A Little Commonwealth: Family Life in Plymouth Colony (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1970), p. 78.
Edmund Morgan, The Puritan Dilemma (Boston: Little, Brown, 1958), p. 186.

188
7
8

10

11
12

13

14

15

16
17
18
19
20
21

22
23

24

25
26
27

28

Ibid., p. 89.
Bernard Wishy, The Child and the Republic: The Dawn of Modern American Child Nurture
(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972), p. 28.
Ruth Miller Elson, Guardians of Tradition: American Schoolbooks of the Nineteenth Century
(Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964), p. 309; Siegfried Giedion, Mechanization
Takes Command: A Contribution to Anonymous History (New York: Norton, 1969 [1948]),
p. 514; XIX . Welter, The Cult of True Womanhood,
Riley, The Subtle Subversion.
Elson, Guardians of Tradition, p. 309; Gerda Lerner, Womens Rights and American
Feminism American Scholar (Spring 1971), p. 238.
: Elson, Guardians of Tradition, p. 309.
Aileen Kraditor, Up from the Pedestal (New York: Quadrangle, 1968), p. 13.
: ,
...
, .
Joseph A. Hill, Woman in Gainful Occupations, 18701920, Census Monographs IX (U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1929), p. 3.
Caroline T. Ware, The Early New England Cotton Manufactures: A Sudy in Industrial
Beginnings (Boston: Houghton Miffin, 1931), p. 198, Hannah Josephson, The Golden
Threads: New England s Mill Girls and Magnates (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1949),
p. 22; Oscar Handlin, Boston s Immigrants: 17901880 (New York: Atheneum, 1971
[1941]), p. 7476; Reinhard Bendix, Work and Authority in Industry: Ideologies of
Management (New York: Wiley, 1956), p. 39.
Josephson, The Golden Threads, p. 63, 23; . John Kasson, Civilizing the
Machine: Technology, Aesthetics, and Sosiety in Nineteenth Century American Thought,
Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1971; Holland Thompson, From the Cotton Field to
the Cotton Mill: A Sudy of the Industrial Transition in North Caroline (Freeport, N.Y.: Books
for Libraries Press, 1971 [1906]), p. 52.
Kassou, Civilizing the Masculine, p. 41.
Ibid., p. 5355.
Ware, Early New England Cotton Manufactures, p. 231.
Ibid., p. 234.
Handlin, Bostons Immigrants, p. 82.
John R. Commons et al., eds., A Documentary History of American Industrial Society, vol.
VI, The Labor Movement (Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1910), p. 195; Emilie
Josephine Hutchinson, Womens Wages: A Study of the Wages of Industrial Women and
Measure Suggested to Increase Them (New York: AMS Press, 1968), p. 24, 25. Handlin
(Bostons Immigrants, 81) , $1,5
3 , $4,5 5,5.
Commons, A Documentary History, p. 210.
, +
.
Hutchinson, Womens Wages, p. 159160. . Alice Kessler+Harris, Where Are the
Organized Women Workers? Feminist Studies III (Fall, 1975), p. 92110.
Commons, A Documentary History, p. 282.
Ibid., p. 284
Hutchinson, Womens Wages, p. 159, : The Report on the Conditions of Women
and Child Wage Earners, X, p. 48.
Elizabeth F. Baker, Technology and Womens Work (New York: Columbia University Press,
1964), p. 17.


29

30

31
32

33
34
35
36

37

38
39

40
41
42

43

44

45

46

47

189

Michael Katz, The Irony of Early School Reform (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1968), p. 12; and Hutchinson, Womens Wages, p. 34, 158.
. +
12,8 +
21,3%. 1920 1930 . (Hill,
Women in Gainful Occupations, p. 19). 1920 . 20% , +
, ; 47,8% , ,
; 43% (Ibid., p. 11). 1890 1930 .
(Donald Lescohier,
Working Conditions in John Commons, History of Labor in the United States: 1896
1932, New York: Macmillan, 1935, III, p. 37).
. Report on Conditions of Women and Child Wage Earners, V, 70; XV, p. 93.
12,1% 1890 . 19,8%
1910 . 3,3% 1890 .
6,8% 1910 . (Lescohier, Working Conditions, p. 37; Hill, Women in Gainful
Occupations, p. 76, 77).
Caroline Manning, The Immigrant Woman and her Job (New York: Arno Press, 1970 [1930]).
Hill, Women in Gainful Occupations, p. 3941.
Ibid., p. 85, 94, 102, 110.
Ibid., p. 90, 91. . Margery Davies, The Feminization of the Clerical Labor Force,
, (Harvard
University, Cambridge, Mass., March 17, 1973).
. David M. Gordon, Richard Edwards, Michael Reich, Labor Market Segmentation in
American Capitalism, , +
(Harvard University, March 16, 1973),
.
Hutchinson, Womens Wages, p. 81.
John R. Commons, John b. Andrews, Principles of Labor Legislation, rev. Ed. (New York:
Harper, 1927), p. 30.
Hutchinson, Womens Wages, p. 161.
Commons, Andrews, Principle of Labor Legislation, p. 69.
. Valerie Kincaide Oppenheimer, The
Female Labor Force in the United States: Demographic and Economic Factors Governing Its
Growth and Changing Composition, Popular Monograph Series, no. 5 (Berkley: University
of California Press, 1970), p. 15.
Michael J. Piores The Dual Labor Market: Theory and Implications in Problems in
Political Economy: An Urban Perspective, ed. David Gordon (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath,
1971), p. 9094.
., , Susan Jacoby, What do I for the next 20 Years? New York Times Magazine,
June 17, 1973, p. 10.
Alice Harris, Bernard Silverman, Notes on Women in Advanced Capitalism Social Policy,
June+July 1973.
Valerie Kincaide Oppenheimer, Demographic Influences on Female Employment and
the Status of Women, American Journal of Sociology LXXVIII (January 1973).
(1973), +
(. .).

. :
Kessler+Harris A., Women, Work and Social Order in Labor Market Segmentation (ed. David
Gordon et al.), Mass.: Lexington Books, D.C. 1975, p. 320343.

190

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4
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6
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12
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15
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17
18
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20
21
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23

24
25
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27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Nancy Gager and Cathleen Schurr, Sexual Assault: Confronting Rape in America (New
York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1976), p. 1.
Michael Meltsner, Cruel and Unusual: The Supreme Court and Capital Punishment (New
York: Random House, 1973), p. 75.
The Racist Use of Rape and the Rape Charge. A Statement to the Womens Movement
From a Group of Socialist Women (Louisville, Ky: Socialist Womens Caucus, 1974), p. 56.
Lerner, Black Women in White America, p. 193.
. Angela Davis, JoAnne Little The Dialectics of Rape. Ms. Magazine, Vol. III, No.
12 (June, 1975).
. Chapter 1.
Aptheker, A Documentary History, Vol. 2, p. 552ff.
Lerner, Black Women in White America, p. 185186.
Gertrude Stein, Three Lives (New York: Vintage Books, 1970. First edition: 1909), p. 86.
Eisen+Bergman, op. cit., Part I, Chapter 5.
Susan Brownmiller, Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape (New York: Simon and Schuster,
1975), p. 194.
A Dozen Who Made a Difference, Time, Vol. 107, No. 1 (January 5, 1976), p. 20.
Brownmiller, op. cit., p. 247.
Ibid.
Jean MacKellar, Rape: The Bait and the Trap (New York: Crown Publishers, 1975), p. 72.
Ibid. , , ,
, . ,
, 90%
.
Brownmiller, op. cit., p. 213.
Ibid., p. 175.
Noreen Connell and Cassandra Wilson, editors, Rape: The First Sourcebook for Women by
New York Radical Feminists (New York: New American Library, 1974), p. 151.
Diana Russell, The Politics of Rape: The Victims Perspective (New York: Stein & Day, 1975).
Ibid., p. 163.
Winfield H. Collins, The Truth About Lynching and the Negro in the South (In Which the
Author Pleads that the South Be Made Safe for the White Race) (New York: Neale
Publishing Co., 1918), p. 9495.
Shulamith Firestone, The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution (New York:
Bantam Books, 1971), p. 108.
Ibid., p. 108ff.
Ibid., p. 110.
Walter White, Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
Inc., 1929), p. 66.
Ibid.
Calvin Hernton, Sex and Racism in America (New York: Grove Press, 1965), p. 125.
Ibid., p. 124.
White, op. cit., p. 91.
Ibid., p. 92.
Ibid., p. 86.
Ibid., p. 94.
Ida B. Wells+Barnett, On Lynching (New York: Arno Press & New York Times, 1969), p. 8.
Frederick Douglass, The Lesson of the Hour ( 1894). +

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

217

Why is the Negro Lynched in Foner, The Life and Writings of


Frederick Douglass, Vol. 4, p. 498499.
Ibid., p. 501.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid., p. 502.
Collins, op. cit., p. 58.
Gager and Schurr, op. cit., p. 163.
Ibid.
Wells+Barnett, On Lynching, p. 59.
Foner, The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Vol. 4, p. 503.
Ibid., p. 499.
Lynchings and What They Mean, General Findings of the Southern Commission on the
Study of Lynching (Atlanta: 1931), p. 19.
Quoted in Lerner, Black Women in White America, p. 205206.
Franklin and Starr, op. cit., p. 67.
Wells+Barnett, On Lynching, p. 57.
Ibid., p. 8.
Wells, Crusade for Justice, p. 149.
Ralph Ginzburg, One Hundred Years of Lynchings (New York: Lancer Books, 1969), p. 96.
Wells, Crusade for Justice, p. 63.
. Chapter 8.
Wells, Crusade for Justice, p. 218.
Lerner, Black Women in White America, p. 205211.
Ibid., p. 215.
. Jessie Daniel Ames, The Changing Character of Lynching, 19311941 (New York: AMS
Press, 1973).
Ibid., p. 19.
White, op. cit., p. 3.
Ames, op. cit., p. 64.
White, op. cit., p. 159.
Foner, The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Vol. 4, p. 496.
Brownmiller, op. cit., p. 255.
Ibid., p. 248249.
Ibid., p. 237.
Ibid., p. 233.
. :
Angela Davis, Rape, Racism and the Myth of the Black Rapist, in Women, Race and Class.
Vintage Books. A Division of Random House, 1981, p. 173201.

218

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, ,
1983 . Stern College. +
(New York Council for the Humanities),
(the Institute for Research in History). .: Proceedings
of the Conference, Women Surviving: The Holocaust, ed. Esther Katz and Joan Miriam
Ringelheim (New York: Institute for Research in History, 1983); Ringelheim J. M. The
Unethical and the Unspeakable: Women and the Holocaust, Simon Wiesenthal Annual I
(1984), p. 6987; Communities in Distress: Women and the Holocaust (Institute for
Research in History, 1982, typescript); Resources and Vulnerabilities (Institute for
Research in History, 1983, typescript); Sybil Milton, Women and the Holocaust: The
Case of German and German+Jewish Women, in When Biology became Destiny: Women in
Weimar and Nazi Germany, ed. Renate Bridenthal, Atina Grossman, Marion Kaplan (New

278

10

11

12
13

14
15
16
17

18

York: Monthly Review Press, 1984), p. 297333; Issues and Resources in Proceedings
of the Conference, p. 1021; Vera Laska, ed. Women in the Resistance and the Holocaust
(Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983); Marlene Heinemann, Women Prose Writers
of the Nazi Holocaust (Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1981).

,
( ), +
.
1981 .: Ringelheim, The Unethical and the Unspeakable,
p. 84.
, , +
, +
. , , ,
.
Kanada Effektenkammer, ,
. ., . , , +
Kommando ( ).
. Proceeding of the Conference, p. 7374, 141142; Milton, Women and the
Holocaust, p. 315316.
.: Ringelheim, The Unethical and Unspeakable, p.74+75, 78; Resources and
Vulnerabilities, p. 20; Proceeding of the Conference, p. 4041.
Yaffa Eliach, The Holocaust and the Family (paper presentated at Lehigh University,
March 1984).
Elmer Luchterhand, Social Behavior of Concentration Camp Prisoners: Continuities
and Discontinuities with Pre+ and Postcamp Life, in Survivors, Victims, and Perpetrators,
ed. Joel Dimsdale (New York: Hemisphere Publishing, 1980), p. 273.
.: Alexander Donat, Jewish Resistance in Out of the Whirlwind, ed. Albert
H. Friedlander (New York: Schocken Books, 1968), p. 62; Leonard Tushnet, The Uses of
Adversity: Studies of Starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto (New York and London: Thomas
Yoseloff, 1966), p. 27; Milton, Women and the Holocaust (. ), p.307308;
Issues and Resources (. ), p. 1519; Raul Hilberg, ed., Documents of Destruction
(Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971), p. 4041; Gemaine Tillion, Ravensbruck (New York:
Anchor, 1975), p. 39, 230; Lucjan Dobroszycki, ed., The Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto (New
Haven, Conn.; Yale University Press, 1984), p. vii.
.: Ringelheim, Communities in Distress (. ), pp. 35, 43, n. 27; Proceedings
of the Conference, p. 176.
.: Ringelheim, The Unethical and Unspeakable, p. 80.
1982 . +
1979 . .
, , +
. ,
19811984 ., +
.
40 .
. . 5 .
.: Ringelheim, Communities in Distress (. 1 ), . 3334.
+
1982 . . : Milton, Issues and Resources (. 1
), p. 1719; Women and the Holocaust (.1 ), p. 311315.
(+

19

20
21

22

23
24
25
26
27

28

29
30

31

32

279

) Ti+Grace Atkinsons Female Nationalism (Le Nationalisme feminin,


Nouvelles questions feministes 67 <Spring 1984>: 3554). +
, , , +
, , , ,
.
,
: <>
.
Brooke, Retreat to Cultural Feminism, in Feminist Revolution: Redstockings of the
Womens Liberation Movement (New York: Random House, 1975), p. 79, 83.
. . Ann Oakley, Subject Women (New York: Pantheon Books, 1981), p. 310.
, , . .: Carol
Hanish, The Personal Is the Political, in Feminist Revolution (. 20 ), p.
204205.
+
,
. +
, .
Atkinson (. 19 ), . 35, 53.
.
Oakley, p. 278.
Hope Weissman , 1984.
.: Barbara Burris, The Fourth World Manifesto, in Radical Feminism, ed. Anne Koedt,
Ellen Levine, and Anita Rapone (New York: Quadrangle Books, 1973), p.356.
Sandra Hardling, Philosophy and History of Science as Patriarchal Oral History
(University of Delaware, Department of Philosophy, 1982, typescript). +
, , .
Mary Felstiner 1984 .
.: Adrienne Rich, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose, 1966+1978 (New York:
W. W. Norton & Co., 1979), p. 189: .
(Scholars
Conference, New York City, April 1981).
: Ringelheim, The Unethical and the Unspeakable (. 1 ), p. 75
81.
. :
Joan Ringelheim, Women and the Holoucast,
in Signs: Jornal of Women in Culture and Society, 1985, Vol. 10, # 4, p. 741761.

280


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1

: Women as the Subjects of Feminism,


subjects ,
(. .).
.
( , 1+),
: , . +
Histoire de la Sexualite 1: La volont de savoir (Paris:
Gallimard, 1978). +
. +
, ++.

. +
3, 2+ , ,
, +
, .
.
gender , ,
, +
, +
, , +
(. .).
+
, +
Kafka and the Contemporary Critical Performance: Centenary readings, ed. Alan
Udoff (Bloomington: Indiana University press, 1987).
, +
, , , +
; ,
.
. Denise Riley, Am I That Name?: Feminism and the Category of Women in History
(New York: Macmillian, 1988).
. Sandra Harding, The Instability of the Analytical Categories of Feminist Theory,
in Sex and Scientific Inquiry, eds. Sandra Harding and Jean F. OBarr (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1987), p. 283302.
Nancy Cott The Grounding of Modern
Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987). ,
, +
.
: +

10

11

12

13

14

15

341

? +
, ,
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+
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. +
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(Adrienne Rich) , +
/ +
, , +
, (
, ),
+
.
+
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1": .
berdache +
. Walter L. Williams, The Spirit and the Flesh:
Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture (Boston: Beacon Press, 1988), Sherry
B. Ortner, Harriet Whitehead, eds., Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Sexuality
(New York: Cambrige University Press, 1981).
berdache,
Susanne J Kesser Wendy McKenna, Gender: An Ethnomethodological
Approach (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).
+
, ,
,
. . Ruth Hubbard, Marian Lowe, eds., Genes and Gender, vols. 1, 2 (New York:
Gordian Press, 1978, 1979); , Hypatia: A
Journal of Feminist Philosophy, Vol. 2, n. 3 Fall 1987 Vol. 3, n. 1, Spring 1988,
The Biology and Gender Study Group, The Importance of Feminist Critique
for Contemporary Cell Biology ( 1988); Sandra Harding, The Science
Question of Feminism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986); Evelyn Fox+Keller,
Reflections on Gender and Science (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984); Donna
Haraway, In the Beginning was the Word: The Genesis of Biological Theory, Signs:
Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Vol. 6, n. 3, 1981; Donna Haraway, Primate
Visions (New York: Routlege, 1989); Sandra Harding, Jean F. OBarr, Sex and Scientific
Inquiry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987); Anne Faust+Sterling, Myths of
Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men (New York: Norton, 1979).
, +
+
. .
Thomas Laquer, Catherine Callagher, eds., The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and
Society in the 19th Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987),
Representations, n. 14, Spring 1986.
. : Variations on Sex and Gender: Beauvoir, Wittig, Foucault Feminism
as Critique eds.; Seyla Benhabib, Drucilla Cornell (Basil Blackwell, dist. by University of
Minnesota Press, 1987).
Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans. By E. M. Parshley (New York: Vintage, 1973),

342
16
17

18

19

20

21
22
23

24

25

26
27

p. 301.
Ibid., . 38.
. Sex and Gender in Beauvoirs Second Sex, Yale French Studies, Simone
de Beauvoir: Witness to a Century, n. 72, Winter, 1986.
, , ,
+ , [] . +
+
, , +
+
.
. Luce Irigaray, The Sex Which Is Not One, trans. Catherine Porter with Carolyn Burke
(Ithaka: Cornell University Press, 1985),
Ce sexe qui nen est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977).
. Joann Scott, Gender as a Useful Category of Historical Analysis, Gender and the
Politics of History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), p. 2852, repr. from
American Historical Review. Vol. 91, n. 5, 1986.
Beauvoir, The Second Sex, p. xxvi,
. Sex and Gender in Beauvoirs The Second Sex.
,
, , , .
,
, , +
: , , ! (Frantz
Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks [New York: Grove Press, 1967], p. 323, +
Peau noir, mascques blancs [Paris: Editions de
Seuil, 1952]).
+
. ,

+. +
, , ,
, ,
.
, , +
. , +
,
, .
, . +
, +
, ,
, .
. Elizabeth V. Spelman, Woman as Body: Ancient and Contemporary Views, Feminist
Studies. Vol. 8, n. 1, Spring, 1982.
( ) (.)

.
+ , +
cogito, +
, , +
+

28

29
30

31

32

33

34

35

36

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: ,
.
... .
, , ( +
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. Cherrie Moraga, La Guera,
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. Luce Irigaray, Any Theory of the Subject Has Always Been Appropriated
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Sexes et parentes.
Monique Wittig, One is Not Born a Woman, Feminist Issues. Vol. 1, n. 2, Winter 1981,
p. 53.
.
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, ,
, . +
,
+
. ,
, , +
. +
, (Helene Cixous)
.
, , +
, , , +
.
, , +
, ,
.
Monique Wittig, The Point of View: Universal or Particular? Feminist Issues. Vol. 2, fall
1983, p. 64.
, ,
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Questions Feministes, Feminist
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+
, , +
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344
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38
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41

42

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50
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54

55

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gender mark, mark of gender . .
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Ibid., p. 3.
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. , +
. , +
, ,
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Robert Stoller, Presentations of Gender (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), p. 45.
// 2 , . 2, . 431.
Wittig, One is Not Born a Woman, p. 48.

(Colette Guillaumin), , , +
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, ,
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Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, Feminist Issues. Vol. 1, n. 1, Summer 1980, p. 108.
Monique Wittig, The Lesbian Body, trans. Peter Owen (New York: Avon, 1976),
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, , +
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.) (Jacqueline Rose, Sexuality
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. ,
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butch (. .) , ,
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Teresa de Lauretis, Indiana University Press, 1987.


.: . // . , 1998,
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Irjina Smejkalova, Do Czech Women Need Feminism? Perspectives on Feminist Theories and
Practices in Czechoslovakia, in Women Studies International Forum 17: 277282 (1994).

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