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..

2011

656.1/.5
39.808
70

, ..
, ..

70

..

/ .. .
: , 2011. 140 .
ISBN 9785020322363.
, . ,

.
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, , , .
656.1/.5
39.808

ISBN 9785020322363

.. , 2011
, 2011
. .
, 2011

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . .
1.3.


1.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

31

2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

20
23
27

2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . .

52

3

. . . . . . . . . .

55

3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3

37
47

58
65

4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. . . . . . . .
4.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75
77
79
85
87
94

5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
98
5.2.
. . . . . . . . . . .
105
5.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
108
6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.
. . . . . .
6.3. . . . . .
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115
116
119
122
126
132


. ( ), , , .

.
() ,

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80 % 25 % [82, 83].

[23]. ,
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5

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[5], .. [22], .. [5], .. [80, 81],
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, ..).
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. [5a], . [106a], . , . [51a],
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. [102].

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[4, 5, 45].
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6


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.
.
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22, 57, 77].
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. [20, 31, 56, 81,
83, 88, 91].
, [1, 3, 19, 22, 47, 68, 85].
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.

. , , , .
N ,
;
li, j , i-
j- (i, j = 1, N );
l(i,0)j , i-
j- (i, j = 1, N );
l(i,1)j , i-

j- (i, j = 1, N );
b ;
b 0 ;
b 1
;
g i, j ,
i j, (i, j = 1, N);
11

g (-),
;
g (0) ,
;
(1 )
g ,
;
K
(
);
Lk , k- (k = 1, K);
k, l
A i, j 1, l- k- i-
j-, 0 (i, j = 1, N , l = 1, Lk ,
k = 1, K);
A ik, j 1, k- i- j-, 0 (i, j = 1, N, k = 1, K);
k
Bi, j 1, k- i- j , 0 (i, j = 1, N ,
k = 1, K);
Dik, j 1, k- ,
i,
j, 0 (i, j = 1, N , k = 1, K);
m k, l ,
l- k-

(l = 1 , Lk , k = 1, K );
m k ,
k- (k = 1, K);
(0 )
m k , m (k1)

k- (k = 1, K);
,

k- (k = 1, K);
a k, l k-
l- (l = 1, Lk , k = 1, K);
a k
k- (k = 1, K);
12

a(k0)
k- (k = 1, K);
a(k1) k- (k = 1, K);
d k, l ,
k- l- (l = 1, Lk ,
k = 1, K);
d k ,
k- (k = 1, K);
B , ;
F :

( );
H k k- (k = 1, K);
Gi, j ( ), i- j- (i, j = 1, N ).

13

. ,
, , , ,
.

, .
, ,
( , , , ).

. .

.
.

,
.
.
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.
.
.
14

1.1.
.
K . ,
.
K ,
.
K = 3,
, ,
. 1.1.
Dtk k- , k = 1... K , Dtk = const . .
k-
, , , [12, 54, 95, 97].
K > 1
,
.
, . -

. 1.1. () ().
15

(. . 1.1), .

Dtk = 10 + 20

k -1

K - 1

k = 1... K , .. 2
10 30 , 3 10, 20 30 .. K ,
Dt0 =

1
K

.
1

k = 1 Dt k

(. 1.2, ).
- , .
, ( )
.
, ,
.
, 2
(. 1.2, ).
. - .
, (. 1.3).

. 1.2.
() () :
1 ; 2 .
16


(
50 %).
, . 1.3. :
.
1 ; 2
. 1.4 .
. . 1.4, . , , .

. . 1.4, , ,
. , .
, . 1.4, ,
.
, , .

,
[13, 73].

, i- j-,
.
. 1.5
. ( ). -

. 1.4. .
17

. 1.5. . .
18

- .

(Mk) [22]:
K

Mk =

ln

n =1
N

Li

i =1

ln n- , ; Li i- , , .
,
,
, , , K .
, .. -
,
. , , , , , (. . 1.4, ).
: [73]. :
N

Wk =

Ail, j l i, j
i =1 j = 1 l =1
N N

(1.1)

l i, j
i =1 j = 1

Wk = 1, ,

.
Wk ,
.

, , - ,
19

, , ,
.


,
, .

,
[84]. ,
.
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1.2.



[37]. [8],
[87, 9799], , . , ,
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( , 20

,
).
(, -, ,
) [3, 21, 44, 93].
.

[26, 45, 46].

(..
). , .
li, j .
:
K Lk

A ik, ,jlm k,l ,

i, j = 1, N .

k =1 l =1

,
, [8, 40, 95],
1
K Lk

(1.2)

k, l
A i, j m k,l

k =1 l =1

, ,
N N

i =1 j = 1

l i, j
K Lk

(1.3)

k, l
A i, j m k,l

k =1 l =1

1.1. (1.3)
.
u (1.2) ,
(1.3) . ,
(1.3) (1.2)
. t
,
.

. . 1.6 ,
, ,
21

. 1.6.
.

. [33, 39, 95], l k


i j
k, l

A i, j m k,l
K

Lm

(1.4)

m, r
A i, j m m,r

m =1 r =1

m k, l ,
( A ik, ,j l ).
, .
(1.4)
. ,
. ,
(1.4) , , l- k- :
N

k, l

l i, j A i, j m k,l

i =1 j = 1

Lm

l = 1, Lk ;

k = 1, K.

(1.5)

m, r
A i, j m m,r

m =1 r =1

1.2. ,
(1.5), .
u (1.5) :
k, l
l i, j A i, j m k,l
K

Lm

Aim, j,rm m,r

m =1 r =1

= li, j 1

- Aik, ,j lm k,l

m =1 r =1
.
K Lm
m, r

Ai, j m m,r

m =1 r =1

Lm

Aim, j,rm m,r

22

,
( ). ,
. , (1.5)
. t

1.3.



, .
,
,
,
[8, 47]. , [27, 29].
. 1.7
. ,
,
, ..
,
. ,
, .

. 1.7.
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4
.
23

6090 , 30
, .. ,
, ..
,
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, .
(
), .
, ,

. .
1.3.1.
: t . k- nk . ,

(
), 1, nk {0; 1}.
, , ..
t <<

1
mk

k- , ,
m k t.
,
:
1 - m k t.
,
r=

[1 - m k t].
k =1

24


. , r ,
,
1 - r , . 1.8.

().
. , ,
(1 - r).
,
(1 - r) (. 1.8). i
pi = rpi- 1 .
, i , :
(1 - r) ri .

i (1 - r) ri = 1 - r.

i= 0


M / M /1.
, (
, )
:
K

Wq = t

r
1-r

t [1 - m k t]
k=1
K

1-

[1 - m k t]

1-

k=1

- t.

(1.6)

[1 - m k t]

k=1

,
, (1.2):
K

t [1 - m k t]
lim

t 0

k=1

1-

[1 - m k t]

k=1

= lim

t 0

t
K

1
K

m k t + o(t) m k

k=1

25

k=1

1.3.2.


.
, ..
. n = (n1 , n2K nK ), n ,
K

[(m k t) nk (1 - m k t) 1- nk ].

k=1

n = (n1 , n2K nK )
:
1
K

nk

k =1

,
s-

n H
ns = 1

1
K

[(m k t) nk (1 - m k t) 1- nk ].

nk k = 1

k =1

1 - r, s- :

n H
ns = 1

1
K

[( m k t) nk (1 - m k t) 1- nk ]

nk k = 1

k=1

1-

(1.7)

[1 - m k t]

k =1


(1.7)
m s .
1.3. ,
(1.7), .
26

u (1.7) , ns = 1 (
s):
mst

[(m k t) nk (1 - m k t) 1- nk ]

1
K

nk k = 1

k=1

Rs =

1-

[1 - m k t]

k =1

Rs , 3.
Rs m s :
2t
2 Rs
2

m s

3t

nk kk= s1

k=1
ks

k=1

[1 - m k t] K [(m k t)
nk kk = s1

k=1
k s

=-

[(m k t) nk (1 - m k t) 1- nk ] [1 - m k t]

[1 - m k t]
k=1

nk

(1 - m k t)

1- n k

k=1

[1 - m k t]
k =1

tm s < 1

1 - tm s [1 - m k t]

k =1
k s

[1 - m k t] < 1,

k =1
ks

, .
(1.7) . t

,
.
.

1.4.


. , [52] 27

[86]. , , .

: - .
: ,
.
.

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,

[73].
,
,
.

:
. 1.9. -
.
, 28

.
, i j:
K

A ik, j m(k0) .

k= 1

:
K

A ik, j m(k1) .

k= 1


, ,
,
s, :
N

i= 1 j = 1

( ) ( )

A i, j m s1 l i,1j

A ik, j m (k0) + m (k1)

k= 1

(1.8)

: , ,
,
, ..
.
1.4. ,
(1.8), .
u (1.8) :
A ik, j m (s1) l(i,1j)
K

k =1

A ik, j

m (k0)

m (k1)

(1 )
= li, j 1

Aik, j (m (k0)

k=1

(1 )

+ mk

k
A i, j
k=1

(0 )
mk

) - Aik, j m (s1)

(1 )
mk

,
( ). , . ,
(1.8)
. t
, , , 29

i j
:
1
K

A ik, j
k=1

m (k0)

m (k1)

, , (
):
l(i,1j)
K

A ik, j
k=1

m (k0)

m (k1)

,
, s:
N

i=1

s
(
0
)
(
1
)
s
(
0
)
(
)
0
N
A i, j m s l i, j
A i, j m s l i, j

+ K
K
.
k
(0 )
(1 )
k (0 )
j =1
Ai, j m k
Ai, j m k + m k
k=1
k =1

(1.9)

(1.9) , ( ), (
).
1.5. ,
(1.9), .
( 1.2 1.4).
, i-
:
l(i,0j)

j =1

i = 1, N .

A is, j m (s0)

s =1

, i- :
l(i,1j)

j =1

(
A is, j

m (s0)

m (s1)

s =1

30

i = 1, N .


, . :
, ,
, (1.10). , , :
K

A ik, j m (k0) l(i,1j)

k= 1 i = 1 j = 1

Ais, j (m (s0) + m (s1))

s =1
N

l(i,0j)

i = 1 j =1

k (0 ) (1 )
A i, j m k l i, j

k = 1 i = 1 j =1

(1.10)

Ais, j (m (s0) + m (s1))

s =1


, .

N

l(i,0j)

i =1 j = 1

(1.11)

A is, j m (s0)
s =1

,
N

l(i,1j)

i =1 j = 1

(1.12)

A is, j m (s0) + m (s1)

s =1

1.6. (1.11, 1.12) .


u (1.11, 1.12) , . , (1.11, 1.12) . t

1.5.

.
. . :
31

.
53 , 37.
2009 . (, , )
1 .
: , , ( ).
12 ,
10 .
, .


( ). ,
, ,
.

. : ,
1.2 ( 1.3).

. . 1.10
.
,

. 1.10. .
: 1 ; 2 ; 3
.
32

, .. ,
.

:
1)
( 20 %),
( 60 %);
2) 2 5
( 515 %), 1540 %;
3) 5 20
( 25
+10 %);
4) 20
( 310 %, 1020 %).
,

.
* * *

, .
-,
.
-, :

;

;
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.
33



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1990- ,


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,

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[22] , , , ,
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.
[9, 48, 103, 181]. 34


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. [4]
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(
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[4, 46, 69]
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1 -;
;
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(, , , ..);
( -);
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.
[4], ,

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35

,
- . ,
, .
-:
, .
- x ,
, x >
x <

2 - 1
1 - 2

2 - 1
1 - 2

, 1 , 2 , ( 2 > 1 ), T1 , T2

(T2 < T1 ). ,
.
[12, 99] ,
,

, . , ( , .) , :
U j, t =

a mt x mj, t ,
m

Uj , t j-
j, t
t; x m
m- j-
t
t; am
m- t.
,
[41, 42, 48].
, , t j [101, 103, 104]:
p j, t =

exp (U j, t )

exp (Uj, t )

() , [53, 103].
36

,
.
, , .
, ,
.
, .
.
. , .
, .

2.1.

,
, , [30].
: , .
. ,
,
, , .
( ).
. 2.1 :
1) , ;
2) , .
.
, : 37

. 2.1. .

.
, , . -.
, - ,
.
,
.
2.1.1.

, -
. ,
:
m , ;
h
;
n ;
g ;
p .
, m < n,
, , . , .. 38

(
).
( ), .
,
( )
, ..
.
, , , .
m

m + h

,
, -.
,
(
). , p. g , .

g
p = exp - ,

g = - gln( p).

x
x

g exp - g dx 1 - gln(p) x x
g + gpln (p) - gp
0
.
=
exp - dx =

g
1-p 0 g
1-p

g
x
1

g exp - g dx
0

:
g + gpln(p) - gp 1
1-p

+ b.
m

39

(2.1)

x
x

g exp - g dx

1
x
x
g
=
exp - dx = g - gln( p).

p - g ln( p) g

x
1
g

g exp - g dx
g

, :
1
(g - g ln( p)) + 2b.
n

(2.2)

(2.1, 2.2):
1
1
(2.3)
[g + gpln( p) - gp] + b(1 - p) + (gp - gpln( p)) + 2bp.
n
m
(2.3)
1
1
(2.4)
g ln( p) - + b.
m n
(3.30):
1 1
1
g - 0.
p m
n

(2.5)

, (2.5) p.
(2.4) ,
:

b
mnb

.
= exp p = exp -

g (n - m )
g 1 - 1

m n

mnb
.
1 - exp
g (n - m )
40

, ,
, ,
.
2.1.2.

. .
,
:
(2.6)
Dik, j A ik, j .
,
, , ..
, .
Bik, j A ik, j = 0,
Bik, j Dik, j = 0.
, , , ,
( ).
, pi, j , i j.
, , i j:
[g i, j + g i, j pi, j ln (pi, j) - g i, j pi, j ]
K

(1 -

+ b.

pi, j) A ik, j m k
k=1

(2.1) 1/m (1.2).



-. , 41


1
K

[Aik, j
k =1

,
k
Bi, j ]m k

.. , . , (2.2):
[g i, j - g i, j ln(pi, j)]
+ b.
K

[ Aik, j +

Bik, j ]m k

k =1

. ,
,
, .
,

[g i, j - g i, j ln( pi, j )]
+ b.
L
K

Dik, j m k

k =1 l =1


.
, ..
. -,
, ,
( 1 - pi, j ).
-,
K

pi, j

Bik, j m k

k =1
K

[ Aik, j
k =1

k
Bi, j ]m k

, ,
, (
,
).
42

[g i, j + g i, j pi, j ln(pi, j) - g i, j pi, j ]


Gi, j {m k} k = 1, K , { pi, j }i = 1, N k =
+ b( 1 - pi, j ) +
K

k
j
,
N
=
1

Ai, j m k
k= 1

[pi, j g i, j - pi, j g i, j ln ( pi, j)]


K

[ Aik, j
k =1

+ bpi, j +

Bik, j ]m k


k
pi, j Bi, j m k

[g i, j - g i, j ln (pi, j )]

k= 1
+
+ b K
min.
K
k
[A k + B k ]m

D
m
i, j
k
i, j k

i, j
k =1

k= 1

(2.7)

(2.7)
, , .
, ( ,
). ,
(
, ).
2.1.
(2.7) .
u (2.7) pi, j :
K

g i, j

K k
Di, j m k k =1

Bi, j m k
k

k=1
K

[Aik, j
pi, j
k =1

Bik, j ]m k

Aik, j m k

k =1

A ik, j m k
Dik, j m k
k =1
k =1

(2.6), (2.7) , (2.7) . t


, . ,
,
43

, , m i
j :
l i, j A im
,jm m

( 1 - pi, j ).

(2.8)

k
A i, j m k
k =1

-, , ,
m i j
:
m

pi, j

l i, j A i, j m m
K

[ Aik, j
k =1

(2.9)

k
Bi, j ]m k

-, , m
, :
m

Bi, j m m

li, j pi, j

[ Aik, j
k =1

(2.10)

k
Bi, j ]m k

, ,
K

pi, j

Bik, j m k

k =1
K

[ Aik, j
k =1

k
Bi, j ]m k

,
m:
m

Di, j m m

K k
Di, j m k

k =1

, , m
:
K

li, j pi, j

Bik, j m k Dim, j m m

k =1

K k K
Di, j m k [Aik, j + Bik, j ]m k

k =1
k =1
44

(2.11)


(2.82.11).
m

l i, j A i, j m m
K

( 1 - pi, j ) + pi, j

l i, j A i, j m m
K

[Aik, j
k =1

k
A i, j m k
k =1

Bik, j ]m k

+ li, j pi, j

Bim
,jm m
K

[Aik, j
k =1

+ li, j pi, j

Bik, j ]m k

Bik, j m k Dim, j m m

k =1

K
Dik, j m k [ Aik, j + Bik, j ]m k

k =1
k =1
K

(2.12)

,
: , ,
, .
2.2.
(2.12)
.
u ,
(2.8, 2.9, 2.11) , (2.10) . , ( ), (2.8, 2.9, 2.11):
m

l i, j A i, j m m
K

(1 - pi, j) + pi, j

l i, j A i, j m m
K

[Aik, j
k =1

k
A i, j m k
k =1

Bik, j ]m k

+ li, j pi, j

Bik, j m k Dim, j m m

k= 1

K k K
Di, j m k [Aik, j + Bik, j]m k

k= 1
k= 1

( 1.2), m
, , Dim
, j = A i, j = 1 (
li, j pi, j ):

A im
,jm m
K

[Aik, j
k =1

Bik, j ]m k

Bik, j m k Dim, j m m

k =1

K k K
Di, j m k [Aik, j + Bik, j ]m k

k =1
k =1
45

mm

(Dik, j

+ Bik, j ) m k

mm +

k =1

K k K
Di, j m k [Aik, j + Bik, j]m k

k =1
k =1
K

Dik, j m k

mm -

k =1
K

Bik, j m k

k =1

[Aik, j
k =1

k
Bi, j]m k

Bik, j m k

k =1

k
Di, j m k

[Aik, j
k =1

k =1

k
Bi, j]m k

,
2

Aik, j m k

k m

[Aik, j + Bik, j]m k

k =1

0.

,
. ,
:
K

- Dik, j m k Bik, j m k
k m

k =1

K k

Ai, j m k

k =1

K
K
+ 2 Bik, j m k + 2 Dik, j m k

k =1
k =1

K k
Di, j m k [ Aik, j + Bik, j ]m k

k =1

k =1

K
K
2 B k m D k m
i
,
j
k
i, j k

K
k =1

k =1

k
k
+
- Di, j m k Bi, j m k
3
K
K

k m
k =1

k
k
k
Di, j m k [Ai, j + Bi, j ]m k

k =1

k =1
K k K k
K k K k

Ai, j m k Bi, j m k
D
m
A
m
4
+
i, j k i, j k

k= 1
k =1

k =1
k =1
0.
3
K
K

Dik, j m k [Aik, j + Bik, j ]m k

k =1
k =1

. t
, (2.7). i j:
46

pi, j

K k
K k

b Ai, j m k Di, j m k

k =1
k =1
.
= exp -
K
K

k
g Dk m A m
i, j i, j k i, j k
k =1

k =1

2.2.

, . , (. 2.2.).
(Travel Mode Choice) [13, 48, 87, 101, 103,
104], .
,
. : .
2.2.1.



, .

.

. 2.2. .
47


. :
;
;
;
;
;
.
:

;
;
;
.

, , , . , . , ,
( - [9, 22, 48]).
,
. , [38]:
t ( );
t ;
t = t - t
( );
m
;

(,
> b);
48

g ;
p .
(
),
. ,
( ) , ..

.
,
,
( ). ,
p. x , .

x
p = exp
g

x = -gln(p).

:
g

x
x

g exp - g dx 1 - gln( p) x x
g + g pln(p) - gp
0
.
=
exp - dx =

g
1-p 0 g
1-p

g
x
1

g exp - g dx
0

:

+ t + b.
m

g + gp ln(p) - gp 1
1-p

(2.13)

x
x

g exp - g dx

x
x
1
g
=
exp - dx = g - g ln(p).

p
g
g

x
1

- g ln( p )

g exp - g dx
g

49


:
(2.14)
[g - gln( p)] t + c.


(5.135.14):

1
[g + g pln(p) - gp] + t + b (1 - p) + [gp - g pln( p)] t + cp.

(2.15)

(2.15)
:

1
(2.16)
gln( p) + t - t + (c - b).
m

(2.15):

1 1
g + t - t 0.
p m

(2.17)

, (2.15)
(2.17) p, p.
(2.16) ,
:

m (c -
(c - b)
b)

.
p = exp = exp

g (1 + t m )
g 1 + t - t
m

:
m (c -
b)
.
1 - exp
g ( m t + 1)
2.2.2.
. .
:
ti, j ( ) i j;
50

ti, j i j;
ti, j ( ) i j;
i, j i- j- (,

i, j > b).
.
-, , , :
g i, j + g i, j pi, j - g i, j pi, j ln ( pi, j)
K

Lk

k,l
A i, j m k,l

k =1 l =1

-, ,
:
[g i, j + g i, j pi, j - g i, j pi, j ln( pi, j)] ti, j .
-, :
b (1 - pi, j ).
, ,
[g i, j pi, j - g i, j pi, j ln( pi, j)] ti, j ,

cpi, j .

i j :

Gi, j {m k,r } r = 1,Lk , { pi, j }i= 1,N k =

k = 1, K
j = 1, N

= [g i, j + g i, j pi, j

1
i, j +
- g i, j pi, j ln( pi, j)]
+
t
K Lk

Aik, ,j lm k,l

k = 1 l = 1

51

+ b (1 - pi, j ) + [ g i, j pi, j - g i, j pi, j ln(pi, j )] ti, j + cpi, j min.


pi, j

(2.18)

2.3.
i j .
u (2.18) pi, j :

g i, j

1
1

+
t
i, j .
pi, j K Lk k,l
Ai, j m k,l

k = 1 l = 1

(2.18) , (2.18)
. t

i j (2.18):
K Lk

Aik, ,j lm k,l (ci, j - b)


k =1 l =1

.
li, j exp
L

K k k,l

g i Ai, j m k,l ti, j + 1

k =1 l =1


i j

K Lk

Aik, ,j lm k,l (ci, j - b)

k =1 l =1

li, j 1 - exp
.
L
K
k

k, l

g i Ai, j m k,l ti, j + 1


k =1 l =1

2.3.
.


,
, . 200 . :
52

;
;
/
;
(/), ;
;
.
: , , 91 %,
, , 35 %.
,
. : 40 %
, 27 % , 33 % . , ,
82 % .

,
. ,
88 % -
, 6 %
. , ,
90 % , , .
, , , , 69 % , 31 % , , .
-, , ,
. , 53

2.1

, , %

359
340
343

89,6
92,0
98,8

410
341
352

98,2
95,7
96,1

92 % ; ,
, 59 % , .

,
. , , 403 , 327 , 339 .
. 2.1
.
, .
* * *

.
- ,
.
:
;

;
;

.
54

,
, . 1.
, .



,
,
[4, 13, 20, 73, 85, 89]. [71]
.
,
/
, , , .
(), , , .. [11].
[35] ,
.
, , .
, ,
. - , , , . ,

[5], .
, [10], , ,
.
55


, [4].
[4, 5, 11, 46, 61] . [35]
. , , .
[5] ,
,
. ,
, ,
, . .
,
.
.
[9799] , .
, , .
[11] .
, .
,
,
.
[42] .
( ,
) . , ,

.
,
56

,
[3].
, [10]
,
[1]
(, , ) .
- . , ,
- , .

.
, .
, , ,
, .
. 3.1

. ,
.
, -

. 3.1.
.
57

. , , , .
- .
[81, 94]

[3, 5, 45].

.
.

3.1.


. , . , , ,
.

.
3.1.1.


: , .. , ,
, .
-,
, .
58


, .. , :
R , ;
li i- ,
, i = 1, R;
l , ;
m i , i- , i = 1, R;
m ;
d .
, , ,
, , , .. i- , ,
m
m + mi

,

l+

lm

m +i m

i=1

.
i

, ,
l
g +
m

m + im

i=1

(3.1)


dm.

(3.2)


, (3.1)
(3.2):
R
l
li
+ dm min.
(3.3)
f (m) = g +

m
m i=1 m + m i
59


:
lim f (m) = +.

m +


m .
(3.3) :
2l
g 3 +
m

2l

( m + mi ) 3 > 0.

i=1

m > 0 ( : ):
l
f ( m *) = - g 2 +
m*

( m * + im ) 2 + d = 0.
i=1

(3.4)


- , .
,
.
3.1.2.
. ,
1000 . , 1
500 ., - 50 . :
m=

1000 50
500

= 10.

(3.4) .
6 , , , 100 (3.1).
,

, . 60

, 4 , 250 . ,
,
(
). 2,5 ,
24 ,
100 .
.
,
m=

250 50
500

= 5.


12 , 50 , , 1 , 100 50. , ,
.
,
.
,
.

.
3.1.3.

. :
.
.
,



[5, 12, 74].
61


, ,
, ..
K

li, j > 0,

A ik, j

> 0, i, j = 1, N .

k =1

, , ,
:
m k 0,

k = 1, K.

(3.5)

dkm k .

(3.6)

k =1

,
i- j-
:
gl i, j

, i, j = 1, N.

(3.7)

A ik, j m k
k =1


(3.6) (3.7):
F ( m 1 , m 2 ,..., m K ) =

i, j = 1

gl i, j
K

A ik, j m k
k =1

dkm k min.

(3.8)

k =1

3.1. (3.8) (3.5).


u (3.8) (1.3),
g , 1.1,
. . t
3.2. (3.5, 3.8) , , .
62

u , l
(3.9)
lim F ( m 1, m 2 ,..., m K ) = + .
m l +

, . ~1 , m
~2 ,..., m
~K , m

gl i, j

i, j = 1

Aik, j m k

dkm k F ( m~1, m~2 ,..., m~K ),

k =1

k =1

:
K

dkm k F ( m~1, m~2 ,..., m~K ).

k =1

, , , , , ( 3.1), (3.9) ( 3.1). t


3.3. m * = ( m 1*, m 2* ,..., m K* )
(3.5, 3.8),
.
u
:
k

A i, j gl i, j

Ail, j m *l

l =1

i, j = 1 K

+ d k = 0,

k = 1, K.

(3.10)

a k (3.10), (3.8) :
K

A ik, j gl i, j

k = 1 i, j = 1 K

Ail, j m *l

l =1

m *k =

i, j = 1

gl i, j

Aik, j m *k

k =1

K l

Ai, j m *l

l =1

gl i, j

.t
K
l
i, j = 1
Ai, j m *l
l =1

3.4. - (3.8)
x ,
x .
u g 1 = cg -, h *l l-
63

- g 1 .
k

A i, j g 1 l i, j

i, j = 1 K

Ail, j h *l

l =1

+ d k = 0.

(3.11)

,
g1

h *l = m *l c = m *l

(3.11) (3.10), ..
. . t
3.5.
(3.8) x , x .
u bl = xd l l- ,
h *l l-
.
k

A i, j gl i, j

i, j = 1 K

l =1

l
A i, j h *l

+ bk = 0.

(3.12)

,
1

h *l = m *l

(3.12) (3.10), ..
.
. t
3.6. (3.8) x , x .
u l(i,1j) = xli, j (i, j = 1, N ) , h *l
l- .
N

( )

A i, j gl i,1j

Ail, j h *l

l =1

i, j = 1 K

64

+ d k = 0.

(3.13)

,
h *l = m *l x
(3.13) (3.10), ..
.
. t
[65, 90]: ,
.. ,
.

3.2.

, ,
1.4.
, .
.
. , ,
, , .
.
3.2.1.

.
,
(, ), , .. .
.
,
.
65



.
:
m (0)
, ;
m (1) , ;
d(0)
;
d(1)
;
l(0) , ;
l(1)
, ;
g (0) ,
;
g (1) ,
.

g (0) l(0)
m

(0 )

(3.14)

, :
g

(m

(1 ) (1 )

(0 )

+ m (1 ) )

(3.15)

(3.14, 3.15),
:
F( m (0), m (1)) =

g (0) l(0)
m

(0 )

g (1) l(1)
(m

(0 )

+m

(1 )

+ d(0)m (0) + d(1)m (1) min. (3.16)

,


.

(
66

, ). m (0) m (1) :
F
(0) = 0;
m

F = 0,
m (1)
:
g (0) l(0)
g (1) l(1)
+ d(0) = 0;
- (0 ) 2 - (0 )
(1 ) 2
(
m
)
(
m
+
m
)

(1 )
g (1 ) l
(1 )
(m (0) + m (1) ) 2 + d = 0.

(3.17)

(3.17)
:
g (1) l(1)
d

(1 )

= m (0 ) + m (1 ) .

(3.18)

m (0) + m (1) ,
(3.17), :
-

g (0) l(0)

- d(1) + d(0) = 0.

( m (0 ) ) 2

(3.19)

(3.19), :
m (0 ) =

g (0) l(0)
d

(0 )

-d

(3.20)

(1 )

:
m (1 ) =

g (1) l(1)
d

(1 )

g (0) l(0)
d

(0 )

-d

(1 )

,
g (1) l(1)
d

(1 )

g (0) l(0)
d

(0 )

67

-d

(1 )

(3.21)

.
:
(3.22)
m 1 = 0.

m (0 ) =

g (0) l(0) + g (1) l(1)


d

(0 )

(3.23)

, , (3.21)
d(0) < d(1) .
, ,
.
(3.22, 3.23)
.
, . ,
.
,
.
, (3.17), , -.
, ,
g (1 ) =

d (1 ) ( m (0 ) + m (1 ) ) 2
(1 )


g (0 ) =

(d(0) - d(1) )( m (0) ) 2


(0 )

,
,
. .
, .

. ,
68

- 1,52
, [9, 22, 48, 69, 105].
,
- .
,
.
3.2.2.



.
.
, .
, ,
, . , , ,
.
, ,
, :
m (k0) 0, m (k1) 0,

k = 1, K.

(3.24)

d(k0)m(k0) +

k =1

d(k1)m(k1) .

(3.25)

k =1


(3.24, 3.25) (1.11, 1.12):

k =1

k =1

) d(k0)m(k0) + d(k1)m(k1) +

F m (10), m (20), ..., m (K0), m (11), m (21), ..., m (K1) =


69

g (0) l(i,0j)

i=1 j =1

i=1 j =1

A is, j m (s0)
s =1

g (1) l(i,1j)

s
( )
A i, j ( m s0
s =1

min.

(3.26)

( )
m s1 )

, , , ( 3.13.6).
3.7. (3.26)
.
u (3.26) (1.11)
(1.12), , 1.6, .
. t
3.8. (3.24, 3.26) ,
, .
( 3.2).
3.9.
(3.24, 3.26).
u , :
-

i, j = 1 K

Ail, j m (l 0)*

l =1

i, j = 1 K

l =1

i, j = 1 K

(3.27)

0
1
A il, j [m (l )* + m (l )* ]

+ d(k0) = 0,

+ d(k1) = 0, k = 1, K.

k = 1, K,

( ) ( )
A ik, j g 1 l i,1j

(0 ) (0 )
l i, j

A ik, j g ( ) l(i, j)

A i, j g

Ail, j m (l 0)* + m (l 1)*

l =1

(3.28)

d(k0) d(k1) (3.27, 3.28), (3.26) (3.9, 3.10):

( ) ( )
(1 ) (1 )
K N
N
A ik, j g 0 l i,0j
A ik, j g l i, j
(0)*
m
+

l
2
k = 1 i, j = 1 K
i, j = 1 K
(0)*
l

Ail, j m (l 0)* + m (l 1)*

Ai, j m l

l =1
l =1

70

m (l 0)* +

i, j = 1

k (1 ) (1 )
A i, j g l i, j

i, j = 1 K

Ail, j m (l 0)* + m (l 1)*

l =1

A ik, j g (0) l i, j
K

l =1

A i, j g

(1)*
ml =

(1 ) (1 )
l i, j

.t
K
(0)*
(1)*
l
Ai, j [ m l + m l ]

i, j = 1

l
(0)*
A i, j m l

l =1

3.10. -
(3.24, 3.26) x , x .
u x -
, m (l 0)* m (l 1)* l- -.
(3.27, 3.28). ,
m (l m)* = h(l m)*

1
x

m = 0,1,

l = 1, K

h(l m)* -, ..
. . t
3.11.
(3.24, 3.26) x ,
x .
3.12. (3.24, 3.26) x ,
x .
3.11 3.12
3.10.
3.2.3.

10 10 . N = 9 (. 3.2),
5 . 71

. 3.2. .

0,023
0,013

0,023
0,011

0,008
0,013

0,008
0,006

0,023
0
0,023
0,011
0,020
0,011
0,008
0,011
0,008

0,013
0,023
0
0,008
0,011
0,023
0,006
0,008
0,013

0,023
0,011
0,008
0
0,020
0,011
0,023
0,011
0,008

0,011
0,020
0,011
0,020
0
0,020
0,011
0,020
0,011

, ,
.
( ),


{ai, j }:

0,008
0,011
0,023
0,011
0,020
0
0,008
0,011
0,023

0,013
0,008
0,006
0,023
0,011
0,008
0
0,023
0,013

0,008
0,011
0,008
0,011
0,020
0,011
0,023
0
0,023

0,006

0,008
0,013

0,008
0,011 (3.29)

0,023
0,013

0,023
0

L = 5000 ,
: li, j = Lai, j , i, j = 1, N .
g = 50 ./. ,
..
.

, 1, 3, 7, 9. . 3.2 1. , K = 12 :
1 2 3, 1 4 7, 1 2 5 6 9, 1 2 5 8 9,
1 4 5 6 9, 1 4 5 8 9, 3 6 9, 7 8 9,
3 2 5 8 7, 3 2 5 4 7, 3 6 5 4 7,
3 6 5 8 7.
. 72


, 1
15 ., 20 . ,
. 6 ., 8.
40 %,
35, 30, 25, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 % .
, , .
(. 3.3, )
, (. 3.3, ) .
(. 3.4, , ), . .

(. 3.5, ), (. 3.5, ).
,
, .
.

, . -

. 3.3. () ()
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 .
73

. 3.4. () ()
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 .

. 3.5. () ()
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 .

( ) .

.
.
* * *
, , :
;
: .
74


.
(
: ,
, ).
,
,
.
1
.


.




,
.
, -
[1, 57, 12, 22, 45, 46, 69, 158,
101].
.
,
[2, 16, 24, 43, 48].
:
.
, , .
, ,
75

,
.
,
,
.
. , .
. .
, . ,
, . ,
.
.
,
[102].

[25, 89, 107].
[107], , , . .
,

( ),
, ..
,

,
.
,
. 4.1. ,
. .
76


. : - .

.
, . . 4.1
, , ,
.
[63].
4.1. (Debreu [100a], Glickserg [100c], Fan Ky [100b]).
i = 1,..., n
1) Si , ( M);
2) ui (s 1 ,..., s n ) (s 1 ,K , s n ) si ,
G = I,{Si }, {ui }
.
, .
,
.
:
.

.


, . , .

4.1.


,
.
:
l 1 , ;
77

l 2 , ;
l 0 , ;
b ;
a 1 ;
a 2 ;
m 1 ;
m 2 .
( )

l 0m 1
- a 1m 1 ,
H 1 ( m 1, m 2 ) = b l 1 +

m
1 + m2

(4.1)

l 0m 2
- a 2m 2 .
H 2 ( m 1, m 2 ) = b l 2 +
m 1 + m 2

(4.2)

,
:
bl 0m 2
- a 1 = 0;

2
(m 1 + m 2 )

bl 0m 1
- a 2 = 0.
(m + m ) 2
2
1

( 4.3)

, (4.1, 4.2)
, (4.3)
:
m *1 =
m *2 =

a 2 l 0b

(a 1 + a 2 ) 2
a 1 l 0b

(a 1 + a 2 ) 2

:
H 1* = bl 1 +

bl 0 a 2

(a 1 + a 2 ) 2
78


H 2* = bl 2 +

bl 0 a 1

(a 1 + a 2 ) 2

,
(. 4.2), H 1 + H 2 = b (l 0 + l 1 + l 2 ).
m 1 + m 2 0, ..
. 4.2. , .
.
, .

4.2.

, .
, , .
, ,
, :
m k,l 0,

l = 1, Lk ,

k = 1, K.

(4.4)


:
Lk

ak,lm k,l ,

k = 1, K.

l =1

, i j:
K

Lm

A im, j,rm m,r ,

m=1 r =1

k:
Lk

A ik, ,jrm k,r .

r =1

79

, i j k:
Lk

l i, j
K

Aik, ,jlm k,l

l =1
Lm

m, r
A i, j m m,r

m=1 r = 1

, , k- (
) :
Lk

N
H k {m m,r } r = 1,L = b

m
i= 1
m = 1, K

j=1

l i, j

Aik, ,jlm k,l

l=1
K

Lm

m, r
A i, j m m,r
m= 1r = 1

Lk

ak,lm k,l

max. (4.5)

l=1

4.1. (4.5)
.
u :

H k {m m,r} r = 1,L

m
m= 1, K

N N

= b li, j 1 i= 1 j = 1

Lm

Aim, j,rm m,r

K Lm
m, r
Ai, j m m,r
m= 1 r = 1

m k r = 1

Lk

ak,lm k,l .

(4.6)

l= 1

.
( ).
{m k,r } r = 1,L . t
k
4.2. (4.4, 4.5) , , .
u (4.5) ,

, H k = 0
. ,
( , ):
N

m k, l =

l i, j Aik, ,jl

i= 1 j = 1

a k,l
80

(4.7)

, 0, m k,l . , (4.4, 4.5) (


), (4.7). t
, ,
. ,
.
G = K, {m k,r } r = 1,L , {H k } k= 1,K . k

k = 1, K


[18, 62, 63, 106],
,
.
4.3. G = K, {m k,r } r = 1,L , {H k } k= 1,K
k

k = 1, K

.
u ( 4.1).
1) ,
.
,
:
.
(4.7).
2)
.

( [0, 1]).
:
( 4.1).
,
. t

[18, 106]. .
81

, .
, , ,
.
4.2.1.

.

. ? .
4.4. b
G = K, {m k,r } r = 1,L , {H k } k= 1,K
k

x , -

k = 1, K


x .
u b
m k,s > 0,

s = 1, Lk ,

k = 1, K.

= 1, Lm

m = 1, K
=

H k {m m,r } r
m k,s
K

A ik, ,js bli, j

i= 1 j = 1

Lm

m, r

A i, j m m,r -

m= 1 r = 1

Lk

Aik, ,jlm k,l


l =1

K Lm m,r

A i, j m m,r

m= 1 r = 1

s = 1, Lk ,

k = 1, K.
82

- a k,s = 0,

(4.8)

b 1 = bx , h k,l
. , :

~ {h }
H
k
m, r r = 1, Lm
m = 1, K

h k,s
K

A ik, ,js b 1 li, j

Lm

m, r

A i, j h m,r -

m=1 r=1

l= 1

s = 1, Lk ,

h k,s = xm k,s =

b1
b

Aik, ,jl h k,l

K Lm m,r

A i, j h m,r

m = 1 r = 1

i= 1 j = 1

Lk

- a k,s = 0,

k = 1, K.

(4.9)

(4.9)

m k,s (s = 1, Lk , k = 1, K), -

(4.8) b, .. h k,s = xm k,s (s = 1, Lk ,


k = 1, K) (4.9)
.
m k,s = 0.
, . m k,s = 0
,

mk, s = 0

H k {m m,r }r = 1,L
m
m = 1, K

m k,s

N N

A ik, ,js bli, j

i=1 j =1

Lm

Aim, j,rm m,r

m =1 r =1

K Lm m,r

Ai, j m m,r

m = 1 r = 1

83

- a k,s 0.

(4.10)

,
.
x :

N N

= A ik, ,j s b 1 li, j

i= 1j = 1

hk, s = 0

~ {h }
H
k
m, r r = 1, Lm
m = 1, K

h k,s

A ik, ,js xbli, j

i= 1 j = 1

Lm

Aim, j,r h m,r

m= 1r = 1

K Lm m,r

A i, j h m,r

m = 1 r = 1

- a k,s =

Lm

Aim, j,r xm m,r

m=1 r =1

K Lm m,r

Ai, j xm m,r

m=1 r =1

- a k,s 0.

(4.10).
. , h k,s = xm k,s . t
, :
, .
, , . ,
, . ,
, .
, ,
. , , , .

, .
4.5. G = K, {m k,r }r = 1,Lk , {H k } k = 1,K

x ,

k = 1, K


x .
84

u ,
m *k,l > 0,

l = 1, Lk ,

k = 1, K.

(4.8).
a(k1,)l = xa k,l , l = 1, Lk , k = 1, K,
h *k,l
. h k*, l =

1
x

m k*, l,

a(k1,)l . t
,
: , . . ,
.
4.6. G = K, {m k,r } r = 1,Lk , {H k } k= 1,K

x ,

k = 1, K

x .
u ,
m *k,l > 0,

l = 1, Lk ,

k = 1, K.

(4.8).
l(i,1j) = xli, j (i, j = 1, N ), h *k,l . h k*,l =

1
x

m k*,l ,

li, j (i, j = 1, N ). t

4.3.


. ,
1.3,
.
85


,
s- ( ) (1.7):
H s ( m 1 , m 2 ,..., m K ) =

1
1- nk
nk
k

(m k t) (1 - Ai, j m k t)
bl i, j m s t
K

k =1

k s nk

k =1
Aik, j = 1
K

N N

i=1 j =1

1-

[1

- as m s ,

- A ik, j m k t]

k =1

s = 1, K.
,
,
.
G = K, { m s } s = 1,K , { H s }s = 1,K . [18, 62, 63, 106], (
) .
4.7. G = K, { m s } s = 1,K , { H s } s = 1,K .
u ( 4.1).
1) ,
.
, .
:
N N

ms

l i, j

i=1 i=1

as

(4.11)

2)
.

( [0, 1]).
86


( 1.3).
,
. t

4.4.


. . 2.1.
i j pi, j :

[g i, j + g i, j pi, j ln( pi, j) - g i, j pi, j ]


Gi, j { m k } k= 1,K , { pi, j }i = 1,N k =
+ b ( 1 - pi, j ) +
K

k
j = 1, N

Ai, j m k
k= 1

[ pi, j g i, j - pi, j g i, j ln (p i, j ) ]
K

k= 1

A ik, j

Bik, j

]m

+ bpi, j +

pi, j Bik, j m k

[ g i, j - g i, j ln( pi, j)]


k =1
+
+ b K
min.
K
k
k
k

Di, j m k
Ai, j + Bi, j m k

k =1

k =1

(4.12)

, , m- (
) :

H m { m k } k= 1,K , { pi, j }i = 1,N k =

j = 1, N

m
m

m
pi, j A i, j + Bi, j m m
N N
A i, j m m (1 - pi, j )
+
+
= li, j
K
K

k
i=1 j =1
A ik, j + Bik, j m k
Ai, j m k

k = 1

k =1
87

Bik, j m k Dim, j m m

N N

+ li, j pi, j
i=1 j =1

k =1

K k K
Di, j m k Aik, j + Bik, j m k

k =1
k =1

- a mm m max.

(4.13)

,
, .
G = K + N 2, { m k } k= 1,K , { pi, j }i= 1,N ,
j = 1,N

{H k }

k= 1,K

, {-Gi, j }i= 1,N . j = 1,N

, , .
4.8.

G = K + N 2 , {m k } k= 1,K , {pi, j }i= 1,N , {H k }


j = 1, N

k = 1, K

, {-Gi, j }i= 1,N


j = 1, N

.
u ( 4.1).
1) ,
.
,
i j , :
(4.14)
pi, j [0,1].
, ,
, :
m k 0,

k = 1, K.

(4.15)

(4.11), .
2)
.

( [0, 1]).
88

. 2.1
, 2.2 ,
(4.13) (2.12).
,
. t
,

, , .
4.4.1.

,
, , , [28]. , .
, (. 4.3). .
, :
l ;
x ;
m ;
a .

, ,
,

.

,
- . 4.3.
.
.
89

m . , ,
( )
.
, :
2l +

4 xm
m + 2m

, .
:

4 xm
b - am.
H( m) = 2l +
m
+ 2m

:
dH(m )
dm

8 xm
(m + 2m ) 2

b - a = 0.

, m = m,
m=

8 xb
9a

(4.16)


4x

2l + b.
9

:
27al
2 xb

3a
b

. ,
( . 4.3 ).
,
. :
h
;
m
.
90

. , ,
2 lm
h+m

4 xm
m + h + m

:
2 lm

4 xm
b - am.
H(m) =
+
h
m
m
h
m
+
+
+

:
8 lh

4l +

h+m

8 xh
h + 2m

8 lh
8 xh
b - 2ah.
G(h) = 4l +
+
h+m
h + 2m

, m = m:
dH(m )
dm = 0;

dG(h) = 0.
dh
, , m < h < 2m, l = 0 x = 0.
x = 2l h = 1,5m:
m=
h=

16xb

25a
24 xb
25a

:
44
5

lb +

376
175

xb =

2292
175

lb.

:
4
5

lb +

88
175

xb =

211
175

lb.

..
5 .
91


325a
42b

. ,
.
4.4.2.


.
,
.
4.4.1.

(4.16).

,
.
:
l = 50
/;

x = 50 /;
b = 13 .;
a = 200 .
,
. , (4.16)
m=

8 50 13
9 200

2,88.

,
, 92

. 4.4.
:
1 ; 2 .

. 4.5.
:
1 ; 2 .


(. 4.4).

(. 4.5), . ,
.
,
400 ( ). x = 50 . ,

(. 4.6).

. 4.6.


:
1 ; 2
.

. 4.7. :
1 ; 2 .
93

. ,

(. 4.7). ,
.

4.5.


2.2. ,

,
, .
i j pi, j :

Gi, j { m k,r }r = 1,Lk , { pi, j }i = 1,N k =

k = 1, K
j = 1, N

1
i, j +
- g i, j pi, j ln(pi, j )]
+
t
K Lk

Aik, ,j lm k,l

k = 1 l = 1

= [ g i, j + g i, j pi, j

+ b (1 - pi, j ) + [ g i, j pi, j - g i, j pi, j ln(pi, j )] ti, j + cpi, j min.


pi, j

(4.17)

, , m- (
) :

H m { m k,r } r = 1,Lk , {pi, j }i= 1,N k =

j = 1, N
k= 1, K

Lm

N N

j =1 i=1

bl i, j
K

Aim, j,lm m,l

l =1
Lk

(4.18)
(1 - pi, j ) -

Lm

am,lm m,l
l =1

k, l
A i, j m k,l

k =1 l =1

94

max.

,
,
.

G = K + N 2, { m k,r }r = 1,Lk , { pi, j }i = 1,N , {H k } k= 1,K , {-Gi, j }i = 1,N .
k = 1, K

j = 1, N

j = 1, N

4.9. G = K + N 2 , {m k,r} r = 1,Lk , { pi, j } i = 1,N , {H k } k= 1,K , {-Gi, j }i = 1,N


j = 1, N

k = 1, K

j = 1, N

.
u ( 4.1).
1. ,
.
,
i j , (4.14).
(4.4)
(4.7) , .
2.
.
.

. 2.3
, 1.2 ,
(4.18) (1.5).
,
. t
, ,
. .
95

4.5.1.
,
, . :
H=

N N

bli, j ( 1 - pi, j ) j =1 i=1

L1

a1,lm 1,l

max.

(4.19)

l =1

, , b, G = 1 + N 2, {m 1,r} r = 1,L ,
1

{ pi, j }i = 1,N , H, {-Gi, j }i = 1,N .


j = 1, N

j = 1, N



, ..
.
* * *
. 4
. , :
;
;
;
.
, .
, , . ,
, .
96




.
.

. [24, 42, 43],
[103]. .
,

[49]. ,
, .
,
. , , , . : . ,
,
, ( , ), .
,
.

.
, .

.
97

5.1.

,
.
:
m (0)
, ;
m (1) , ;
l(0) ,
;
l(1) , ;
b (0) ;
b (1) ;
a(0) ;
a(1) ;
d(0) 1 ;
d(1) 1 .
, , . . , B.
. ,
,

1
m (0 )

(0 )

+ m (1 )

:
l(0) g (0)
m

(0 )

l(1) g (1)
m

(0 )

+ m (1 )

. :
F =

l(0) g (0)
m

(0 )

l(1) g (1)
m

(0 )

+m

(1 )

+ d(0)m (0) + d(1)m (1) min.


m(0 )

98

(5.1)

- , . , .
, :
m (1 )
m

(0 )

+ m (1 )


:
H (1 ) =

l(1) b (1) m (1)


m

(0 )

+m

(1 )

- a(1)m (1) .

(5.2)

, :
1

H0 =

l( ) b ( ) m (
m

(0 )

+m

0)

(1 )

+ B - a(0)m (0) .

(5.3)

.
5.1.1.
,

, .
, .
,
, :
H (1)
l(1) b (1) m (0)
- a(1) = 0;
(1 ) = (0 )
(1 ) 2
(m
+m )
m
(0 )
(1 ) (0 ) (1 )
l b m
H
(0 )
m (0) = (m (0) + m (1) ) 2 - a = 0.

:
m (0)* =

a (1) l(1) b (1) (b (0) ) 2

(a (1)b (0) + a (0)b (1) ) 2


99

(5.4)

m (1)* =

a (0) l(1) b (0) (b (1)) 2

(a (1)b (0) + a (0)b (1)) 2

(5.5)

:
l(1) (a (1) ) 2 (b (0)) 3

(a (1)b (0) + a (0)b (1)) 2

(5.6)

(5.7)

:
l(1) (a (0) ) 2 (b (1)) 3

(a (1)b (0) + a (0)b (1)) 2

,
,
.
5.1.2.

.
:

l(1) = 500 ./;
b (0) = 7 .;
b (1) = 10 .;
a(0) =
= 400 . ;
a(1) = 300 .
.
.

5 . (. 5.1).


. 5.1. (

:
1 ; 2 .
).
100

. 5.2.

:
1 ; 2
.

. 5.3.
:
1 ; 2
.


570 . (. 5.2). .

.
250 . (. 5.3). .

. , . ( 270 .)
,
(
, ).
,
,
( 270 .).
5.1.3.

, ,

.
101

,
(5.2) (5.1):
F min,
m(0 )

(1 )

max.
m(1 )

, ,
.
, , :
F
(0) = 0;
m
(1 )
H
= 0.
m (1)

. m (0)
d(0) (m (0)) 2 -

a (1 ) g (1 )
b

m (0) - l(0) g (0) = 0,

(1 )



m (1 ) =

l(1) b (1) m (0)


a

(1 )

- m (0 ) .

(5.8)

. H (0) < 0,
.

H 1 min,
m1

H 0 = 0.
, :
(d 0m 0 - B) 2 =

l 1 a 0b 20
b1

m 0,

(5.8).
102

,
(5.8) . .
F |m(1 ) = 0 min.
m(0 )

:
m (1) = 0,
m (0 ) =

l(0) g (0) + l(1) g (1)


d(0)

.
H 0 |m(1 ) = 0 = 0.
:
m (1) = 0,
m (0 ) =

l(1)b + B
a(0)

5.1.4.
.
l 0 = l 1 = l 2 = 300 ., a 0 = 300 ./, a 1 = 200 ./,
g 0 = 20 ./, g 1 = 40 ./, b 0 = 6 ., b 1 = 9 ., S0 =
= 80 ., S1 = 45 .

( ) , .

,
(. 5.4).
, .
,
(. 5.5).
.
-
(. 5.6), ..
103

. 5.4. () () :
1 ; 2 .

. 5.5. () () :
1 ; 2 .

. 5.6. () () -:
1 ; 2 .

. , , ..
.
104

5.2.



.
( ).
.
, (
) .
, . , .
:
K ;
0 ;
k (k = 1, K ).

L0

A i0, ,jlm 0,l ,


l =1

:
K Lk

A ik, ,jlm k,l .

k =1 l =1

, , :
1
L0

0, l
A i, j m 0,l

l =1

,
:
1
K

Lk

k, l
A i, j m k,l

k= 0 l =1

105

, l- k-
i j:
k, l

l i, j A i, j m k,l
Lm

m, r
A i, j m m,r

m=0 r=1

, , :
(0 )

0, l

0, l

l i, j A i, j m 0,l
Lm

l i, j A i, j m 0,l

Lm

0, r
A i, j m 0,r

r=1

(5.9)

m, r
A i, j m m,r

m= 0 r = 1

, ,
, , .
, .
.
, ,
:

H k {m k,r}r = 1,Lk =

k = 0, K

Lk N

k, l

bl i, j A i, j m k,l

Lm

l = 1i = 1 j = 1

m, r
A i, j m m,r

Lk

ak, lm k,l

max. (5.10)

l =1

m= 0 r = 1

(5.10) :

H 0 {m k,r}r = 1,Lk =

k = 0, K

L0 N

l = 1i = 1 j = 1

0, l

b 0 l i, j A i, j m 0,l
K

Lm

m, r
A i, j m m,r

L0

a0,lm 0,l

+ B.

(5.11)

l =1

m = 0 r =1

, , ,
, :
( )

N N
N N
g 0 l i,0j
F {m k, r } r = 1,Lk = L
+

0
i= 1j = 1
i= 1j = 1
k = 0, K

Ai0, ,jrm 0,r


r=1

Lk

dk,lm k,l

min.

k=0 l =1

106

gl i, j
K

Lm

m, r
A i, j m m,r
m= 0r = 1

(5.12)

, .
:
m k,l 0,

l = 1, Lk ,

k = 0, K.

(5.13)

, . K + 1 ( ) {m k,r }r = 1,Lk -F {H k} k = 1,K


k = 0, K

(5.13).
G = K + 1, {m 0,r}r = 1,L , {m k,r} r = 1,Lk , - F , {H k} k = 1,K .
0

k = 1, K

(5.10, 5.12, 5.13)


. .
5.1. G = K + 1, {m 0,r } r = 1,L , {m k,r } r = 1,Lk , - F ,
0

{ H k } k = 1,K

k = 1, K

u ( 4.1).
1) ,
.
, .
(4.7).

, . , , .
2)
.

(5.10, 5.12).
. (4.6) 4.1 .
(5.12) , ( 3.1) -F
.
107

,
. t
. -,
K = 0 (

).
. L0 = 0, , . , ,
.

5.3.


2.2. ,
, , . (K = 0), .
i j pi, j (2.18):

1
Gi, j {m 0,r} r = 1,L , { pi, j }i = 1,N k = g i, j L
+ ti, j +

0
j = 1, N

Ai0, ,j lm 0,l

l = 1

+ [g i, j pi, j

1
- g i, j pi, j ln(pi, j )] L
+ ti, j +

A i0, ,j lm 0,l

l = 1

(5.14)

+ b (1 - pi, j ) + cpi, j min.


:
1) ,
;
108

2) ;
3)
;
4) .
: ei, j i j.
:

F {m 0,k}k = 1,K , { pi, j }i = 1,N =

k
j = 1,N

N N
1
= li, j (g i, j - g i, j ln(pi, j )) L
+ ti, j - ti, j +
0

j = 1i= 1
Ai0, j,lm 0,l

l= 1

L0
N N
1

+ li, j ( g i, j + g i, j pi, j ln( pi, j) - g i, j pi, j ) L


+ ti, j + d 0,lm 0,l +
0

j =1 i=1
Ai0, ,j lm 0,l
l =1
l = 1

N N

(g i, j - g i, j ln(pi, j ))

j =1 i=1

pi, j

+ li, j ei, j

min

{m0, r } r = 1, L

(5.15)

5.2.
G = 1 + N 2, {m 0,k}k = 1,L , { pi, j }i = 1,N , - F , {-Gi, j }i = 1,N
0

j = 1, N

j = 1, N

.
u ( 4.1).
1) ,
.
, , , pi, j [0, 1].

, . , , .
2)
.
109


(5.14, 5.15). . ( 2.3).
F
, -F
.
,
. t
,
,
.

.
4.5 5.3,
5.2, .. .

, .
5.3.1.

.
. ,
(,
, ) .
,
, . ti, j .
:
K

xi, j =

Aik, j m k (ci, j

k =1
K

Aik, j m k ti, j

k =1
110

- b)

+ 1

,
(5.15). .

:
(ti, j )
(ci, j) ;

1
ti, j

. 5.7. .

,
a k,l .
10 10 . N = 9 (. . 3.3),
5 . ,
, .
( ),
{ai, j } (3.28).
L = 10 000 ,
: li, j = Lai, j , i, j = 1, N . . 5.7
g i ,
.
, .. . 3,5 ./.
b = 6 .
40 / 18 /
ti, j .

, 1, 3, 7, 9. . 3.3 1. , K = 12 :
1 2 3, 1 4 7, 1 2 5 6 9, 1 2 5 8 9,
1 4 5 6 9, 1 4 5 8 9, 3 6 9, 7 8 9,
3 2 5 8 7, 3 2 5 4 7, 3 6 5 4 7,
3 6 5 8 7.
111

,
. 5.8. .
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 .
:
) , ( 4.5);
) ( 4.5.1);
) ( 5.3).

.

(. 5.8) .
12 .
7 20 . (. 5.9). 6 .

L, ,
.
10 000 (. 5.10), -

. 5.9.
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 .
112

. 5.10. :
1 ; 2 ; 3 .

. , .
12 .
(. 5.11)
5000 .

, .
(. 5.12,
5.13). - 60 . .
, , ,

. 5.11. :
1 ; 2 ; 3 .
113

. 5.12. -:
1 ; 2 ; 3 .

. 5.13.
-:
1 ; 2 ; 3 .

. , ,
.

.
,
, ..
, .

( ,
, ), , ,
114

,
, .
* * *
,
. , , .
, ,
. ,

, .

( , ,
), ,
, ,
.





. , 1990- , , , . ,
.

115

.
.
, ,

, .
,
. [98] . ,
. .

(, ).


.

. .

,
, ..
.

6.1.

, , status quo
.
, .

( C).
116

6.1.1.
, ..
,
. :
l k , k;
m k k;
a k k.
,
.
, (),

K

F {m k} k = 1,K

) = ml
k= 1

min,

(6.1)

akm k C.

(6.2)

k= 1

(6.1, 6.2) :
F {m k} k = 1,K =

K
+ q a km k - C min,

k= 1

mk

k=1

q .
:
F
m k

=-

lk
(m k )

k = 1, K;

+ qa k = 0,

akm k = C,

k =1

m$ k =
K

lk

k =1

qa k

ak

lk
qa k

k = 1, K;

= C q = 2 l k a k
C k =1

m$ k =

C
K

llal
l =1

117

lk
ak


( 3.1) . d , :

) m

F {m k}k = 1,K =

gl k

k =1

dkm k min.

(6.3)

k =1

, (6.3) :
:
gl k

~k =
m

dk

k = 1, K.

, , , d k = xa k ,
(6.1, 6.2),
: :
g=

xC

l ka k

k =1

(6.3) - g 0 :

g 0l k

k =1

mk

F {m k}k = 1,K =

dkm k min.

k =1

C0
- g 0 . ,
(6.1, 6.2) C,
,
(6.1, 6.2):
~k
m$ k = m

C
C0

6.1.2.

. :
F=

N N

i=1 j =1

l i, j
K

A ik, j m k
k =1
118

min,

(6.4)

akm k = C.

(6.5)

k =1

:
F =

l i, j

i=1 j =1

A ik, j m k

K
+ q a km k - C min.

k =1

(6.6)

k =1

6.1. , d k = xa k (k = 1, K), g, (6.6)


(3.7).
u (6.6) :
F
m k

= -

A ik, j l i, j

i, j = 1 K

Aik, j m k

k =1

+ qa k = 0, k = 1, K;

(6.7)

akm k = C.

k =1

q =

dk
ga k

x
g

(6.7)

(3.9). t
,
, -.
. [73, 75, 76] , (. 6.1.2) 43 %
. 5 %.

6.2.



. : Q k ; a k
119

k- ; Eik, ,j l 1,
k- l
i j, 0.
Eik, ,j l
:
Eik, ,j l = A ik,l A lk, j .
,
i l, l j.
li, j , k:
k, l

lki, j

= li, j

Ei, j m k
K

n, l

Ei, j m n

n=1

k
,
l
N N
N N
l i, j Ei, j
k
(6.8)
lki, j = K
Q , l = 1, N , k = 1, K.
n, l
i= 1 j = 1
i= 1 j = 1
Ei, j m n
n = 1


:
F =

N N

i=1 j =1

l i, j
K

A ik, j m k

akm k min.

(6.9)

k=1

n= 1

, (6.8, 6.9) , .
,
, , ,
. .
6.2.1.
.
.
l 1 ,
;
120

l 2 , ;
l 0 , ;
d 1 ;
d 2 ;
m 1 ;
m 2 ;
q 1 ;
q 2 .
:
l0
l
l
F(m 1 , m 2 ) = g
+ 1 + 2 + d 1m 1 + d 2m 2 min.
m 1 + m 2 m 1 m 2

(6.10)


:
l0
m1 + m2
l0
m1 + m2

+
+

l1
m1
l2
m2

q1 ,

(6.11)

q2 .

(6.12)

:
l 1 = 100, l 2 = 400, l 0 = 500. , ,
q 2 = 100 (-5270),
d 2 = 700 .,
(-32054) q 1 = 42,
d 1 = 500 .
: g = 50 ./.
(6.10) (6.11,
6.12) .
l 0 + l 1 + l 2 = 1000. , .
(. 6.1) . , ,
( 1).
, 1 , 2
121

. 6.1. 1 () 2 ():
1 ; 2 .

. 6.2. 1 () 2 ():
1 ; 2 .

1 (. 6.2). , ,
,
.
.

6.3.



, .
( ) ,
(. 1.1).
,
, .

. , 122


.
, , ( ), .
(
),
( , ).
: c k , k.
(
, ).
(1.4) ,
k, :
N

Lk =

l i, j A ik, j m k

i= 1 j = 1

A im
,j m m

m= 1

k. , m k ,
rk =

Lk
mk

i= 1 j = 1

l i, j A i, j
K

A im
,j m m
m= 1

, .
M / M / c k / c k :
Pk =

c
r kk

ck

c
r mk

c k ! m= 0 m!

-1

r kk
ck !

exp {- r k },

(6.13)

r k , k
.
, r k < c k (
, ), ..

. [80]:
rk
ck

0,78.
123

(6.14)

(6.13)
(6.14)
. 6.3.

(6.13) ,

-32054
42
. 6.3. - 5 %, (6.13).
(-5270) 1 %.
,
k (4.18):
N

H k = b

i= 1 j = 1

l i, j A i, j m k
K

[1 - Pk ] - a km k max.
mk

A i, j m m

m= 1

(6.13)
N N

H k = b

i=1 j =1

1 N
1
c k ! i = 1

l i, j A i, j m k
K

m
A i, j m m
m= 1

k
k
N
l i, j A i, j
N N l i, j Ai, j
exp - K

K
m
j =1

i = 1 j = 1 A m m
A
m
i, j m
i, j m

m= 1
m= 1

- a km k max.

(6.15)

mk


c f .
(3.7) :
F =

i= 1 j = 1

l i, j g i, j
K

A im
,jm m
m= 1

dkm k + c f

k= 1

i=1 j =1

124

l i, j A i, j m k
K

A im
,jm m
m= 1

k
1 N N l i, j Aik, j
N N l i, j Ai, j

exp - K

min.
K
mk
c k ! i = 1 j = 1 A m m
i = 1 j = 1 A m m
i
j
m
,
,
i
j
m

m= 1
m= 1

(6.16)

, (6.15) (6.16)
.
(6.16) .
6.3.1.
,
. l. . m. c,
a, d .
(6.15),
:
-1

c c
l

l
l

H(m
) = bl 1 - am max.
c
l

c !m
l = 1 c !m

(6.17)

(6.16)
l
c l

F (m) =
+ dm + c f l

c
l
m
c !m
l = 1 c ! m

lg

-1

min.

(6.18)

(6.17) (6.18) :
- g = 50 ., c f = 50 ., b = 13 .
, ,
,
(. 6.1, 6.2).
, . ,

(0,428). , 125

(6.17)

1 , .

50
100
150

600
800
1000

11,73
9,81
6,83

0,428
0,087
0,049

(6.18)

6.1

394
4021
5534

6.2

- -

,
1 ,
,

.
.
, .
, .
.

600
800
1000

24,26
12,23
8,22

2061
4087
6080

0,0254
0,0061
0,0015

1271
304
75

14 558
9787
8223

17 890
14 178
14 379

13 .,
9 ., 7 .
.
, , (6.17). .

6.4.

, ,
, 1. , , 0,730,78, 0,28. :
(, ),
. ,

( ),
.
, : ( )
.
126

6.4.1.

, .
, , .
,
:
K , ;
l ;
m , ;
Q k k;
q k , k, ;
k k.

. , .
:
K

qk

pk Q k .

k =1

, .
: f
. .
:
y

k
K
k qi, j ,
k
Qk
=1

y .
[45] .
127

, : , .
: c
; p , . 1 - p ,
, , .
( , ) , .
,
:
pl
m


. k :
qk + p

l
m

Qk

k
q m + pl

Q km

, .
:
y

K
q km + pl
.
f pl p k

Q km
k =1
.
, . (, ):
K
q km + pl

f pl p k

Q km
k =1

+ l(1 - p)(c - b) min.


p

(6.19)

, (6.19) p
y 1.
6.4.2.
, 6.2. 128

: ci, j i j; pi, j ,
i j; ei, j
i j.
q lk ,
k
l:

N N l E k, l p
i, j i, j i, j
.
q lk = K

n, l
i =1 j =1
Ei, j m n
n = 1

, ,
,
.
k
l m:
A lk,mm k

n
A l,mm n
n =1

,
l m:

k
K
N N l E k, l p
i, j i, j i, j
A l,mm k
K
K
k= 1
A ln,mm n i = 1 j = 1 Ein, ,j lm n
n = 1
n= 1

:


k
K
A l,mm k
G l,m (p l,m) = l l,m p l,m c f K

k = 1 A n m
l,m n
n=1


N N l E k, l p
l l,m pl,m

i, j i, j i, j
+

+
k
K
Q
i = 1 j = 1 Q k E n,lm n

i, j


n= 1

+ l l,m (1 - p l,m )(c l,m - b) min.


pl, m

(6.20)

, (6.20) p l,m y > 1 ( ).


129

,
:
1) (- );
2) ;
3) .
:

F =

l=1

k
,
l
k
N N
N
K A l,mm k
l i, j Ei, j pi, j
l l, m p l,m
l l,m p l,mc f K
K

k =1 A n m
n, l
i= 1 j = 1 k
m= 1
Q Ei, j m n
l,m n

n= 1
n= 1

+ (1 - p l,m ) l l,m el,m +

dkm k min.

(6.21)

k =1

, k:
H k (m k) =

l = 1 m= 1

A l,mm k l l,mp l, mb
K

- a km k max.
mk

n
A l,mm n
n=1

(6.22)

G = K + N 2 , {m k} k= 1,K , { pi, j }i= 1,N , {H k } k= 1,K , {-Gi, j }i= 1,N .


j = 1, N

j = 1, N

6.2.

G = K + N 2 , {m k}k = 1,K , { pi, j }i = 1,N , {H k }


j = 1, N

k = 1, K

, {-Gi, j }i = 1,N
j = 1, N

.
u ( 4.1).
1) ,
.
,
i j , pi, j [0, 1].
130

, ,
, (4.15) (4.11),

.
2)
.

(6.20, 6.22).
. (6.20)
y > 0. , (4.5)
, 4.1, .
,
. t
,
.
* * *
, , .
-, ,
.
-,

.
-,
.
.
-,
. .
, . .
131

1. . / . , . , . , . //
. 1981. 5. . 17.
2. .. / .. , .. ,
.. , .. // . 2005.
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3. .. / .. , .. , .. . .: , 1985. 102 .
4. .. - / .. . : , 1982. 200 .
5. ..
/ .. , .. . .: ,
1981. 272 .
5. . / . , . . .:
, 1977. 358 .
6. .. - / .. . .: , 1973. 220 .
7. ..
/ .. //
. 2007. 7. . 3235.
8. ..
/ .. , .. . .: , 1977. 92 .
9. .. /
.. // . .: , 1968.
. 188198.
10. .. : - / .. . .: , 1988. 64 .
11. .. / .. .
.: , 1974. 272 .
12. .. / .. , .. , .. . .: , 1981. 206 .
132

13. .. .
: . . / .. , .. , .. , .. . .: , 1982. 207 .
14. .. / .. . ., 1978. 156 .
15. .. /
.. , .. , .. , .. // -
: XII . (XV ) .-.
. : , 2006. . 189194.
16. .. - / .. , .. ,
.. // - : VIII .
(XI ) .-. . : , 2002.
. 5460.
17. ..
/ .. , .. , .. , .. .
: . . -, 2002. 256 .
18. .. . / .. . .: , 1984. . 498.
19. .. - / .. . .: , 1982. 182 .
20. ..
/ .. , .. , .. // - : II . (XI ) .-.
. : , 2006. . 178182.
21. .. / .. , .. // . 2005. 3.
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22. .. , / .. ,
.. , .. // . .-. .
2005 (, 2023 .
2005 .). , 2005. . 2. . 525526.
23. ..
/ .. : . . . .
. ., 2008. 22 .
24. . / . , . , . // . 2002. 10.
. 1416.
25. ..
/ .. , .. //
. . -. . 2004. 1 (17). . 715.
26. ..
/ .. // :
. 1979. 1. . 213214.
133

27. .. / .. , .. , .. // . . - .
.. . 2009. 1. . 6977.
28. .. / .. ,
.. // . 2008.
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29. .. / .. : . .
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30. ..
/ .. ,
.. // . . . -. 2009. 5. . 124129.
31. ..
/ .. // :
. 2005. 6. . 159162.
32. .. / .. , .. , .. ; . .. . .: , 1974.
137 .
33. .. : / .. //
. 2008. 4. . 9499.
34. ..
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2006. . 3138.
35. .. :
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36. ..
/ .. :
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38. .. / .. // , 2008. 8. . 120130.
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. . , . : - . -,
2006. 19. . 292298.
42. c .. /
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2007. . 152156.
43. .. . .
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45. ..
/ .. .
: , 1989. 239 .
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47.
: . . . . - -. .:
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48. .. /
.. . : , 2003. 238 .
49. .. / .. :
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56. .. : . / .. . ., 1989. 82 .
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188. .. : .
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