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1.

1.

Maple 14. : ) Maple 14, ) ,
) Maple 14, )
, ) Maple 14.
2. Maple 14. , , ,
Maple 14 . 1.1. -.
, ( )
.
> , , , . > [> Maple 14, , , , [1].

. 1.1. Maple 14
4

; ( ) .
, , ! ( ) <Enter> , . [1],
> 1 + 2;
3
> 2*3 + 1;
7
> sin( Pi/6 );
1
2
Maple 14 , .

.
.
[2].
, Maple 14 %, %%, %%%, [1].
,
> cos(Pi/3);
1
2
>%^2
1
4
, , . : ^, * /,
+ . ,
.
>, <, >=, <=, <>, =;
not, or, and. \ .
Maple 14 # (),
[2].
Maple 14 (. 1.1).
, .

1.1

Pi
E
I
Infinity
gamma
true, false


( e)
( 1)


(, )

Maple 14 , ,
.
(, Old, old, o_1d).

Maple 14: and, break, by, catch, description, do, done, elif, else, end, error, export, fi,
finally, for, from, global, if, in, intersect, local, minus, mod, module, next, not, od, option, options, or, proc, quit, read, return, save, stop, then, to, try, union, use, while.
,
Maple 14.
,
. ,
, _1, _2 . .
_N1, _N2, ..,
_Z1, _Z2 .. [2].
:= ( ).

. ,
> a := 1;
1
> a;
1

^:
> ^;
xy
sqrt(x). ,
> sqrt(9);
3
m
, , [1]. n
,
> 27^ (1/3);
6

27(1/3)
c evalf(a, n),
a ; n , . n = 10, n Digits. ,
> evalf(%);
3.000000000
m

,
n
,
[1]:
> /^z;
x
yz
> x/y*z;
xz
y
Maple 14 . . 1.2
.
, . <F1>,
.
1.2

exp(x)
ln(x), log(x)
log10(x)
log[a](x)
sqrt(x)
n!
abs(x)
round(x)
trunc(x)
floor(x)
ceil(x)
sin(x)
cos(x)

e
ln x
ln x
loga x
x
n!
x




sin x
cos x
7

. 1.2
1

tan(x)
arcsin(x)
arccos(x)
arctan(x)
sinh(x)
cosh(x)
tanh(x)

tan x
arcsin x
arccos x
arctan x
sinh x
cosh x
tanh x

. convert(). ,
> convert(Pi, dergees);
180 degrees

> convert(90 degrees, radians);
1

2
log b log [a] (b), :
> log [2] (8);
3
1
log8 7

+ 25
, 48
> (48^(1/log[8](7)) + 25^(1/log[8](7)))^(1/2);
48

3ln (2)
ln (7)

+ 25

1
log 2 5

. :

3ln (2)
ln (5)

> evalf(%);
9.684250641
3.
3.1. x 0,5.
3.2. y 3.
3.3. z 5.
2 x cos(60D )

1
.
3.4.
2
3.5. 7 z+ log x 5 .
3.6. [5]:
) 24tgx + 24y + 6 4;
2
5x 5
x2
x2
;
) log 7 ((5 5)(5 1)) + log 7 x 2
5 1

( y + 1 + z ) + ( x + 4 + 2 x)2
x z

e
7
5
5
3.7. 7 2 14 .
3
7
3.8. + 2 tg(37D ) .
4
9
3.9. [5]:
14log2 (4 x )
)
;
7 log 2 2 ( x + log 2 (sin(0,25 x)))
)

log x + 2 (4 + 7 z 2 x 2 )
((2 cos x 1)(7 z 3))!

x sin(1 21 z )
;
)
x2 2 x 8
4
5

) 2 + 4 3 3 ;
5

y
+ z ).
2
4.
4.1. ?
4.2. ?
4.3. Maple 14?
4.4. ! ( )
Maple 14?
4.5. ?
4.5. ?
4.6. ?
) 1 y 2 ( x 2 2 x sin

2.

1.
Maple 14. Maple 14 . plots.
2.
Maple 14 plots, plot(, , , , ). . x = xmin ..xmax . y = ymin .. ymax .
, y = cos( x)
(2, 2) [1].
> plot(cos(x), x = 2*Pi..2*Pi);
plot() . 2.1.

. 2.1

10

,
. , .
, , ,
, .
- , plot() discont = true. , [2]. ,
y = tg ( x) (, ). :
> plot(tan(x), x = Pi..Pi, discont = true);
. 2.2.

. 2.2
, ,
plot():
plot([func1(t), func2(t), t = a..b], <options>),
func1(t), func2(t) , ; a, b . options
; , numpoints ;
coords ; title
.. , , coords = polar [3].
,

11

x(t ) = sin 2t ,

y (t ) = cos3t.
[2]:
> plot ([sin(2*t), cos(2*t), t = 0..4*Pi]);
. 2.3.

. 2.3
plots
:
> with(plots):
. plots, Maple 14.
<F1>, Help .

. Maple 14,
, :
plot3d(f(x, y), x = a..b, y = c..d),
f(x,y) , ;
x y x = a..b, y = c..d.
plot3d(),
:
plot3d([f1(u, v), f2(u, v), f3(u, v)], u = a..b, v = c..d),

12

f1(u, v), f2(u, v), f3(u, v) , ; a..b,


c..d [1].
, z = x 2 + y 2 .
Maple 14
> plot3d(x^2 + y^2, x = 1..1, y = 1..1);
.2.4.

.2.4
. , ,
, Axes, , , Normal. ,
. , ,
.
3.
3.1. :
) f ( x) = 3 (1 + x)( x 2 + 2 x 2);
2x 9
) f ( x ) =
;
x2 1
4 x3 + 3x 2 2 x 2
) f ( x ) =
;
x2 4

13

) f ( x) = 2 x + 1 + cos x;
) f ( x) = 2sin(2 x 1);
) f ( x) = 0,5 x + 2 x [0, 5];
) f ( x) = sin(3x 2) + 1;
) f ( x) = arcsin( x 2);
) f ( x) = x + 1 + sin( x 1);
) f ( x) = 2cos(2 x + 1);
) f ( x ) = x + 4 x ;

x3 x
[4, 4];
) f ( x) =
3
) f ( x) = 2( x 1)3 .
3.2. ,

() = 2ctg, () = 5sin 2 , () = 2 sin .


3
3.3. ,
x(t ) = cos 2 t + 2cos t ,

y (t ) = 2sin t cos t.
3.4. :
f ( x) = e x , g ( x) = 2 x 2 .
3.5. ,
z = sin x + cos y.
3.6. [1]
xy ( x 2 y 2 )
z=
.
x2 y2
3.7. , [1]:
u
z = sin u cos v, y = sin u sin v, z = ln tg + cos u , u = 2...10, v = 0... 2.
2
3.8. , [1]:
x = chu cos u, y = chu sin v, z = u, u (2, 2), v (0,2).
4.
4.1. Maple 14 .
4.2. Maple 14 .
4.3. ?
4.4. ?
4.5. plot(), ,
.

14

3.

1.

, , .
solve() subs().
2. solve() subs()
Maple 14 solve( , ), . , [1].
, [1]
x2 + 1 x2 1

= 23.
x4 x+3
:
> (x^2 + 1)/( 4) (x^2 1)/(x + 3) = 23;
x2 + 1 x2 1

= 23
x4 x+3
. solve() :
> solve(%);
55
,5
16
55
: 5.
16
:
> solve((x^2 + 1)/( 4) (x^2 1)/(x + 3) = 23);
[1]:
b
a
+
= 2.
xa xb
:
> b/( a) + a/(x+b) = 2;
b
a
+
=2
xa xb
, x, :
> solve(%, x);
1
1
b + a, b + a
2
2
15

1
1
b + a.
2
2

subs(), . subs(x = a, f) , x f; a x [1].
,
5 x 2 + x + 7 13 = 0 .
> solve(5*x^2 + abs(x+7) 13 = 0);
6
1,
5
:
> subs(x = 1, 5*x^2 + abs(x + 7) 13 = 0);
8 + 8 = 0
> subs(x = 6/5, 5*x^2 + abs(x + 7) 13 = 0);
29 29
+
=0
5
5
.

: b + a

1+ x + 3 1 x = 2 .
> (1 + sqrt(x))^(1/3) + (1 sqrt(x))^(1/3) =2;
3

1
3

(1 + x ) + (1 x )

1
3

=2

> solve(%);
0
solve() ,
{} [1].
,
x 2 y xy 2 = 6,

xy + x + y = 5.
:
> solve({x^2*y x*y^2 = 6, x*y + x + y = 5},{x, y});
{x = 2, y = 1}, {x = 1, y = 2},
{x = RootOf (_ Z 2 2 _ Z + 3) + 2, y = RootOf (_ Z 2 2 _ Z + 3)}
: (2, 1) (1, 2).
solve() . AllSolutions. ,
> solve(sin(x) = 1/2, x, AllSolutions);

16

1
2
+ _ B3 ~ +2 _ Z13 ~
6
3
, .
_, , {0, 1},
_Z . ,

2
5
+ n, + 2n
6 3
6

(1) n + n, n Z
6

3sin 2 2 x + 7cos 2 x 3 = 0 .
> solve(3*sin(2*x)^2 + 7*cos(2*x) 3=0, x, AllSolutions);
1
1
1
7
7
_ B 2 ~ + _ Z12 ~, arccos arccos _ B 2 ~ + _ Z12 ~
4
2
2
3
3
sin 3 x 4sin x cos 2 x = 0 :
> solve(sin(3*x) 4*sin(x)*cos(2*x)=0, x, AllSolutions);
1
5
2 _ Z17 ~, ; + 2 _ Z18 ~, + 2 _ Z19 ~, + 2 _ Z19 ~,
6
6
1
5
+ 2 _ Z 20 ~, + 2 _ Z 20 ~
6
6

cos x + cos y = 3,

x + y = .
3

:
> solve({cos(x) + cos(y) = sqrt(3), x + y = Pi/3},{x, y});
1
1

x = 2 _ Z10 ~, y = + 2 _ Z10 ~ ,
6
6

1
1

x = 2 _ Z11 ~, y = + 2 _ Z11 ~
6
6

( 2n, + 2n), n Z .
6
6
.
,

24 10 x + x 2 > x 4 .
> solve(sqrt(24 10*x + x*x) > x 4);
RealRange ( , Open ( 4 ) )
17

,
x+5
x 1 2x + 3 x

+
<
2

,
2
3
6
2

1 x + 5 + 4 x < 3 x x + 1 .

8
2
4
:
> solve({(x1)/2 (2*x+3)/3 + x/6 < 2 (x+5)/2, 1 (x+5)/8 + (4 x)/2 < 3*x (x
+1)/4},x);
7

< x , x < 3
9

1.

log 2 x ( x 2 5 x + 6) < 1.
> solve(log[2*x](x^2 5*x + 6) < 1, x);

1
RealRange Open ( 0 ) , Open , RealRange ( Open (1) , Open ( 2 ) ) ,
2

RealRange ( Open ( 3) , Open ( 6 ) )


1
: 0, (1, 2 ) ( 3, 6 ) .
2
3.
3.1. [5]
1

sin x + cos y = 1,
2

6sin x cos y = 6.
3.2. [5]
( x 3) x 3 + 1
1
< x3 + .
x4
4
3.3. [5]
24 x 3 = 0,125 x +1.
3.4. [5]
4log 4 ( x + y ) = 3log 4 16,

log 5 x + log 5 y = 1.
3.5. [5]
( x 1) 5 x 1 + 4 x 3
> .
2 2
x 1 1
3.6. [5]
22 x +3 4 22 x = 64.
18

3.7. [6]:
2a + 3b = 1,
)
3a + 5b = 4;
2 x y + 3 z = 9,

) 3 x 5 y + z = 4,
4 x 7 y + z = 5.

3.8. [6]:
x3 x+3 x+6 x6
)
;
+
=
+
x 1 x +1 x + 2 x 2
7( x 2)( x 3)( x 4)
)
= 2;
(2 x 7)( x + 2)( x 6)
2

x2 + 6 5x
) 2
;
=
2
x 4 4 x
x 2 b3 b b 2
) 3 + 2 = + 2 ;
a
x
a a
b
a
+
= 2;
)
xa xb
) x + x + 11 + x x + 11 = 4;
) x 2 + 3x 18 + x 2 + 3x 6 = 0.
3.9. [6]:
x 2 + y 2 + 6 x + 2 y = 0,
)
x + y + 8 = 0;
( x + 0,2) 2 + ( y + 0,3) 2 = 1,
)
x + y = 0,9;
x 2 + y 2 10
x+ y = 3 ,

)
1 + 1 = 3 ;
x y 4
4
1
5
+
=

,
x 2 xy y 2 xy
6

)
7 3 = 6.
x 2 xy y 2 xy 5
3.10. [6]:
19

1
5
+
< 1;
2 x 2+ x
) ( x + 1)(3 x)( x 2) 2 > 0;

3 x 2 10 x + 3
> 0;
) 2
x 10 x + 25
17 5 x 2 x 2
> 0;
x+3
) 52 x + 5 < 5 x +1 + 5 x ;

1
4
1
4
+

+
;
x 2 4 2 x 2 + 7 x + 6 2 x + 3 2 x3 + 3 x 2 8 x 12
) log 2 x ( x 2 5 x + 6) < 1.
3.11. :
x2 + 4
> 0,

) x 16 x + 64
lg x + 7 > lg( x 5);

4 x 7 < x,
)
x + 5 + 5 x > 4.
4.
4.1. ?
4.2. ?
4.3. ?
4.4. ?
4.5. ?
4.5. ?
4.6. solve() ?

20

4.

1.
sum()
product().
2. sum() product()
Maple 14
sum(f, k = m .. n), f , k; m n .
, . sum()
[2].
,
30
2n (n + 1)
.

n!
n =0
> sum(2^n*(n+1)/n!, n=0 .. 30);
87617409000727554149125201
3952575621190533915703125
> evalf(%);
22.16716830

n
.

n =1 ( n + 1)!
> sum(n/(n+1)!, n=1..infinity);
1

n(n + 2) x

n =1

x.
> sum(n*(n+1)*x^n, n = 1 .. infinity);
2x
( x 1)3
product(), ,
sum(). product(f, k = m .. n) : f , k k- ; m n k ( ).
, ,

1
1
2 (1 n2 ) = 2 .
> product(1 1/n^2, n = 1 .. infinity);

21

1
2

3.
3.1. [6]:
1
1
1
1
)
+
+
+ ... +
+ ... ;
n (n + 1)
1 2 2 3 3 4
1
1
1
)
+
+ ... +
+ ... ;
25 3 6
(n + 1) (n + 4)

1
)
.
(
1)(
2)
n
n
+
n
+
n =1
3.2. [6]:
2 3
n +1
a) + + ... +
+ ...;
3 5
2n + 1

1
) 2
;
+
2
n
n
n =1

)
n =1

n
;
n +1
4

1
;
1
+
k
k =1

1
) ln(1 + );
k
k =1

1
).
k2
k =1
3.3. [6]:
x2
xn
) x + + ... + + ...;
n
2
) 1 + 2 x + ... + (n + 1) x n + ...;
) ln(1 +

) 1 3 x 2 + 5 x 4 ... + (1) n1 (2n 1) x 2 n2 + ...


3.4. x 0,5, n 99.
3.5. :
n +1
1
;
)
k =1 (2k 1)(2 k + 1)
) x + ( x + 1) + ... + ( x + n 1);
)

k =1

k (k 1) ;
3

i =1
2k

( x)
;
2k !
k =0

22

4i
) i + 2 ;
i =0 5
n

)
)

(1)
k =1

k
k =1

k +1

x 2 k 1
;
( x + 1) 2 k

1
.
+ x2

1 1
1
1
+ ... +
+
.
2 3
9999 10000
3.12. :
n
(1) k (1 + k )
;
)
k!
k =1
n
1
) (2 + );
i!
i =1
n
1
) (2 + );
i!
i =1
n
i!
;
) 2
i
i
+
+
2
3
i =1
1
1
1

... ;
)
1 3 2 4 3 5
n
x + cos kx
;
)
2k
k =1
n
k
cos k x ).
) (
k =1 k + 1
4.
4.1.
4.2. ?
4.3. ?
4.4. ?
4.5. product()?
3.6. 1

23

5.

1.

Maple 14.
2.
Maple 14 [1]:
simplify() ;
expand() ;
factor() ;
normal() ;
combine() ( );
collect() .
, , . ,
collect(), ,
, .
simplify() assume(), , . combine() [1].
:
> simplify((a^3 b^3)/(a b));
a 2 + ba + b 2
> expand((a b)*(a^2 + a*b + b^2));
a 3 b3
> factor(a^3 b^3);
( a b ) ( a 2 + ba + b2 )
> normal(y/x + 1/(x^2));

yx + 1
x2

> combine((x^(1/2))*x^(3/2));
x2
> collect(x^2 + 3*x^2 + 4*x + 4*x + y, x);
4x2 + 8x + y
> simplify(2*a/sqrt(a^2), assume(a < 0));
2

, , , 24

. ,
x y
.
x y
> simplify((x y)/(sqrt(x) + sqrt(y)));
x y
x y
, , ,
subs() ,
.

x +1
1
: 2
.
x x +x+ x x x
f(x):
> f := ((sqrt() + 1)/(x*sqrt() + x + sqrt()))*(x^2 sqrt());
x + 1 x2 x

)(

x 3/2 + x + x
,
subs() :
> q := subs(sqrt() = a, x^2 = a^4, x^(3/2) = a^3, x = a^2, f);
( a ~ + 1) ( a ~ 4 a ~ )

a ~3 + a ~ 2 + a ~
~ a , .
q() :
> simplify(q);
a ~2 1
:
x 1.

a2 + 4
.
2
2
a 4
a
+4
a
2

, a 2 + 4 > 0 , :
> q := (x^2 + 4)/(a*sqrt(((a^2 4)/(2*a))^2 + 4));
> simplify(q, assume(a > 0));
2

25

> simplify(q, assume(a < 0));


2
: 2, a > 0; 2, a < 0.

(x

x x3
2

x 6) x

, simplify():
> f := x*(x 3)/((x ^2 x 6)*abs(x));
> simplify(f);
x3
x
x
2
x x6
. 0 < x < 3 ,
, x < 0 x > 0 , .
assume() x:
> simplify(f, assume(x>3));
1
x ~ +2
> simplify(f, assume(x<0));
1
x ~ +2
> simplify(f, assume(x>0,x<3));
1

x ~ +2
1
1
:
, 0 < x < 3;
, x < 0 x > 3.
x+2
x+2
3.
3.1. [1]:
) cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 1;

) cos( x + y ) = cos x cos y sin x sin y;


) sin( x + y ) = sin x cos y cos x sin y;
tan x + tan y
) tan( x + y ) =
;
1 tan x tan y
) cos 2 x = 2cos 2 x 1;
1
1
) cos 2 x = cos 2 x + ;
2
2
1 1
) sin 2 x = cos 2 x;
2 2
26

1
1
) sin x cos y = sin( x + y ) + sin( x y );
2
2
1
1
) sin x sin y = cos( x y ) + cos( x + y ).
2
2
3.2. [7]:
2
2
1
2t
1

( t 3) + 12t
) 2
+ 2
+ 2
;

2
t + 3t + 2 t + 4t + 3 t + 5t + 6
nm

1
2 1
m 2 n +
n
m
)
;
n
mn
1
1
2

n 2 m+
m
n

2 ( x4 + 4x2 12) + x4 + 11x2 + 30

.
x2 + 6
3.3. [7]:
a 3 2a 2 + 5a + 26
) 3
;
a + 5a 2 + 17 a 13
2b + 2 b 2 4

b2 4 + b + 2
x 1
+
x +1

x +1
2 2 x + x2 1
x 1

( x + 1)
1 + 1 x2

( x 1)

(1 + x )

(1 x)3

2 + 1 x2

);

4 2 x + x 2 6 x 2 + 8 + 12 x x 2 + 2 x + 4
+

4
2
4
2x + 4
x
x

2a + 2 a 2 1

a 1

a +1
+
+
2

a 1
a +1

;
3

4 x + 4 + x 1
;
x 2x2 x 1

27

( x + 2);

1
2

x3 x5

) x 6 x + 1 + 1 + 3x 1 + 5 x ;

( x 5)( x 3)
1+

1 + 5 x )(1 + 3 x )
(

(3 x + 2) 2 24 x
)
.
2
3 x
x
3.4. [7]:
1 b 2
b
)
x 2 x + b , x =
;
b
1 b
7 5
.
2
3.5. [7]:
) x( y 2 z 2 ) + y ( z 2 x 2 ) + z ( x 2 y 2 );
) ( x + 1)( x + 2 )( x + 3)( x + 4 ) , x =

) x 2 ( y z ) + y 2 ( z x) + z 2 ( x y ).
3.6. [7]:
) (1 + cos 2 2 + tg2 )(1 cos 1 2 + tg2 ) ;

tg2 +
)

1
tg3

;
1
+ tg3
tg2
) cos + sin + cos3 + sin 3;
sin 2 sin 3 + sin 4
;
cos 2 cos3 + cos 4
3

) 1 sin 4 + ctg 2 cos 4;


4

14
8

) sin + sin +
+ sin .
3
3

4.
4.1. ?
4.2. ?
4.3. ?
4.4. ?
4.5. ?
)

28

6.

1.

limit() Maple 14.
2. limit()

> with(limit):
lim f ( x)
x x0

lim f ( xn ) Maple 14 limit(f, x = x0 ,dir),


x

f n- , ;
x f; x0 , x
( x x0 ), a dir , : left ;
right [3].

n sin(n!)
lim 2
.
n n + 1
> limit(n*sin(n!)/(n^2 + 1), n = infinity);
0

lim
x 0

ln nx + 1 n 2 x 2

ln x + 1 x 2

).

> limit(ln(n*x + sqrt(1 n^2*x^2)/ln(x + sqrt(1 x^2))), x = 0);


0
:
1
a) lim
;
1
x 0
1+ ex
1
) lim
.
1
x +0
1+ ex
:
> limit(1/(1 + exp(1/x), x = 0, left);
1
> limit(1/(1 + exp(1/x), x = 0, right);
0
29

3.
3.1. [4]:
x2 1
) lim 2
;
x 0 2 x x 1
x2 1
) lim 2
;
x 1 2 x x 1
x2 1
) lim 2
;
x 2 x x 1
(1 + x)(1 + 2 x)(1 + 3 x) 1
) lim
;
x 0
x
(1 + mx) n (1 + nx) m
) lim
(m n );
x 0
x2
(2 x 3) 20 (3 x + 2)30
) lim
;
x
(2 x + 1)50

x2 5x + 6
) lim 2
;
x 3 x 8 x + 15
x + x 2 + ... + x n n
) lim
.
x 1
x 1
3.2. [4]:
) lim

x+ x+ x
;
x +1

) lim

x+3x+4x
;
2x + 1

x +

x +

1 + 2x 3
;
x 2

) lim
x4

x a + xa

) lim

x2 a2

x a

) lim
x 0

(a > 0);

1+ x 1
(n );
x

x + 2 3 x + 20
) lim
.
4
x 7
x+9 2
3.3. [4]:

30

) lim
x

) lim

x +

x3 + x 2 + 1 3 x3 x 2 + 1 ;

x3 + 3x 2 x 2 2 x ;

) lim n ( x a1 )...( x + an ) x ;
x +
sin x
) lim
;
x 0
x
sin x
) lim
;
x
x
1 cos x cos 2 x cos3 x
) lim
;
x 0
1 cos x

sin( x )
3 ;
) lim
x 1 2cos x
3

) lim
x 0

1 + tgx 1 + sin x
;
x3

1 cos x 2
.
x 0 1 cos x
3.4. [4]:
1
) y = lim
( x 0);
1 + xn
) lim

) y = lim n 1 + x 2 n ;
n

) y = lim cos 2 n x;
n

ln(1 + e xt )
) y = lim
.
t + ln(1 + et )
4.
4.1. f ( x) x0 ?
4.2. ?
4.3. ?
4.4. f ( x) x ?
4.5. f ( x) x x0 ?
4.5. f ( x) x x0 ?

31

7.

1.
Maple 14.
2.
x + iy x + y*I. ,
> 2 + 3*I;
2 + 3I

Re() Im() [1]. ,
>Re(2 + 3*I); Im(2 + 3*I);
2
3

conjugate() [1]. ,
> conjugate(2 + 3*I);
2 3I

abs() argument() [1]. ,
> z: = 1 + sqrt(3)*I;
z := 1 + I 3
> abs(z); argument(z);
2

3
polar(z):
> polar(1 + sqrt(3)*I);
1
polar 2,
3
,
[1]:
> (2 + 3*I)* (1 + 2*I);
4 + 7I
> (2 I)/( 1 + I);
1 3
I
2 2
> (1 + I)^10;
32I
32

, , evalc(). [1],
> evalc(cos(1 + I));
cos (1) cosh (1) Isin (1) sinh (1)
> evalc(exp(x + y*I));
e x cos ( y ) + Ie x sin ( y )
> evalc(I*I);
1

2

e
evalc()
> evalc((1)^(1/4));
1
1
2+ I 2
2
2
3.
3.1. [6]:
a) z = 4 + 3i;

z . ,

) z = 2 + 2 3i;
) z = cos i sin .
3.2. [6]:
a) z = 1 i 3;

) z = 2 + i 2.
3.3. [6]:
a) z = 2;
) z = i;
) z = 1 i 3;

) z = sin i cos < < .


2

3.4. [6]:

(
) (

a) 1 + i 3

60

3 3i ;
4

1 i
)
;
1+ i
) 4 1 i .
3.5. [8]:

33

a) ( 2 + 3i ) (3 2i );
) ( a + bi )( a bi ) ;
) ( 3 2i ) ;
2

) (1 + i ) ;
3

1+ i
;
1 i
2i
)
.
1+ i
3.6. : ) x 2 + 25 = 0; ) x 2 2 x + 5 = 0; ) x 2 + 4 x + 13 = 0
[8].
3.7. [8]:
a) (1 + i )10 ;
)

) 1 i 3 ;
) ( 1 + i ) ;
5

) 3 i ;
) 3 2 + 2i ;
) 4 8 + 8i 3.
3.8. [8]:
a) ln(2);
) ln(1 + i );
) ln i;
) ln(2 2i ).
3.11. [8]:
a) x3 8 = 0;

) x 6 + 64 = 0;
) x 4 81 = 0.
4.
4.1. ?
4.2. ?
4.3. ?
4.4. ?
4.5. ?
4.5. ?
4.6. ?
34

8.

1.
Maple 14.
2.
Maple 14 , . linalg.
Maple 14 :
>with(linalg):
,
matrix() array(). matrix() linalg :
matrix(n, m, [val1, val2]),
n ; m ; val1, val2,
.
, matrix(n, m, f), f
( ), [3].
Maple 14 ,
array(1n, [val1, val2]),
n ; val1, val2, .
vector() linalg:
vector(n, [val1, val2]),
n ; val1, val2, [3].

. [3],
> A := matrix (4, 3, [[ a, b, c ], [], [1, 2, 3], [ x, y , z ]]);
b
c
a
A
A2,2 A2,3
2,1

A :=
1
2
3

y
z
x
> v := vector ([ a, b, c ]);
v := [ a , b, c ]
: rowdim(A)
; coldim(A)
.
.
35

:
> A := matrix ([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]);
1 2 3
A := 4 5 6

7 8 9
> rowdim(A); coldim(A);
3
3
vectdim(V).

: delcols(, i..j) i j;
delrows(, i..j) i j.
:
> C := delrows ( A, 2, 2);
1 2 3
C :=

7 8 9
> C := delcols ( A, 2, 2);
1 3
C := 4 6

7 9

extend(M, m, n, x), m ; n
; x . concat(M1, M2) ,
M1 M2. M1 M2
stack(M1, M2) [3].
, :
1 2
> A :=
;
2 3
> B := matrix (2, 3, [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]);
> concat ( A, B );
1 2 3 4 5
2 3 6 7 8

:
> A := matrix (2, 2, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
> B := matrix (2, 2, [5, 6, 7, 8]);
> stackmatrix ( A, B );

36

1 2
3 4

5 6

7 8
, .
() : add(A, B) evalm(A + B).
add() add(a, b, c, d) () b d ( *a+d*b).
A B
multiply(A*B).
n eval(M^n). : inverse(M) evalm(1/M). transpose(M).
.
1. :
> A := matrix (2, 2, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
> B := matrix (2, 2, [5, 6, 7, 8]);
> evalm ( A + B ) ;
6 8
10 12

2. :
> multiply(A, B);
19 22
43 50

3. :
> evalm (A2);
7 10
15 22

4. :
> inverse(B);
4 3
7
5


2
2
5. :
> transpose(A);

37

1 3
2 4

det(A), :
> det(A);
2
rank(A). ,

> rank(A);

2

eigenvals(A). , .
eigenvects(A). eigenvects(A) , , [3].
:
> A := matrix (2, 2, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
> eigenvals(A);
5 1
5 1
+
33,
33
2 2
2 2
> eigenvects(A);
5 1
1 1
5 1
33,1, +
33 1 ,
33,1,
+
2 2
2 6
2 2
1 1

33
1


2 6


charoly ( A, lambda) . ,
> charoly ( A, lambda) ;
2 5 2 .
3.
3.1. 31, 23 [2].
3.2.
3 5 7 2
1

3 4

2 3 3 2
1 3 5 4
3.3.

38

7 2

3 4

.
2 3 3 2
1 3 5 4
3.4. ,
3 5 7
1 2 4
= 2 1 0 , = 2 3 2 .
4 3 2
1 0 1

.
3.5. ,
1 3 1
2 1 0
= 2 0 4 , = 1 1 2 .
1 2 3
3 2 1

.
3.6. 22+3+5,
1 1 2
= 1 3 1 ,
4 1 1

.
3.7. , :
3 2 2
= 1 3 1 .
5 3 4

3.8.
3 1 1

1 5 1 .
1 1 3

3.9. ,
5 8 7
8 0 1

= 4 5 6 , = 1 4 2 .
1 2 3
7 4 1

3.10.
1 5 8 7
3 5 1 4
.
=
9 2 4 9

1 5 8 6
39

4.
4.1. Maple 14 .
4.2. ?
4.3. ?
4.4. ?
4.5. Maple 14?

40

9.


1.

linsolve(),
linalg.
2. linsolve()
linalg , solve() . Mx = b , M , b
, linsolve(M, B) [1].
.
[1]:
5 x + 2 y = 9,

2 x + 5 y = 6.
:
5 2 x 9
2 2 y = 6 .


Maple 14 :
> with(linalg):
:
> A := matrix(2, 1, [9, 6]);
9
6

:
> C := matrix(2, 2, [5, 2, 2, 2]);
5 2
2 2

Cx = A :
> linsolve(C, A);
1
2

: x = 1, y = 2 .
[6]:
x y + 3 z = 9,

3 x 5 y + z = 4,
4 x 7 y + z = 5.

41

:
1 1 3 x 9


3 5 1 y = 4 .
4 7 1 z 5


Maple 14 :
> with(linalg):
> A := matrix(3, 3, [1, 1, 3, 3, 5, 1, 4, 7, 1]);
1 1 3
A = 3 5 1
4 7 1

> B := matrix(3, 1, [9, 4, 5]);


9
B = 4

5
> linsolve(A, B);

84

93
2
31

2
93
31
: x = 84, y = , z = .
2
2

4 x + y + z = 0,

x + 3 y + z = 0,

x + y + 2 z = 0.
:
4 1 1 x 0
1 3 1 y = 0 .


1 1 2 z 0


Maple 14 :
> with(linalg):
> A := matrix(3, 3, [4, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 2]);
4 1 1
A = 1 3 1
1 1 2

42

> := matrix(3, 1, [0, 0, 0]);


0
C = 0

0

> linsolve(A, );
0
0

0

: x = y = z = 0 .
:
> det(A);
17
, det(A) 0, , .
3.
3.1. [6]:
3x1 + x2 = 4,
)
2 x1 + 4 x2 = 1;
x + y = 1,
)
x y = 2;
2 x y + 3 z = 9,

) 3 x 5 y + z = 4,
4 x 7 y + z = 5.

3.2.
:
2 x + 7 y + 3 z + t = 5,
x + 3 y + 5 z 2t = 3,

)
x + 5 y 9 z + 8t = 1,
5 x + 18 y + 4 z + 5t = 12;

x1 + x2 + x3 = 3,
2 x + 3 x + 2 x = 7,
1
2
3
)
3 x1 + x2 + x3 = 5,
5 x1 x2 x3 = 3.

43

3.3. [8]:
2 x 3 y + z 2 = 0,

) x + 5 y 4 z + 5 = 0,
4 x + y 3 z + 4 = 0;

2 x 4 y + 3 z = 1,

) x 2 y + 4 z = 3,
3 x y + 5 z = 2;

3 x + 2 y z = 0,

) 2 x y + 3 z = 0,
x + 3 y 4 z = 0;

3 x + 2 y z = 0,

) 2 x y + 3 z = 0,
x + y z = 0;

x + 2 y + 3z = 4,

) 2 x + 4 y + 6 z = 3,
3x + y z = 1;

x + 2 y + 3 z = 4,

) 2 x + y z = 3,
3 x + 3 y + 2 z = 10;

2 x y + z = 2,

) 3 x + 2 y + 2 z = 2,
x 2 y + z = 1;

3 x y + 2 z = 0,

) 2 x + 3 y 5 z = 0,
x + y + z = 0;

2 x y + 3 z = 0,

) x + 2 y 5 z = 0,
3 x + y 2 z = 0;

x 2 y + z = 4,

) 2 x + 3 y z = 3,
4 x y + z = 11;

x + 3 y 6 z = 12,

) 3 x + 2 y + 5 z = 10,
2 x + 5 y 3 z = 6;

44

5 x y z = 0,

) x + 2 y + 3 z = 14,
4 x + 3 y + 2 z = 16;

5 x + y + z = 0,

) x 6 y + z = 0,
x + y 7 z = 0;

3x + 2 y z = 0,

) x + 2 y + 9 z = 0,
x + y + 2 z = 0;

x + 2 y + z = 8,

) 3 x + 2 y + z = 10,
4 x + 3 y 2 z = 4.

4.
4.1. ?
4.2. , ?
4.3. ?
4.4. , ?
4.5. ?

45

10.

1.
Maple 14.
2. diff() int()
f()
diff(f, x).
; diff() :
diff(f, x1$n1, x2$n2,),
f , x1, x2; n1, n2 [3].

f ( x) = 5sin x + 3cos x.
> diff(5*sin(x) + 3*cos(x), x);
5 cos(x) 3 sin(x)
u = z x y x [3]. Maple 14
> u := z x* y ;
.
> u := z ^ (x * y); diff(u, x); diff(u, y); diff(u, z);
z x* y yln( z )
(1)

z x* y xln( z )

x* y

(2)

xy

z
u := z ^ (x * y); diff(u, x$2);
z x* y y 2ln( z ) 2

(3)

(4)
u u u
(1)(3)
, , ;
x y z
2u
(4) 2 .
z
Maple 14
int(f, par), par , ,
[3].
int()
:
int(f, x),
46

f ; x .
int()
:
int(f, x = a..b),
(a, b) .
[3]:
1 + sin x x
1 + cos x e dx .
:
> int((1 + sin(x))*exp(x)/(1 + cos(x)), x);
1
e xtan x
2
int()
:
int(f, = a..b, = ..d),
(a, b), (c, d) .

int().
3

dy

( x + 2 y ) dx .

y 4

:
> int(int(x + 2*y, x = y^2 4..5), y = 3..3);
252
5
> int(x + 2*y, x = y^2 4..5, y = 3..3);
252
5
3.
3.1. :
) f ( x) = ctg x x;
( x 1)( x 3)3
) f ( x) = ln
;
( x 2)3 ( x 4)
) f ( x) = 2cos x sin x + 3cos x;
) f ( x) = 5(tgx x);
) f ( x ) = x x (3ln x 2);
sin x cos x
e) f ( x) =
;
sin x + cos x
4tgx + 1 2 tgx
) f ( x) = ln
;
4tgx + 1 + 2 tgx

47

) f ( x) = x 3arctgx;
x
) f ( x) = ln tg ;
2
sin x
1 + sin x
) f ( x) =
;
+ ln
2
cos x
cos x

) f ( x) = ln( x + x2 + 1);
tg 2 x
+ ln cos x .
) f ( x) =
2
3.3. :
/4
x + sin x
dx;
)
1 + cos x
0
/3

cos

x sin 2 x dx;

0
3

x 2 sin 2 x
) 2
dx.
+
x
1
3
3.4. :

x + sin 2 y ) dx dy , 0 , 0 y ;
4
4
D

) e x +sin y cos y dx dy, 0 , 0 y ;


2
D

(cos

1
) z dx dy dz, 0 , x y 2 x,
2
T
0 z 1 x2 y 2 .
4.
4.1. Maple 14?
4.2. ?
4.3. Maple 14.
4.4. int(), , , ?
4.5. ?

48

11.

1.
dsolve()
Maple 14.
2. dsolve()
DEtools Maple 14 :
> with(DEtools):

diff(), D [1].
Maple 14 dsolve(, ), . ,
, . , , Maple 14 .
:
diff(x(t), x$) = f(t, x),
f(t, x) x; $
n [3].
[1]
y 1 x 2 = 1 + y 2 .
:
> dsolve(diff ( y ( x), x ) sqrt (1 x 2 ) = 1 + y ( x 2 ), y ( x));
y ( x) = tan(arcsin( x) + _ C1)
,
, dsolve()
- implicit.
:
> dsolve( diff ( y ( x), x) sqrt (1 x 2 ) = 1 + y ( x 2 ), y ( x), implicit );
arcsin( x) arctan( y ( x)) + _ C1 = 0
,
, dsolve(), [1].
, , [1]:
49


ytgx = y , y = 1.
2

Pi
> dsolve diff ( y ( x), x ) tan( x) = y ( x), y = 1 , y ( x) ;
2

y ( x) = sin( x)
[1]:
y + 5 y + 6 y = e x + e2 x .
> dsolve(diff ( y ( x), x$2) + 5 diff ( y ( x), x) + 6 y ( x) = exp( x) + exp(2 x), y ( x));
1
y ( x) = e2 x _ C 2 + e3 x _ C1 + e x + 2 x 2 e2 x
2
. ,
:
x = x + y cos(t ),

y = 2 x y + sin t + cos t.
:
> dsolve({diff ( x(t ), t ) = x(t ) + y (t ) cos(t ), diff ( y (t ), t ) = 2 x(t ) y (t ) + sin(t ) +

cos(t )}, {x(t ), y (t )});


{x(t ) = sin(t ) _ C 2 + cos(t ) _ C1 cos(t ) t , y (t ) = cos (t ) _ C 2 sin(t ) _ C1 + sin(t ) t
sin(t ) _ C 2 cos(t ) _ C1 + cos(t ) t}
collect() :
> collect (%, t ) : collect (%, _ C1) : collect (%, _ C 2);
{x(t ) = sin(t ) _ C 2 + cos(t ) _ C1 cos(t ) t , y (t ) = (cos(t ) sin(t )) _ C 2 + ( sin(t )
cos(t )) _ C1 + ( sin(t ) + cos(t )) t}
:
x = C2 sin t + C1 cos t t cos t ,

y = (cos t sin t )C2 + ( sin t cos t )C1 + (sin t + cos t )t.


, . x(0) = 1, y (0) = 2 [1]:
> dsolve({diff ( x(t ), t ) = x(t ) + y (t ) cos(t ), diff ( y (t ), t ) = 2 x(t ) y (t ) + sin(t ) +
cos(t ), x(0) = 1, y (0) = 2}, {x(t ), y (t )});
{x (t ) = 3sin(t ) + cos (t ) cos (t ) t , y (t ) = 2cos(t ) 4 sin(t ) + sin(t ) t + cos(t ) t}
, - series. :
> dsolve({diff ( x(t ), t ) = x(t ) + y (t ) cos(t ), diff ( y (t ), t ) = 2 x(t ) y (t ) + sin(t ) +
cos(t ), x(0) = 1, y (0) = 2}, {x(t ), y (t )}, series );
50

1 2 1 4 1 5

6
x(t ) = 1 + 2 t t + t t + O(t ),
2
24
60

1
1
1 5

y (t ) = 2 3t + t 3 t 4 +
t + O(t 6 )
6
12
120

3.
3.1. :
) ln cos y dx + x tg x y dy = 0;

) 3e x tg y dx + (1 + e x )sec2 y dy = 0; y(0) = ;
4
) y + sin( x + y ) = sin( x y ); ;
) x 1 + y 2 dx + y 1 + x 2 dy = 0;
xdy
ydx
)
+
= 0;
1 y2
1 x2

1 + cos 2 x
+ y = 0;
1 + sin y
cos y sin y 1
) y =
;
cos x sin x + 1
2
) y + 2 xy = xe x ;
y
= x ln x, y (e) = e2 / 2.
) y
x ln x
3.2. :
) ( x 2 + 2 xy )dx + xy dy = 0;
) (2 x + y + 1)dx + ( x + 2 y 1) dy = 0 ;
) ( x + y + 2)dx + (2 x + 2 y 1)dy = 0;
) ( x y 4)dy + ( x + y 2) dx = 0.
3.3. :
) y = x sin x; y (0) = 0; y(0) = 0; y(0) = 2;
) y sin 4 x = sin 2 x;

) y = 2sin x cos 2 x sin 3 x;


) y y 2 y = 0;
) y 4 y + 4 y = 0;
) y 6 y + 25 y = 2sin x + 3cos x;
) y 4 y + 3 y = e5 x ; y(0) = 3, y(0) = 9.
3.4. :
dx
dy
)
= 2 x + y,
= x + 2 y; x(0) = 1, y (0) = 3;
dt
dt
51

dx
dy
= e 3t y ,
= 2e3t x;
dt
dt
dx
dy
)
= 2 x + y + cos t ,
= x + 2sin t.
dt
dt
4.
4.1. Maple 14?
4.2. Maple 14?
4.3. Maple 14 ,
?
4.4. ?
4.5.
?
)

52

12.

1.
, minimize() maximize()
Maple 14.
2. minimize() maximize()

.
minimize() maximize(), simplex,
:
> with(simplex):
, .. Maple 14
minimize() maximize(), [1].
minimize() maximize() :
minimize( , {}, NONNEGATIVE);
maximize( , {}, NONNEGATIVE).
NONNEGATIVE , , , .
feasible({}, NONNEGATIVE),
simplex,
.
,
> with(simplex):
> feasible({4 x + 3 y 5, 3 x + 4 y = 4}, NONNEGATIVE )
true
.
1. z = x1 + 3 x2 + x3
x1 + 4 x2 + 3x3 12,

3x1 2 x2 + x3 6,
x 0, x 0, x 0.
2
3
1
:
> with(simplex):
> z := x1 + 3 x2 + x3;
z := x1 + 3x 2 + x3;
53

> minimize( z , {x1 + 4 x 2 + 3 x3 12, 3 x1 2 x 2 + x3 3}, NONNEGATIVE );


{x1 = 1, x 2 = 0, x3 = 0}
> subs(%, z);
1
: x1 = 0, x2 = 0, x3 = 0, min z = 1.
2. z = 5 + x1 + 3 x2
x1 + x2 10,

x1 6,
x 8.
2

:
> with(simplex).
> z := 5 + x1 + 3 x 2;
z := 5 + x1 + 3 x 2
> maximize( z, {x1 + x 2 10, x1 6, x 2 8}, NONNEGATIVE );
{x1 = 2, x 2 = 8}

> subs(%, z);


31
: x1 = 2, x2 = 8, max z = 31.
3.
3.1. z = 2 x1 + 2 x2
x1 3, 3 x1 2 x2 6, 3 x1 + x2 3.
3.2. z = 12 x1 + 4 x2
1
x1 + x2 2, x1 , x1 x2 0.
2
3.3. z = x1 + 3 x2 + 3 x3 x2 + x3 3, x1 x2 0, x2 1, 3 x1 + x2 15.
3.4. z = 3 x1 6 x2 + 2 x3 3 x1 + 3 x2 + 2 x3 6, x1 + 4 x2 + 8 x3 8.
3.5. z = x1 + 3 x2
x1 + 4 x2 4, x1 + x2 6, x2 2.
3.6. z = 2 x1 x2 + 3 x3 x1 + x2 2, 3 1 + 2 6, 3 3.
3.7. z = 8 x1 2 x2
3 x1 + 4 x2 18, 3 x1 x2 3, x2 6, 2 x1 + x2 18, 4 x1 x2 24.
54

3.8. z = x4 + x5
x1 + x4 2 x5 = 1, x2 2 x4 + x5 = 2, x3 + 3 x4 + x5 = 3.
3.9. z = x2 + x3
x1 x2 + x3 = 1, x2 + 2 x3 + x4 = 2.
3.10. z = 2 x1 x4
:
x1 + x2 = 20,

x2 + 2 x4 5,
x + x + x 8.
1 2 3
3.11. z = 7 x1 + 5 x2 :
2 x1 + 3 x2 + x3 = 19,
2 x + x + x = 13,
1 2
4

3 x2 + x5 = 15,
3 x1 + x6 = 18.
3.12. , z = x1 x3 ,
:
x1 2 x2 + x3 = 1,

x1 + 3 x2 + x4 = 2.
3.13. , z = 12 x1 + 5 x2 + 3 x3 ,
:
4 x1 + 3 x2 + x3 = 180,

4 x2 + 9 x3 + 12 x4 = 900.
4. .
4.1. ?
4.2. ?
4.3. -?
4.4. Maple 14
?
4.5. Maple 14 .

55



MAPLE 14

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14.03.2011. 6084 1/16.
. . . 3,49. 46.
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