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......................................................................................

5
............................................................................................................6
1. Softswitch.......................................................................................................8
1.1. ........................................................................8
1.2. Softswitch .........................................................................9
1.3. ...................................................................15
1.4. Softswitch ......................19
2. IP Multimedia Subsystem ............................................................................22
2.1. ......................................................................22
2.2. IMS .................................................................................22
2.3. ...................................................................26
2.4. ..................................................................26
2.5 IMS..............................28
3. ......................................................32
4. .........32
4.1. .........................................................................32
4.2. .....................................47
5.

....................................................................................................49
5.1. ............................................................49

5.2. ..................................... 52
5.3. IMS .......................................................... 54
5.4.

S-CSCF.......................... 55
5.5.

I-CSCF .......................... 57
6. ............ 59
6.1. ................................................................................ 59
6.2.
......................................................................................................... 63
7. ................................................. 65
7.1.

............................................................................................. 65
7.2.

................................................................................................ 71
7.3. IMS .......................................................... 73
........................................................................................ 75





AG Access Gateway
HTTP HyperText Transport Protocol
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network

P2PE Peer-to-Peer Education -


SDP Session Description Protocol (SIP)
SIP-T SIP for Telephony (IETF Draft) SIP
UA User Agent
UAS User Agent Server

7 7

DSS1 Digital Subscriber Signaling #1 1
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force TCP/IP
,

NGN Next Generation Network

RFC Request For Comment IETF ,


, , ..
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SNTlite Signaling Network Tester -
UAC User Agent Client
URI Universal Resource Identificator



TDM-,
.
NGN/IMS (Next
Generation Network/IP Multimedia Subsystem).

NGN/IMS Softswitch . 1.

. 1. TDM NGN

. 1
TDM-
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.

, V5.2,
INAP
( . 1). ,

.
Softswitch (
. 1).
6

,
:
, , .

.
:
- -
NGN/IMS VoIP;
NGN /
,
(Softswitch),
,
-
, , , ,
NGN/IMS.
,
, ,
( 8)
, ,

. ,
,
. , (
),
(, , ..)

.
NGN,
,
.
, .
, -,
NGN.
NGN/IMS.

210700
210400
( 210406
, 210404 ,
210402 , 210407
)
230100 (

230101 , , ,
230102
, 230105
).

,
-
. . .. -, ,

( ),


.

1. SOFTSWITCH
1.1.
Softswitch

IVR. Call Agent
Media Gateway
MGC (Media Gateway Controller), , Call
Agent, Softswitch.
SGCP (Signaling Gateway Control Protocol). IETF
MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol).
Softswitch.
Softswitch GK (Gatekeeper), H.323.
H.323,
, .
,
.
Softswitch ,
, , .
, Softswitch (
)
, , ,
. , Softswitch
Call Agent, , . .

, ,
,
.
, Softswitch
, . .
SG (Signaling Gateway), ,
,
,
. Softswitch, ,
.
Softswitch,
SIP ( H.323 BICC)
, .

Softswitch, Megaco, IETF,
, (. 1)
, :
Media Gateway,
, , ,
IP, ..
RTP/UDP/IP ,
;
Media Gateway Controller
(Softswitch, Call Agent),
;
Signaling Gateway,
, ,
,
, . ., , STP
7.

1.2. Softswitch
1.2.1.
Softswitch
, . 2: ;
; ;
.
, . 2
, () Softswitch,
IP-: AS-F
; SC-F ; CA-F
; MGC-F ; SPS-F

- SIP; R-F ; A-F ,


, ; MS-F ; SG-F
; MG-F ; IW-F
; AGS-F .
12 ,
, ,
. ,

,

.
.
MGC-F (Media Gateway Controller
Function)

. MGC-F
- MG-F,
MG-F,
IP- ,
, MGC-F ,
AS-F ,
,
,
R-F A-F ,
,
. MGC-F
H.248 MGCP.
CA-F (Call Agent Function)
IW-F (Interworking Function)
MGC-F. , CA-F, ,
MGC-F .
SIP, SIP-T,
BICC, H.323, Q.931, Q.SIG, INAP, ISUP, TCAP, BSSAP, RANAP, MAP CAP,
API API
JAIN Parlay. , IW-F, ,
MGC-F
, , IP ATM, 7 SIP/H.323 ..
R-F A-F (Call
Routing Accounting Functions) . R-F
MGC-F. A-F
,
AAA, ..
, .

10


, MGC-F,
( MGC-F)
(AS-F).

,
ISDN


(SCP,
, LDAP-)
AS-F, SC-F

,
,
SNMP

IP-
IP-PBX

IP-

Call-Agents, ,

SPS-F, R-F, A-F, CA-F, MGC-F

SIP, MGCP,H.248


(,
, QoS)
IP-, SIP, H.323

IP
( , AG, RAN,
IAD)
MS-F, AGS-F, MG-F

SIP/SIP-T, H.323, BICC



(,

)
IW-F, SG-F, MG-F

IP

VoIP

. 2. Softswitch

R-F/A-F
(R-F),
(A-F),
,
,
AS-F ,
. R-F A-F

R-F/A-F MGC-F,
R-F/A-F/MGC-F R-F/A-F.
A-F , AS-F
,
- .
R-F
ENUM TRIP, A-F
RADIUS Diameter.

11

SIP-- SPS-F (SIP Proxy Server Function)


, R-F
A-F - SIP.
SG-F (Signaling Gateway Function)
IP- ,
, , 7.
SG-F
IP-
() 7. SG-F
7
(ISUP INAP) (MAP CAP)
IP. SG-F
7, SIGTRAN
MGC-F SG-F. SG-F
MGC-F, SG-F
SIGTRAN TUA, SUA M3UA
over SCTP, , SG-F MGC-F SGF .
AGS-F (Access Gateway Signaling
Function) IP-
V5.1/V5.2
ISDN. AGS-F


TDM ATM. AGS-F
V5
ISDN ( ), BSSAP RANAP (
) IP. AGS-F
MGC-F V5, ISDN 7,
SIGTRAN M3UA, IUA V5UA over SCTP.
AS-F (Application Server Function)
.
AS-F MGC-F
(,
-), MGC-F
(,
),
, ,
SDP, MS-F
, web- web, API JAIN Parlay
,
, ,

12

MGC-F MS-F,
AS-F
, ,
MGC-F
. SIP, MGCP,
H.248, LDAP, HTTP, CPL XML.
AS-F MGC-F
,
, ,
. . , AS-F MGC-F
, AS-F MGC-F
API JAIN Parlay.
SC-F (Service Control Function)
, AS-F . SC-F
INAP, CAP MAP, API JAIN Parlay.
MG-F (Media Gateway Function)
IP- ,
/ ,
,
.
,
. MG-F
/ MGC-F
MGCP Megaco/H.248;
, , ,
, , ,
.;
,
, DTMF,
., ,
MGC-F;
,
DTMF, / ,
.
, MG-F ,
MGC-F ,
, ,
. RTP/RTCP
H.248.
MS-F (Media Server Function)

. , ,
AS-F MGC-F

13

.
MS-F ,
AS-F MGC-F ( ),
( ) SIP H.248.
MA-F
,
, ,
, ,
-, ,
.
1.2.2.
(Transport Plane)
, IP-
/ ,
. ,

. :
IP; ,
IP.
IP (IP Transport Domain)

IP-. ,
, QoS (Quality of Service).
(Interworking Domain)
,
,
IP , .
(Signaling Gateways),
;
(Media Gateways),

/ ;
(Interworking Gateways),
.
, IP (Non-IP Access Domain)
IP- IP . Access Gateways , , xDSL;

GSM/3G; IAD (Integrated Access Devices); .

14

IP-, , SIP-,
IP , Access Gateway.
1.2.3.
(Call
Control & Signaling Plane)
IP- , , ,
. Call Control & Signaling Plane
,
,
.
MGC (Media Gateway Controller), Call Agent,
Gatekeeper, LDAP- (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol).
1.2.4.
(Service & Application Plane)
, /
IP-.
,

. Application Servers Feature Servers.

, , ,
-, IVR . .
1.2.5
(Management Plane)
,
, .


(, SNMP),
API.

1.3.
Softswitch
NGN. ,
, .
,
.
, Softswitch

15

: ,
Softswitch , .

: SIP ( SIP-), 7 H.323.
E-DSS1 ISDN,
V5 ( SIGTRAN- V5U),

R1.5.
: MGCP Megaco/H.248,
Softswitch SIP-T BICC.
,
.
.
1.3.1. SIP
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
, ,
IP- (VoIP),
- NGN. SIP
-,
, ,
. SIP
UDP.
SIP SIP-T (SIP for Telephones, RFC 3372)

SIP.

-IP. SIP
(, SIP-) .
,
SIP-.
1.3.2. H.323
H.323
ISDN,
IP-. H.323
, :
RAS,
H.225 H.245.
H.225
H.245
TCP. RAS
UDP.

16


RTP.
RTCP. .323

. H.323, ,
, ,
Gatekeeper.
1.3.3. MGCP
MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol) ,
:
MG, MGC SG.
MGCP ,
.
master/slave (/), MGC
, ,
, . MGCP,
,
(IP). , ,
MGCP,
SIP-.
1.3.4. H.248/Megaco
H.248/Megaco
MGCP. , MGCP,
,
, MGC MG.
master/slave (/).
MGC , MG
, .. MG ,
.
Megaco/H.248 :
UDP, TCP, SCTP (Stream Control Transport Protocol).
UDP MGC.
TCP , .
SCTP .
Megaco/H.248 . IETF
,
SDP. C
, ITU-
ASN.1,

17

TagLength-Value (TLV). MGC


, MG .
1.3.5. BICC
BICC, ITU-T Q.1901,
,
(Serving
Nodes, SN). Bearer Independent
Call Control, .. ,
. BICC ISUP
7. ,
TDM.

.
1.3.6. SIGTRAN
SIGTRAN
7 IP-
MTP-3, ISUP,
SCCP, TCAP, MAP, INAP, 3 DSS1 (Q.931)
IP.
IP-
SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol).
SIGTRAN ISDN (IUA)
/ISDN SG
MGC.
ISDN (PRA BRA) Q.931 , - .
2 (M2UA)
7,
3 (M3UA)
3 .
, ,
.
SCCP (SUA)
IP - SCCP (MAP
CAP TCAP, RANAP ..).
SG IP (,
IP) ,
IP.

18

1.4. Softswitch

Softswitch
, , ,
.
Softswitch.
1.4.1. Softswitch
Softswitch
IV. ,
, Softswitch


. Softswitch

.
Softswitch

NGN .
, ,
.

. ,

.

Softswitch
,
,
, ,
IP. ,
Softswitch 7
, .
1.4.2. Softswitch

Softswitch
(Softswitch V )
(
) NGN
, ,
19

.
( IP-
SIP-).
,
, IP.

Softswitch
( IP-Centrex,
, Parlay );
AG;
VoIP
, 1,54
;
VPN;

;
,
Softswitch.
1.4.3. Softswitch SSP
Softswitch

SSP ,
,
SCP. (SSF)

MGC. SCP

MGC.
SSP SCP INAP-R,
TDM-,
.

IN,
SSP Softswitch
:
SSF,

,
,
SSP ;

20

SSF
,
SSP,
SSP MGC;
,
,
, , ,
;

,
Softswitch;
()
, , ,
.
1.4.4. Softswitch


Softswitch ;


;
(SIP-);
..

(IP-)
IP.
ENUM ( ),
URI ( ) IP.
,
SIP-.
Softswitch


.

Parlay
;
Parlay, , ,
; ;
;

21


.
,
Softswitch
.
Softswitch
,
.
Softswitch ,
:
,
( ) .
Softswitch
NGN/IMS
.

2. IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM
2.1.
2002 . 3GPP,
3G, IMS
, IP Multimedia Domain

. TISPAN (Telecommunications and
Internet converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networking),
IMS
FMC (Fixed-Mobile
Convergence).

2.2. IMS
IMS
IMS
(. 3). , IMS
Softswitch. IMS
(User Plane),
(Control Plane) (Application Plane).
3GPP , .
, IMS-, Softswitch,
, .
IMS
.
, ,
.

22

. 3 .

. 3. IMS

2.2.1. HSS SLF


IMS-
HSS. HSS

HLR (Home Location Register) GSM.
HSS ,
, HSS. ,
HSS, SLF
(Subscriber Location Function),
, HSS .
, SLF ,
HSS, .
2.2.2. SIP-
CSCF (Call Session Control Function)
IMS, , ,
SIP- SIP- IMS.
CSCF : Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF), Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF)
Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF).
, P-CSCF
( ) IMS-
IMS-. SIP, / 23

, , IMS . P-CSCF
UA,
SIP-,
.
I-CSCF SIP-,
. SIP-
SIP-, DNS
I-CSCF .
SIP- I-CSCF Diameter HSS SLF,

S-CSCF. S-CSCF
, I-CSCF .
S-CSCF
, .. SIP-, .
, S-CSCF SIP
(SIP-registrar),
(, IP- ,
) SIP- (PUI-Public User Identity).
S-CSCF Diameter HSS,
,
, , . .

SIP . , S-CSCF
HSS ,
, .
2.2.3. PDF
Policy Decision Function (PDF)
P-CSCF, .

( , ..),
P-CSCF. PDF
GGSN
,
.
2.2.4.
(Application Servers), ,
IMS, , , ,
, IMS-.
S-CSCF SIP.

24

SIP-, SIP-,
.
2.2.5. MRF
MRF (Media Resource Function),

, ,
,
. MRF : MRFC Media Resource Function Controller MRFP Media Resource Function Processor.
MRFC S-CSCF
SIP. , MRFC
Megaco/H.248 MRFP,
, .
2.2.6. BGCF
Breakout Gateway Control Function SIP-,
. BGCF
, IMS,
(, 2G). BGCF
IMS-,
, /CS ,
,
BGCF. BGCF BGCF
, /CS .
2.2.7. /CS
/CS IMS-
.
,
Softswitch: SGW Signaling Gateway, MGCF Media Gateway Control Function MGW Media Gateway.
2.2.8. SEG

(security domain), ,
,
,
SEG (Security
Gateway). ,
, SEG
. SEG
SBC.

25

2.3.
IMS
SIP,
NGN, TDM. , IMS
HSS Diameter.
. Diameter
RADIUS , ,

, AAA (Authentication, Authorization,
Accounting). TCP SCTP,
,
, .
, Diameter, , ,
.
IMS Softswitch,
IPv4, IPv6.
IP ,
,
IPv4
,
. IPv4
: 32-
; ,
; IP-;
IPv4.
, IP-
,
.

IPv4 IPv6.

2.4.

.
IMS (. 4, 5).

26

Naou OoII

Naou IMS

Iai?oaiaaiea
OoII

MGCF
(Softswitch)

I-CSCF

S-CSCF

Iai?oaiaaiea
aucuaaaiiai
aaiiaioa

P-CSCF

ISUP: IAM
Auai? IM-MGW
H.248: ADD req
Context ID=?
Termination ID=?

H.248:ADD req
Context ID=C1
Termination ID=TDM-1

H.248: ADD req


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=RTP-1

INVITE
100 TRYING

INViTE
100 TRYING

H.248: MOD req

183 Session
Progress

INViTE
100 TRYING

INViTE

183 Session
Progress

183 Session
Progress

PRACK

PRACK

PRACK

200 OK

200 OK

200 OK

180 Ringing

180 Ringing

180 Ringing

PRACK

PRACK

PRACK

200 OK

200 OK

200 OK

183 Session
Progress

Context ID=C1
Termination
H.248:ID=RTP-1
MOD

resp
Context ID=C1
Termination ID=RTP-1

180 Ringing

Ringing

ISUP: ACM

. 4.

27

IMS
MGCF
(Softswitch)

I-CSCF

S-CSCF

P-CSCF

H.248: MOD reg

Ringing

Context ID-C1
Termination ID TDM-1
Procedure: Send TDM Tone

H.248: MOD resp


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=TDM-1

Answer
200

200

200

ACK

BYE

BYE

BYE

200

200

200

H.248: MOD reg


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=TDM-1
Procedure: Stop TDM Tone

H.248: MOD resp


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=TDM-1

H.248: MOD reg


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=RTP-1

H.248: MOD resp


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=RTP-1

ISUP:REL
H.248: SUB req
Context ID=C1
Termination ID=TDM-1

H.248: SUB resp


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=TDM-1

H.248: SUB req


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=RTP-1

H.248: SUB resp


Context ID=C1
Termination ID=RTP-1

ISUP: RLC

. 5.

2.5 IMS

NGN . QoS
IMS.
IMS
QoS. SIP
, , ,
, RTP, .
28

IMS ,
,
.

.
,
.

( , ),
(
, Instant Messaging).
,
-,
.
, IMS ,
,
.

. IMS
,
,
(. 6).


IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)

IN

PS

CS

OSS

. 6. , IMS

, IMS,
/ .

29

IMS
IP-,
, . ,
IMS :
, ,
, , , .
2.5.1.
,
IMS
.
NGN IMS
, IMS
() (2G)
.
, , ,

.
2.5.2.
IMS
, GPRS, ,
WLAN, xDSL, HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax) .. .
IP-, IMS
. 3GPP
GSM , IMS (Release
5) GPRS- .
, , ,
IMS
, IP connectivity access
,
IP-
IMS .
2.5.3.
,
XXI
, IMS.

, IMS
, (service capability).
, , service
capability,

30

,
service capability ( ).
, IMS
, . . ,

, .
,
(,
G.711), , (,
).
2.5.4.
2G, IMS,
, ,
:
GPRS- RAN SGSN,
GGSN IMS;
IMS- IP-
( P-CSCF),
;
CS- IMS
.
2.5.5.

, IMS
, , , GPRS-
. IMS
,
, , .
2.5.6.
, IMS
. IMS

,
,
, ,
.. , IMS-
, .
IMS online,
offline.

31

3.

,
,
. .
1
o
, ,
,
o
Softswitch,
,
o NGN,
,
.
2
o
,
,
o
,
.
3
o
, S-CSCF
,
o
, I-CSCF
,
o
.

4.

4.1.
:
1.
.
2.
.

32

. 7. NGN

:
:
) , ,
(RAGW) N pstn ;
) , ISDN,
RAGW N isdn ;
) , SIP/H.323,
N sh ;
) N i _ lan , LAN, i
LAN, LAN,
, I, N lan .
,
SIP/ H.323.
, . ,
N sh N lan .
,
SIP/H.323, :
,
N sh ,
LAN,
I

Ni _ LAN , , , LAN ,
1

: N i _ lan I .

33

(. 8)
, .

. 8. SIP/H.323

,
,
(. 9).
M

N pbx N m _ pbx
m 1

. 9. PRI

34

) , ISDN-PRA
, M
;
N m _ pbx ,
m , m - ;

N pbx

.
) V5,
, J V5,
N j _ v 5 V5j, j
;
N v 5 V5.
,
:
y pstn = 0,1 ,

y ISDN = 0,2 ISDN ,


y sh = 0,2 ,

SIP/ H.323 ,
yi _ v 5 = 0,8 ,
V5 ( ),
Ym _ pbx = 0,8 ,
PRI ( ).
,
SIP/H.323 LAN, ,
, ,
.
,
, Softswitch.
,

, ( ),
,
, .


, ,
.
. 10, , ,

35

(
, , ),
.

. 10.


. ,
, ,
, 100, ,
. ,

,
.
, ,
.

, ,
.
, .
Y , ,
:
Y N y ;
(1)
YISDN , ISDN

:
YISDN N ISDN y ISDN ;

36

(2)

Y j _ v 5 , j,

V5:
(3)
, ,
V5, :
Y j _V 5 N j _V 5 yi _V 5 ;

j 1

j 1

YV 5 Y j _V 5 yi _V 5 N j _V 5 ;

(4)

Ym _ pbx , m, PRI:

(5)

Ym _ PBX N m _ PBX ym _ PBX ;

, :
YPBX

m1

m 1

Ym _ PBX ym _ PBX N m _ PBX .

(6)

,
.
,
,
.

J

j 1

k 1

YGW yi _V 5 N j _V 5 yk _ PBX N k _ PBX

(7)

y N y ISDN N ISDN .

, ,
, ,
, , . .
, (. 11).

. 11.

37

, , ,
(
).

.12.

VCOD _ m m
.
VCOD _ m . 1.
1

G. 711
G. 723.1 I/r
G. 723.1 h/r
G. 729

Vtrans _ cod ,

64
6,4
5,3
8

80
20
24
10

134
74
78
64

134/80=1,675
74/20=3,7
78/274=3,25
64/10=6,4

108,8
23,68
17,225
51,2

VCOD _ m ,

,
m,
:
(8)
Vtrans _ cod k VCOD _ m ,
k ,
,
.
G.711.
:
.
RTP/UDP/IP/Ethernet (
) 54 (12+8+20+14).
134 .
: k = 134/80 = 1,675.

38

:
,
1,7 (. 13).

. 13. G.711, IP


VoIP -.
,
, , , DTMF ..
64 /
. ,

, ..
G.711.

.
.
IP, ,

.

, SIP, H.323 LAN,
.


.
SIP H.323
,
, ,
.

39


, . . ,
.
, ,
.

.

(. 14):

.
, ,

,
,
.


,
.

QoS , ,
( , ),
. ,
,
( ) .
.

. 14.

40

,
(
),
,
. ,


QoS .
.

.
t .
,
(
, .). ,

, 2 .
t = 2 ,
,
.
(
), ,
,
QoS.
x , ,
.
Vtrans _ cod _ i i,
N .
, i
Vc _ i Vtrans _ cod _ i N .

(9)

VGW Vc _ i ,
i 1

(10)

L .
:
M

V VGW ,
j 1

(11)

41

M .

. 15.



:
;
1)
2)
;
3)
;
,
.
:
Y = 50 ;
p = 0,03
.
(
)
:

V = 59

42

, .


( ). ,
, .
.
, ,
,
,
QoS .

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
(. 16).

. 16.


.

,
, :

Vtrans _ cod
L packet _ cod

(12)

Vtrans_cod , ;
Lpacket_cod .

:

43

i ,

(13)

i 1

N .
, :
S (1)

1
,

(14)

,
.
.

ITU (. 17): IP
VoIP
100 .
( , ..).
.

. 17.


(),
, :

(15)

, ,
,
:

V
.

(16)

,

, ,
.
,
,
44

,
, ,

.

, .

LMEGACO ( )
Megaco/H.248,
N MEGACO Megaco/H.248
,
LV 5UA V5UA,
NV 5UA V5UA
,
LIUA IUA,
N IUA IUA
,
LSH SIP/H.323,
N SIP SIP/H.323
.

MEGACO, ,
, :
VMEGACO k sig [( P N PISDN N ISDN
PV 5 NV 5 PPBX N PBX ) LMEGACO N MEGACO ] / 450,

NV 5 J N j _V 5 ,

(17)

N PBX M N m _V 5 ,

(18)
(19)

N LAN I N i _ LAN ,

k sig

.;
P ,
;
PISDN ,
ISDN;
PV 5 ( )
,
V5;
PPBX ( )
, ;
45

PSH ,

SIP, H.323 ( ,
, LAN).

, ,
. 18.
T , t 1, t 2, , t 5
.

. 18.

, ,
,
:
k sig T / ti .
(20)
i

k sig =5, 0,2 (. .



).
1/ 450
(8/3600=1/450), 1/90, ,
k sig =5, , , 51/450=1/90.
,
, ,
.
,

(/):
VISDN ( PISDN N ISDN LIUA N IUA ) / 90,
(21)
VV 5 ( PV 5 NV 5 LV 5UA NV 5UA ) / 90,
(22)
VPBX ( PPBX N PBX LIUA N IUA ) / 90,
(23)
VSH ( PSH N SH LSH N SH ) / 90,
(24)
46

(25)

VLAN ( PSH N LAN LSH N SH ) / 90.

4.2.


.

. 19. Softswitch 5 NGN


.

NGN ,

.


( )
, . 2.
2

PPSTN

PISDN

PV 5

PPBX

PSH

10

35

35

10

47

,
:
PCALL P N PISDN N ISDN
PSH N SH PV 5 NV 5 PPBX N PBX PSH N LAN .

(26)


, ..
, , ISDN,
.
, ,
.
,
,

.

.
,
( PSX ) PCALL
:
PSX k P N k ISDN PISDN N ISDN
J

j 1

m1

kV 5 PV 5 N j _V 5 k PBX PPBX N m _ BX
I

k SH PSH N SH k SH PSH N i _ LAN .


i 1

48

(27)

5.

5.1.

. 20. NGN

.

.

E1,
:
o , 7
MGW
SGW;
o , 7
Softswitch MGW
.
Softswitch;
,
;

, ;
.
:
N l _ E1 1 ,
l,
y 1 64 / 1,

49

Yl _ GW ,

,
VINT ,
N INT ,
I ,

N i _ INT I,
Vi _ INT I,
N E1 E1, .

( )
(28)

Yl _ GW N l _ E1 30 y E1.

y1 0,8 .
.

,
. 4.
, ,
(12), .
. 3 ITU QoS
. VoIP .
(14)
.
3

QOS

1

IP, IPDT

100 400 100 400

IP, IPDV

50 50

IP, IPLR

0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001

50

IP, IPER 0,0001 0,0001 0,0001 0,0001

(15) (16)
.

, .
,
MEGACO, ,
:
VMEGACO k sig LMEGACO N MEGACO PMEGACO / 450 (/),
(29)
PMEGACO MEGACO
; k sig 5, .
, MGW (/)
VGW VMEGACO .
(30)


.

:
VGW N INT VINT (/).
(31)
(31)
:
I

VGW ( N i _ INT Vi _ INT ) (/).


i 1

(32)

,

.
:
N INT

VGW
,
VINT

(33)

VINT .
(7)
,
, MxUA
(M2UA M3UA).

51

5.2.
(. 21)

.

, .

. 21. Softswitch 4 NGN


, 64
/ 1, 1,
.
:
PCH ,
64 /,
PGW ,
,
L ,
.
(/),
l , :
(34)
Pl _ GW N l _ E1 30 PCH .
, (/),
,

52

l 1

l 1

PSX Pl _ GW 30 PCH N l _ E1.

(35)


,

.

7 Softswitch M2UA
M3UA, .
:
LMXUA ( ) MxUA,
N MXUA MxUA
,
LMEGACO ( ) MEGACO,
,
N MEGACO MEGACO
,
PSIG ,
.
Softswitch (/),
MxUA:
(36)
VSX _ MXUA k sig LMXUA N MXUA PSX / 450 ,
k .
, (/),
MEGACO:
VSX _ MEGACO k sig LMEGACO N MEGACO PSX / 450,
(37)
Softswitch
(/),
:
VSX VSX _ MXUA VSX _ MEGACO .
(38)

.
SGW
,
.

MxUA, ,
(/)
( ):
VSIG k sig PSIG LMXUA N MXUA / 450.
(39)

53

5.3. IMS
. 22 IMS.
,
3GPP.
IMS, .
, ,
IMS, Softswitch, MGCF.
Softswitch I-CSCF, P-CSCF S-CSCF,
.

MRF / () (AS).

SI
G

TR
AN

SIP

SI
P

DI
AM
SIP

SIP

SIP

P
SI

SIP

P
SI

ET
ER

. 22. IMS. IMS

, . 22
, /
. , ,
.

. 4. MGCF/Softswitch
.
. 4 ,
, .
54

,
, .

5.4. ,
S-CSCF
IMS,
S-CSCF. SIP-,
.

(. 23).

P
SI

P
SI

. 23. S-CSCF IMS

, IMS
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
55

,
.

S-CSCF,
, SIP.


Softswitch (. 23), IMS
MGCF. Softswitch SIP I-CSCF,
, SIP
S-CSCF. I-CSCF Softswitch S-CSCF ,
,
, .
, S-CSCF
. , S-CSCF
- (MRF) (AS). , SCSCF MGCF, I-CSCF, MRF, AS.
SIP- P-CSCF,
,
.
:
SIP :
a) SS S-CSCF N sip1 ,
b) MRF S-CSCF N sip 2 ,
c) AS S-CSCF N sip3 ,
d) I-CSCF S-CSCF N sip 4 ,
SIP Lsip ;
X% ,
MRF;
Y%. ,
AS;
Vss-s-csc f MGCF S-CSCF,
SIP
;
Vas-s-csc f (AS)
S-CSCF, SIP
;

56

Vmrf -s-csc f MRF S-CSCF,

SIP
;
Vi-csc f -s-csc f I-CSCF S-CSCF,
SIP
;
Vs-csc f S-CSCF,
SIP .

S-CSCF
IMS :
Vs-csc f Vi csc f scsc f Vmrf -s-csc f Vas scsc f Vss s csc f ,

(40)

Vas scsc f k sig Lsip N sip 2 Psx X % / 450,


Vmrf s csc f k sig Lsip N sip 3Psx Y % / 450,
Vi csc f s csc f ksig Lsip N sip 4 Psx / 450;
Vss scsc f k sig Lsip N sip1Psx / 450,

(41)
(42)
(43)
(44)

Psx , k sig Lsip , (40) (44), :


Psx . 4
(40).
k sig . 4 .
Lsip Lsh ,
. 4.

5.5. ,
I-CSCF
, S-CSCF, I-CSCF
, .
SIP-, HSS SLF,
SCSCF.
,
I-CSCF .
. 24, I-CSCF S-CSCF, Softswitch (MGCF),
P-CSCF HSS.
, HSS

57

DIAMETER,
.

I-CSCF
SIP, .

. 24. I-CSCF IMS


I-CSCF SIP- Softswitch (MGCF) S-CSCF.
1) SIP- :
a) I-CSCF S-CSCF N sip 4 ,
b) SSW I-CSCF N sip5 .
L

2) SIP sip .
:
Vi csc f I-CSCF,
SIP ,
Vssi csc f SoftSwitch I-CSCF,
SIP
.

58

:
(45)

Vi csc f Vssi csc f Vi csc f s csc f .

Vi csc f s csc f (44), Vssi csc f


:
(46)
Vssi csc f k sig ( Lsip N sip5 Psx ).
IMS
S-CSCF I-CSCF.

6.

6.1.
:

20% G.711

20% G.723 I/r

30% G.723 h/r

30% G.729A.

n = 0,9.
:

30% G.711

30% G.723 I/r

20% G.723 h/r

20% G.729A.

n = 0,5.
4

K PSTN

K ISDN

KV 5

K PBX

K SHM

1,25
1,3

1,75
1,8

2
1,9

1,75
1,8

1,9
2

59

5

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

5000

80000

11000

14000

12000

6000

7000

15000

10000

5000

13000

7500

8500

9000

11000

20000

10000

15500

13000

8000

5000

500

300

700

600

800

200

400

1000

600

200

900

350

550

400

600

1200

1500

900

1100

500

700

100

150

200

250

100

50

150

200

250

50

100

100

150

50

200

250

1000

1000

300

200

150

10

N i _ lan

40

30

20

50

30

40

60

70

20

40

30

20

50

30

60

70

40

70

90

20

50

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

60

50

40

30

20

100

150

120

140

130

90

100

80

200

150

120

130

150

200

100

250

100

300

400

200

150

150

145

155

150

145

155

150

145

155

150

145

155

150

145

155

150

150

155

145

150

155

N MEGACO
(.)

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

LV 5UA
()

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

150

150

155

145

150

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

155

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

150

155

145

145

150

155

150

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

N PSTN
()

N ISDN
()

N sh ()

()
J

N j _ v5

()

N m _ pbx
()

LMEGACO
()

NV 5UA
(.)

LIUA
()

N IUA
(.)

60

61

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

LSH

140

145

150

155

140

145

150

155

140

145

150

155

140

145

150

155

160

160

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Nl_E1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Pch
(/)

1000

1500

2000

2500

1000

1500

2000

250
0

100
0

150
0

200
0

2500

1000

1500

2000

L (
2)

Pmegaco
(/)

6000

5000

7000

6500

7500

8500

5500

600
0

500
0

700
0

650
0

7500

8500

Lmxua
()
Nmxua
(
)
Psig
(/)

160

150

140

145

155

165

170

175

145

150

155

160

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

18000

10000

20000

25000

30000

35000

40000

45000

10000

1500
0

(/)

0,25

0,20

0,21

0,22

0,23

0,24

0,25

0,2

0,21

N sip1

10

15

10

15

10

N sip 2

15

10

15

10

N sip 3

10

15

10

15

N sip 4

10

15

10

15

N sip5

15

10

15

X%

15

20

30

Y%

40

30

20

()
NSH (
)

62

20

21

145

140

10

19
15
5
10

10

10

2500

1000

1500

2000

2500

1000

5500

6000

5000

7000

6500

7500

8500

5500

165

170

175

160

150

140

145

155

165

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

1000
0

2000
0

25000

30000

35000

40000

45000

10000

15000

20000

25000

0,22

0,23

0,24

0,25

0,2

0,21

0,22

0,23

0,24

0,25

0,2

0,21

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

15

10

40

50

60

50

40

30

15

20

30

40

50

60

15

20

30

40

50

60

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

10

15

6.2.


. ,
.
, ,
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
,
.

.


.

,

.
, -,
.
.

. 4
(210297 )
. : Times New Roman Cyr. :
, 14 . : ,
16 . : , 14 .
.
.
.
.
, , .
,
.
, ,
. .
.
.

63

.
.
. 25.

-

. . .. -
______________________________________________

________________________________________________




________________________________________________


NGN/IMS
( )

____________
____________
_______________________ (________________________)
()

(...)

_______________________
(, )

(________________________)
(...)

_______________________ (________________________)
201_ .
. 25.


;
. ,

.

64

7.
.

7.1.


.
6

N
5000
N ISDN

500

N SH

100

I
N i _ lan

8 LAN
40

3
100

N k _ pbx

N j _V 5

2
90

LMEGACO

150

N MEGACO

10

Lv 5ua

145

N v 5ua

10

Liua

155

N iua

10

Lsh

140

N sh

10

Lmgcp

150

N mgcp

10

65

,
.
:
Y y N =0,15000=500 ().

ISDN:
YISDN y ISDN N ISDN =0,2500=100 ().

j V5:
Y j _ v 5 y j _ v 5 N j _ v 5 =0,890=72 ().

, ,
V5:
J

j 1

j 1

YV 5 Y j _V 5 0.8 N j _V 5 .

Yv 5 =272=144 ().

k:
Yk _ pbx yk _ pbx N k _ pbx =0,8100= 80 ().

, ,
:
Y pbx =380=240 ().

,
, ,
:
YGW Y YISDN Yv 5 Y pbx =500+100+240+144=984 ().


,
POTS = 2000, ISDN = 500,
V5 = 5, PBX = 3.
,
3 .
. 26.
,

, ,

66

,
.

. 26.

GW1

POTS
ISDN
PRI
V5



1
2000
500
3
5

(
)
2000
0
0
2

GW2

POTS
ISDN
PRI
V5



1
2000
500
3
5

(
)
2000
0
3
0

67

GW3



1
POTS
2000
ISDN
500
PRI
3
V5
5

(
)
2000
500
0
0


2. .

300

(
)
MG

SIP/H.323
LAN


(
)
3
100

111



, .

:
20% G.711,
20% G.723 I/r,
30% G.723 h/r,
30% G.729 .
,
:
G. 711
Vtranc _ cod = 134/80 64 = 107,2 (/)
G. 723.1 I/r
Vtranc _ cod = 74/20 6,4 = 23,68 (/)
G. 723.1 h/r
Vtranc _ cod = 78/24 5,3 = 17,225 (/)
G. 729

68

Vtranc _ cod

= 64/10 8 = 51,2 (/)

, .
.
.
.
1-
YGW _1 YPSTN Yv 5 y PSTN N PSTN yv 5 N v 5 =200+144 = 344 .
,
.
G. 711
YGW _1 = 344 0,2 =68,8 .
G. 723.1 I/r
YGW _1 = 344 0,2 = 68,8 .
G. 723.1 h/r
YGW _1 = 344 0,3 = 103,2 .
G. 729
YGW _1 = 344 0,3 = 103,2 .
.
, ,
,
(x), ( ) = 0,25:
G. 711: =55;
G. 723.1 I/r: =55;
G. 723.1 h/r: =81;
G. 729: =81.
, G. 711:
VC (G _ 711) = 55 107,2 = 5896 (/).
:
VC (G. 723.1 I / r ) = 55 23,68 = 1302,4 (/),
VC (G. 723.1h / r ) = 81 17,225 = 1395,225 (/),
VC (G. 729) = 81 51,2 = 4147,2 (/),

:
VGW _1 = 5896 + 1302, 4 + 1395,225 + 4147,2 = 12740,9 (/).
(. 27).

69

. 27.

2- :
VGW _ 2 = 16010,1 (/);
VGW _ 3 = 7603,44 (/).


:
V=12740,9 + 16010,1 + 7603,44 = 36354,44 (/).
.
:
=107,2/134 = 0,8;

G.711
G. 723.1 I / r = 0,32;
G. 723.1h / r = 0,22;

G.711

= 0,8.


:
= 0,8 + 0,32 + 0,22 + 0,8 = 2,14.
,
:
= 1/100 + 2,14 = 2,15.

, :
= 2,14/2,15 = 0,995.

70

, , ,
,
:
= 36354,44/0,995 = 36537,13 (/).
,
LAN, PBX V5:
NV 5 J N j _V 5 2 90 180,
N PBX M N m _V 5 3 100 300,
N LAN I N i _ LAN 8 40 320.


MEGACO, ,
, :
VMEGACO k sig [( P N PISDN N ISDN PV 5 NV 5
PPBX N PBX ) LMEGACO N MEGACO ]

VMEGACO = 515010 (55000+10500+35180+35300)/450=780000 (/).


:
VISDN PISDN N ISDN Liua N iua ) /90=1050015510/90=86111 (/),
Vv 5 ( Pv 5 N v 5 Lv 5ua N v 5ua ) /90=3518014510/90=101500 (/),
VPBX ( PPBX N PBX Liua N iua ) / 90=3530015510/90=180833 (/),
VSH ( PSH N SH LSH N SH ) / 90=1001014010/90=15556 (/),
VLAN ( PSH N LAN LSH N SH ) / 90=1401032010/90=49778 (/).

7.2.


, :
PCALL P

PISDN N ISDN PSH N SH

PV 5 NV 5 PPBX N PBX PSH N LAN ,


PCALL = 55000 + 10500 + 10100 + 35180 + 35300 + 10320 = 51000 (/).


PCALL :
PSX k

k ISDN PISDN N ISDN kV 5 PV 5 N j _V 5


j 1

m 1

i 1

k PBX PPBX N m _ PBX k SH PSH N SH k SH PSH N i _ LAN .

71

PSX = 1,2555000 + 1,7510500 + 235180 + 1,7535300 + 1,910100 +

+ 1,910320 = 78955 (/)



(L) , L = 1;
,
:
Yl _ GW N l _ E1 30 y E1. (),
Yl _ GW = 5300,8 = 120 ().


,
: ,

= 36537,13 (/).
,
MEGACO:
Vmegaco k sig Lmegaco N megaco Pmegaco / 450 (/),
Vmegaco = 5150106000/450 = 100000 (/).

, MGW :
VGW VMEGACO (/).
VGW = 365370 + 100000 = 465370 (/).


,
l, :
P1_ gw N1_ 130Pch = 5301000=150000 (/).

, ,
:
L

l 1

l 1

PSX Pl _ GW 30 PCH N l _ E1.

L=1,
, Psx Pl _ gw :
Psx =150000= Pi _ GW =150000 (/) .

Softswitch,
MxUA, :
Vsx _ mxua k

72

sig

Lmxua N mxua Psx / 450 516010150000 / 4502666667( / ) .

, ,
MGCP, :
Vsx _ megaco k sig Lmegaco N megaco Psx / 450515010150000 / 450 2500000 / .

Softswitch,

, :
Vsx k sig Psig ( Lmxua N mxua Lmegaco N megaco ) / 450 2666667 2500000 5166667 / .

MxUA,
,
(
):
Vsig k sig Psig Lmxua N mxua / 450 51800016010 / 450 320000 / .

7.3. IMS
S-CSCF
.
7

10
Nsip1
5
Nsip2
Nsip3

Nsip4

10

Lsip
X%
Y%
Nsip5

140
15%
40%
15

,
S-CSCF Softswitch:
Vss scsc f k sig ( Lsh N sip1Psx ) / 450 514010150000 / 450 2333333 ( / ).

,
S-CSCF (AS):
Vas s csc f k sig ( Lsh N sip 2 Psx X %) / 450 514051500000,15 / 450 175000 ( / ).

,
S-CSCF MRF:

73

Vmrf s csc f k sig ( Lsh N sip 3 Psx Y %) / 450 514051500000, 4 / 450 466667 ( / ).

,
S-CSCF I-CSCF:
Vi csc f s csc f k sig ( Lsh N sip 4 Psx ) / 450 514010150000 / 450 2333333 ( / ).


Vscsc f Vi csc f s csc f Vmrf scsc f Vas s csc f
Vss scsc f 2333333 175000 466667 2333333 5308333 ( / ).

I-CSCF
Softswitch I-CSCF (. 28),
SIP
:
Vssi csc f k sig ( Lsh N sip5 Psx ) / 450 514015150000 / 450 3500000 ( / ).


Vi csc f Vssi csc f Vi csc f s csc f 3500000 5308333 8808333 ( / ).

,
,

(. 4 ),

.

SI
P

P
SI

. 28. IMS. S-CSCF I-CSCF

74

1. , .. Softswitch/ .. , .. -.
. : BHV, 2006.

2. , .. NGN: /
.. ; . .. . .: -, 2008.
3. , .. / .. ; .
1. . . 2. . : , 2005.
4. , .. SIP / .. , .. ,
..; . . :
, 2005.
5. , .. Megaco/H.248 / .. , .. ,
.. ; . . :
, 2009.

6. http://www.niits.ru/
7. http://www.skri.sut.ru/
8. http://www.protei.ru/

75