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IV

" "

..

2000 2001 . :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

2007 .



.
1.1

, .
.
.
, . .
, , .
. , m M ,
(m/M 104 105 ).
( e
..). :
b
= E ;

({R}, {r})

(1.1)

2 X
X ~2 O2
1 X e2
1 X ZJ ZK e2 X ZJ e2
J
b =~
O2i
+
+

,
H
2m
2MJ
2
rik
2
RJK
riJ
i

r ik = |r i r k |

i6=k

RJK = |RJ RK |

J6=K

r iJ = |r i RJ |,

J,i

(1.2)

m , M - , Z - . ,
, m M .
b ):
(1.2) (2 H
"
#
~2 X 2
= ,

Oi + V (r, R)
(1.3)
2m
i

,
({R}, {r}) , (R).
R ,

(r,
R) = (R)(r,R)

(1.4)

1. .
(1.4) (1.1), (1.2) (1.3),

~2 X 1 2
OJ + 2(OJ OJ ) + O2J + = E.
2
MJ

(1.5)

R
R
R
d3 r |(r, R)|2 = 1 OJ d3 r |(r, R)|2 = 2 d3 rOJ = 0 (
), (1.5) r.

Z
2
2
~ X 1 2
~ X 1

OJ + (R)
d3 rO2J = E
(1.6)
2
MJ
2
MJ
J
| J
{z
}
[ ] , . , ,
. , R O2J 0.
, (ri , RJ ) = (ri RJ )
Z
Z
mi
O2
mi
1
3
2
d rOJ =
d3 r i =
el .
(1.7)
2MJ
MJ
2m
MJ
|
{z i }
.. m/M . , (1.7)
"
#
~2 X O2J

+ (R) = E
2
MJ

(1.8)

, , (R), . .. m/M . R . ,
m/M 1
,
2 : 1) (1.3) ; 2) (1.8)
.

1.2

, -.

,
. ,
"" , ,
Uef f .
.

, Uef f , .
. Uef f ,
i (n), n
rn n. Uef f .
=
H

N
X
i=1

i ,
H

2
i = ~ O2i + V (ri ) + Uef f (ri ),
H
2mi

(1.9)

1. .
V (ri ) .
, i (n),

.

1 (1) 1 (2) . . . 1 (N )

1 2 (1) 2 (2) . . . 2 (N )
(r1 , . . . , rN ) =
(1.10)
,
...
... ...
N! . . .

N (1) N (2) . . . N (N )
1 = {r1 , s1 }, .
i (n) Uef f , .
(1.10)

= h|H|i
=

N XZ
X

i (1)

i=1 s1

Z
N
~2 2
1 X X
e2
3

Or1 + V (r1 ) i (1)d r1 +


d3 r1 d3 r2 |i (1)|2
|j (2)|2
2m1
2
r
12
s ,s
i,j=1

Z
N
e2
1 X X
d3 r1 d3 r2 i (1)j (1) i (2)j (2).

2
r12
s ,s
i,j=1

(1.11)

{i }.
e2

. , r , i = n (s)
12

P

i (s)j (s) = ij 1 ( 21 ) = 1, 1 ( 21 ) = 0; 2 ( 12 ) = 0, 2 ( 21 ) = 1 .
s,


, ,
1
0
n
, n
.
0
1
(1.11) |i |2 |j |2 .
, - . R i ,
3

R i (r)j (r)d r 3= 0. ,
P
i + i i (r)j (r)d r, i
i

( i i + i i ).

~2
2m

O2r

+ V (r) +

X 0 Z e2 j (r 0 )j (r 0 )
0

|r r |

d r i (r)
3

X0

Z
j (r)

e2 j (r )i (r )
0

|r r |

d3 r = i i (r)
(1.12)

(1.12)
Uef f

X 0 Z e2 |j (r 0 )|2
X 0 j (r) Z e2 j (r 0 )i (r 0 )
0
3 0
=
d r
d3 r .
0
0

(r)
|r r |
|r r |
i
j
j

(1.13)

, i .
i , . , Uef f j (r),
3

1. .
. , .
, ,
( ). ,
-, ,
.
, ECoul r1s Ry, rs = ar00
, a0 (a0 a0 = ~2 /me2 = 5.29 109 cm, r0
, 1/n = 43 r03 , n
4
' 13.5 ), Ekin r12 Ry .
, Ry = me
2~2
s
,
, .(
1
3/2 Ry ).
rs

rs ( ) ,
rs ( ) . ,
(
).
rs , , ,
.
-?
, -
( " " ). ""
.
,
.
- .
( ). -
, ( ) .
.

1.3

, ,
.

H(r)
= (r),

2
= ~ O2 + V (r).
H
2m

(1.14)

: V (r) = V (r + an )), an
H
. (1.14) r r + an , , (r + an )
, (r). (r) ,
(r + an ) = c(an )(r)
(1.15)
R
|(r)|2 d3 r (1.15), (r)

(r) = ei(r ) u(r);

c(an ) = ei[(r +an )(r )]


4

(1.16)

1. .
(r + an + am ) = c(an + am )(r),
(r + an + am ) = c(an ) (c(an )(r)) ,

(1.17)

(1.16) (1.17)
ei[(r +an +am )(r )] = c(an + am ) = c(an )c(am ) = ei[(r +an )+(r +am )2(r )] .
, (r) : = ~kr. ~k ,
.
k (r) = eikr uk (r).

(1.18)

(1.18) . ,
(1.15-1.16)
.

,
.
2.1

, ,
mk (r) = eikr umk (r);

k=

p
,
~

(2.1)

p , m ( ), umk (r)
r . (2.1) ,
. ,
exp(ikr), (2.1)
mk (r) = eikr

uGn eiGn r =

uGn ei(k + Gn )r ,

(2.2)

uGn unk (r) . (2.2)


X
nk (x) = eikx
uGn eiGn x ,
n

Gn = 2
a n, a x .
nx ny nz
Gn = 2 ( a , a , a ) , ai x, y, z. Gn .
x
y
z
, .
, (2.2), , Gn .
(a1 , a2 , a3 ),
[a ,a ]

b1 = 2 (a [a2 ,a3 ]) ;
1 2 3
[a

,a

bi = 2 (a [ai+1 ,ai1 ]) .
i i+1 i1
. , ,
.
(2.2) , k, Gn ,
. k
6

2. , .

. 2.1: -
.
-. - () ,
, - .
, , . ,
. .
( , ,
).
- .
. N = Nx Ny Nz
( Ni i), -
nk (r + Ni ai ) = eiNi ki ai nk (r).
eiNi ki ai = 1 k

mi 2
k=
.
Ni ai
k , 1/Ni , k

Z
X
d3 k
V
.
(2)3
k

2.2

,
.
V (r),
.
, ,
0 (k) =

~2 k 2
,
2m

(r) = eikr .

(2.3)
7

2. , .
, (r) (2.3) u(r) = 1).
, V (r)
0

(k) = (k) + hk|V |ki +

X 0 |hk|V |k0 i|2


k

0 0 0
k
k

= 0 (k) + V0 +

|VG |2
,
0 0k+G
G6=0 k

(2.4)

0
0
RP
0
V (r)ei(k k )r d3 r =
VG ei(G + k k )r d3 r 6= 0 , k k
G
.
(2.4) , V
0k = 0k G , .. |k| = |k G|.
.
0

, hk |V |ki =

k = ak eikr + ak G ei(k G)r .

(2.5)

(2.5)
2 2

~ O

+ V (r) k = (k)k ,
2m
eikr , ei(k G)r .
a:
(

0 (k) (k) ak + VG ak G = 0
0

(2.6)
VG ak + (k G) (k) ak G = 0
, (2.6) .
1q
1 0
0
(k) =
(k) + (k G)
[0 (k) + 0 (k G)]2 + 4|VG |2
2
2

(2.7)

. 2.2. 1D . VG (k)
0 (k), , , (
) 2VG . .
, ,
, (. .2.2).

2.3

(tight-binding approximation) ,
,
(
d- ).
,
:
at n (r) = En n (r),
H

X
at = 1 2 +
at (r).
H
U
2m
n

(2.8)

2. , .

. 2.2: 1D
, ,

X
at (r R),
= ,
=H
at (r)+ M U (r) 1 2 +
U
H
(2.9)
H
2m
R

M U (r) ,
, M U (r)
, , ,
. M U (r) n (2.8), ,
M U (r) , n , n ,
, . , .
N -
n (r R), N .
,
:
X
(0)
nk (r) =
eikR n (r R)
(2.10)
R

(2.10) N ( k), (2.10)


:
nk (R + r) = eikR nk (r),

nk (r + R) =

eikR n (r + R R) =
0

R0

= eikR nk (r),
eikR eikR n (r R)

2. , .
= R R , ,
R
(2.10),
0

nk (r) =

eikR n (r R)

(2.11)

R k, n (r R)
, :
Z
Z
3
1
1
d3 k
ikR
ik(r R) u (r) d k ,
=
(2.12)
e
nk (r)
e
n (r R) =
nk
V0
(2)3
V0
(2)3
V0 - k-. n (r) .
, (, ,
)
Z
0
n (r R)m (r R )d3 r = nm RR0 .
. (2.12), |r R|
k . (2.10) ,
.
. , ,
(2.11)
(r) =

eikR (r R).

(2.13)

n , :
X
bm m (r)
(2.14)
(r) =
m

(2.9) n (r), r ,
Z
n (r)Hat (r)d3 r

Z h
Z
i
3

=
Hat n (r) (r)d r = En n (r)(r)d3 r.

Z
((k) En )

Z
n (r)(r)d3 r =

n (r) M U (r)(r)d3 r

(2.15)

(2.13) (2.14) (2.15)


hm|ni = mn ,

((k) En ) bn = ((k) En )

X
m

XZ

n (r)m (r R)eikR d3 r bm +

R6=0

10

2. , .

X Z
m

n (r)

XZ

ikR
3
M U (r)m (r)e
d r bm +

m (r) M U (r)m (r R)eikR d3 r bm

(2.16)

R6=0

, (2.16) , .. ,
, . , .. M
U (r), , n (r).
((k) En ) bn . (k) En , bn . , k
En , bn . (k) En ,
bn . , bm m 6= n. ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
P
n (k) = En

R6=0

1+

(R)eikR +
P

(2.17)

(R)eikR

R6=0

Z
=

Z
3

d r M U (r)|n (r)| ;

d3 rn (r) M U (r)n (r R);

(R) =
Z

(R) =

d3 rn (r)n (r R).

(2.17) R, , .
, ,
X
(k) = En
(R) cos kR
(2.18)
.
(k) (2.18) . , ,
(2.18) 6
(k) = En 2 (cosx a + cosy a + cosz a)

(2.19)

- , ,
(2.18)
(k) = En 8 cos

ky a
kx a
kz a
cos
cos
2
2
2

(2.20)

, (k) , . ,
, s (k) = s (k).
(2.18), (2.7), /k
. , ,
, , , .
:

11

2. , .
, ,
;
,
.
:
(k).
, : , , , .

12


3.1

, , .

, , .
2s-, 3p- .., ,
.
.
. ( , ) (,
) . ( ), ,
,
. , T = 0 ZN/2 , N , Z
, 2 - . N
k. , Z
. , Z . ,
, , ,
(Z = 1).
.
,
. eEa Vchar /a, a
108 107 , Vchar 1 10 . ,
, Ea 107 108 /. E Ea ( ),
, ,
0
n (k) m (k )
W =

2
0
0
|hn, k|V |m, k i|2 (n (k) m (k ) ~)
~

. V (r), (
a) G /~ (G ), (3.1),
k. , ,
,
. , ,
, , , .
. ,
p. .
13

3.
G
( ), ( ).
.
.

3.2

, hri E(k).
r , P

R
csk sk d3 k.
, r, , =
s

r =

XZ

csk rsk d3 k =

XZ
s

sk
ikr usk
csk i
+ ie
d3 k,
k
k

(3.1)

, usk /k
usk k :
X
usk
0 kiu 0 .
= i
hsk||s
sk
k
0
s

r =

XZ
s

X
c
0
kic 0 sk d3 k.
i sk +
hsk||s
sk
k
0

(3.2)


XZ
(rcsk )sk d3 k,
r =
s

r = i

+ ,
k

(3.3)

hsk||s
0 ki.
k k.

h
i
r rH
. , :
= ~i H
: v
1
=
v
~

i
0 ki.
s (k)

s (k) +
s (k) s0 (k) hsk||s
k k
~

(3.4)
0

s (k)/~k, s = s .
s, ,
s =
v

s (k)
s (k)
=
,
~k
p

(3.5)

. , , (3.4) /k ,
M k ,
14

3.
/k.
.

, . , ,
n (k) .
r - n (iO), :
[n (iO) + Uext (r)] = E.

(3.6)

, (3.6) , Uext (r) ,


.
(, a).
, A A + Of ,
ie
exp( f ). H A(r). H
~c
0 A = const A0 . A = 0 A = A0 f = A0 r,
e
e
sk = usk eikr usk exp(i(k + A0 )r). K = k + A0
~c
~c
. s,KeA0 /~c exp(i(Kr)),
s (k) = s (K eA/~c). , A,
H, usk - A(r) .
s (K eA/~c) , K
r = i/K
s = s (K eA ) + U (r)
H
~c

r = i

r - :
s = s (i~O eA ) + U (r)
H
~c

~ G

(3.7)

K , ,
r = i/K K
. , ,

= H
~K
,
r

~r =

H
K

(3.8)

, ,
. :
= p = F,
~K

v=

.
p

(3.9)

, ,
, (
E(p)!) , ,

3.3

, ,
,
. F 1 10 105 K.
15

3.

. 3.1:
f = 1/(exp(

F
)+1) , T (T < 103 K
kT

F /k) (. . 3.1).
, , F . F
- . ,
,
, . ,
, ,
, .
()
. .
, , E(p) :

1 X 1
1 2 En (p)
1
m (p p0 ) (p p0 ) , m = 2
En (p) = En (p0 ) +
.
(3.10)
2
~ p p p=p0
,

m1
.
:
En (p) En (p0 ) =

X (p p0 )2

2m

v = E/p = p /m .
.
, kp - .

upn (r) :
1
(i~O + p)2 upn (r) + V (r)upn (r) = En (p)upn (r)
2m

(3.11)

u0n (r),

1
(i~O)2 + V (r) u0n (r) = En (0)u0n (r).
(3.12)
2m
16

3.
(3.11) (3.12) i~pO/m + p2 /2m,
.
(3.11)
En (p) = En (0) +

p2
1 X 0 |phum0 | i~O|un0 i|2
+ 2
2m m m
En (0) Em (0)

(3.13)


1
En (p) = En (0) + m1
p p ,
2

(3.14)

(3.13)
m1
=

2 X 0 hun0 | i~O |ul0 ihul0 | i~O |un0 i


+ 2
m
m
En (0) El (0)

(3.15)

~/a,

2~2
1
1
,
m
=m
1+O
ma2 ME
~2 /(ma2 ) 10 eV, M E 0.2 eV m 102 m0 . , EG
.

3.4

1) InSb, GaSb, GaAs p0 = 0,


mx = my = mz ;
2) Ge, Si p0 6= 0. , . .
Ge [111] ( 6 ), Si
[100] (8 ) .
[111] Ge [100] Si.
E(p) =

p21 + p22
p2
+ 3
2m1
2m3

Ge m1 = m2 = 0.082m0 , m3 = 1.58m0
, , - . Ge,
Si p = 0
o
1 n 2 q 2 4
1
E1,2 (p) =
Ap B p + C 2 (p2x p2y + p2y p2z + p2z p2x ) ; E3 (p) = Es0
Ap2
2m0
2m0
Ge : Es0 = 0.28 eV A = 13, B = 8.7, C = 11.4
Si : Es0 = 0.035 eV A = 4.1, B = 1.4, C = 3.7
( ).

17

3.

. 3.2:

3.5

N (E) : N (E)dE
E E + dE.
, ,
, dE:
Z
X
d3 k
N (E)dE
(3.16)
(2)3
n
E<En (k)<E+dE

k - d3 k = dsdk , ds
, dk k ,
Z
ds
1 X
(3.17)
N (E) =
3
(2) n
|Ok En (k)|
En (k)=E

N (E)
k E) (3.16):
E = ~2 k 2 /2m, d3 k = 4k 2 dk, dE = ~2 kdk/m,
3/2

2m
N (E) =
E.
2
3
~
( ):
Z
ds
1
q
,
N (E) =
16 3 a
2
2
2
sin
ak
+
sin
ak
+
sin
ak
x
y
z
S

E = 2(cos akx + cos aky + cos akz )
N (E) - (.).
18

.
4.1

, k :
ev(k).
, ,
XZ
X
dk
v(k) = eV
v(k) 3 = 0,
j = e
2

(4.1)

k,

- ,
,
1 dE(k)
.
v(k) =
~ dk
k, (
) ne (k, ),
X
X
X
X
nh (k)v(k),
(4.2)
nh (k)v(k) = e
v(k) + e
ne (k)v(k) = e
j = e
k,

k,

k,

k,

nh (k) = 1 ne (k) , , . , , .
W (x)
X
X
ne (k, )[E(k) + e]v(k) =
[1 nh (k, )][E(k) + e]v(k) =
W=
k,

k,

X
X
[E(k) + e]v(k)
nh (k, )[E(k) + e]v(k),

k,

(4.3)

k,

[E(k) + e]v(k) = 0, E(k)v(k) = E 2 (k)/(2~),

k,

, (4.1). (4.3)
E(k) |e|.

Ek = Ek0 +

~2 k2
2|m | , |m | .

,
e
~k = p = F = [v, H] + eE,
c
19

4. .
E(k)

v = ~k .
2E
1/
, ,
p p
.
kp (.3.11 - 3.15).

4.2

, , ,
:
r = i

= i ,
, K
k
r

n ( )
(. (3.6),(3.7) )
[n (i~Or ) + Uext (r)] = E,

(4.4a)

r-
[n (p) + Uext (i~Op )] = E,

(4.4b)

p-.
n (p)
n (p) = n (p0 ) +

X (p p0 ) (p p0 )

(4.5)

2m

E = n (p) + , , . (4.5) (4.4b),

X (p p0 ) (p p0 )

+ Uext (i~
) (p) = (p).
(4.6)
2m
(p p0 )

(p) ,
. .
(r), np (r):
X
X
(r) =
n (p)np (r) =
n (p)eipr unp (r).
(4.7)
np

n,p

, (4.7).
,
X
(r) '
n (p)eipr unp (r).
(4.8)
p

p pp0 , unp (r)


p unp0 (r)
X
(r) ' unp0 (r)eip0 r
n (p)ei(pp0 )r n (r)np0 (r),
(4.9)
p

20

4. .
n (r) n (p) .
, (r) ,
(4.9).
Z
Z

(p) dr(r)np (r) = drn (r)np0 (r)np (r) =


Z
Z
i(p0 p)r

= drn (r)e
unp0 (r)unp (r) drn (r)ei(p0 p)r unp0 (r)unp0 (r)
Z
X
X
i(p0 p)rn

n (rn )e
drunp0 (r)unp0 (r) =
n (r )ei(p0 p)r n (p),
(4.10)
rn

,
, r , np0 (r).
n (p) (4.6) ,
(4.10) (4.6) (4.6),

2
X
O O
~
+ Uext (r) n (r) = n (r).
(4.11)
2
m

n (r), , , .
. , (4.9),
, .
(4.11) .
, , Uext (r) , , n (r) , ,
p2 /2m .
hm||ni.
n , , .

4.3

(, , ..)

U (r) . ,
.
, . , III (B,Al,Ga,...) V (P,As,Sb,...) ,
Ge Si, , -.
V () "", .
III , , .
( III )
.
,
U (r) =

e2
,
r

(4.12)

21

4. .
U (r) (4.12) .
( )

2
2
X
O O
e
~
+ (r) = (r).
(4.13)
2
m
r

(4.13) m = m . (4.13)

m e = e/
(4.13), m e .

m (e )4
m 1 me4
13.5 m 1
n =
=
= 2
eV,
(4.14)
2~2 n2
m 2 2~2 n2
n
m 2
n . ,
. , m /m . , Ge =
16, m 0.2m0 . 3-4
. .
(n = 1) :

1
f0 =
e
aB

|r Rc |
aB ,

(4.15)

R , ,
2
m
~2
~
m
8
aB = 2 =

=
0.53

10
cm,
m (e )
me2
m
m
aB
, a = ~2 /me2 M . , aB a

mm 2 . (4.15)
aB , ,
. , , ,
.
.
,

.
. EG
( 1 eV) kT ( 300 0.025 eV),
-
. (4.14) kT ,

( ), .
.
.
. ,

22

4. .
( ).
( -):

Ge
Si
P
0,0120 0,044
As
0,0127 0,049
Sb
0,0096 0,039 .
B
0,0104 0,045
Al
0,0102 0,057
Ga
0,0108 0,065
. N ,
r 1/N 1/3 . ,
r aB , N a3B 1.
, .
, ,
. .
.
, ,
`, "" .
, AIII B V ,
.
,
.
, , ,
. Ge
: Cu0 , Cu , Cu2 , Cu3 .

4.4

-.


, .
, .
, -
.
. rn rp - .

~2 2
~2 2
e2
O
O
(rn rp ) = E(rn rp ).
(4.16)

2mn n 2mp p |rn rp |



R=

mn r n + mp r p
,
mn + mp

= rn rp .

(4.16)

~2 2
e2
~2 2
O
O
(R, ) = E(R, ),

2M R 2 ||
1
M = mn + mp , 1 = m1
n + mp .

23

(4.17)

4. .
(4.17)
(R, ) = (R)()

E = W + .

~2 2
O (R) = W (R),

2M R
2

~ 2
e2
O
() = (),
2
||

(4.18)
(4.19)

, (4.18) (
) M W .( , W = ~2 k 2 /2M )
(4.19) ( ),
1 1
1 1 me4
2

. n = 2
n m 2 2~2
n m 2
2
m ~
m
13.5 , 2 = aB .
me

Ge n 0.001 , 42
A,
. , .
- , ,
,
. , (
), , ,
.

24


.
5.1

-.

: . .
1/2, (..
, , ) -.
j, p = (px , py , pz ).
:
f0 (jk ) =

1
jk

exp(
)+1
kT

(5.1)

, (: ,
).
(5.1) 1 < kT 0 < kT . ..
, kT ,
, .
, | | . kT .
(5.1) :
X
N=
f0 (jk, ).
(5.2)
j,k,

( ) (5.2) , ,
V d3 k
d3 k
, V .
(2)3
n = N/V :
n=

XZ
j,

d3 k
f0 (jk, ) =
(2)3

Z
dN ()f0 (),
0

25

(5.3)

5. .
N ()
d. , = p2 /2m = ~2 k 2 /2m (5.3)
3/2

2m

N () =

2
3
2 ~

Z
2(m kT )3/2
dx x
n=
,
~3
1 + exz

(5.4)

x =
.
kT
kT
(5.4) z 1 z 0.

z =

5.2

. .

, kT,

(z 1) .
1
(z x)
, - . (5.4)
1 + exz

Zz
2(m kT )3/2
2 2 (m )3/2
n=
xdx =
,
~3
3
~3

(5.5a)

(T = 0) =

~2
(3 2 n)2/3 .
2m

(5.5b)

1/z (5.5b)
"
#
2 kT 2
= 0 1
,
(5.6)
12
0 = (0).

~2 (3 2 n)2/3
0
=
1.
kT
2m
kT

(5.7)

, . , n 1022 3 ,
m 1027 0 104 105 ( 0 1 10 ).
, .. 0 , 0 /k. 0 ,
, .
,
, , ,
, .

5.3

|z| 1 z < 0.

.
f0 ' exp
kT
26

( < 0).

5. .
(5.4) , :

2 (m kT )3/2
n= 2
dx xex
e kT
3

~
0



(2m kT )3/2
exp

N
exp
,
C
4 3 ~3
kT
kT

4 3 ~3 n
n
= kT ln
kT ln
.
3/2

NC
(2m kT )

n=

(5.8)
(5.9)

:
(2m kT )3/2
1.
4 3 ~3 n
, n,
m . n = 1017 3 , m = 1027 T 300 exp(/kT ) = 300 1,
.
NC ,
( ):

NC = (2.5)

m
m

3/2

T
300K

3/2

1019 cm3 .

(5.10)

(5.8) ,
n . n,
, ,
. , -,
. ,
(.. )
f00 () = 1 f0 () =

1
1
=
,
0
0


exp
+1
exp
+1
kT
kT

(5.11)

0 = G , = G , ,
( G ). ,
0
0
f0 ( ) . (5.11)
, .
:
+
,
n + NA = p + ND

(5.12)

n p , NA
+
(.. ), ND
(
).
n p (5.8):


G
;
p = NV exp
.
(5.13)
n = NC exp
kT
kT
27

5. .
, : Nd+ = Nd (1nd ).
D
, nd nd = 1/(1 + exp
),
kT
, ,
.
4 : 0 , 1 , 1 2
. -

, ,

Ej Nj
exp
1 ( Nj j, Ej ).
kT
,
P

(Ej Nj )
(D )
2 exp
kT
j
kT
nD =
=
P
(Ej Nj )
(D )
1 + 2 exp
exp
kT
kT
j
Nj exp

,
ND
D
1 + 2 exp
kT

+
ND
=

NA+ =

NA
A
1 + 2 exp
kT

(5.14)

(5.15)

(5.13 - 5.15) (5.12) x = exp(/(kT )):

Na
G 1
N
D
.
NC x +
= NV exp
+
1
|D |
kT
x
A
2 exp
+1
2 exp
x+1
kT x
kT

(5.16)

(5.16) 4- x. ,
.
1. .
, ,
NC , NV , NA , ND ,
|ND NA |
. x
(5.16)
NC NV
. :
r

m 3/4
NV
p
G
G
x=
=
exp
;
exp
NC
2kT
mn
2kT

p
mp
2G
G 3
p = n = NC NV exp
; =
+ kT ln
(5.17)
kT
2
4
mn
2. , . , ND NA
( ). . (5.16)

|D |
NC x 2xe kT + 1 = ND ,
28

5. .

1 |D |
ND |D |
e kT = 0
x2 + e kT x
2
2NC
s
1 |D |
1 2|D |
ND |D |
x = e kT +
e kT +
e kT .
(5.18)
4
16
2NC

Nc
|D |
2.
exp
1 ( ),
ND
kT
(5.18)

1 |D | 1 |D |
ND |D |
ND
kT
kT
kT
x e
+ e
1+4
e
=
4
4
NC
NC
n = xNC = ND ,

= kT ln

ND
.
NC

(5.19)

(5.19)
(n = ND )

.
|D |
NC
exp
1, . (5.18)
2.
ND
kT
2- .
r
r

|D |
|D |
ND
NC ND
exp
;
n = xNC =
exp
(5.20)
x
2NC
2kT
2
2kT
=

|D | kT
NC ND
+
ln .
2
2
2

, ,
.
2. , , -
( NA 6= 0 ), ( G ) ,
. , . ..
. .. T 0
, .

|D |
.
(5.21)
n exp
kT

Ea
n exp
, (5.17), (5.20) (5.21) (
kT
), Ea .
n , n(T )
(ln n, 1/T ). n(T ) 5.1.
, . -
.
, nD , D mn nA , A mp . ,
(5.8) (5.17)

(2 mp mp kT )3
G
np = n2i =
exp
,
(5.22)
(4 3 ~3 )2
kT
29

5. .

. 5.1: . 1) ,
G ; 2a) T ; 2) G /2; 2)
G .

. n p (5.8)
. NC NV , (5.22)
. , , c
, (5.8), m
2/3
" "mef f = c (m1 m2 m3 )1/3 . NV .

30


. .
6.1

j
1 (D E)
D. j =
,
4
t
, , .
( ) .

Z
D (r, t) =

Zt
3

d r

dt (r r , t t )E (r, t),

(6.1)

D ( j) ,
. /
, , .
(6.1) ,
:
Z
d3 k d i(krt)
e
D (k, ),
(6.2)
D (k, ) = (k, )E (k, ), D (r, t) =
(2)3 2
E (k, ) (k, ) (r, t) E (r, t) .
k , , .
:
= + i

4
.

(6.3)


, .

31

6. . .

6.2

, ,
U
V . , ,
, .
U = + V.

(6.4)

,
, . . r t
exp(ikr it), . ,
Vq exp(iqr + it + 0t), i0 ,
, ,
.
V
nk |ki Ek (
, ).
,
|ki :
(r, t) = |ki + eUq

X
k

hk |eiqr |ki
0
|k i,
Ek Ek0 ~( i0)

(6.5)

, U .
= (V = 0)
X
f (k)[|(r, t)|2 1].
= e
k

Uq -, q, :

2
0

f (k) hk |eiqr |ki


X

2
q = e
1 + o(Uq ) .
|hk|ki| + 2Uq e
Ek Ek0 ~( i0)
0

(6.6)

k,k

, - (6.6)
.
0
0
k k = k + q + G

X f (k) hk + q + G|eiqr |ki2


2
.
(6.7)
q = 2e Uq
Ek Ek+q+G ~( i0)
k,G

(q, ) = (q, ).
:

+ q + G) hk|e
iqr |k
q + Gi
X f (k) hk q + G|eiqr |ki2
X f (k
q = 2e2 Uq
= 2e2 Uq
,
Ek Ekq+G + ~( i0)
Ek+q+G
Ek + ~( i0)

k,G

k,G

32

6. . .
(6.8)
G G
(6.8) k q + G = k;
q (6.7) (6.8):
2

q = e Uq

X [f (k) f (k + q + G)] hk|eiqr |k + q + Gi2


Ek Ek+q+G ~( i0)

k,G

(6.9)

(6.9) O2 = 4 (
q = 4q ) (6.4) q q = Uq Vq .

q2

4e2 X [f (k) f (k + q + G)] hk|eiqr |k + q + Gi


Uq = Vq + Uq 2
.
q
Ek Ek+q+G ~( i0)

(6.10)

k,G

Uq =
Vq /(q, ). T (6.10)
2

4e2 X [f (k) f (k + q + G)] hk|eiqr |k + q + Gi


.
(q, ) = 1 + 2
q
Ek+q+G Ek + ~( i0)

(6.11)

k,G

. ,
|ki |k + q + Gi.

.

6.3

( = 0) .

(0, q) q 0, ..
. q 0 (6.11).
, (G 6= 0) G = 0). ,
(|ki |k + qi, , , f (k) 6= f (k + q),
, .
, , . G (
q 0, , ) 1.
(6.11) q :
E(k + q) E(k) qk E(k); f (k) f (k + q) q

f
k E(k); hk|eiqr |k + qi hk|ki;

:
4e2
(0, q) w + 2
q

Z
Z
4e2
2
f
f
3
d k=+ 2
N (E)dE 1 + 2 ,

E
q
E
q

(6.12)

2 4e2 .
f
. , f ( )
(E EF )
E

33

6. . .
4e2
~2 k 2
=
N (EF ), E =
N (E) =

2m
4
2 ( 3 kF3 )
n =
,
(2)3

2 =

4e2 3 n
4me2 n1/3

.
2 EF
~2

(6.13a)

(6.12)

Z
xz
3/2

4 2 2m
kB T
xdxe
2

=
.
3
xz
2

~
(1 + e )
EF
0

2(m )3/2 E
, ,
2 2 ~3

(6.13b)

z= k

BT

(), (6.13b)
,
2 =

4e2 n
.
kB T

(6.13c)

(6.12) , ( q),
, , .
e2
4e2
V (r) = , Vq = 2 ,
r
q
Uq =

Vq
=
(0, q)

4e2
e2 r
4e2

U
(r)
=
e ,
2
(q 2 + 2 )
r

1 + 2 q2
q

(6.14)

.. , , .
r0 = 1/ . , . r0 .
(6.13 - 6.14) :
:
div(E) = 4( + ext ),

(6.15)

ext , , -
, -
Z
= e[n(r) n0 ] = e [f (E + e) f (E)]N (E)dE,
(6.16)
n(r) , n0 ( = 0).
( ), ,
e. (6.16) . :
Z
f
2
2
= e
N (E)dE
.
(6.17)
E
4
(6.17) (6.15), (E = O):
O2 2 =

4
ext .

(6.18)
34

6. . .
ext ext = e(r), ,
(6.18) (, - ):
q 2 2 =

4e
4e
=
.
2

(q + 2 )


(r) =

e2 r
e ,
r

(6.14).
E0 , (, ). x > 0. (6.18) E(x ) = 0 E(x = 0) = E0 .

E = E0 ex ,
.
, , ,
.
,
e. , q,
U (r) ? (0, q) (6.11)
T = 0 ( )

1 4kF2 q 2 2kF + q
4e2 n
+
ln
(q) = 1 + 2 2
(6.19)
q 3 F 2
8kF q
2kF q
(q) |q| = 2kF , . ph (q) ( ).
: Vq , .
Uq = V (q)/(q),
|q| = 2kF . (
) .
|q| = 2kF U . (6.14) , 2kF ,
..
R iqr 4e2 d3 q
cos 2kF r

U
(r)
=
e
(q) (6.19).
r3
q 2 (q) (2)3

6.4

q 0. , f (k) 6=
f (k + q + G), .. , . (6.11)
(k + q + G) (k) & G .
. q 0 G 6= 0
(6.11) 0, q 2 ,
35

6. . .
q 0 . , ,
" |ni
2 2
= ~ O + U (r):
H
2m
X

2 ~2 q 2
(En Es ) hn|eiqr |si =
.
2m
n

(6.20)

( m !) ;
, m m. (6.20).
:
h
i
eiqr ], eiqr 2H
eiqr He
iqr eiqr He
iqr .
[H,
(6.21)
1) , , ,
O2 [eiqr (r)] = [q 2 2iqO + O2 ],
2

= ~ O + U (r):
H
2m
h
i
2 2
2 2
eiqr ], eiqr = [2H
2H
2q ~ + 2iqO 2iqO] = ~ q .
(6.22)
[H,
2m
m
h
i
eiqr ], eiqr |si,
2) , (6.21) hs| [H,
= P |nihn| 1. ( 1 ). ,
E
n

eiqr He
iqr eiqr He
iqr |si =
hs|2H
= 2Es

i
Xh
iqr
iqr

hs|eiqr |nihn|H|mihm|e
|si + hs|eiqr |nihn|H|mihm|e
|si =
m,n

= 2(Es

|hs|eiqr |ni|2 En ) = 2

X
(Es Em )|hs|eiqr |ni|2 .
n

hs|eiqr |nihn|eiqr |si = hs|eiqr eiqr |si = hs|si = 1.


2 2
~ q
s (6.22),
(6.23) s
m
(6.20).
(6.11) E(k + q) E(k) ~
k k + q + G ( (6.8 - 6.10)), (6.11)

2
4e2 X [f (k) f (k + q + G)][E(k) E(k + q + G)] hk|eiqr |k + q + Gi
(q, ) = 1 + 2
. (6.24)
q
~2 2 [E(k) E(k + q + G)]2

|hs|eiqr |ni|2

(6.23)

k,G

f (k) = 1, f (k + q + G) = 0 ( ),
0. : E(k + q + G) E(k) EG (
1

, f (r), f (r) =

(r) =
fm |mi, Ef

f (r), hn|mi = nm

36

|nihn|f (r) =

P
n,m

|nihn|mifm =

P
n,m

fm |ninm =

P
m

fm |mi =

6. . .
). (6.20)
|k + Gi.
X

2 ~2 q 2
[E(k) E(k + q + G)] hk|eiqr |k + q + Gi
.
2m
G

(6.24) = 0 k,
, n,

~p 2
4e2 ~2 q 2
(0, q) 1 + 2n 2
=1+
,
(6.25)
q 2mEG
EG

1/2
4ne2
p =
, .
m
(6.25) ,
, EG
. (6.25) (6.12) (6.15).

6.5

.(q 0, - )

-, , (, q)
1
1
=P
+i[E(k + q + G)E(k)+~]
E(k + q + G) E(k) + ~ i0
E(k + q + G) E(k) + ~
= ([E(k + q + G) E(k)])/~ (),
, .
. ,
~ EG , q G, E(k)
E(k + G). (, , k + G
k, .)
, (6.11) (6.24).
2 , G
(6.20) (6.25), f (k) = 1 f (k + G + q) = 0.
k, (6.25),
(q, )|q0 = 1

p2
.
2

(6.26)

, ,
. 1 ,
q k ,

Z
p2
4e2
4ne2
d3 k df (k) dE 2 q 2
(q, ) = 1 + 2
=
1

=
1

.
(6.27)
q
(2)3 dE
dk
(~)2
m 2
2
(6.26) , = 0 = p /. divD = div(E) = 0
, p ,
. = p
(, rotE = 0,) .
37

6. . .
.
. P = nex,
E = 4P.
m
x = eE = 4ne2 x
, x = x0 eip t . 10 eV kB T .
. 5
10 EG , ,
(6.24), n p .
,
. , (6.27). n ,
m . .
. ,

< p , < 0 n = ,
> p , > 0 n , .. .
.
- , ( , ), , . q 0,
q,
q2v2
p (q) = p (0)[1+a 2F +. . .], (vF = pF /m), a .
p
a = 3/10.

6.6

-.


( ),
. - . ,
U . U t, t
, ,
( ). . t U ,
, .
, U = 1.15t.
U 2 ( ),
. t a, ,
a , - (
). ( , -)
( a).
, , , .
r0 (r02
4me2 n1/3
2 =
), (. (6.13a)). ,
~2
~2
. r0 < aB ,
aB , aB =
me2
, , r0 > aB ,
38

6. . .
. , : r0 = aB , aB :
4aB n1/3 < 1.
( ) ,
( ) .
, a
.

39

.
.
7.1

, fF ( ),
.
,
, ,
. , , .
.
dp
E,
= eE dt
. , p = m v
, .
, .
E(p)
, E(p)
v =
p
. , j = evn, . , , , , .
, , , ( , - , ,
. .) F f riction = v.
:
dv
m
= eE v,
(7.1)
dt

eE
eE
t
(7.2)
v=
+
v

e
0
m
m
, t = m /
v0 .
j=

e2 n
E = E.
m

(7.3)
40

7. . .
, "" ( ) ,
.
.
, , ,
. (, ,
, ).

7.2

,
. ,
. M p M r ~.
M r ,
, ` = v ( v - ),
` = v ~/p, p
v
( kT , EF ).
kT ~ ( ) EF ~ ( ).
f (p, r, t).
(p, p + d p), (r, r + d r)
dn(p, r, t) =

2f (p, r, t) 3 3
d pd r.
(2~)3

(7.4)

f
(v = dr/dt 6= 0) (dr/dt = eE 6= 0).
f
df
f
f dr f dp
=
+
+
.
dt
t
r dt
p dt

(7.5)

, f - , , , , - () (
). f
( )

f
f
f
+ vOf + F
+
= 0,
(7.6)
t
p
t st

dp
= F,
dt

F = eE +

e
[v, H] ,
c

(7.7)

F ,
, E H .

f
.
t st
(, ..). ,
.
( ).
41

7. . .
( , ) p
2
p0 W (p, p0 ). W (p, p0 ) =
|hp|V |p0 i|2 (p p0 ), V (r)
~
( ).
p p0 , , , ( f ) ,
( (1 f ))
W (p, p0 )f (p, r, t)[1 f (p0 , r, t)]

2d3 p0
.
(2~)3

(7.8)

p p0 ,
- :

Z
f
2d3 p0
= W (p, p0 )f (p, r, t)[1 f (p0 , r, t)]
.
(7.9)

t pp0
(2~)3
p -
p0 . ,

Z
f
2d3 p0
.
(7.10)
=

W (p0 , p)f (p0 , r, t)[1 f (p, r, t)]

t p0 p
(2~)3
, p p0 p0 p (
. , W (p, p0 ) = W (p0 , p) (7.7) (7.10)
:

Z
f
f
f
2d3 p0
Ist {f }
=

W (p, p0 )[f (p0 ) f (p)].


(7.11)
=
t st
t p0 p
t pp0
(2~)3
, (7.11) , ,
( f (p)f (p0 ) ).

7.3

(7.11) ( = (|p|)).
f (p) f0 (p) F ,
.
f (p) = f0 (p) + f1 (p),

(7.12)

f1 (p) F .
f1 (p) = pF g(|p|) pG(), g(|p|) , p (
, ). f (p) (7.12) (7.11) ,
(p) = (p0 ) ( ), .
Z
2d3 p0
Ist {f } =
W (p, p0 )G()(p p0 ) =
(2~)3
Z
2d3 p0
f f0
1
= pG()
W (p, p0 )(1 cos pp0 ) f1 (p)
=
,
(7.13a)
(2~)3
(p)
(p)
42

7. . .
pp0 p0 p0 ,
1
=
(p)

2d3 p0
W (p, p0 )(1 cos pp0 ).
(2~)3

(7.13b)

(p) . (7.13)
. ,
. -
.
. - (F = eE):
f
f
f f0
+E
=
.
t
p
(p)

(7.14)

E f f0 , ,
f0
f f = f0 + f1 ,
= 0, (7.14) :
t
f0
f1 f1
+
= eE
.
t

(7.15)

(7.15) :

t
f0
f0
f1 (p, t) = f1 (p, 0) + eEv
e eEv
,

(7.16)

f0
f0
f0
=
=
v.
p
p

(7.16) , ( ), ()
.
(7.16),
Z
Z
3
2d3 p
e2 n
2
2 f0 2d p
j = 2 evf (p)
=
2e
v

E
=
E = E,
(7.17)
(2~)3
(2~)3
m

, f0

e2 n
=
, (.(7.3)), .
m
, . . ( ) ,
( 0) .
, . , W (p, p0 ) E,
, E .
-, , , .

.
.

43

7. . .

7.4

(7.7) (7.10) p
,
, .. .
W (p, p0 ) , .
,
. , r, u(r, t)
( ), (k)
i
Xh
i(krj (k)t)
u=
uk,j ei(krj (k)t) + u+
e
,
(7.18)
k,j
k,j

u .

( - ),
r
2j (k)
ak,j =
uk,j ( ), a+
k,j , ,
~
( .. k
j (k)). , ak,j (a+
k,j )
() (k, j):
q
q
ak,j |Nj (k)i = Nj (k) |Nj (k) 1i , a+
Nj (k) + 1 |Nj (k) + 1i ,
|N
(k)i
=
j
k,j
|Nj (k)i Nj (k) j (
j) k.
(7.17) a a+ ,
, a a+ .
-
i
Xh
0
0
i(krj (k,t))
Heph =
Hk,j
ak,j ei(krj (k,t)) + Hk,j
a+
e
,
(7.19)
k,j
k,j

Hk,i
, k , ,
( , ..).
, Heph
.
|ii |f i
(7.19)
:
i
2
2

2 X h
0
0
ikr
(p p0 + ~) . (7.20)
hi|Hk,j
ak,j eikr |f i (p p0 ~)+ hi|Hk,j
a+
e
|f
i
W (i f ) =
k,j
~
k,j

iN
|ii = p (r)iN .

(7.21)

(7.20) , a a+
N , ,
q
q
f
hiNj |ak,j |fNj +1 i = Nj (k) + 1;
hiNj |a+
Nj (k),
|
i
=
k,j Nj 1
44

7. . .
, Hk,j hp (r)|eikr |p0 (r)i pp0 ,k+G ,

. , p p0
, (7.19): W (p, p0 ) = W + W + ,
:
W (p, p0 ) =

2
2 X
Hpp0 ,j Nj (p p0 )(p p0 + ~(p p0 ))
~
j

W + (p, p0 ) =

2
2 X
Hpp0 ,j (Nj (p p0 ) + 1)(p p0 ~(p + p0 )).
~

(7.22)

, , .
(7.11) (7.7) (7.10) :

Z
2
f
f
2
2d3 p X
0 ,j

=
H
Ist {f } =
pp

t p0 p
t pp0
~
(2~)3
j

Nj (p0 p)f (p0 )[1 f (p)](p0 p + ~(p0 p))+


+[1 + Nj (p0 p)]f (p0 )[1 f (p)](p0 p ~(p0 p))
Nj (p p0 )f (p)[1 f (p0 )](p p0 + ~(p p0 ))

(7.23)

[1 + Nj (p p0 )]f (p)[1 f (p0 )](p p0 ~(p + p0 )) .

{ } . ,
p p0
p0 p, p0 p p0 p ,
p p0 p p0 , p p0
.
, N , 1 + N ,
, . ,
.
, (7.23) N f
, , (
). ()
. , .

7.5

,
:
X
Iee {f } =
W (p01 , p02 ; p, p2 )f (p01 )f (p2 )[1 f (p)][1 f (p2 )]
p01 ,p02 ,p2

W (p, p2 ; p01 , p02 )f (p)f (p2 )[1 f (p01 )][1 f (p02 )] ,

45

(7.24)

7. . .
p01 p02 ,
p p2 , -
p + p2 p01 + p02 . W ,
, f
(7.24) .

7.6

- .
. . , ,
. Heph = ik uik , uik - , ik .
Heph = divu, - , u -
(divu ). , ,
i
X h
i(krj (kt)
Heph =
ikuk,j ei(krj (kt) iku+
e
.
(7.25)
k,j
k,j

(7.25) (7.17) (7.19) , , , , ,


H 0 (7.19) :
s
~
0
HDef
= ikE
.
(7.26)
2j (N )
, ,
. ,
.
(: CdS, CdSe - AII B V I , GaAs, InSb - AIII B V ). , , Pi = ijk ujk , ijk - .
Di = Ei +4ijk ujk . divD = 0, E = O
M = 4Oi ijk ujk ,
- (k)() :
Hpiezo = e(k) =

4eiki ijk ujk (k)


.
k 2

(7.27)

,

- , ,
1 uj
uk
1
ujk (r) =

; ujk (k) = (kk uj kj uk ), , Hpiezo |k|,


2 xk
xj
2
.
, , .. P (r).
. .. ,
.
, ..
.
O2 = 4,

= divP ,
46

7. . .
, P = d/r0 , V0 - ,
d = Ze [u(r, 1) u(r, 2)], Ze , u(r, 1) u(r, 2) 1 2.
0 1/k.
, Hpol
- (7.23). ,
. . (7.23), .
, , . | M p| = |p p0 | k p.

M = ~k = sk sp.

M
sp
s

= ,

vp
v
q
s , v . v

kT
m

, s 105 / T > 1 K. v =
pF
107 108 /. , - , ,
m
, M / 1, ..
, . (
s/v) ,
:
Z
1
2d3 p0
=
W (p, p0 )(1 cos pp0 ).
(p)
(2~)3
. , :
1. :
) T 1 1/2 (), T 1 3/2 ()
) T 1 1/2 .
k .
2.
) : 1/2 , , ) .
3. , ,
kT ~opt , .

) T 1 1/2 ( ),
) T 1 1/2
kT . ~opt , ,
.
, . , kT ~opt .
"". ,
.
47

7. . .

P Wi .
W W =

1 X1
=
,

(7.28)

i . (7.28) . , ,
. , -
, .
.
, , .

48

.
. .
.
8.1

-. E

. , , .
- :

f
f
1
f
f f0
+v
e E + [v, H]
=
(8.1)
t
r
c
p

( e .)
f . f
, .
.
X
f (l) (|p|, r, t)Pl (cos ).
(8.2)
f (p, r, t) =
l

, (8.2)
. , .
, ,
E , , , .
f = f (0) + f (1) cos .

(8.3)

E, . E
f ( E(t)
Re {E exp(it)}). E (8.1)
f1
f0
f1
eE
= ,
t
p

(8.4)

49

8. . . . .
f = f0 + f1 , f0 . f1 . (8.4)
, f1 p E. (8.4)
(8.3), f0 = f (0) , f1 = f (1) cos . f1
f1 =

f0
f0
()p =
|()||p| cos ,

(8.5)

((|p|)) , ( z
) .
, , ..
E, H .. , k E.
+
R d
, (8.4) E(t) =
E eit , :
2
if1 eE

f1
f0
= ,
p
p

(8.6)

f1 =

eE vp f0
eE f0
=
,
1
p
1 ip
i
p

(8.7)

eE
. , (8.7) (8.5) =
. (8.7)
p
(1 ip )
j

Z
Z
p
2d3 p
2d3 p
ne2
E ,
(8.8)
j = e
vf = e
vf1 (p) =
(2~)3
(2~)3
m
1 ip

v =

(2m )3/2
hg()i =
3 2 ~3 n

Z
d3/2
0

f0
g(),

(8.9)

n , hg()i .
p2
, =
,
2m
Z
Z
Z
Z
1
2
2
d sin dv(v, E) = d sin dv cos E = d sin cos2 dv 2 E = 2 v 2 E.
3
, (8.8) j() = ()E(), ,
, p (). , p
ne2

|p| ( ), () = m 1i . , & 1/p .


p
ne2
1/p ( e ) =
hp i
m
f0
. ,
= ( F )
hp ()i =

p (F ). (8.9) ,
p .
50

8. . . . .
j = E
j = nev dr ,

v dr = n E,

j = nen E,

= nen ,

(8.10)

n E ()
p v dr (
v = p/m vth T /m!!!). (8.10),
n = ehp i/m
hp ()i. () = 0 r , 0 . ,
r = 1/2, 0 1/T , (8.9) (T ) T 3/2 ,
( (T ), , n-Ge.
, ,
j = e(nn + pp )E,

= e(nn + pp ),

n, n p, p , .

8.2

f0
f
()p , f (p) (8.1)
= 0,

t
f
(). ,
6= 0.
r
,
f1
f1
` = vT ( vF ). v
.
r

f
f0
:
r

f0 f0 T
f0
f0
=
+
=
OT O ,
(8.11)
r
r
T r

T
f (p) = f0 () + f1 (p), f1 =

.
E f0
H , f0 0:

f0
f0
f0
[v, H]
= [v, H]
=
([v, H], v) 0.
p
p

f
,
p

f

p

f1
f0
f0
f0
=
()p =
() p
()
,
p
p

, ([v, H], v)
0.
, , f1 . n () (
)

e
n
OT + O(e ) + [H, n ] =
.
(8.12)
mn
T
c
n
51

8. . . . .

n
n =
mn

(
)

en
en 2

[H, Pn ] + H
(HPn ) ,

Pn +
cmn
cmn
en H 2
1+
mn c
1

(8.13)

" , "
Pn = O( e) +

OT.
T

(8.14)

, , ,
n p, (8.14) G (
, G ).

8.3

. OT = 0 H = 0
, E = O,
(8.8), :

.
(8.15)
j = O
e
, -, :
. -, (8.15) ,
. E 6= 0, j = 0
, . (8.15) ,
(5.4) .
G
n

, p = Nv exp
. On =
O.
, n = Nc exp
kT
kT
kT
O (8.15), :
j = E + e (Dn On Dp Op) ,

(8.16)
kT

kT

= nen + pep , Dn = ne , Dn = ne
. (8.16) ,
, (
, ).

8.4

( H = 0). (8.13) (8.5)


.
i
en
n
en h

j n = hn Pn i = O( e)hn i hn iOT +
OT =
mn
mn
T
T

hn i
OT

+ n OT,
+

= E
(8.17)
= nn eO
e
hn i
T
52

8. . . . .
n
= E + O . ( n , ,
E
e
!).
, . (8.17) , OT
, . ,
, ..
E

Z1
= n (T2 T1 ),
Edx

U12 =

(8.18)

n = n /n -... ( T2 T1
1 2 ). , ... (
, ), .
... -... ( ).
,
P
P
i
i i
P
=
P
.
(8.19)
i
i
(8.19) (8.17) . .
(8.17) e G (
), n p (, , n p )
, n p . , -...
, .
. (8.18) (8.19) :


1
h i
k
.
(8.20)
=
e
kT
h i
(, ) h i (.(8.9))
() - , f0 () ,
kT . kT /
h i = h i = 0.
(). () = 0 r h i/h i (. (8.9))

3
k
3
kT
(r + )
.
(8.21)
=
e 3
2

h i

k
5

=
r+
.
(8.22)
e
2 kT
(8.22), ( ),
, (8.21) kT / ( ). -... / ( ), - /
( ).
53

8. . . . .
, (8.18) , ... . , 2- A B (. .)
(), -...
V = A (T1 T2 ) B (T1 T2 ) = (A B )(T1 T2 ).
.

Z
2d3 p
(n)
Wn =
( e)vf1 (p).
(8.23)
(2~)3
. (8.23) , ,
OT . E

( ) , E
, , :

W =
j j OT,
(8.24)
e
, .
= T , ,

1 h2 ih i h i2
.
e2 T
h i2

(8.25)

(8.25)
=

2 kT
3e2

(8.26)

(8.26), -,

T

. (L =
).
T
- ,
, , . , ,
. (8.25)
n rn , p rp (n p )

n p
5
5
G i2
k2 T
+ rn n +
+ rp p + (5 + rn + rp ) +
.
(8.27)
= 2
e
2
2
kT
n + p
, (8.27) -,
, .
. ,

divj = 0 divW = 0 (
=0
= 0).
t
t
div (8.24). :
i
h

,
(8.28)
div(OT ) = j O + O
e
54

8. . . . .
d

O = dT OT . O

(8.28) , :

j2
j2
div(OT ) =
+ j O OT =
+ T (j, OT ),
(8.29)


d
d
d
T =
=T
=T
.
dT
T
dT T
dT
(8.29) , , . (.. div
, ) : (1- )
(2- ), , ,
OT .
(8.28) 2- . x < 0 = 1 , x > 0 = 2 .
(8.29) x x x x + x, x 0:

T
T
+ 2
= (1 2 )j,
(8.30)
1
x 1
x 2
, j .
(8.30) . (8.30),
( , ) , .
.

55


9.1

, .
, ,
.
eH
~c , c =
. ,
mc
(
H), , m
. ~c kT , ,
. . H, ~c & kT ,
.
.
, OT = 0 , , .
f0
()p,
(8.13) OT = 0, f = f0

n =

en
mn

E+

en
e2 n2
[H, E] +
H(H, E)
mn
mn c2
,

2
en
1+
H
mn c

(9.1)

p =

ep
mp

e2 p2
ep
[H, E] +
H(H, E)
mp
mp c2
.

2
ep
1+
H
mp c

(9.2)

HkE, , .
, , , , .
.
,
( ). , ,

56

9.

.
H E. (9.1) (9.2).
z H. E Ex Ey .
(9.1) (9.2) .
(n)
(n)
jx(n) = xx
Ex + xy
Ey ;

(n)
(n)
jy(n) = yx
Ex + yy
Ey ,

(n)
xx

(n)
yy

n
,
2 2
1 + cn
n

ne2
cn n2
=
2 2
mn 1 + cn
n

ne2
=
mn

(n)
(n)
xy
= yx

(9.3)

(9.4)

cn =

eH
. h i :
mn c

(2m )3/2 R
f0
d3/2
g().
3 2 ~3 n 0

, (9.3),(9.4), (9.3),(9.4)
"n" "p" xy yx (. (9.1),(9.2)),
e.
, x, jy = 0.
yk[j, H],
Ex Ey , jy = 0.
, .
R, Ey = RHjx .
, j = j(n) +j(p) , j(n) j(p)
(9.3) (9.4).
hg()i =

(p)

(n)

1
xy + xy
R=
.
(n)
(p) 2
(n)
(p)
H (xx
+ xx ) + (xy + xy )2

(9.5)

, (9.5) :
*
+

cp p2
pe2
ne2
cn n2
(p)
(n)
xy =
,

.
xy
2 2
2 2
mp 1 + cp
mn 1 + cn
p
n
-
R = 0.
:
) , c 1.
. xy (9.5) (c )2
1 ,
p 2
n
hp i 2 hn2 i
2
mn
1 mp
R=

2 .
ec n
p
hn i +
hp i
mn
mp

(9.6)

57

9.

R=

1 hp2 i
1 hn2 i
(p

),
R
=

(n ).
cep hp i2
cen hn i2

(9.7)

(9.7)
. r ,

1
,

2r
5
hp2 i
h i

=
= 3 (2r + 2 )
b=

hp i2
hi2
.

4 2 (r + 5 )
2
1
3
, (r = ), b =
1.18,
2
8
3
315
(r = ), b =
1.93,.
2
512
j E
tg =

Ey
= RH.
Ex


|tg| =

1 hn2 i ne2 hn i
n H hn2 i
=
1.
nec hn i2 mn
c hn i

) , c 1. ( , , kT ~c . .).
(9.5) 1/c

R
H

1
ne2

pe2

1
1

mn c
mp c

1
.
(p n)ec

(9.8)

, (9.7) p n, ,
nc
, .. |n p|
. (9.5)
(n + p )H
n = p, R = 0 ( ).

9.2

,
(H) =

Ex
(E, j)
=
jx
j2

H E.
M
(H) (0)
Ex
=
= xx (H = 0)
1

(0)
jx

(9.9)

58

9.
Ex /jx (9.9) (9.3) (9.4) jy = 0. :

h i
M
1 + c2 2
=
(9.10)
2

2 1.

2
+ c
1 + c2 2
1 + c2 2
(9.3) , H.
) , c 1.
(9.10)
M
h ih 3 i h 2 i2
.
= c2

h i2

(9.11)

(), M = 0.
kT
2 2
M
=
r [c ( = )]2

kT

2
.

9 (1 ),
r = ( )
M
16
4
2
= (c )2 15
= O((c )2 ).
6615
3

(1
), r = ( )
8
32768
2
) (c ) 1.
M
1
(c ) 1(9.10)
= h ih i 1. M = 0, ,


2 2
M
=
r

kT

1
32
M 9 1, r = 2 ( )
= 32
.
3

1, r = ( )
3
2
,
H.

59

10

.
10.1

, ,
.
: ` = 0,
, ` = 1, ,
` > 1 E. ,
, ,
.
jE .
.
e . e .
, ,
. kT <
~opt , , ,
, .
.
(
) |M p| |p| . , M p = q, q .
p q. M = ~q = sq sp.

sp
s
M

= .

vp
v
5

v v
p s 10 /c ,

vT T /m T > 10 K, v vF 108 / s.
, .
, , .
, ,
.

~q
1
1
Nq =
=
cth

1
,
~
2
2kT
exp( kTq ) 1

60

10. .
1 + Nq .

(NQ + 1) NQ
~q
1
=
= th
.
(NQ + 1) + NQ
2NQ + 1
2kT
,
, :
e1
s
1
s ~q
1 v 2N + 1 = v th 2kT .
p
Q

(10.1)

(10.1) ,
, . , ,
( vp T, q sq sp T )
~q
th
(10.1) :
2kT
s 2 ms2
e1
s ~q

1. ( T & 1o K)

v kT
v
kT
p1
,
kT /ms2 1.
, e p . , ""( ),
. , (
) , ,
(ph)
, : e p p .
- ,

.
, .

10.2

, .

. :
f
f
f
(ph)
(ee)
+v
eE
= Ist {f } + Ist {f },
t
r
p
(ph)

(10.2)
(ee)

Ist , Ist . (
,
) , . f = f0 (, r, t) + f1 (p, r, t).
(10.2) :
f0
f1
f1
(ph)
(ee)
+v
eE
= Ist {f0 } + Ist {f0 },
t
r
p

(10.3)

f1
f0
f0
(ph)
(ee)
+v
eE
= Ist {f1 } + Ist {f1 }
t
r
p

(10.4)

61

10. .
, .
(ph)
(ee)
Ist = f1 /p , Ist ,
. , (10.4) f1 f0 .

1
f0
f0
f1 =
eE
v
.
(10.5)
i + 1/p
p
r
(ee)

(10.3) f0 Ist {f0 }


(f0 f0F )/e ( f0F ).
0 f0F (, T )
T (f0 f0F (, T ))/ee . (10.3) - (10.4) ,
(10.5) (10.3) f0 , E 2 , .
f0 ( (10.5)) ,
. ,
(ph)
, ee e . ee (10.3) ,
(ee)
(10.3) ee Ist {f0 } = 0,
f0F (, T ) T . ,
f0 = f0F (, T ).
T , (10.3) :

u =

nu
+ div w jE = P (T ),
t

(10.6)

2d3 p
(2~)3 f0 ,w =

2d3 p
(2~)3 vf1

, j (
n

: p = p (n) n p ). P (T ) =
.
P (T ) = nCe

T T
,
e (T )

2d3 p
ph
(2~)3 Ist , -

(10.7)

3
e ( ), Ce = k 2
, . (10.3) ,
.
(10.6) (10.7)
:
E 2 = n

3 k(T T )
,
2
e

ne2 p
,
m


T = T +

3 e2 E 2
p e
2 mk

(10.8)

(10.8) E
(ph)
, ee e ,
.
62

10. .
(10.8) , ,
E . , T T T ,
, (10.8),

e2 E 2 p kT
e2 E 2 `2e
e2 E 2
p e =
=
,
(10.9)
kT
m
kT
m
kT

`e = De , D ,
, n kT /e, n = ep /m.

`e v p e ` = vp .
` , e (
, ,

; , s Dt).
(10.9) :
eE`e kT,
, , ,
, .

63

11

.

11.1

, ,
W . , ,
( , ). (x < 0),
(x > 0). :
d2
= 4.
d2 x

(11.1)

(11.1) , :
d
= 4
dx

Zx
dx

Zx
(x) () = 4x

Zx
dx + 4

xdx.

(11.2)

(11.2) 0 x .

+
Z
W = (+) () = 4
xdx.

(11.3)

, , , ,
.
, .

11.2

-.

, , .
. , ,
64

11. .

. 11.1: -
, , S 6= M (. 11.1. ,
,
, ,
. ,
( ).

j = O
= 0. , , j = enE + eDOn = 0,
e
.
:
+
+
Z
Z

k =
Odx =
= S M .
O
e

(11.4)

, k < 0, k > 0.
, ,
, , (.. x =
x = +), ( ),
. , k = W1 W2 ,
.

.
, , , . , ,
, . ,
, -
. (x) , ,
Z
2d3 p
= e,
n=
fF ( + e)
(11.5)
(2~)3
:
d2
4e
=
(n n0 ),
2
dx

(11.6)
65

11. .

. 11.2: p-n
, n0 .
, (11.6) e(p p0 ). ,
(11.5), 5 8, (11.5) (11.6),
, () = 0, (0) = k .
: ek kT , .
e(x)
),
, n = n0 exp(
kT

e(x)
d2
4e
n0 exp
1 .
(11.7)
=
dx2

kT
:
d2
1
= 2 ,
2
dx
LD

1
4e2 n0
=
kT
L2D

(11.8)

(x) = k exp (

x
).
LD

(11.9)

LD ( 6 8).
- ,
, p-n . ,, E
, ( 11.3).

11.3


G . GaAs/Alx Ga1x As ( x 0.3, M G 0.4
). [ 11.3]
. GaAs ,
, .
66

11. .

. 11.3:
k
105 /.
LD
, ,
, .
, , m
.

!
ky2
~2 kx2
0
i (kx , ky ) = i +
+
,
(11.10)
2 mx my
E

x y , . kT M0i ,
. ,
.
2D- ,
. - .
p Si, SiO2 ( 105
.). ( ) ,
, ,
VG (G gate ).
, ,
( ).
2D - .
N () ( ):
d2 k
2 22kdk
2
2m
=
=
kdk
=
d N ()d
(2)2
(2)2

~2

k 2 ~2
~2 k
=
; d = dk; k = (kx , ky ) .
2m
m
2

(11.11)

, N () .

,
67

11. .

. 11.4: -

. 11.5:

68

11. .
q
. N () 1/ 0i . 0-
( ) N () ( 0i ).
. , -
- . , ,
,
, . ,
, , .
,
. ,
. ,
. ,
, , . ,
.

. ,
,
, , , .
, ,
, . ,
,
. , - ,
. -
.
, -
, ,
- .
,
, .
,
, .
.

69

12

.
12.1

- .

- . ,
, ? - ( ). ,
, ,
. , , ,
. .

. ,
, ,
, , , .
.
.
.
,
(t ) ("t o total).
:
t t = ext ,

(12.1)

t ,
t ext . ,
ion ext ,
el t = ext + ion ,

(12.2)

el ,
.
, ""(- "bare") ,
:
ion t = ext + el .

(12.3)

, ,
t = el + ion + ext

(12.4)
70

12. .
t el ion . (12.2) (12.3) , (12.1),
(el + ion t )t = el + ion + ext .

(12.5)

(12.4) (12.5)
t = el + ion 1,

(t = el + ion )

(12.6)

, el ,
, -:
el = 1 +

2
;
q2

2 =

6ne2
,
F

(12.7)

1/ . . ( ) ,

i = ZeE.
MX

(12.8)

, .
(12.8) ion , . (12.8)
:
2 M X = ZeE.

(12.9)

4Ze2 N
D = E + 4P = E 1
.
M 2

N e2 Z
P = eXN =
,
M 2

(12.10)

.. D = E, (12.10)
ion = 1

2pl
2

(12.11)

4Ze2 N
2pl =
pl , Ze
M
M . pl pl .
, ion = 0
( = 0 divD = divE = 0,
E = 0, , = 0, E 6= 0, ).
""("dressed") .
, ,
, , el .
2pl el . :
= kX/, , k/M = 2 .
M X
pl
: kXel , , :
2q =

2pl
k
=
=
el M
el

2pl
2
1+ 2
q

2pl q 2
2 + q 2

(12.12)

71

12. .
(12.12) q : q = sq, s =
pl / . , (12.7) (12.11) (12.6),

t = 1 +

2
2 pl

.
q2
2

(12.13)

(12.12), t (12.13) .
1
2
q2
.
= 2
t (, q)
(q + 2 ) 2 2q

(12.14)

(12.14) . t (, q):

!
2q
4e2
4e2 2
4e2
Vcoulomb
= 2
= 2
= 2
(12.15)
vef f (, q) =
1+ 2
t
q t (, q)
(q + 2 )( 2 2q )
q + 2
2q
4e2
,
q 2 + 2
, .. - ,
< q . +
p p + q
Z
h, p|vef f (r, t)|p + q, + i = d3 rdteit+iqr vef f (r, t) vef f (, q).
(12.15),

, (12.15) ,
, q.
, q q :
2 2
1 2q
q
dq
=
dq ,
(2)2
(2) s3
N (q ) 2q q 2 , , ( )
() q qD /a D (D
D pl ). < D .
D . (, F D /).
, (12.15) , - .
, , ,
(12.15) , .
, , .
, :
vef f (, q) = Vq2

2q
.
2 2q

(12.16)

q ( 1/ ) (12.16)
, vef f (x)
|V0 |(x).
(--). .
72

12. .

12.2

, ,
. ?
q, , S
- . ,
|r1 r2 | .
,
, .
.
, ,
, ,
.
.
- , -.
. ,
~D , ~D /v (v ).
v/D (v/D )a,
a . ( ,
, ).
a, , ,
, - .

12.3

(1911 .)
46 .
, . ,
( ) .
. , , ,
. (
). ,
.
.
, ,
, .
,
,
. , ,
, . . ,
, - , 2/.
-
. , (
),
, .
73

12. .
, .

. .
,
.
.

12.4

( ), n: a
+
n .
n a
+
n . , p (
ap , a
p ).
. r ( = 12 12 )
X
X
) =
+ (r, ) =
eikr a
+
(r,
eikr a
k
(12.17)
k ,
k

) (r
, ) ( + (r, ) + (r0 , )), + (r,

0 , ) + (r
0 , )+ (r, ) = (r r0 ),
+ (r, )(r

(12.18)


a
+
p0 + a
p0 a
+
p a
p = pp0 .

(12.19)

, + (r, ),
). , ,
(r,
=H
0 + H
int ,
H
#
"
2
e
XZ
p

A
3
+
c
)
0 =
+ U0 (r) (r,
H
d r (r, )
2m

Z
1X
0
0
0
0 , )(r,
),

Hint =
d3 rd3 r + (r, )+ (r , )vint (r r , , )(r
2

(12.20)
(12.21)
(12.22)

A , U0 (r) , , vint
0
0
. vint (r r , , ) = V (r r ) .
Z
1
BSC
)(r,
)

Hint = V
d3 r+ (r, )+ (r, )(r,
(12.23)
2
, , ,
(12.22) (12.23) (12.21)
U (r), .
(12.23) R ,
)
d3 rU (r)+ (r, )(r,
-,
Z
h
i
ef f
)(r,
) ,

Hint = d3 r M (r)+ (r, )+ (r, )+ M (r)(r,


(12.24)
74

12. .
)(r,
)|N + 2i
M (r) = V hN |(r,

(12.25)

(|N i N , |N + 2i ,
N + 2 ). (12.25),
() , ,
(12.24) 2, ( , (12.24)
) .
"".
, :
ef f = H
0 + H
ef f
H
int

(12.26)

, U0 ( -,
, ).
(12.26)

X
+
ef f = E0 +
n n
n ,
(12.27)
H
n,
+
n n, E0 , n
n
, :
X
+
) =
[
n un (r) n
(r,
vn (r)],
(12.28a)
n

X
+
) =
(r,
[
n un (r) + n
vn (r)],

(12.28b)

un vn , (12.28) (12.26)
(12.27). + ,
:
+
+
n
m + m n
= nm

(12.29)

n m + m n = 0
, (12.18)
ef f , ],
u(x) v(x) [H
), H
)+ M (r)+ (r )
ef f ] = H
0 (r
[(r

(12.30)

), H
) M (r)+ (r )
ef f ] = H
0 (r
[(r
(12.30) + + (12.28),
+ , (12.27)
ef f , n ] = n n ,
[H

(12.31)

ef f , + ] = n + .
[H
n
n
, ,

0 u(r)+ M (r)v(r) = u(r),


H
(12.32)

H0 v(r)+ M (r)u(r) = v(r),


75

12. .

= ,
H

=
H

0
H
M

M
0 ;
H

u(r)
=
v(r)

p ec A)2
p2
0 = (
H
F ( ).
2m
2m
M . (12.32) ,
u(r) v(r) .
u(r) = uk exp(ikr),

v(r) = vk exp(ikr).

(12.33) (12.32) :

( k )uk M vk = 0,
M uk + ( + k )vk = 0,

(12.33)

(12.34)

p2
p2 p2F
~2 k 2
(p + pF )
k =
F
= (p pF )
(p pF )vF ( p pF ). (13.32)
2m
2m
2m
2m
, ,
p
(12.35)
= | M |2 + 2 .
, , || <M
( 2 M ).
uk vk ,
|uk |2 + |vk |2 = 1

(12.36)

u2k

1
=
2

1+
,

vk2

1
=
2

1
.

(12.37)

(12.28) (12.16), a
k
+
a
+

:
k
k
k
+
a
k = uk k vk k
,
+
a
k = uk k vk k .

(12.38)

|(p pF )v| M p > pF p < pF , (uk , vk ) (1, 0) (0, 1) .


, p > pF k a
k ,
p > pF . p < pF ( |p pF |v M) a+
k ,
. +
,
.
M. u v (12.25).
h i ( ),
T > 0,
P
En /T

hn|A|nie
n
=
P E /T
hAi
.
(12.39)
e n
n

76

12. .
M (12.25) (12.39), + (12.28),
M:
X

un (r)vn (r)th
M (r) = V
.
(12.40)
2kT
n

u v (12.33) (12.37) (12.40) (
P R

)
~
ZD

M=
0

p
| M |2 + 2
p
th
,
2kT
| M |2 + 2
M d

(12.41)

= N (F ), (N (F ) ). ~D ,
D .
T = 0 (12.41)
M (0) ~D e1/ ~D ,

< 1.

(12.41) (M6= 0) T < Tc , ,


M :
kT = 1.14~D e1/ .
[ 13.1]
(12.41) M (T ) . M (T )
.

12.5

, M ,
. .
= i~O
H. H H0 (12.32) p
ec A, A .
p
u, v M:
u, v, M uei(r)/2 , vei(r)/2 , M ei(r) .

(12.42)

u, v M ( ),
2
2
2
e 2
e 2
0 = ~
= ~
0 = ~ (
A H
s )2
H
p

H
pp
0
2m
c
2m
c
2m
2
~
e
= ~ (
s )2 , , p
s = O A
p+p
H
0
2m
2
c

~2

s )2 u+ M v = u;
(
pp
2m
(12.43)
2

~ (
s ) v+ M u = v.
p+p
2m
O (12.43) -


i
O
i
i(O)
su +
u + Ou e 2 p
u e 2.
i~O(e 2 u) = i~ i
2
2
i

77

12. .
(12.43) -. , , ,
. (12.43) ,
A, Of ,
2e
(12.43) u, v, M, (12.42) =
f.
c~
, M
2e. M .
ps , vs = ps /m .
. :

e2 +
j(r) = ie~ [ O+ (r) (r)
+ (r) O(r)

]
A (r)(r).
(12.44)
2m
mc
+
.
(12.44) , + ((12.28) u v + ).

i
i O

+ O ,
O(e 2 ) = e 2 i
2

e ~
e
e ps Ns ,

js hji =
O A h+ i
(12.45)
m 2
c
m
Ns
Ns = h+ i,
(12.45)
js = eNs vs .

(12.46)

Ns + (12.38) (12.39)

M 2
Ns n T 0 Ns
N T TC ( M 0). (, (12.46)
kTC
e
4
j, rotps = H, ( H = rotA), rotrotH =
(12.45) : rotH =
c
c
4e2
4e2 Ns
x/
2

Ns H; H = H0 e
, =
.
mc2
mc2
(12.45) , M .
M | M |e2ips r ( ps ),
M , 2ps .
( ) ,
.
, ,
. "",
(12.35) , T = 0 ,
(
1 < M,
fF () =
0 >M,
, , .
, .
: (
(12.35)), :
j = js + jN ;

js = eNs vs ;

jN = E,

(12.47)
78

12. .
. "":
dvs
= eE; imvs = eE;
dt
2

e Ns
e
vs = i
E; j = i
+ E.
m
m
m

(12.48)

, ne2
, ( 6= 0, =
),
m(1/ i)
. ,
( ,
).
,
, , T TTC E.
,
. : ,
.

79

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