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. .

1981

6S0.1 32.81
245
62-506

. . .
: , 1981. 375 .


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28 1979 .

30501126
811(11) 81 24.81.1502000000

, 1981


.......................................................................................................

1. .........................................................

13

1.1. . . .
1 . 1 . 1 . ........................................ .
.
1.1.2. .........................................
1.1.3. ..........................................
1.2. .............................................................
1.3. ...................................................................
1.4. ...................................................................
1.5. ....................................................................................
1.5.1. .......................................... :
1.5.2. ............................................

13
14
17
25
28
32
35
38
38
41

2. ..................................................... .
2.1. .......
2.2. .....
2.2.1. ..............................................
2.2.2. ...............................
2.2.3.
2.2.4. ...
2.2.4.1.
2.2.4.2.
..............................
2.2.5. ....
2.2.5.1.
..........................................
2.2.5.2.
...........................................................................
2.2.5.3.
()......................................................
2.2.5.4.
...............................................
2.2.5.5. .............................................................
2.3. .............................................................................
2.4. ....................................................................................................
2.5. ................................................................

45
45
47
47
49
50
52
53
53
53
54
55
56
56
57
57
59
61

3.
...................................................................................
3.1. ...................................................................
3.2. ........................................................
3.3. ...........................................................
3.3.1. ......................................................
3.3.2. . .
3.3.2.1. ....................................
3.3.2.2. ..................................
3.3.2.3. ....................................
3.3.2.4. . ...................................
3.3.3. ................................
3.3.3.1.
.................................................................................
3.3.3.2. ....
3.4. .....
3.4.1. ........................................................................
3.4.2. S=SH.................................................................................................................................
3.4.2.1. ............................................................
3.4.2.2.
...............................................................
3.4.2.3. ........................................................
3.4.3. S=SG................................................................................................................................
3.4.4. S=SHSG .....................................................................................................................
3.4.5. S=SD.................................................................................................................................
3.4.6. S=SDSH . .......................................................................
3.5. ........................................
3.5.1. .......................................... .
3.5.2. .
3.5.2.1. .........................................
3.5.2.2. . . . . .
3.5.3. ...............................
3.6. ................................................................................
3.6.1.
.
.
.
.
3.6.1.1. . . . . . . . .
3.6.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1.3..
....................................................... .
3.6.2. ..................................................... .
3.6.2.1. ................................................
3.6.2.2. ...................................................................
3.6.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7. ................................
3.7.1. ............................................................
3.7.1.1. ......
3.7.1.2. .....
3.7.2. ............................................................
3.7.3. .......................................
4. ......................................
4.1. ................... 127
4.1.1. . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2. .....................................................................
4.1.3. ..........................................................
4.2. ........................................................
4.2.1. ...............

65
65
69
81
81
85
85
88
91
91
93
95
96
97
98
99
99
100
101
101
103
103
104
104
104
105
106
107
109
111
112
112
112
114
114
114
115
117
118
119
119
120
122
125
127
128
129
131
134
134

4.2.2. ...........................................................................
4.2.2.1. ................................................
4.2.2.2. ...................................
4.2.2.3. ....
4.2.2.4. .
4.2.2.5. ..............................
4.2.2.6. ................................................
4.2.2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2.8. () ............................................................
4.2.3. ...................................
4.2.4. ...........................................................................
4.2.5. .......................................
4.2.6.
.............................................................................................
4.2.7.

.....................................................................................
4.3.
.....................................................................
4.3.1. ...........................................
4.3.2. .........................................
4.3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4. ...........................................................................
4.3.5.
.........................................................................................
4.3.6. ......................................
4.3.7.
4.3.8.

4.4.
..........................................................................................
4.4.1. ................................................. .................
4.4.2. .................................................
4.4.3. ...........................................................
4.5. ..........
4.6. ...........................................
4.7. .............
4.8. ........................................................

136
136
137
137
139
.140
141
142
143
145
146
149
153
160
165
166
167
169
171
174
175
177
180
186
186
190
200
203
212
223
231

5. ...................................... 239
5.1. .............................................
5.1.1. ......................................................................
5.1.2. -....................................................................
5.1.2.1. ...............................
5.1.2.2. ..
5.1.2.3. ............................................
5.2. ...............
5.3. ..
5.4. ...........
5.4.1.
. ........................................................
5.4.2. ................................................
5.4.3. ....
5.5. ................................

239
239
240
242
244
245
248
253
264
264
266
270
274

6. .............................................
277
6.1. ................................................
277
6.1.1. .......................................
277
6.1.2. .............................................
279
6.1:3: .........................................
280
6.2. . ...........................................................
282
6.2.1. ...............................
.............................
282
6.2.2. ....
285
6.2.2.1. ..................................
285
6.2:2.2.
.................................... .
.
. 286
6.2.2.3. .
..............................................................................
286
6.2.2.4. ...........................................
289
6.2.3.
289
6.2.3.1. ( ) . . . . . 289
6.2.3.2. ...................................
290
6.2.3.3. . . 292
6.2.3.4.
294
6.2.3.5.
Q(U) ...............................................................................
300
6.2.3.6.
....................................................... 302
6.2.3.7.
(6.2.18) . . . ....................................................
303
6.2.3.8. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 308
6.2.4. ... 310
6.3.
............................................................................................................................... ..312
6.3.1. ...............................................................
312
6.3.2.
........................................................ 313
6.3.3. ..................... 315
6.4. . . .
319
6.4.1. ..................................................................... 320
6.4.2. .......................................... 322
6.4.3.
........................................ 325
6.4.4. .......................................................... 328
6.4.5.
..
331
6.4.5.1.
331
6.4.5.2.
......................................................................................... 335
6.4.5.3.
.......................................................... 342
6.4.5.4.
345
6.5. 345
6.5.1. ..................................................................... 345
6.5.2. .. 346
6.5.3.
....................................... 353
...................................................................................................... 358
........................................................................................

360


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(1.3.2)

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. 1.3.1. - .

. 1.3.2. - .

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1.3.2.
,
a(t), Q(,), U*(t), t.

(1.3.5)

.
1. :
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(1.3.6)

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U*(t) ,
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U*0 ,
( ) (A . {U}).
U* (t+1) = U* (t)+ a,
(1.3.9>

, ,
{U}, .

3.

Q'(U) = a(t) f( |U-U*| ),

):
(1.3.10)

(t)>0 ,
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1.4.
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U
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(1.4.1)


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(1.1.19) (1.4.1):

1.4.2)
(1.4.3)
v, i, j
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(1.4.4)

(1.4.5)
Q (X, U)
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(1.4.6)

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(1.4.4) Q, G H
. U*X X ,
.

, :
1) X ,
2) F (X, U) ,
3)
(1.4.4).
,

Z*
Y .
.
Z*,
X .
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). (1.1.14)
(1.4.2), (1.4.4).
, X
, F .
Q, G H (1.2.15), ,
, (1.2.16).
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(1.4.4).
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u1,..., un, . .
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(1.5.2)

.
u i .
(1.5.3)
. . S ,
(1.5.4)
D U.


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(1.5.5)

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, a C = (1, ..., ck)
( (1.5.2),
).
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U W
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(1.2.9)

EW
W; ECW
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; C*W*
. ( W ,
W .) ,
S = EW ECW,

(1.5.7)

. . S (1.2.10)
EW
ECW .
-

(1.5.6) .
1.5.1,

W,
. ,

- . 1.5.1. :
: .

. 1.5.2. .

( 2 . 1.5.1)
( 1). ,

,
.
, ,
. . . 1.5.2
.

[113].
,
EW .
, ,
(. 3.7 ) .
W,
,
Q . ,
:
| Q(W+W) - Q(W) | ||W||,

(1.5.8)

= const, ||W||
,
W. ,
W
,
.
W u ,
, -

,
W0 W1... WN WN+1...,

(1.5.9)


(1.5.10)

:
Q (WN) < Q (WN-1).

(1.5.11)

,
(1.5.11) , , Wi
, Wi, (1.5.11).
,
(1.5.11), ,
.
, , ,
.
, ,
. (. . 1.5.2).
1.5.2.


(1.5.12)

. ,
(1.5.2) . ,
,
:
(1.5.13)

:
(1.5.14)


(1.5.15)


. , ,
(n)
,

U = (u11, ...r u1n, u2n, ..., unn)

(1.5.16)

(1) (0)
:
(1.5.17)
:
(1.5.18)

(1.5.19)

H G (. 1,2)
U.
,
(1.5.4).
3.4.

:
(1.5.20)
>0
, S' (1.5.19)
(1.5.17) U.

,

P = (p1, ..., pq),

(1.5.21)


pi = (ui=1).

(1.5.22)

(1.5.23)
.
Q(U)
P:

U
pj0 = 1 - pj; pj1 = pj.

(1.5.24)


(1.5.25)

(1.5.24) [96] Q(U). , Q(U)


q- , Q(P)
,
.
,
Q(U)

P.

(1.5.26)
P*. ,
,
U*, . .
P* = U*.
(1.5.27)
P*
(1.5.24) - (.
3.2):
(1.5.28)
Ui i-
(1.5.2), P.


[52, 74, 96, 98, 99, 240].
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5 6 .
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.
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2.2.

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.
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), ,
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, , BC, ,
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. BC,
.
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[292].
2.2.1.
BC .
.
1. BC . BC
,
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BC
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BC

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.

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2.2.2.
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BC.
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BC -
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:

1 . ,
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, . .).
2. BC

(,
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3.
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).
4.
BC
(,
, . .).
5.
BC (,
).
,
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,
BC (. 1.1).
, ,
BC, .
. [202; 203, . 221
225; 299; 300].
, BC.
2.2.3.

BC.
.

, ,
BC, . .

,

BC .
, . . , .

.
Pi = P(i, i)

(2.2.1)

, (i) (i). :
Pi = P(i, i).

(2.2.2)

qi = q (Pi, C)

(2.2.3)

Pi
, C = (1,..., k).

(2.2.3)
. ( ,
):
(2.2.4)
(P)
. ,
BC.

(2.2.3),
.

, ,
,
,
. .
, . .

F XN
XN+1, Q:
XN+1 = XN + XN+1,
XN = F (XN, C), a C .
, ,
. ,
:
CN+1 = CN + CN+1,

CN+1 = (CN, XN) .


( 3.5), [182].
. ,
,
,
.

,
( 5.3).
2.2.4.

,
.

. .

A1, ..., Am,
(2.2.5)
(2.2.2) BC. ,

Pj i- :
qij = q (Pj, Ai).
(2.2.6)
, , ,
; .
, P
,
(2.2.7)
. .
(2.2.8)

(2.2.6).
,
. . (2.2.5) ,
*,
(2.2.7) .
.

2.2.4.1.

, . .
,
BC. , (2.2.5), BC.
(2.2.6) Pj
Ai , , .


(P) *
, ,
.
, (P)
, A*,
.
(5.5).
2.2.4.2.

, ()
. P .
(), . .
, (,
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.
()
.
,

P , ,
.
(
5.4).
BC.
2.2.5.
BC,
BC
.

P BC, U
BC,
,
q = q (P, U)

(2.2.9)

BC,
P U. (2.2.9)
, . . q
( ) BC P U.

(2.2.10)

U*,

(2.2.11)
(P)
BC ( ),
.
BC
, . .
U,
(2.2.9).
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.
2.2.5.1.

BC
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.


BC .
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.
()
.
. (P)
P , a U
, . . .
(P) , . .
.
(2.2.9)

, ,
Q(U) (2.2.10).
(P)
,
, .


(P).
, (P)
,
.
, ,
.
( 6.2).
2.2.5.2.



. , ,
.
,
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, ,
.

, ,
6.2.
2.2.5.3.
()

BC
BC.
,
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,
.


BC.

:
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,
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, ( 6.3).
2.2.5.4.


BC ,
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,
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2.2.5.5.

BC
BC,
.

BC .
,
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-
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.
BC ,

,
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2.3.
,

,
.
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. .

U, . Q ,

. ,
U :
Q = Q (U, ),

(2.3.1)

.
,
.
, . .

, , ,
, . .
= (t).

(2.3.2)


t/ , . .
(2.3.3)

U*(t) , (t) .
(2.3.1) ,
Q, . . (2.3.1)
. (2.3.3)
, . .
U , (2.3.1)
.
,
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.
.
. (2.3.2) (). , . .
. (2.3.2):
= (, t),

(2.3.4)

, a C=(c1,...,cq)
,
.

(. 4.2). , (2.3.4)
(2.3.1) , ,
(2.3.3), U*
,
(: ).

(
4.2).

1,...,p,
. ,


[297].

2.4.

. .
,
,
. .
,
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, :
) , ,
(
),
)
.
,
.


.
..
1,..., bij (i,
j=l,...,n), cl (l=1, ..., m<n). , ai, bij,
cl>0.

(2.4.1)
m ( )
( ).

(2.4.2)

(uij=1)
(uij=0) j- i- .
, :
(2.4.3)
. .
. (2.4.1) ,
.

2.4.4) S
U:

(2.4.5)

(,)

(2.4.6)
U*
.
(2.4.4)
,
. U* .

6.2.

2.5.


,

, .


, .
X , E . ,
, E

(2.5.1)

,
. , X
, a E .
Y, H

(2.5.2)

: Y , H
. , Y
, H .

.
:
Q = Q (Y, X).

(2.5.3)


, ,
. .
.
Y, , X, E
H, U:
Y = F (X, E, H, U),

(2.5.4)

F .
U
:
U = U (X, Y).

(2.5.5)

U
(2.5.3). ,
U*
:
(2.5.6)

S , U. , ,
(2.5.5),
, . .
, (2.5.6) ,
E H. ,
.
U*
, . .
.

(2.5.7)

Q :
(2.5.8)

U1U2...UN...,

(2.5.9)

U*, .
:
U = f (X, Y, C),

(2.5.10)

f ; C = = (c1,...,c2)
, ,
, . .
(2.5.11)

SC f.

l1 l2 .
f ,
:
1;
2;
(2.5.12)
c2 1.

= c1l1 - (1 - c1) l2,

(2.5.13)

1 2 (k = 2)

(2.5.14)
, c1
c2,
(, ),
.
,
.
, 1.5,
.
:
(2.5.15)

(2.5.15) ,
,
[296].

, X
Y,
(,
). , . .
,
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, .

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,
,

.
6.3.
.
,
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, . . .
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,
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,
( ),
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.
.




,

- , , .

,
[159, 288],
.

. ,
,

, [286].

3.1.

.
:

,
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,
,
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.
,
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.
,
.
,
.
.
.
,

. 3.1.1. .


, .
.
1, 2,...,
(. 3.1.1):
y = f0 (1,...,),
(3.1.1)
f0 , 1,...,
. ,
, . . ,
.
.
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.

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.
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( random ).
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3.2.
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II. - 1943 .
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() -
.

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.
-
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. () (
).
, .
,
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:
(3.2.1)
,
-. ,


x1, ..., xN ,

(3.2.2)

p(X).
, . .
(3.2.3)

-
N (3.2.2). ,

().
,
(3.2.2)
.

, - ,
, (3.2.2)

().
(3.2.2) .
y=f(x)
.
(3.2.4)
-
(3.2.5)
:
, (3.2.1), ,
, (3.2.3)
(3.2.2)? .
, (
), ,
,
.
X = (x1, ..., xn)

(3.2.6)


(3.2.7)
,
n
. -.
(3.2.7) f(X) X, ()
X,
X () = p1(x1) ... (), pj(xj)
j- xj.

X ().
(n--) (3.2.7)
(3.2.8)

Xi (i=1,...,N)
(), n- .
(3.2.8) :
Xi .
,
-

.
:
1 .

(3.2.9)
. .
(3.2.7).
2.
:
(3.2.10)
. . (3.2.7).
3. N :
(3.2.11)
N .
- . , ( ) , N,
N=1, .
( )
N,
( 1/N),
, -
, N,
.
, - () .
. , , -
.
III. 30- ,
, .

.
.
, .
, x1 x2.
,
(x1), (2) ,
(). ,

y = f (x1),

(3.2.12)


= f0 (x1, 2),

(3.2.13)

f0 . ,
f.
, . . ,

.
, f.
, (3.2.12)?
, . . . f0
,
:
f (x1) = f 0 (x1, x2) p2(x2) dx2,

(3.2.14)

p2(x2) 2.
(3.2.14) - (3.2.4):
(3.2.15)
fN N
,
, . . 2i (i=1,...,N) 2,

2(2). 2
.
,
f 0 (x1, x2), ,
: .

2(2) ,
f, , ,
. ,
,
, . . .
. , N ,
:
1i, 2i (i=1,...,N), .... (3.2.16)
1i i- ,

(,

D- ), a 2i (i = 1, .., N)
,
2(2).

. , ,
.
IV.
, ,
, - :
R() = S 2 (),

(3.2.17)

S2 . ,
w(t),
.

:
(3.2.18)
Rxx(t)
x(t), a Rxy(t) -
x(t) y(t).
,
, (3.2.17).
(3.2.17) (3.2.18),
(3.2.19)

. .
-
.

,
. .
V. , ,
, .
1948 . [246].

(3.2.20)
X = (1, ..., xn); ,
:
-1 xi 1

(i = 1, ..., n).

(3.2.21)

, (3.2.20)
(0, 0, ..., 0). : |x i | = 1.
,
, .
, . .
|x i | = 1 i = l, ..., n,

(3.2.22)

, . .
.
|x i | = 1 i;

(3.2.23)

|x i | < 1 i (i = l, ..., n);


, ,
, [-1; 1].
,
.

(, ),
,
, .
, .

,
. , ,

.
,
, .
| x i
| < 1 i = 1, ..., ,
,

n = 4.

, [245].

,
, , . , ,
. ,

,
. ,
. ,
, ()
.
VI.

[118], . . .

(n+1) - (. . 3.1.1) n 1 , . . . ,
() Q = Q(X),
. y = Q(X) ,
:
(3.2.24)
X* ,
.
xi
fi(t) (i = 1, ..., n).
, . . fi(t),

(3.2.25)

F(t)
:
F(t) = ( f1(t), ..., fn(t) );

(3.2.26)

i2 i-ro : i2=Dfi(t). , i-ro


(3.2.25)
dQ/dxi, i-o
. , Q/xi>0 Q xi,
.
. (),
xi, ,
i-ro ,

:
(3.2.27)
i i-
. i = i = ,

(3.2.28)

. ,

X

Q(X),
(, , , .
. ).
(3.2.28), : F(t),
. . = 0, , X = const.
, F(t)
.
,

.
VII. ,
[264], -

.

(3.2.29)
i i-ro xi
(i=1,...,n),
. ,
y
, . . , i .
,
, . . i
N (N<n). C
, n N n>N.

.
. ,

Xj = (x1j, ..., xnj)

(j=1,..., N < n),

(3.2.30)

.
(3.2.31)
. . ,
1/N i-
l- , . ,
(3.2.29) xlj j, (3.2.31)
:

(3.2.32)

Xj.
,
(3.2.31) .

, ,
. (
.)
,
- .
,
, ,
,
.
(3.2.30) ,
. ,

(3.2.32). xi (i
= 1, . . . , ) k<N, .
1, ..., xk.

(3.2.33)
bi
. k<N , ,
,
(3.2.33) ,
.
,
k, .

.
, (3.2.30)
, . . .
VIII.
1928 .
()
. , . ,
(
).
||bij|| (i=l,...,n; j=1,...,m), bij
, i- , ,
j- . .
,
, . .
(3.2.34)

() ,

(3.2.35)
pi i-
( [139]).
.
, .
,
.
,
, .
, . .
(3.2.34) .
,
, .
, ,

, .
,
, ,
.

3.3. 3.3.1.

()
, [149]. ,
,
, ,
:
U0 U1 . . . U N UN+1 . . .

(3.3.1)

, , . .
(3.3.2)

. ,

, (3.2.2)
, . . Q(UN)<Q(UN-1).
, (3.3.2)

.
, ,
.
UN = F (UN-1);
(3.3.3)
F , ,
(UN-1), (UN),
(3.3.2).
F
? , UN-1
, UN.
,
Q(U) S UN-1.
F,
(3.3.2). F
.
Q(U)
S, . . .
F , U
.
, F .
, .
,
. .
,
.
,
, . . S = Rq. B

Q A = UN-1 g B = UN-1 + g ( ) (. 3.3.1).
, , , UN
( )
Q (. . 3.3.1), . .
(3.3.4)

. 3.3.1.
.
. 3.3.2. .

A
(, . 3.3.1 Q () < Q ()).

UN = UN-1 - a sign [ Q (UN-1 + g) - Q (UN-1 - g)],

(3.3.5)

sign :
(3.3.6)

,

UN-1,
. g ( .
3.3.1 ).
(,
, g,
).
B,
, .

.
() :
UN = UN - UN-1
(3.3.7)

(. 3.3.2). F
, :
U = F (UN-1).
(3.3.8)
F - , . . , ,
, , UN-1,
U ,
U.
, . .
.
,
.
,

.

:
, {F},
;
(, ,
. .) {F},
,
.
,
(3.3.9)
. . ,
.
,

{U},

F p (U),

(3.3.10)

U.
p(U). B
, -, . .
{U} , ,
, . ,
,
-
.

3.3.2.

(
,
, ).
. ,
( 3.6).
3.3.2.1.


: () (+) .

: Q
(Q<0), (Q0).
QN = QN - QN-1,

(3.3.11)

a QN = Q (UN) N-
.
.


: (Q<0)
, . ,
, (Q0) , . .
.

, . . .
(. 3.7,
).


(.
3.3.3). ,
(+) U,
. (Q0)

. 3.3.3. : , .


, Q<0, . .
.
:
(3.3.12)
( |U| = ),
a ( || = 1 ) ,

{U}. ,
.

, (. 3.3.4,

).
.
{U}:

Q(U)
, .
,
, .
.
,
(Q0) , , ,
,
.
,
,
.
. .
, U=a , q
, . .
p = Bep (Q < 0 | U = a);
q = Bep (QN < 0 | QN < 0, XN = XN-1).

.
(3.3.13)

. 3.3.4.

. 3.3.5. .

,
, +,

. ,
, q ,
. , Q(U) : q = 1 p = , .
. . ,
,
. . U* [275].

[95],
, |
:
(3.3.14)
, . .

. 3.3.5. ,
, . .

. ( ,
, , .)
, .
, , . .

(3.3.15)
=
,
.
*
:
UN+1 = UN + *NN,

(3.3.16)

N .

.

Q (U) = c1u12 + ... + cquq2.

(3.3.17)

Q(UN+1) / Q(UN). , ,
.
[95]
(3.3.18)

,
UN.
q = 2 [145]:
(3.3.19)
M
.
, > 16
. ,
( )
. , ,
.

(3.3.17)
.
.
,
,
.
,
.

. ,
.
3.3.2.2.

.
()
, , ,
,
, . . .

. 3.3.6.
.

. 3.3.6.
, .
, ,
, ()
.

(3.3.20)

.
,
,
, (3.3.13)
(q0). U*
.
.

:
(3.3.21)
,

Q(U) UN-1
, . . .


. ,
Q, . .
(3.3.11), ,
. (3.3.21)
q+1 Q. ,
(3.3.14)

(3.3.22)
g

, ei i- . ,

: ,

, , ,
() .
,
(), q
. 3.3.7 . ,
, . . q<q*,
(), (q>q*)
(),
. ,
q*, , (q* = 35).
q* = 3 [161].
U*
.
r = | U U*|. r q

, . 3.3.8. ,
.
(r0) . (. . 3.3.8)
() ().
, ,
.
, 1/q, .

.
, -

. 3.3.7. . ( ),
.
. 3.3.8.
() ().

. ,

.
, .
,
(3.3.21):
(3.3.23)

.
.
3.3.2.3.

:
Ui = U + gi

(i = 1, ..., m),

(3.3.24)

i i- , ,
{U}. *
:
(3.3.25)

(3.3.26)
,
, . .

3.3.2.4.

[164]:
(3.3.27)
. .
i ,
.

i , . . i = i, = ,
(3.3.22), .
, . <,
(3.3.22), = .
, (. 3.3.1).
.
(3.3.21)
. :
- q- .
[145, 247].
(3.3.23),

l=0, , .
(3.3.21).
, ,
.
,
,
{U}.
, (3.3.12)

:

. , ,

. , ,
,
, .


, , (3.3.22).
, , ,
, . ,
,
,
.
,
-
.
,

( ) .

.
,
,
.
,
.
[229].
,
,
,
( ),
.
,
. ,

.
, [183],

[142].
3.3.3.
.
.
A = Q, W, V, (q,w), v(q,w),

(3.3.28)

Q = {q1, ..., qk} ; W = {w1, ..., wm}


; V = {v1, ..., vl}
; w' = (q, w) , ,
w' w
q; v = v (q, w)
v , w q.
,
. - , v
, a q
.
.
, U Q(U).
Q ( Q),
U ( U).
:
1. U = F(U) q
ui = Fi(U) (i = 1, ..., q),

ui, N+1 = uiN + ui, N+1.

(3.3.29)

2. (k = 2)
:
Q={q1, q2},
q1 = 0 () Q < 0, a q2 = 1 ()
QO.
3. :
Vi = {vi1, vi2},
vi1 = ai > 0 vi2 = ai, . .
ai . ai = 1
, . . i .
v.
, :
1) , v ;
2) , v .


[140],
[181]. .

3.3.3.1.
[140, 141]
.
.
v
(3.3.30)
, m/2
( ) v2=1 (
), v2=1 (
).
(q, w)

(3.3.31)

ij wi
wj .
, . . ,
. 3.3.9. > 1/2 q > 1/2
. , Q < 0, . .
, ,
, , Q 0
. . 3.3.9
, q > 1/2.
:
, . . = q =1?

. 3.3.9.
( = 0) ( = 1).

! ,

. ,
(3.3.32)

, . .
.
, q , ,
.
,
, ,
(. ).
3.3.3.2. [181]

,
, . .
w' w. Ee , , , . 3.3.10.
v (,)
, (3.3.30), wj (j = 1, ..., )
:
(3.3.33)
(j) , ,
(3.3.34)

. 3.3.10.

: uiQ0,
uiQ<0.

,

( . .).
,
, 3.7.
.
. (
3.7).
, ,
,
.

3.4.


(3.4.1)
, .
. S,
.

S, . . . ,
(3.4.1) , . .
,
,

.
,
[169].
(3.4.1)

. ,
,

(3.4.1).
,
S

.
.
.
.
3.4.1.
-, -
U = (u1, ..., uq):
SH : hi (U) > 0

(i = 1, ..., m),

(3.4.2)

hi () ,
H (U) = (h1 (U), ..., hm(U) ).

(3.4.3)

(3.4.2)
SH : H (U) 0.
-,
SG : gj (U) = 0

(3.4.4)

(j = 1,..., <q),

:
(3.4.5)

gj() . .

G (U) = (g1 (U), ..., gn (U) ),

(3.4.6)


SG : G (U) = 0.

(3.4.7)

,
:
(3.4.8)
fZ ()
, a fZ l- , Z-
. . fZ (U) = uZ
(3.4.9)
(l)

uZ(l) (, ),
Z- .
F (U) = ( f1(U), ..., fp (U) ).

(3.4.10)


(3.4.11)
D ,
F(U).
, S
SH, SG SD
, ,
(, SG SD ).

.

S = SH SG,

(3.4.12)

,
,
S = SH S D

(3.4.13)

. ,

, .

. [225]
, -

, (. 3.6).

3.4.2. S = SH
S
q.
S.
.
.
3.4.2.1.

,

(Q0), -

. 3.4.1. () () : , +
(UN+1 = UN),
(UN+1 = UN).

. ,
:
(3.4.14)
. . (),

. () ,

.

(UN+1= UN). . 3.4.1
() () ,
. [302].

3.4.2.2.


. W :
W = M (),

(3.4.15)

M , .
, ()
W.
wN+1 = kwN+UN+1,
0k1 , >0

(3.4.16)

, ,
:
(3.4.17)
S=SH.
, (3.4.16)
(. 3.5) S.
3.4.2.3.

(. 3.5)
(3.3.20) ,
.
(3.4.18)

(3.4.19)

1>1, 2<1, 12>l (


1 2 [214]).
3.4.3. S=SG

.

: p() , SG, q - n.
, , .
(i = l, ..., q - n + 1) Q(Ui)Q(Ui+1).
q n, :
(3.4.20)

. U

, Un-q+1, . .

| U Un-q+1 | = a.

(3.4.21)

U
q n + 1 i:

(3.4.22)

i , ,
1i1 (i = 1, ..., q - n + 1).
(3.4.20) U'q-n+2 , , S. S
, (3.3.21):

3.4.23) . .

(3.4.24)

U*q-n+2
Uq-n+2 = U'q-n+2 + U*q-n+2.

(3.4.25)

pi(i) (3.4.22),

U'q-n+2.
q n + 2
, q n + 1 ,
Uq-n+1, . .

SG.
SG ,
[55].

3.4.4. S = SH SG

,
,
.
3.4.5. S = SD

. ,
,
, .

- . - UN
| U - UN |

(3.4.26)

SD
U. , ,
U (
). DN ,
-, . . (3.4.26).
, =1 2n
UN 1.
(N+1)-
DN,

Q (UN+1) < Q (UN);

(3.4.27)

:
UN+1 = UN + .

(3.4.28)

, = 1
= (1, ..., q),

(3.4.29)

1,
, . .
(3.4.30)



, ,
(
, ).

, (3.4.27)
.

. ,
.
1.
,
, (3.4.26)
.

(., ,
[109, 200]).
3.4.6. S = SD SH
.
(3.4.27) :
(3.4.31)
.

3.5. 3.5.1.

,
, . .
, , , , , , . .
,
. ,
, .
,

.
.

.
,
- , .
, ,

.
,
- .
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.

-. ,
, ,

.
.
,
, ,
.

, ,
. , . . , .
3.5.2.


U (. (3.3.12), (3.3.20) (3.3.23))
() . ,
,
,
.


,
.

.
3.5.2.1.


U*.
(
:

[237]) -

, ,
.
, ,
.
:
.
: , ,
, -
, ,
. ,
,
[184]:
(3.5.1)

1>1, 2<1. ,
1 1
.
: 1 2,
, U*
? ,
, . . Q<0.
,
, .
*.
1 2
[212]:
1p* 21-p* = l,

(3.5.2)

* 0,27. , -

, .
(3.5.2)
. . ,
1 2 , , . . .
, ,
. ,
. :

.
3.5.2.2.

,


, .
() .

. ,
.
W 0
:
= 0 + W,

(3.5.3)

=W.
W, ,
. ,
, . . U*. W

.
() . 3.5.1.
(. 3.5.1, ) (3.5.3)
W (. 3.5.1, ),
() () W (. 3.5.1, ).
, W
.
:
,
(Q<0)

, .
. , , W :
WN= kWN-1 UNQN,

(3.5.4)

0kl , >0
.
.
, W
, . . ,
. . UN = 0, k<1 WN0, . .
, .
(k=0), WN+1 = UNQN, . .

, ,
.
WN UN ,
WN+1 ,
, .
, W , . .
.
(.
3.5.2).
, W ,
.
, ,
, , .

. 3.5.1.
.
,
,
.

. 3.5.2.
() () , Q<0, Q>0.

, , , -.
, .
( )
, .
,
(), (k) ()

, .
, . .
. ,
, , . .
k ,
.

[135].

3.5.3.

(. . 1.5.2) . ,
, .. , , ,
.

{Fi} (i = l, ..., q)

(3.5.5)

.

(3.5.6)
,
u1, ..., uq,

. ,

F=Fi (i=1, ..., q). ,

, .

.
, (3.3.28):
{Q}, {W}, {U}, (Q, W), (Q, W) ,

(3.5.7)

{Q} (
,
U ); {W}
; {U}
( U);
:
W'= (Q, W),

(3.5.8)

W' ,
W Q; :
U = (Q, W),
(3.5.9)
W
Q.
. {W} ,
.

, 6.1.
,
{U}.
, ,
, . .
,
. ( 5.3)
-

, . .
.
,
, . . . , ,
.
, ,
. :

? ,
,
.
,
. ,

.

3.6.
,
,
. ,
:
, .
,
.

,
. ,
, ,
5 ,
.
.
:
,
, .
,
. ,

. ,
[21, 156, 209].
,

,
.

, ,
, , :
.
.
3.6.1.
,
, . .
.
3.6.1.1.

i- Ui
Ui*
. U** ,
, . .
(3.6.1)
, N .,
U**N ,
, . .
(3.6.2)
N
, . . U**N U**, .
.
. .
3.6.1.2.

. p (U | W, ) -

, W, ,
U:
W = Up (U | W, ) dU,

(3.6.3)


( ), , = 0
- U = W,

{U}.
; U1, ..., UN, ...

(3.6.1):
(3.6.4)
W
, , :
(3.6.5)

. . WN
(3.6.6)

1 2
.
1<l 2>1, . .
,
, .
.
, , ,
; ,
, .
1 ,
N ( , (U | W,
) 0 , . . -
).
1 2.
(3.6.6) , . . 1>l,
2<1, ,

. .
.
3.6.1.3.

() p(Q)
Ui,
S [135].
p1(Q) p2(Q),
,
(,
) .

, .


. , S
,
.
3.6.2.

. .
3.6.2.1.



,
(3.6.7)
.
:
(3.6.8)
(t)
. = 0
-

,
, . . . 0

. [232],

(3.6.9)
.
,
Q(U)
Q, .
.
U Q(U)
,
Q(U) .
, (3.6.9) U
.
,

( , ).
,
.
3.6.2.2.

Q(U) ,
. 3.6.1, , . .
(. )
, [103, 152, 238].
.
U Q(U)
(Y), . 3.6.1, .
(3.6.10)
,
.
q- .
,
-, 3.1.
,

( )

,
, . .

(Y)dY = 1; (Y)0.
,

Y1,...,YN,

. 3.6.1. .
,


( );
.

(3.6.11)

(3.6.11) , (3.6.10) N (3.6.10) N


1/N.
N ,
(3.6.11) .
(3.6.11)
(). ,
(. . 3.6.1, ),
(3.6.11) , , ,
. () N
Q(U) . ,
(3.6.11) ,

,

(3.6.12)


(3.6.11), , ,
.

(). (3.6.10)
Z = U + Y

3.6.13) Q(U)
:
(3.6.14)

. (3.6.14) :
(3.6.15)

Zi

Z,
p(Z) 0
.
, ,
Zi.
() N , . .
,
, N
N .
3.6.2.3.


Q(U).
, :
Q(U) (
),
( ).
,
,
. .
UN WN ( | WN |
= 1 ) k UN+1(1), ..., UN+1(k) (. 3.6.2).
(N+1)-e :
(3.6.16)

(3.6.17)
. . .
,

, .

. . 3.6.2.
. =2
- ,
.
3.3.2.3.
,
[94].

.
,
{U}.

3.7.

, ,

- , . .

.
: , ,

.
,
, ,
, ,
.

.
,
, ,

.
,

[270].
3.7.1.

,
. .
3.7.1.1.


. U1, ..., UN q
.
Q(U).
, ,
, .
N . ,
.

Uji = Uj + ji (i = 1, ..., kj),
(3.7.1)
kj j- ; ji ,
i- j-
. , , aji = |ji|,
, ,

.

,
, .
.

, . .
(3.7.2)

,
N .
.
., (
)

.
, , . .
,
Q(Uji) [16, 154, 155].
,
, , . , , Uij
(
, 3.2 3.3).
kj

. ,

, (ji)
, kj .

(
).

,
,
.

.
3.3 ( 3.3.3.1)


.
[136].
3.7.1.2.

A1, ..., AN (N>q),


q1, ..., ql,
(, , . .).
i-ro ,
:
Si = (s1, ..., sqi)

(i = l, ..., N),

(3.7.3)


j- sji, ..., sjN
, sji .
. .
(3.7.4)
,
, . i
i-ro . ,
,
,
( ,
).

. . ,
.
,
.
, . .
-.
,
,
.
. ,
(

), .
,
.


, .
[136], , , .

3.7.2.

.
.
, ,
.
. , 3.3 (3.3.12).
, . , :
,
. ( ... .
.)
-
(. 3.7.1).
.
. pi i-
.

3.7.1.
:
, ,
.

. (. 3.7.1, )
(=1) ,
( ).
[39]:
pi+1 = (l - ) pi + .

(3.7.5)


(1 pi), . . pi+1 = pi + (l i), 0<<1
. , .
,
:
pi+1 = (1 - ) pi,

(3.7.6)

. . , 1- < 1.
(. 3.7.1, 6),
( ).
,
i+1 = = (1 ) i + ,
0<<1 , , ,
.
, ,
(. 3.7.1, ),
.
,
,
, .

. pji
j- i-
:
ji = (uji > 0)

(3.7.7)

( , . . | uj | = l).
,
, Q<0.

:
1.
pj,i+1 = (1 - ) pji + sg uji (j = 1, ..., q),

Q<0):
(3.7.8)

, , uji>0
, ,
. (Q0) pj,i+1=pji (j = 1, ..., q), . .
, , .

(3.7.9)

.
, ,
, . .
2. ( Q0):
pj,i+1 = (1 - ) pji + sg (-uji)

(j = l, ..., q).

(3.7.10)

(Q<0) pj,i+1 = pj,i (j = 1, ..., q), . .


.
, ,

.
3.
. ,
:
pj,i+1 = (1- ) pji + sg (-uji Q) (j = 1, ..., q).

(3.7.11)

,
(3.7.8) Q<0 (3.7.9) Q0.
( ==
(3.7.11)). ,

(3.7.9),
( ).
, >, . . ,
:
, <,
.
.
,

.

3.7.3.

, .

. ,
Q(U)

.

, [72, 73].
,
,
.

,
.


.
:

,
, . ,
-

,

.
( ) ,
,

[71].


() .
,
, [69, 71], . ,

, , ,

.
,
,

,
[269].
,
.
,
(. .
3.3.1). ,
.
:
,
,
, , .
,
,
,
.

... ,
, .
.
.

, , . .
, .

.
.
.
. , ,
,
.
,
.
.

4.1.


Q(U) , . . ,
:
Q'(U) = Q(U) + (),
(4.1.1)
U , ()

2, .

(4.1.2)
(4.1.1),
,

(., , 3.3, 3.53.7).


,
(4.1.2).
4.1.1.

:

4.1.3)

(4.1.4)
ei i- (i = 1, ..., q).
Q(U) ,
(aN) (gN)
[41, 237]:
(4.1.5)

, aN
,
. (4.1.5) ,
, :
(4.1.6)
0<1; >0; 2(-)>1.
,

. ,
N, , ,
.

. ,
(4.1.6) ,
,
. , (4.1.5)

, .
,

, .
,
. .
4.1.2.
[132, 102], 3.6
, . ,
(4.1.7)

, .

(4.1.7), 3.6, ,
-:
(4.1.8)
Yi Y
(Y).
(4.1.8) (4.1.1), :
(4.1.9)

:

(4.1.9)

(4.1.10)
()
. Q(U+Yi)
Y:
(4.1.11)

.
(4.1.12)

(4.1.13)
,
(), . . (Y) = 0,
(4.1.14)
, (4.1.8)
(,
(4.1.11)).
(4.1.7).
()
[166] (4.1.1).
(4.1.7) U.
(4.1.7)
(4.1.15)
Z = U + Y.

:

4.1.16)

U:
(4.1.17)

(4.1.18)

, .
(4.1.16) . (4.1.16)
(4.1.19)

p(Y) ,
; (4.1.18):
(,) = (1(,), ..., q(,)).

(4.1.20)

- (4.1.16)
(4.1.21)
Yi
, (Y).
(4.1.21),

(4.1.22)
(4.1.21)
, (4.1.22)
N.
,
.
.
4.1.3.

(3.3.28), 3.3.
:
(4.1.23)

:
(4.1.24)
i i-


{U}.
(4.1.24). g ,
,

(4.1.11) . , (4.1.11)
(4.1.24), (4.1.1):
(4.1.25)

.
(4.1.26)
(4.1.25):
(4.1.27)

Li

(4.1.28)

:
(4.1.29)
a k :
(4.1.30)
. .
(4.1.31)
i
(4.1.28)

i.

(4.1.32)

[161],

(4.1.33)
-.

li.
:

(4.1.34)

(4.1.35)


(4.1.36)

(4.1.37)
, , . .
p = (Q > 0) p*,
(4.1.38)
* . ,
(4.1.38)
(4.1.39)
m (.

:
(4.1.40)
[42].
, k ,

(4.1.38).

,
, [182],
[267].

4.2.
.
,
. ,


[172] (. 2.1). -

.
4.2.1.
- ,
() . 4.2.1. X
, Y .
DX DY,
. , ' Y'Y ,
, .

, . . - (
)
. , ,
,

X' Y'.
,
X, Y, Z*
R,
U,

Z*, . .

Y*,

. 4.2,1. - - Z* R,
. .

.

X', Y', Z*, R U* Y*.

(4.2.1)


U* = A (X', Y', Z*, R)

(4.2.2)
,
.

.
1. F ,
:
Y' = F (X', U).
(4.2.3)
2. .
, ,
:
(4.2.4)

R,
Y* Z*.
, F
.
.
.
. 4.2.1
.
( ),
( ). X ,
(
X DX); X' X,
. Y , DY,
Y' ,
U, .
Z* R,
. ,
U, ,
Z*.
, U
, Y'
.
,
.

[171].

4.2.2.

(. 2.1). ,
.
4.2.2.1.


,
(. 1.1.2). Z*

(4.2.5)
i, j l , .
, , . . ,
, : -,
- .
, .
Z* ,
.
.
,
, . (4.2.5)

.
-
, . , i
i-
. i = 3.
- ,
. ,
j j- . j = 1
, a j = 0 , ,
bj = 1.
,

( ).
. : l
l- , ,

lmax. l l- , lmax.
, Z*

.
. ,
-

, .

.
4.2.2.2.


, , .
Z*
R, .
, , . .;
,

Z*.

, .
.
,
,
-, .

, ,
. ,
, Z* (4.2.5),
, . .
.
.
, Z* R,
, ,
.
.
4.2.2.3.

(4.2.3)
.
.

.
.
F :
1) X, . .
, (
DX):
' = (1, ..., );

(4.2.6)

2) U, . .
:
U = (u1, ..., uq);

(4.2.7)

3) , . .
:
Y' = (y1, ..., ym);

(4.2.8)

4) F, . .
:
= (1, ..., q).

(4.2.9)

, F
F = S, ,

(4.2.10)

S F, [4.2.9].
,

Y' = f (X', U, C),

(4.2.11)

f ,
. , ,
X' (4.2.6), U (4.2.7) Y' (4.2.8).
F
, Y' X', , U.

U = U1, U2 ,

(4.2.12)

U1 ,
, U2 ,
Y'. , DY

Y , DX
.
, , :
PN = (piN, ..., plN),

(4.2.13)

piN i-o ( l)
N- . Y'
,
l- , ( ),
() ( ).
(4.2.13)
.
X' .
4.2.2.4.

(4.2.9)
, . .
.
', Y'

(i = 1, ..., L)

(4.2.14)


. , X
, ,
.

, . .
.
.
, . .
DX DY (. . 4.2.1),
(4.2.14).
,

, Y
,
, :

.


.
.
4.2.2.5.

.
:
(4.2.15)
,
D = (1, ..., ck).

(4.2.16)
,

.


(4.2.17)

S. , ,
,
D- (. 4.4).

,
. ,
,
.

( ,
, . .),
. ,
,

.

,
. -

, ,
. , ,
,

.
,
F ().
.
4.2.2.6.

U*,

, , , .
.
(4.2.1)
Y' , . . Z*
(4.2.18)

(4.2.18) F,

(4.2.19)

, :
(4.2.20)


(4.2.19),
.
:
(4.2.21)
Q(,)
, a U* .
, (4.2.21)
.

(4.2.21) '
. ,

,

, [161, 166].
(4.2.21),
U* ,
.
.
4.2.2.7.


. ,
, .
,
.

,
. ,
:
|| U - U* || min,

(4.2.22)

U , , . .
.

Y, , , Y*.
, (. 2.1)
, :
1. F, . .
F F0,

(4.2.23)

F0 .
2. X'
Y', ,
,
F0.
3. ,
F0
( ).


.
,

;
,

,

, ,
,

.
,

R

, 4.2.2. ( 1 . 4.2.2). .
,

.
,
. ,
, (. .
4.2.2).
4.2.2.8. ()

()
() .
( 2 .
4.2.2).
.
, . .
,
( ).

.

.
,
, (4.2.13).


. ( )
, , , ( )
,
().

,

. ()
() : ,
Z*,
,

. ,
,
.

.


. ,
,

.

.

( 3 . 4.2.2).

() (,
).
.
, F0, . . ,
( 4 . 4.2.2).
,
, . .

.
,
,
.
, ,
, Z*
( 5 . 4.'2.2).

,
F0. .
,

.
. ,
,
. ,

. ,

.
.
4.2.3.
. ,
,

.

. [19],
. He 95%
.
.
.
:
,
95%-
.
.

, t1,...,tN,...
N-
(). () ,
(),
YN. ,
YN,
,
(N+1)- . ,
,
YN - UN .
-

U Y, Z*
R :
U = A (Y, Z*, R)

(4.2.24)

( ).
,
() .
UN
UN = {i1, ..., iMn}, ijil jl,

(4.2.25)

, MN ,
UN (1MNn). ,
, , , . .
,
, , . .

.
. Z*
(4.2.26)
L , . .

.

:
. ,
, ,
[19].
4.2.4.
N-
,
:
PN = (p1 (t1N), ..., pn (tnN) ),

(4.2.27)

pi (tiN) i-ro tiN,


i-o
. ,

, . . pi(tN) = 0,
.
, . . .

() UN
:
(4.2.28)

PN+1

(j = 1, ..., MN),
i j - ,
i j -
.
PN:
=

F(PN,

UN,

YN,

CN),
(4.2.29)

.
CN , N- . F .
[196].

F [19]:
pi (tiN) = 1 - (-iN tiN),

(4.2.30)

aiN i-o N- ; tiN


i-o .
i(i = l, ..., n) .
i , ,
, ,
, . . :
(4.2.31)
fi
, <fi().
f.
: i
, :
i-e , ,
,
.
:

(4.2.32)

', '' ''' 0<'<''<1''', a



i- .
N- i-
(
), (
),
, (4.2.30)
tiN tim=0
(0mN).

tN = tN+1 tN UN UN+1; t1, t2,


..., tN, ... .
i-o . 4.2.3 (
t2 t5 i- ).
,
,
:
(4.2.33)

qi (0<qi<1,

) () i-o

.
Z*
(4.2.33). ,
QN, (4.2.26)

. 4.2.3. i-
.

=0,05.

,
, qi.
Q

:

. 4.2.4. - .

(4.2.34)

{j1, ..., jMn} UN+1 ,


(N+1)- .
.
, :
1. UN
YN (4.2.28) (. 4.2.4).
2. (4.2.32)
.
3. (4.2.30)

PN+1.
4. (4.2.33)
QN+1.
5. QN+1, .
(4.2.34)
UN+1, .
1.

[216].
.
4.2.5.

F (4.2.29),
(4.2.31)
(4.2.35)

0<<1

.

i-
tj :
Pi (tj) = lpi (tj-1).
(4.2.36)
, i-e
tj, 0<l<1 , ,

.
,
l, i(0) (i=l,...,n).
.

. 4.2.5.
(i = =
1) :

, .

,
, . .
(4.2.37)
qi. ,
, .
, .

(t) = = m1(t)+m2(t)
. 1 ,
, ,
pi(t). ,
, .
,

(4.2.38)
, ,
. 2(t) = 1.

.
4.2.6.

(i=ll)
.
,
. 4.2.5.

[196], ,
.
=12
( ):
(4.2.39)

: l=0,5; =0,9.
i(0)
0<i<1/2. (4.2.32)
: '=''=0,8; ''' = 1,25.
. 4.2.5 4.2.6.
, ,
.
Q(t)
(. 4.2.7)
,
, . . .
'
.
(4.2.37) , . . 1 (20).
' (''' =
1/') '*, 0,25,
' = 0,8, 1(20)=22. .
4.2.8, ''='.
(' = 0,25) (' = 1) -

. 4.2.7. Q
.

. 4.2.8. 1(20) '.

. 4.2.9. 1 ()
2 () .

(4.2.37) (4.2.38). , . 4.2.9, ,


,
.

( 4.2.4)
.
4.2.6.

.

[187]. .
40 (n=40)
, .

. .
.
(4.2.28).
,
.
, 40 .


:
(4.2.40)
t=0,1,... ;
t-
; T(0) = 1; M ( = 5);
(4.2.41)
t-. j ; ijt i-o j-
t.

( = 0,90).
. 4.2.10.
, ,
.
[39]. -

. 4.2.10.



yit=0; yit=l (i = 1, (4.2.42)
..., n; t = 0, 1, ..., ;
0<1<2<l),
qi(t) = 1 - pi(t). 1 2 .
, 1 2 .
qi(t)=j (j=1,2), qi(t+1)=j, . .
j,
.
.
l. 1=2=l. (4.2.42)
yit = 0;
yit = 1.

(4.2.43)

, pi(0) = l
i=l, ..., . ,
1 2. 1 , 2
. :
2 [39]:
(4.2.44).
nt , t-
; xt t- ;
1 [39]
(
):
(4.2.45)


=0,514; =0,666 ,
. 4.2.11 ( 1).
2. 1 = l; 2=0; 2=1.
-:
yit = 0;
yit = 1.

(4.2.46)

. 4.2.11.

.

.

,
(y=0) .
i(0) 1.
pi(0)
[39]:
(4.2.47)

ti* i- ,
.
1
(4.2.48)

(0) = = 0,456; 1=0,716
(. 4.2.11, ).

,
, . .
Pt+l = F (Pt, Ut, ).

(4.2.49)

[40]. ,

:
pi (t+1) = pi (t),

(4.2.50)


i-o t- .
(4.2.50) (4.2.42), ,
.
,
[40]:
(4.2.51)
(0) = 1. = 0,54.

. 4.2.11 ( 4).
[40]. :
(4.2.52)

p(t) - t- .
.
[40]
(4.2.53)

=0,66.
. 4.2.11 ( 5).
[40]. :
(4.2.54)

, [40]

(4.2.55)

= 0,561.
. 4.2.11
( 6).
[40]. ,
. .
. ,
i-e ( , 1).
i-e
, . . 2.
, . . 2.

t-
1.
t-
2.
:
(2 t | 1 t-1) = 2,

(4.2.56)

2 t- , (t1)-
1. ,
,
t-
j- . :
(4.2.57)
Mj j.
, 1 2.
[40]:
(4.2.58)

t ,
:
(4.2.59)

,
: =0,374; 2=0,152.
. 4.2.11
( 7).
, , 4.2.4
1=0,514 2=0,666.
. 4.2.11
( 3).

,
. 4.2.10:
(4.2.60)
i , i = 1,2, ..., 7; k = 8;
;

, i- .
.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0,406
0,893
0,135
0,064
0,458
0,160
0,697

. 4.2.11
; , .
. 4.2.11 ,
,
.
,
i- ,
. ,
, -

.
, -, ,
, ,
.
, ,
(. 4.2.4)
.
4.2.7.

( 4.2.4)
()
. ,

() .

[68].

= 962 ().
,
q1, ..., qn.

:
1) ,
,
(, in the same way, hold forth, in question .);
2) ,


(, slide rule, bar graph, extraction of roots .);
3) (, was missing,
have advanced, would know .).

.
,
.
, , .
,
.
,
.

.
:
(4.2.61)
qi i- ;
i- ;
i- .
j-

Uj = (i1j, ..., injj),
ikj j-
; j
.
,
4.2.2 .
, Q 5%,

[108].
(4.2.34)
UN = {i1, ..., iMn}.
.
,
.
, - ,
,
.
,
, .
, ,
T3(N) ,
T(N+1).
R, ,
MN+1
:

(4.2.62)
UN+1 ,
(4.2.34); pi(tiN+1) i-

tiN+1 ; kN+1 ,
:
(4.2.63)
. .
, ,

, .
(4.2.62) ,
.
N-
, ,
.

, . . tN,
.
YN tN
PN
(4.2.30), (4.2.32).

QN
(4.2.33),

,
. QN0,05, .
(4.2.34)
.
', '' i0 ('''=1),
.

. i0
.
' ''
. ' ''
,
, 4.2.4.

,
-4
.
(),

[273].

,

, , .
( , )
,
.
, . ,
, .
,
.
,
, .
, , (12 ),
= = 0,95 ,
0,3 1,56 .
(9 )
= 1,7 , tmax= 4 .
,
30 .

.
Q
,
: .
3 .
(
);
2 , , .
;
1 . .
.

Q . 4.2.12.
(
) .

Q .
, ()
75% ( 95%,
[108]).

,



, . .



Q

Q
, b
,

Q , . .
Q.
[0; 1} 4

:
. 4.2.12. [0; 0,25] .
( =
= 1);
[0,25; 0,5] ( = 2) . .
( = 4) .
, ,
( )
[104]. 0,45, . . . ,

.
,
:
1. , ,
,
,
.
2. :
.
3. . (

, -

,
.)
4.
, .
5.
, , .

,
.

4.3.



, , ,
,
[257].

[77, 242, 257],
60-
-.

( ) ,

,

.

(, ),
.
,
[77, 85, 134, 146].

,
, , , ,

,

(
,

), ( ,
)
,

.

.

,
.
4.3.1. ()
, [128],
. 4.3.1. 1, ...,

= (1, ..., ),

(4.3.1)
.

U = (u1, ..., un)

(4.3.2)

()
f(X) :
(4.3.3)

(4.3.4)

U,

(4.3.5)

.
n- -

. 4.3.1. - .

{X}. n ,
(4.3.6)
.
(4.3.3) 0, 1.
, , . . 0 1, .

.
[254].
4.3.2.
()
(n1)- 1, ..., ,
:
(4.3.7)
{0; 1}, l()
(4.3.4). ,
(. . 4.3.1),
(),
(4.3.7). . 4.3.2
.
,
U, T,

(4.3.8)

U (4.3.2),
(4.3.4),
:
T = (1, ..., k)
(4.3.9)
.
(4.3.8)
k- .

. 4.3.2. ,
.

{X}. 0xi1 (i=1,...,n)

(4.3.10)
k+1 . ,
, .
. U
.

(4.3.8). ,
k ,

[242]:
(4.3.11)

ipiq pq. , l(Xj) j, . .


l (j) l (i), ji,

(4.3.12)

k
0 k 2n-1.

(4.3.13)

( k = 0 , f(X)=const, . .
.)
, (4.3.13)
(4.3.11)
,
. ,
.
,
k. ,
U, . . k = k(U) (
U
F(X),
).
, ,
N2n.

.
, . .
U F(X), X1,...,XN.

1 . li = l(Xi) ( i = 1 , . . . , N )
(4.3.12). , U
. 1.
2. li li1 < ... < liN
3.

F(i1), F(Xi2), ..., F(XiN). .


lij < l < lij+1,
ij F(Xi)F(Xij+1),
:
(4.3.14)

S U,
F(X), . .
S : f (X) = F (X),

(4.3.15)

f(X) (4.3.7).
(4.3.14) U*

(4.3.16
)


. .
4.3.3.

(4.3.14)
. .
k(U). -, k
. :
k (U) = k (cU)

(4.3.17)

. :
.

(4.3.18)

,
:

| U |

1 .

(4.3.19)

(4.3.12)
U ,
:
(4.3.20)

. ,
-. (
.)
, k(U)
U. ,
4
. ,
k U
| U | = 1.
[25].
(k=5) :
(4.3.21)

(4.3.11) k = = 15 .
, (k=1)
(4.3.8):
(3, 5, 3, 1, 2); 6; 0 ,

(4.3.22)

| U | = 1
(4.3.23)

. | U | = 1,
, U
.
, . .
k (4.3.7), = F (0, 0, ..., 0) = 0.
U* (4.3.23) U
:
(4.3.24)

:
= cos U*, U , (4.3.25)

:
(4.3.26)
. 4.3.3. -


k.

. 4.3.3.
. , 117-

[25].
, ,

.
,

(. 4.1).
4.3.4.
u1, ..., un ,
(4.3.20); {X} Xj = = (x1j, ..., xnj),
N=2n (1 = (0, 0, ...), X2 = (1, 0, ..., 0), ..., XN =
(1, 1, ..., 1) ). lj =
(j = 1, ..., 2n) :
lj1 < lj2 < ... < lj2n,

(4.3.27)

jpjq q. U n
2 -
Z (U) = (j1, ..., j2n).

(4.3.28)

U, Z(U),
[26]. ,
, .

, :
(4.3.29)
,
.
U k
F(X) ,
.
, [26].

n=3. U = (u1, u2, u3) (ui0, i = l, 2, 3)
U = (1, 2, 4),
(4.3.11). .
(4.3.27)
0 < u1 < u2 < u1 + u2 < u1 + u3 < u2 + u3 < u1 + u2 + u3.

(4.3.30)

(4.3.30) ,
0 < u1 < u2;
u1 + u2 < u1.

(4.3.31)

, :
Z (l, 2, 4) = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).
(, ):
u1 = cos sin ;
u2 = sin cos ;
u3 = cos .

(4.3.32)

(4.3.31) :
(4.3.33)

11 : Z2= (1, 3, 2, 4, 5, 7, 6, 8); Z3 = (1, 3, 2, 5, 4,


7, 6, 8); Z4 = (1, 3, 5, 2, 7, 4, 6, 8); Z5 = (1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 4, 6, 8); Z6 = (1, 5, 3,
7, 2, 6, 4, 8);

Z7 = (1, 5, 3, 2, 7, 6, 4, 8);
Z8 = (1, 5, 2, 3, 6, 7, 4, 8);
Z9 = (1, 5, 2, 6, 3, 7, 4, 8);
Z10 = (l, 2, 5, 6, 3, 4, 7, 8);
Z11 = (1, 2, 5, 3, 6, 4, 7, 8);
Z12 = (l, 2, 3, 5, 4, 6, 7, 8)

(4.3.34)

, . . 4.3.4
. (4.3.34).

(4.3.35)
ki i-:
k4 = k5 = k6 = k7 = 1;
k2 = k3 = k8 = k9 = k11 = k12 = 3;
k1 = k10 = 5.

(4.3.36)

k(, ),
. 4.3.5. , 2, . .
.

. 4.3.4. (n=3).
. 4.3.5. (4.3.35),
.

,
,
k(U).
4.3.5.

n- , :
aj uj bj

(j = 1, ..., n).

(4.3.37)

U0
uj0 = aj + j (bj - aj).

(4.3.38)

() U :
(4.3.39)
u*j U*,
(
U0); =const ;

.
k(U) U
k* = k(U*). U , k<k*, . .
U*=U, ,
.
,
.
.
, , uj = aj (uj = bj),
j- ()
[aj, bj].

.
n 5.
,
(4.3.21),
:
0 uj 10

(j = 1,..., 5).

(4.3.40)

: = 2,
m = 30.
( U0)
,
1520. ,
(. (4.3.3))
117- .
U* : u*1 =
l,9; u*2 = 6; u*3=4,2; u*4=1,2; u*5=1,36.
, (4.3.27), :
u1 < u4 + u5;
0 < u4 < u5 < u1;
u3 + u5 < u2 < u1 + u3;
u1 + u3 + u4 < u2 + u5;
u1 + u5 < u3 < u1 + u4 + u5 < u2 + u3.

(4.3.41)

4.3.6.

F(X),
m . ,

( )
.
,
k(U) ,
.
,
,
.
, F(X).
.

, .
{U}
. , ,
U
.
(. 4.3.4
[26]).

,
U.
:
(4.3.42)

[161],
() = sin .

(4.3.43)

,
(, ) = () ().

(4.3.44)

, U Zi (i
= 1, 2, ..., 12)
(4.3.45)
1, 2, 1() 2()
. , , P1
(. . 4.3.4). :
1 = 0; 2 = /2; 1() = 0; 2() = arc ctg (sin + s ). (4.3.46)

(4.3.47)

:
2 = P11 0,062;
3 = P10 0,060;
4 = P9 0,100;
5 = P8 0,116;
6 = P7 0,054.

(4.3.48)

F(X) (4.3.35)

P3 + P4 + P5 + P6 0,33,

(4.3.49)

. . (
).

4.3.7.


,
.
[77], ,
,
.
,
(l, l):
(4.3.50)
6
.
( )
(. 4.3.6):
l';
''l,

(4.3.51)

l' = l (1 + );
l' = l (1 - );

(4.3.52)

' = (1 - );
'' = (1 + ).

. 4.3.6. .

(4.3.51), ,
*,
:
(4.3.53)

:
(4.3.54)
,
,
*.

(4.3.55)

U, , :

*i (i = 1, ..., k)
,

(4.3.53).
*
,
. ,
(
) ,
l() (,
|U|=l ,

).

. . 4.3.7
,
.

,
.
.
,
. ,
, U,
.
PU(U)

U, a pX(X)

. 4.3.7.

X.
{X}:
(4.3.56)

F(X) , a f(X,U,T) ,
U .
,
:

(4.3.57)
, ,
.
-:
(4.3.58)
N
, Xj Uj

X() pU(U).

(4.3.59)

, -
, - . 3.2,
N 1/N,
.
k-
, 4.1,
*.
,

: (4.3.14) (4.3.59).

: ,

.
4.3.8.
*

, . . . .
4.3.8
l Fm (
) [22].
:

. 4.3.8. - .

* . . .

1. n , ,
:
(4.3.60)

X = (x1, ..., xn).

(4.3.61)

2.
ui,

xi

U = (u1, ..., un),

(4.3.62)

ui .
3.
(4.3.63)
4.

T = (1, ..., k).

(4.3.64)

1 < ... < k.


l f = f (l)

(4.3.65)

(4.3.66)

(4.3.67)
. 4.3.9
f.
5.

Fm = Fm (f), m < qf (qf - 1)k,


(4.3.68)
. . F f ( )
j

. 4.3.9. f .

.
[14, 15, 2224].

.

() ,
U
:

(4.3.69)

, . .

( n!).
U

(4.3.70)

= max

(q1, ..., qn). lp1


lp2,
, . .
X(S)

,
, .
.
(4.3.64). ,
(
),
.


4.3.2.

.
,
, (4.3.14).

, . 4.3.10. .
:

qi (4.3.71).
(
n6
qi2),
, , . . 4.3.10
78 q1=q2=q3=3 (n=3)
0/4, 0 /2 U
.

[14]:
1. 2 (sin + s ) = ctg ;
2. sin + 2 cos = ctg ;
..............
7. sin + cos = ctg ;
.............

9. cos = ctg ;

(4.3.71)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11. cos sin = ctg ;


. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19. sin = ctg ;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21. 2 sin cos = ctg ;
22. 2 sin cos = 2 ctg .
, 7, 9, 11 19
q1 = q2 = 2, n=3 . 4.3.4. ,
,

.

, ,
. ,
, ,

, , .
( ). , U
U, ,

. U U
, .
f ,
. ,
U ,
.



[77], . , ,

,

, , . ,
,
,
, [125],
-

( )
. ,
!
( ),


.

, . .
.


[15]. S- XS

(!)

.
Q+1,
(4.3.72)
Sj S
, . . ,

[15].
:
)
, . .
,
(4.3.73)

) qF=qi=q, . .

(4.3.74)
) qF=qi=q=2, . .

,
(4.3.75)


( ).


.
,

, .
, [254, . 36]
(q1 = q2 = qF = 3) .
[258], 1593 (
19683) k2, . .
,
. [23]
, k7, . .
.

4.4.


4.4.1.
[137, 223]
c1, ..., cq ,
:
(4.4.1)
i(X) (i = l, ..., q) :
= (x1, ..., xn).

(4.4.2)

, (4.4.1),
, i(X)
1(X) = 1; 2(X) = x1; 3(X) = x2;
4(X) = x12; 5(X) = x12; 6(X) = x1x2,

(4.4.3)

q = 6.
= (c1, ..., cq)
yj Xj (j = 1, ..., Nn), . .

I = j, yj (j = 1, ..., N) ,

(4.4.4)

, ,
(4.4.1)
(4.4.4):
(4.4.5)
() ,

() 0; (z) = ( -z ); ( 0 ) = 0,

(4.4.6)

,
() = ()2; () = | |

(4.4.7)

. .
, ,
:
(4.4.8)

(4.4.9)

(4.4.10)

[137].

N
(4.4.11)
,
(4.4.4)
(4.4.1).
,
.
, ,
q


,
:
yj = f (Xj) + j,

(4.4.12)

. . .
f(X) X ,
X

2, . .
M = 0; M2 = 2,

(4.4.13)

. 2
.

, (4.4.1).

= * = (*1, ..., c*q)

(4.4.14)

:
D = || 2 || qq,

(4.4.15)

ij = (ci - *i) (j - *j)

(i, j = 1,..., q).

(4.4.16)


. ,

Dci = ii2 (i = 1, ..., q),

(4.4.17)

i- j- ij2.
, ,
,
(4.4.15)

K = K (DC),

(4.4.18)

, , . .

K(1) = | DC |,

(4.4.19)

.
:
(4.4.201
,
(4.4.21)
,
.
(4.4.18)
.
.
[223]
D = 2 -1,

(4.4.22>

. . (4.4.15)
(4.4.10),
.
,
i(X) (i = 1, ..., q)
(4.4.1) ,

(4.4.23)

(4.4.18), (4.4.22), (4.4.10) (4.4.11).
.


:
(4.4.24)
S ,

{X}.
K
-.

(4.4.19) D-
, (4.4.20)
A-
(4.4.21)
E-
. , ,
(4.4.22), |DC|
. ,
.
D-o- :
(4.4.25)
(4.4.24) nN

.
, ,
.
4.4.2.
(4.4.24) .

, (4.4.24)
:
(4.4.26)

, (q+z+1)-
.
( )
,
. .


(4.4.24) N = q.
nN
(

).
(4.4.26), [32]. (4.4.26) X

4.4.27)

(4.4.28)

(4.4.26).

D-
(4.4.19), . .
(4.4.25):
(4.4.29)


(4.4.27).
S
(n = 2):

. 4.4.1.


.

(4.4.30)
. (4.4.29)


.
S:
(4.4.31)
. 4.4.1.
(, ):

(4.4.32)

(4.4.33)
N N-

{X}.
aN
(. 3.5):
(4.4.34).

Q (4.4.33)
, 2=1,2, a 1
3.5 .
(4.4.29)
(q = 5)
y = c1 + c2x1 + c3x3+ c4x12 + c5x22

(4.4.35)


.
. 4.4.2
z=3.
. ,
.
i = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, X(2).
(4.4.32)
.
X(2).
(4.4.35), (i
= 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) . 4.4.3 (

. 4.4.2. (4.4.35), : 1 3450, 2


3750, 3 (2)
4050, 4 4400, 5 4700. (5000)
X .

. 4.4.3. (1)

X . :
1 3700, 2 4000, 3 4300, 4 4600, 5 4900.

). .
,
i = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9. X(1)
(.
. 4.4.3).
. 4.4.4. i = = 1, 2, 3,
4, 6, 7, 8, 9, .

t = 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 , (4.4.32)
, X(7)
(5).
N = 5
+ 1 (z = 1) (4.4.35) (4.4.29).
. 4.4.5 ,
, i = l, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ( ).
(i = 3, 6, 7, 8)
X(3).
.

. 4.4.4.

(5).
: 1 1400,
2 1500, 3 1600, 4
2100, 5 3100, 6
4200.

. 4.4.5.

. : 1
24, 2 25, 3 28, 4
30, 5 40, 6 100, 7
200, S 300, 9
700.


S (. 4.4.6) ,
, .
, . ,
5,
[223]. D--
[32], [119]:
y = c1 + c2x1 + 32 + c4x12+ c5x1x2 + c6x12x2 + c7x13.

(4.4.36)

. 4.4.7
, , D, , F, G, ( ). ,
:
, , F
, .
. ,
(4.4.36) x2 ,

.
4.4.6.
(3), (4) X(5). : 1 0, 2
27, 3 53, 4 80, 5 106, 6 133, 7 160.

. 4.4.7.
(4.4.36) ,
: 1 320, 2 440, 3 500, 4
560, 5 680, 6 860, 7 1050.

.

y = 1 + 21 + 32+ 412 + 522 + 613 + 723

(4.4.37)

. 15 (
. 4.4.8 4.4.9 ).

,
. .
= c112 + 222 + 3x13 + c4x23

(4.4.38)


, . 4.4.10.
,
, .

.
4.4.8.


(4.4.37)
(0,445;
0,445).

: 1
5300, 2 5700, 3
6000, 4 6350, 5
6700.

. 4.4.9. (4,4.37)
(-0,445;
-1).
: 1 5300, 2
5600, 3 5900, 4
6150, 5 6700.

. 4.4.10.

(4.4.38).

: 1
, 2 15, 3 29, 4 44.

. 4.4.11.

(4.4.39).

- : 1
256, 2 332, 3 408, 4
484.

. 4.4.12. (4.4.40).
: 1
0, 2 1, 3 2, 4 3.

.


y = c1x1x2 + c2x12 + c3x12x2 +c4x13

(4.4.39)

. 4.4.11.
. , .
4.4.12

y = c1x2 + c2x12 + c3x1x23 + c4x14.
.
.
,
, ,
. ,
(4.4.32)

.
,


.

4.4.3.

. .
4.4.13 - N- .
:
1. SN ,
:
ai(N) xi biN (i = l, ..., n),........ (4.4.41)

A(N) = (a1(N), ..., an(N));
B(N) = (b1(N), ..., bn(N)).

(4.4.42)

2. N:
N = (1(N)(X), ..., qN(N)(X)),

(4.4.43)

N-
(4.4.44)
qN .

:

(4.4.45)
ij.
(4.4.46)

. 4.4.13.

N. ,
(4.4.3) (62)

(4.4.47)

3. .

:
(4.4.48)

(, ) , , ,
(N+1)- :
(4.4.49)

(), kN
.


lN+ kN qN,

(4.4.50)

. .
.
4. KN N- ,
(4.4.18),
(4.4.15). D- ,
(4.4.19), A--
(4.4.20) E- (4.4.21).
.
, (N1)- N-y
(4.4.51)

IN, (N1)-
.
() , ,
(N1)- , . .
Xi(N-1), yi(N-1)

(i = l, ..., mN-1),. (4.4.52)

i(N-1) ; yi(N-1) ; mN-1


(N1)- . ,
mN-1=kN-1 i(N-1)
,
,
.
() ,

, .
(4.4.51).

.

, . .
(N1)- ,
, , .
[33].

(4.4.54)
(4.4.53)

.

, . .
(4.4.55)



. ,
,
.
(4.4.53)
: lNqN,
, . .
Rn. lN<qN,
k'N, :
(4.4.56)

k'N/N .
(4.4.50)
,
4.4.2.
,


[33].

4.5.
[294, 295]

.
= || aij ||NM,

(4.5.1)

(i=1, ...,N; j=l, ..., M); S = || Sij ||NM


. , (4.5.1) ,
. . ,
, , .
,

Z = {z1, ..., zm}.



[185, 186],


.
.
, m=1, . . Z=z.
(4.5.1) kl.
Z kl
: Xkl, Ykl Vkl, Xkl (N-1)(M-1),
(4.5.1) k- l-
:
Xkl = || aij ||(N-1)(M-1) ik jl;

(4.5.2)

Ykl l- - (4.5.1) kl:


Ykl = || aij ||(N-1)1 ik;

(4.5.3)

Vkl

k-

(4.5.1)

Vkl = || akj || l (M-1) jl.

kl.

(4.5.4)

z
(4.5.5)
.

,
kl. .
kl
Ui, ail

(i = l, ..., k-1, k+1, ..., N),

(4.5.6)

Ui (1)-
Ui = (ai1, ..., ai,l-1, ai,l+1, ..., ai,M),

(4.5.7)


<Wj, kj> (j = 1, ..., l-1, l+1, ..., ),

(4.5.8)

Wj (N1)-
Wj = (1j, ..., k-1,j, k+1,j, aNj ).

(4.5.9)

kl
Uk ( Wl).
(4.5.10)

, Lk t ,

Ui Uk (Ui,
Uk) , :
(Ui, Uk) = | Ui - Uk |.

(4.5.11)

, Ui (4.5.10) t
Ui, .
t
.
1. t = M.
= (1, ..., M)
(4.5.12)

:
(4.5.13)

, .
t=M
, N<M.
.
2. t<M.
Uk
(4.5.10), . . (U, Uk),
.
:
(4.5.14)

(4.5.15)
* .
:
(4.5.16)
*i (i Lk) (4.5.13)
(4.5.15). (4.5.5).
: ml.
A
(4.5.17)


ij (4.5.16); f
, f() = | |,
Z.


:
(4.5.17)
(4.5.2), . . :
(4.5.18)

Z* = (z*1, ..., z*m)


; S
.
(4.5.18) , ,
(4.5.17).
(4.5.17)
. (4.5.1)
.
(4.5.1) :
t<N ,

[0; 9], Nl
, . .
i = l+1, ..., N; j
= 1, ..., M.
ik
[0; 9]. r , ,
- , . . r = l.
1. N = 5, M = 4, l = 2, = 1. (4.5.17)
. 4.5.1. ,
,
.

.

. 4.5.1. - (m= =
1). : z*=kl=8.

,
- ,
r = min (N-1; M-1).
.
ij -

'ij = ij + k
'ij ; ij ; ; k
,
[ 1; 1], k = NM1.
(4.5.17)
. 4.5.2, , .
,
. . 4.5.1

.
4.5.1

Z*

0
8,0

0,1
7,8

0,3
7,6

1
6,5

2
5,6

3
5,2

4
4,9

5
4,6

, (
= 35)
.
.
(4.5.8)
[116] , (. 3.6).
(m2)
. . 4.5.3
-
, m = 2. Q (z1, z2)
,
.
,
.

. 4.5.2. - :
, .


, ( = = 0,1
. 4.5.4.
, .


(4.4.6).
,
-

. 4.5.3.

-
m=2.


.


,

. 4.5.4.

=0,1.

. 4.5.5. : Z0= =
(7,6; 8,5); =0,5; g=0,2;
Z33=(8105; 6,52); Z0= =
(9,7; 4,4); =0,75; g=0,3; Z27=
(7,95; 6,32).

. 4.5.5, , .
:
(4.5.19)

; i i- : ,
{Z}.

:
(4.5.20)

( ).
. 4.5.5
(4.5.19);
. ,
,
.

. 4.5.6.
.
, (. . 4.5.5).

(4.5.19)
. 4.5.6.
.
,

.

4.6.



. , ,

[13, 30, 89, 90, 151]. -
,
.

. ,
[30], ,
(,
, . .).
,
.
, ,
[13],

[89, 90], [90] . .



[285].

. .
,
, .

,
[241].

,
. ,

[241].
.


.
,
.

(
). [177].
L Ri (i = 1, ...,
L), :
Ri : Si=Ri (X) = sgn fi (X),

X,

(4.6.1)

, i- (4.6.2)

( ).
R : S = F (R1 (X), ..., RL(X) ),

(4.6.3)

F
. F.

(.
4.6.1, ). , ,
, . .
(4.6.4)
kr(X) ,
r- Sr X.
, . .

. ,

. 4.6.1. - : ,
, .

.
[45],
[239], [230] .
.
,
.
.
(4.6.4) k(X) = =
, l>0
Rl, a , r-
. l , , ,
Rl.

[64].
[79]
.
f,
{S1,...,SL}, {f1, ...,
fL} (, . 4.6.1, ):
R : S = sgn f ( f1(X), ..., fL(X) ),

(4.6.5)

f, , f = , .
( ), = (1, ..., k)
. ,

(4.6.6)

. -

F
L :
(4.6.7)

, a k

, . .
(4.6.8)

Q(R,I)

R I:
l = Xi, yi (i = 1, ..., N), (4.6.9)
i i- , yi
(
). Q , , R
I.
R,
, N1
[100], (
):
(4.6.10)
R(Xj, , Ij) ,
Ij, /
j- :
Ij = Xi, yi (i = 1, ..., j-1; j+1, ... , N).

(4.6.11)

(4.6.8)
[166]. k

L1 L-o
,
L-o .
,
. , (4.6.6)

(
, L = l,
0 1 ).
, (4.6.3), (4.6.8), :
,
. .
[79].

(4.6.6)
:
f(X) = f1(X) + (1 ) f2(X).

: min=0,29 ( * = = 1,2),
: P1 = 0,43 (
=1) 2=0,36 ( = 0).

,
: ,
: f(X)
= 1 f1(X) + 2 f2(X) + (1 1 2) f3(X).
1 2

min=0,35,
, , : P1 =
0,49 ( 1 = l, 2 = = 0); 2 = 0,43 ( 1=0, 2=l) 3 = 0,54 (
1=2=0).
(4.6.7)
: f(X) = 1 f1(X) + + 2 f2(X) +
(l 1 2) f1(X) f2(X)
Pmin=0,24,

: P1 = 0,43 ( 1=l, 2=0) 2 = = 0,46 ( 1=0, 2=l).
, ,
,
.
,
,
, .
Ri
(i = l, ..., L) Q
F, . . (4.6.8).
X.
, .

X. (4.6.5) (. .
4.6.1, ):
S = F ( R1(X), R2(X), ..., RL(X), X).
(4.6.12)
F L + (n = dim X),

, (4.6.5).
.
(4.6.12)
, [189191].
,
.

l-
X l=l(X).
:

, a Bl l- -

, {X},

Q, . .
(4.6.14)

X
Rl, (Bl)
, . . S=Sl.
, : X
Bl (l=1,...,L),

, . .
(4.6.15)

Bl (l=1, ..., L) , .


L- .

, .
'

l- , X. X
l*,

(4.6.16)

,
, , , ,
. .

.
, (
)
,
( ).

,
.

. ,
[189],
:
1. l- , . .
,
:
al = nl / N,

(4.6.17)

nl ,
l- ; N
.
2. l-
, :
pl = ml / nl.

(4.6.18)

, . .
, 2L
:
(4.6.19)

V ,
.

,
, ,
:
(4.6.20)

.

. , [189]

.


[190].
,
. , ,
,
. ,

.

[166]
.
Cl = (c1(l), ..., ckl(l)) l-
Rl,

(4.6.21)
Q ,
, (4.6.10); = (C1,...,Cl)

, .
,
kl L.

[78].

. -

R1
(4.6.21) C1 .

R2 C2,

C2. ,

. ,
Ci Ri,
.
,
. .
, [78].
, . .
n+1 .

P0,02.
, L = 35
n=2.

.
,
.

(. . (4.6.21)).
0,02
.


.
,

, , , ,
. ,

. ,

.

.
[80]. ,



.

.
:
P = || pij || ll,

(4.6.22)

/ , pij
i- j-.

.
Ri. ,

,
.
,

, . . , ,
. ,

.

[81].


,
.
[189].

- . [80]

(, ).
[80],
, ,

,
.
,

.

. 4.6.2. -
.


,
.
. 4.6.2.

.
, .

( ),
( ).


( )
( ).

,
.


,
[13]
.
:
) ;
) (
, );
) (
,
).

, ,

.

4.7.

(, )

(4.7.1)


, = (c1, ..., ck) .
, (4.7.1)
,
:
x1, x2, ..., xN,

(4.7.2)

(4.7.1) = *:
(, *),

(4.7.3)

* . ,

(4.7.1)

.
()
,

(4.7.4)

N>k, ,
(4.7,5)

(4.7.2):
(4.7.6)
, [120],
(4.7.7)

(4.7.8)
D .
(4.7.5)
,
,


(4.7.9)

, .
(4.7.1) mk
,
:

(4.7.10)
(4.7.2):
(4.7.11)
,
:

(4.7.12)

m>k , ,
.
( [91] m = k = 2).

.
.
(4.7.7), (4.7.5) N

(4.7.13)
. .
(4.7.14)

,
,
, ,
[237]:
(4.7.15)

N- :
CN = (c1(N), ..., ck(N));

CN

(4.7.16)

N kk:
N = || ij(N) ||kk;

(4.7.17)

(4.7.18)
x(N) (4.7.2),
.
(4.7.17)
(4.7.19)



(4.7.20)
= (, 2).
, 2
. k=1, 1 =

4.7.21) (4.7.15)

(4.7.22)
a0 .
N 2/N
[237]:
(4.7.23)

.
k = 2; 1 = ; 2 = 2
(4.7.24)


(4.7.25)

a0, 0
a . :
aN = aN-1 +N(3) (x(N) - aN-1);
N2 = N-12 +N(4) [ (x(N) - aN)2 - N-12 ],

(4.7.26)

N(i) (i = l, ..., 4)
.

[102] :

(4.7.27)

,

.
Q
, Q.
(3.3.5)

Q' = Q' (U + g) - Q' (U - g),

(4.7.28)

U = (u1, ..., uq) ; g


; = (1, ..., q) ,
{U}.
:
Q' (U) = Q (U) + ().

(4.7.29)

() ,
2 . (4.7.29) (4.7.28),

(4.7.30)

. Q
[161]:

(4.7.31)

q ;

-; k :
(4.7.32)

22:
(4.7.33)

Q'. (4.7.30)
(4.7.31) (4.7.33).
[47]
(4.7.34)

q=3

(4.7.35)
[47].

(4.7.35):

(4.7.36)

k
(4.7.37)


(4.7.37)

. q3
, q, ,
(4.7.34),
.
(4.7.18) . .

1, ..., yl:
x = f (y1, ..., yl)

(4.7.38)


pi ( yi, C(i) )

(i = l, ..., l),

(4.7.39)

C(i) = ( c1(i), ..., cki(i))


(4.7.39),
(4.7.2) .
- (4.7.1),
, ,
c1 = c1(1), c2 = c2(1), ..., ck = ckl(l)

(4.7.40)

(4.7.41)
(4.7.38) (4.7.1)
.
(4.7.15) (4.7.18)

(4.7.42)

, (4.7.42).
. .
ci.
(4.7.43)
,
(4.7.44)

(4.7.45)
; t = t (, C)
[x(N) , x(N) + ] .
, (4.7.44)
:
(4.7.46)

. , ,
t , (4.7.46)
, .
, ,
.
(4.7.46)
:
(4.7.47)
ei (i = 1, ..., k)
i- {}. t (,
iei )
x(N) < x < x(N) + ,
i ci, . . ci ci i.
i, ,
.
, (4.7.47)
. t
i.



. o6,
,
, ,
.

4.8.



[207].

, [162].

,
:
(4.8.1)
xt
t; t
.
. (4.8.1) = = 1
[160].
(4.8.1)
K (q) = Mt (xt xt-q),
(4.8.2)
Mt , ,
1, ..., pn, a1, ..., .

,
K(q)
K0(q).

()

,
(4.8.3)

F ,
(4.8.4)
, ,
, Q, . .

4.8.5)
P = (p1, ..., pn);
A = (a1, ..., am).

(4.8.6)

, Q (P, A)
(4.8.3) (4.8.4)
(4.8.2), . ,
[243]
,

.
(4.8.1)
K(q) (4.8.2)
.
,
.
(4.8.2) , K(0) = = D(x) = 1;
D() = 0; M(ij)=0 (ij), (4.8.1) (4.8.2)

(4.8.1):
(4.8.7)

l(t)

:
t < 0;
t 0,

(4.8.8)

am+t = 0 t>0. ,

K(q)

Q 0(q)
(4.8.3) (4.8.4).
(q),

, (0) = 1.
(n-1)-
K(1), ..., (1), (4.8.7) q = 1,
2, ..., n-1. ,
. . K(q) = K(q).
.


(4.8.9)


:
| K(q) | 1 (q = 1, 2, ...),
(4.8.10)

(4.8.1).
[235].
,
, .
, K(q)
q .
1.
(4.8.7) q = l, ..., n-1,
K (1), ..., K (n-1).
2. K(q) qn
(4.8.7).
(4.8.5)

(4.8.11).
S
(4.8.9) (4.8.10). (4.8.11)

P* = (p*1, ..., p*n);
A* = (a*1, ..., a*m)
(4.8.1),
0(q).

(4.8.12)

K(q)

(4.8.11) + ,
.
m ,
0(q) ( ).
.
(4.8.7), , q
:
(4.8.1)
,
K(q) = = (q) q =
m, ..., m n1. ,
1, ..., :
0

(4.8.14)
,
0(-q) = 0(q).
,
.

: 1, ..., .
0(q) ,
,
.

.
= 1, = 2. (4.8.1)
xt = pxt-1 + a1t + a2t-1.
(4.8.7):

: ||<1. , 1, 2
:
p2 + a12 + a22 + pa1a2 = 1.
. 4.8.1
2.

, , 2,
(1).
q>0 .
n=1, m>1. ,

qm. 0<q<m , ,
, ,
| K(q) | 1.

.
n=2, m=l
(q>0):
K (q) = p1K(q-1) + p2K (q-2)

| K(1) | 1 | (2) | 1
,
:
p1 + p2 1;
p1 - p2 1;
p2 -1.
(. 4.8.2)
, -

. 4.8.1.
n=l, m=2.

. 4.8.2. (n=2, m=l).



. 4.8.3.

. 4.8.3.
, .
4.8.2: 1=1, p2= 0,7.

.
. 4.8.3 , .
4.8.2 . ,
.
==2. q0 ,
.

,
q2, , 12,
.

.

K0 (q) = e-q cos q
(==2).

,
2 = 0, . . , (n=2,
m=l).
. 4.8.4
p1 = l,5; p2 = 0,7
2. ,
.
2

(1).
. 4.8.5
=0,184 = 0,482, 1 = = 1,5 2
= 0,7 N=20.
.
K(1) =0,747, ,
[207], .
( ),
Qmin = 0,091.

uc. 4.8.4.

(n=m=2)
1a2 (
).

. 4.8.5.
(1).

,
(4.8.1)

.
, {, }
K(q).
Q(P,) K0(q)
(*, *), .
K(q).

. , ,


,
.

,
. , ,
,
,
.

, ...
.

,
,
.
.



.
,
,


.

5.1.
5.1.1.
5 ,

S = {U1, ..., Uq},
q . (1.2.9) (.
) ,
X
Y. () R:
Uj =R (X, Y, Ui),

(5.1.1)

Ui, Uj S. , ,
, (. 5.1.1),
-

,
Q
.
R (5.1.1)

(5.1.3)

, ,
U .
(5.1.2)
. 5.1.1. - .
Y

(5.1.4)

Q(U) .

R ,
S.

[134]
[46].
.

5.1.2. -
,
. ,
,
. :
(5.1.5)
c=0
(), =1 .


Q .
:
(5.1.6)

(5.1.7)
N-

a U'N ,

(5.1.7)

, , :
(5.1.8),
0<k<1 .
(5.1.7)
(5.1.9)
.
,
, . .
(5.1.10)
, (=1)
, (=0), , ,
. (5.1.10)
, , .
,
,
(5.1.10)
, (5.1.7)
.
,

. .
(5.1.10) ,
.

, . .
A = C, W, S, , .
(5.1.11)
( c (5.1.5)); S
,
; W :
W = {w1, ..., wm};
(5.1.12)

w' = (w, ),

:
(5.1.13)

w' , w
; - ,
w :
(5.1.14)
,
:
1) (5.1.12);
2) (5.1.13);
3) (5.1.14).

. .

5.1.2.1.


[46, 134]
, .
, ,
(, =0), ,
, (, =1),
.
. .
l . q
( ) l
. (5.1.12) m=ql.

(. 5.1.2)
.
, (.

. 5.1.2. :
=0, =1.

. 5.1.2) , . . Ui
w = wij.
, wij , ko
i-e Ui.
, (=0)
, (=1)
,
. [46, 134], , . .
,
:
(5.1.15
)
; amin
:
(5.1.16)
ai i-e
,
l
, .
,
l ,
.
,
l.

,
.
.
.
5.1.2.2.


-,

PN = (p1N, ..., pqN),
(5.1.17)

()

,
,
:
piN = piN-1 + piN (i = l, ..., q),
(5.1.18)

U'N = Ui;
U'N = Uj, (ji),
f()>0;
(,)<0
f()<0; (,)>0 = 1.

(5.1.19)

f :
0 z + f(z) 1;
0 z + (z, w) 1;

0 z 1

0 zi 1.

, , :

0;
(5.1.20)

(5.1.21)

(5.1.22)


=0;

(5.1.23)
c=l,

:
0<<1; ,>0.

(5.1.24)

= = 1.
5.1.2.3.

[256, 263]*
.
(q = 2).
, .
= 0 , . .
(. 5.1.3, ), = 1
,
1
(. 5.1.3, ).

. 5.1.3. : =0,
=1.
* , ().
, ,
- , .
, , , ,
, -


. , U1 U2
, U1 U2 .
[250253].

(5.1.25)
p*i , i-
, . .
p*i = [Ui = U*] (i = l, ..., q)
(5.1.26)
U* ; i
i- , i ,
; i- , .


(5.1.27)
S:

, i0

(5.1.26), . .
P* = (p*1, ..., p*q).
(5.1.28)
,
,
(5.1.26). q = 2.
,
(5.1.29)
Q1 Q2
, ()

, .
,
. , U1 U2:
(5.1.30)

, ,
:
(5.1.31)
(5.1.32)

(5.1.33)
U'N+1 = U1;
:
(5.1.34) U'N+1
= U2.


. ,
* = = (N 1) / N, * = const
, .
,
(5.1.35)
1 Q1<Q2 0 Q1>Q2, . .
.
c = 0
, . . :
(5.1.36)
= 1

P1 = || ij || qq,
:
pii = p*i
(4.1.26) :
pij = i Bep ( Uj Ui) (i j = 1, ..., q),

(5.1,37)
(5.1.38)
(5.1.39)

i :
(5.1.40)
, i-
, ,
, j- ,
, j- i-.
(5.1.30)
, (5.1.31) (5.1.34).
,

, ,
.

5.2.

,
,
. (q=2)
[86].
U1 U2. p =
Bep (U1 U2) , . .
p = pt. ,

.

:
(5.2.1)
t.

pt,

{pt}, ,
, .
.

U1 U2
t = 1, 2, ...
{t}:
(5.2.2)
, Bep (U1 ~
U2) = 0, ~
.
t = 0. , , (t = 1) = pt.
t at
U1 U2.
p't
, t-
U1 ( U2 1 p't).
:
t>1/2 (<1/2), p'l (0)
t. , p't

pt (1/2, 1] [0,
1/2), .
p't, ,

p't+1 = p't + t+1t+1bt,

(5.2.3)

p'0 {t} (0p'0l; 0 tl); bt =


p't(1p't); {t}
(t = 1) = pt, ( t = 1)
= 1 pt (0pt1). (5.2.3) . '0 = 0,
p't = 0; '= = 1, p't = 1. , 0 1
(5.2.3).
, 0<'0, t, pt<l.
, , 0<'t<1 (. .) t = = 1, 2, ...
1. ptp<1/2 (ptp>l/2) t=l,2,...
t<1-2p (t<2p-1)
(
5.2.4) p't0 (p'tl) . . t.


,
(2.5.2) (2.7.1) [138].
V(x)=x/(1),
[0; 1). ptp>l/2 xt = 1p't, t+1 = = t+1
(5.2.3) xt+1 = xt + + t+1t+1bt.
t<1/2.
V(x) (5.2.3)
t- ( tp<1/2)
M {V (p't+l) - V(p't) / p't} t+1V (p't)[-(l-2p)].
(5.2.5)
. (5.2.3) , . . t , t .
<1/2 (>1/2) <1-2 (>2-1), p't0 (1) t .
. .
(5.2.3) .
tl>0. (5.2.5) :

V(x) , ,
[231],
:

(5.2.6)
(5.2.6) (
):
(5.2.7)
,
(5.2.7) l==1/2.

5.2.8)

(5.2.3)

't > (1-)tp'0 . .

(5.2.9)

Mp't p't :

ptp>1/2

0<lt<2-1. ,
1, , (5.2.6)

(5.2.9),

(5.2.3) .
M(1 p't), (1 2)
(2 1).
, {pt}
, . . t pt
1/2, . t = = Mt = 2pt 1.
, < 1/2,

(5.2.10)

, 0, 2, ... ,
a T1, T3, .... .
(5.2.3), , 0 1
t. t Tt {p't}

i.
(5.2.3), t
( (5.2.4) ). p'ti ,
Ti = {ti + l, ...}, . . ti+1=.
1,

, 't0

('t1) . .

() 1 ,
Mp't () t.
(5.2.3).

(5.2.3), : 't0
't1

<2. ,

(5.2.6) (5.2.9), .
,
, =.
i .
(5.2.6) (5.2.9) , -

(5.2.3) 0 1.
'0,
p'ti. p'ti,
, 1, p't 0. ,
(5.2.3) ,
. ,
( ) ,
p'ti, ( ),
(5.2.3) 1 ( 0)
pi.

, p't 0 1 ,
, .
,
(5.2.3).
{t}, , {bt} , (5.2.3), p'0l.
,
:
(5.2.11)
xt+1 = p't + t+1bt.
p'tl . . t = 1, 2, ... ,
(5.2.11) .
(5.2.11) (5.2.3) .
p'tl . . ,
(5.2.6) (5.2.9)
(5.2.11).
. ,
i . ,
(5.2.6),

(5.2.12)
(5.2.11) , 't .
. p't>p'ti (1-)t-t . ., ,
Ti-1 , . . p'ti = = 1, ,
(5.2.12):

(5.2.11)
(5.2.3), ( 1).

- (5.2.3) ,
p'ti1 . .
(5.2.3)

(5.2.11),
-,
{t}.
, T(,,) =,

(5.2.3). (,,) = (,) =
(5.2.11),

. (5.2.11) =,

(,).

5.3.



[168].

:
(5.3.1)

, . . Q(X)
=(x1,...,xn), . ,
:
(5.3.2)

, . .
:
: {Xi} (i = l, ...),
(5.3.3)
.
.
(5.3.1) -
, Q(X)
, , . . ,
, ,

()
.

,
Q(X) .
, ,
X*,
(5.3.4)
X*

0, X1, ..., XN, ...,


(5.3.5)

X*. F
:
XN+1 = F (XN, WN),
(5.3.6)
WN , WN = {XN-1, ..., XN-l}; l
. F

XN+1 = F (XN, WN),


(5:3.7)
XN+1 = XN + XN+1 {X}.
, F
, .
,
:
K = (k1, ..., km).

(5.3.8)

F L, :
L = Q (X), L .

(5.3.9)

,
ki = ki (F, L) (i = 1, ..., m).

(5.3.8)


(5.3.10)


:
(5.3.11)


F, (5.3.10);
,
(5.3.10). (5.3.11)
F*L, , , L.

{L} = {Q (X), L}
(5.3.12)

(,
),
.
:

, ,
,
;
-
=Rn .
,
,

,
.
, . .
L (
(5.3.9),
XN).
F
F = S, C,
(5.3.13)
S , = (1, ..., ck) .
,
.

.
F . ,

(. 3,5,
,
).

. ,
, ,
[182].

, .
S F.
, (5.3.11):
(5.3.14)
S*L F,
L. ES
F, a ECS
, S.
, (5.3.14)
,
( ),
( ) (. 5.3.1).
,

. , ,
- ,


.


.
1.
[74, 84, 120]

{Lj} (j = 1, ..., z<)


(5.3.15)
. 5.3.1. - , , .

.

:
{Ui} (i = 1, .., q),
(5.3.16)
. .
: LjSi,
i=(j) (i = l, ..., q; j = 1, ..., z). (
)
. L, . .
(5.3.15).

,
,
(5.3.15). 2.
.

L = (p1, ..., pu)
(5.3.17)
u- . L
Ui,

(5.3.18)

, q-
,
Lj, Uj (j = 1, ..., N),
(5.3.19)
N-

(5.3.20)

Lj (j=1,...,N) ,
{L}.
[165, 167].
U1 U2 (. . S1 S2):

(5.3.21) (5.3.22)

. {L} (u=2)
:
1 = (QN < 0 | X = )
(5.3.23)
, ,
2 = (QN < 0 | QN-1 < 0, XN = XN-1)
(5.3.24)
, .

,
. . , (
, ) {L} (0p1, p21)
p2 = p12 p1 + l , ,

:
(5.3.25)

p2 = p12 - p1 + 1
. ,
(5.3.23), (5.3.24),
U*.
p1 2
.
d:
(5.3.26)

(d = 1),
(d = 0), (d = 1).
cN, dN

(5.3.27)

,
:

(5.3.28)

0<i<1 (i = 1, ..., 4) ,
L = (p1, p2)
.

.
, 5.1.
3. , (. . 5.1.2.1).
[215].
N1, ..., Nk, ...
.
(5.3.29)

.
,
. (=0) K(i)<0,
(=1) K(i)>0. , K(i)
.

[215].

[184]:
(5.3.30)

(5.3.31)
k
,
; 1>l, 0<2<1.
, 1 2
3.5 : 1p11-p = 1.
[184, 215] (. 3.5),

*
0,27,
0,2.

= 0,2, , , = 0,45.

(5.3.32)
0= (10, 0, ..., 0)
:
Ni = iK, . . . . 5.3.2
n=8,
l=3 K=3; 5; 10. , K = 5

(, l ).
. 5.3.3 = 8, K=5
l=2; 3; 5. , l=23, . .
.

. . 5.3.4
=8, K=5, l=3. (
) .
,

. 5.3.2. . (=0,2; 0,45).

. 5.3.3. l .

(=0,2; 0,45).

. 5.3.4. .
I , II .
.
(=0,2;
0,45).

( =
0,4) ,
.

. :
= 0,07; = 0,2 = 0,45.
:
, .


() [233]

[182, 220].

(5.3.33)

; 0<aminaiamax<

(i=1,...,n). I1 I2 X0 .
K .
,
(5.3.33), , (5.3.32)

.

:
.
4. (. . 5.1.2.2)
[174].
, (5.3.30) (5.3.31),
: U1 = U: = = * = 0,2; U2: p = 0,45.
, ,
. ,

(5.3.34) (5.3.35)

a QN(i)
N-
i-ro
Ui (i = l, 2).

:
, ,

(5.3.36)
(
. );


(5.1.31)
(5.1.34);

(5.3.34).

,
, . 5.3.5,

0,9

0,2

5
1
5

0,5
0,5
0,9

0,5
0,1
0,5

. 5.3.5. .

.
(A1),
(2);
,

.

,
. ,

(. . 5.3.5, ) (. . 5.3.5, ).

,
.

( = 0,45) ,
. , ,
U1 U2,
U2, (. . 5.3.5, ).
,
,
,
.
,
,
,

,
.

5.4.

5.4.1.

,
.
(, . .),
, ,

.
,
,
, [170]. ,
, :
) (
);
)
.
.
, . .
,


, [74, 203].

,
()

,
.

[121].


.
, ,
[121].



, .


, ,
[51].
, ,
.

, ,
, . .
,
.
,
, .
, ,

(),
.
.
.

,


, .

,
.
[20, 51, 130, 244],
,
(. . 1 0 0 1)
.
(B)
.

, . .

.
,
,

.

.
.
,
. ,

pA pC.
, pC>>pA, ,
, .
,
,
() .
5.4.2.

, 5.1.

: ,
, , .
.
[20, 51, 76, 130],

(5.4.1)


(5.4.2)
(/); k
; ; m,
; pl ;
.
l = 1 - (1 - B)n,
(5.4.3)
B .
,
B R k/n
.
,
.
, ,
( )
(5.4.4)
k<<n, -

.
, , . .
. ,
, . .
.
,

, ,
,
, .

:

;

;

.


, 5.1.5.

.
Q
,
( ).

:
1. .

. 10
, 50 .
, . .
.
2. (7,4) [205].

, ,
.
10 , . . 70 .

. 5.4.1.

:
1 ,
; 2 .

. 5.4.2. .

, . . ,
( ),

. . 5.4.1

. ,

, ( B=0,02)
.
. 5.4.2.
: A = 0,002 C = 0,03.
(5.1.31) (5.1.34)

=0,4

, . . 0,15 0,85.
.

.
,
20%

.
,
0,1.

5.4.3.

.

[153].
( ), H
.

(5.4.5)
t(p) ,
,
. +.
, q(u)
. ,
,
,
(5.4.5).
ai (i = 1, ..., k) . , t(p),
, . .

. , *
.
,
:
(5.4.6)
S
:
(5.4.7)

, u*
,
i ai+1 ,
Q(u, t).

(, , ) .

.

Q = Q(ai, t) - Q(ai+1, t')
(5.4.8)
:
Q' j = Q'(ai, t j ) - Q'(ai+1, t j+l ) (j = 1,...).

(5.4.9)

Q>0, ai+1 ai, , Q<0 ai ai+1



(5.4.10)
a(N+1)
(N+1)- . Q (, )
-:
1. L
(5.4.11)
,
, . . ,
(5.4.12)
.
2.

(5.4.13)

sign Q = sign Sl

(5.4.14)

| Sl | A,

(5.4.15)

A>0 . ,
(5.4.14).
3. (. 5.2)
:
qi = qj-1 + (1 - qj-1) qj-1 sign Q'j,

(5.4.16)

0<q<1,
:
(5.4.17)
, >0,
, . .
(5.4.12).
, (L, ),
,

(i ai+1). ( )

,
.
(k=2),
, . .
.
, , . .
,

, 5.1.
:

.
:
(i) 1- (i+1).


. a = ai t
(5.4.18)
tj
ai+1. a = ai+1 tj
(5.4.19)

Q i
5.1
, i i+1.

.

=
{i i+1} = Bep {Q'i < Q'i+1},
Q'i ,
i.
:
(5.4.20)

Zi
, i- i.
:
(5.4.21)
:

, ki,

ki+1

=1

=
= 0 ,
i- (i+1)-.
.
,
(5.4.21)

MjQ'i = Mj-1Q'i + (1 - ) Q'(ai, tj);
(5.4.22)
DjQ/i = 2Dj-1Q/i.+ (1 - )2 [ Q'(ai, tj) - MjQ'i ]2,
Mj Dj
j- .
,
,


u=const , ,
, .

*
(5.4.5).

,
[194].

5.5.
, [105, 124, 148].
,
( , . .).

,
.
,
,
.
, . .
,
.
,

, .
(, )

,
.

.
,
,
:
ai+1 = ai + c + i

(i = l, ... , N-1),

(5.5.1)

ai i- (a0=0); i
(lil); lc l
. = 0
, = 1 :
ai+1 < ai (i = l, ..., N-l),

(5.5.2)

=1 :
ai+1 > ai (i=l, ..., N-1). . (5.5.3)
:
1. min.
j-
(aij), j- ,
. ,
, i1 ,
:
akj+1 = akj (k=1, ..., il),
(5.5.4)
:
alj+1 = al+1j (l = 1, ..., N-j).

(5.5.5)

, ,
, (
).
2. .

ai>ai+1.
.
.
. 5.5.1
N=500 -1030.
,
>0
, <0 min.


,
5.1.2.3. . 5.5.2,

, ,

= = 0,8 =0,8.
,
-

. 5.5.1.
min() ().

Puc. 5.5.2.
:
a ,
.


(min = 0,8 = 0,8).
(. 5.5.2, )
:
(t) = 0,2 k.

(5.5.6)

k , ,
, .
,

, .

,
(25). ,
, .

,
.

, 3.7,
.
,

, . . ,

.
.


, ,

.

6.1.

,
3.7. .

6.1.1.
,
.
W ,
, . . () W W,
:
W

(6.1.1)

H G (. 1.2) ,
(6.1.1)
(6.1.2)
H(W)Q G(W)=0, H G
.
, , S W
:
(6.1.3)
W.
W .
() :
W0i = W0 + Wi (i = l, ..., k0),
(6.1.4)
Wi i- () ,
(6.1.1), k0 ,
.
(6.1.4)
Q0i = Q (W0i) (i = l, ..., k0),
(6.1.5)
,
Q,
q0 .
,
,
, ,
. , Q>0
:
(6.1.6)

, q0 .

, ( k0),
W0
W0 .

(6.1.4) ,
k1.
q1 . .
,

, .
W
W*.
ki qi (i = 0, 1, ... ).

. q=1
.
(6.1.3). qi>1 ,
. ki
. . ki
, ,
.

, , .
.
,
. , ,
,
.
- (.
3.2).

(. 1.5). ,
,

(., , 3.5).

, .
6.1.2.

= A, B.

(6.1.7)

,
:
B = || bij || nn.

(6.1.8)

bij , i- j-.
,
:
(6.1.9)

S ,
(6.1.2).
(6.1.1).
, , :
= (1, ..., p),

(6.1.10)

1
; 2 (n+1)-
bn+1,i (i = i1, ..., ik) bj,n+1 (j = j1, ..., jq); 3 ; 4
; 5
; 6 , . .
,
,
, .
(6.1.8)
,
.
6.1.3.
.
,
, :
X, Z, Y, (x, z), (x, z), z0 ,

(6.1.11)

X = {x1, ..., } Y = {1, ..., }.


, ; Z = = {z1, ..., zl}
; z' = = (x, z)
, ,
; (, z) =

= y ,
z ; z0 .
Z,
z0 (,) (,).
, , ,
, ,
, . .
(6.1.12)

1, ..., xN, ...,


.
,
,
,
z1, ..., zl,
, (, z). ,

.

, ,
, . 6.1.2:
1: zl+1 , , . .
(x, zl+1);
2: zi (i = 1, ..., l)
;
3: ,
zi zj, . . zi = (, zj) zj = = (, zi);
4: ;
5: , . .
zi = (, zj) zk = (, zj), zi, zj zk
.
, -

. ,
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
z0 ,
, ,
z, (,). ,

z0 , . .
( ),
4.


[36, 126, 127],
(6.1.12) .

6.2. [291] 6.2.1.



,
= A, .

(6.2.1)

,

A = {a1, ..., an};

(6.2.2)

ai>0 i- ; ,
.
B = || bij || nn,

(6.2.3)

bijQ , i- j-.
(bij = 0) .
,
X , , ,
. .
ai = ai (X)
bij = bij ().

(6.2.4)


, . .
X = X (t).

' = A', ' ,

(6.2.5)

(6.2.6)

(6.2.1) :
A' = (a'1, ..., a'm),

(6.2.7)

<;

/ , () a'l ' (
lk). B' = || b'ij || mm

, Il Ik = 0
(6.2.8)

',
(6.2.9)

, :

U = (I1, .., Im).

(6.2.10)



( 6.2.11)

:
a'l (U, X) cl (l = 1, ..., k),

(6.2.12)

C = (c1, ..., cm)

(6.2.13)

',
.
,
:
(6.2,14)
S
S : A' (U, X) C.
(6.2.15)
*
U .
X,
(6.2.4) - .


,
X, . .
U* = U* (X).
(6.2.16)
, . . =const,
(6.2.14),
.


.
.
.
U*
. ,
(6.2.10),

.
,
.
,
, U*.
, (.
1.5), (,
)
,
.

, X
(6.2.4) .
,
,
(), ()
. (6.2.11)
(6.2.12) X:
(6.2.17)
U*


(6.2.18)

S . :
(6.2.19)


(6.2.20)

(6.2.21)

(6.2.22)

(6.2.23)

(6.2.24)
. .
.
(6.2.18) :

,
, . . ().

(6.2.18).
, ,
.
6.2.2.

6.2.2.1.


. (,
, . .),
, . (6.2.2)
(
), (6.2.3)
, ,

. (6.2.3)
. (6.2.13) '

-

. ,
ci (i = l, ..., m)
, , , . .
6.2.2.2.

. a'j
, .

. cl = c (l = 1, ..., ),
, ,
, .
X
.

= || plk ||

(6.2.25)

plk l- k-.
, , = , . .

(6.2.25),
(6.2.17), (6.2.25).
(6.2.25)
.
.
6.2.2.3.

**

,
.

-.
; al , l- (al<c, ); pl
* . 2.2.5.1.
** . 2.2.5.2.

, l- .

(6.2.26)
(l,k) l- k-
(, (l, k) = w |lk|, w
).
U , :
(6.2.27)

(6.2.27) , al l-
k-. ,

:
U = (u1, ..., )
(6.2.28)
1 .


:
(6.2.29)

= (p1, ..., p)
(6.2.30)
al,...

(6.2.31)
,

U
:
U* = U* (P).
(6.2.32)
, ,
(6.2.29), . . .
*



(6.2.33)

.
,
U1, ..., UN, ...,
(6.2.34)
(6.2.33),

(6.2.29) .
,
.
(.,
, [126], . 158164).
.
ulk : ulk=1
l- al k- (l, k = l, ..., m)
ulk = 0 .
(6.2.26)
(6.2.35)

(6.2.36)

,
k- .
, l-
,

U = (u11, u12, ..., umm),
(6.2.37)
2 .

(6.2.38)
X.
6.2.2.4.

,
, [277].

(6.2.1)
,
(6.2.11),
(6.2.39)

U (6.2.10), ai (i=1,...,m).
:
(6.2.40)

(6.2.41)

(6.2.41) ,
.
, ,
,
.
6.2.3.

6.2.3.1. ()

() ;
[111].
(
).


[27, 66, 201],
,
[1, 2, 38, 106, 129, 147, 224].
, . .
.

.

.
-.
[37, 53, 97].
,
, . .

.
6.2.3.2.

U:
UN+1 = N+1 (UN) ,
(6.2.42)
UN N- , a N+1
, (N+1)- .
.
(i-)
(k-) (l-).
'. ,
. 6.2.1,
= kil ,
(6.2.43)
i Ik i Il.
. ,
' :
'k 'k 'i;
'l 'l + 'i,
,

(6.2.45)

(6.2.44)

. 6.2.1. .

. 6.2.2. .

.
(6.2.11)
(6.2.46)

, , (,
(6.2.12)).
(. 6.2.2).

= kilj ,

(6.2.47)

, ,


':
'k 'k i + aj;
'l 'l + i aj;

(6.2.48)

(6.2.49)


:
kilj = kil ljk .
(6.2.50)

(6.2.50) ,
.
(6.2.49),
kil , ljk .
,

, .
- (, ) .
6.2.3.3.

S (6.2.12)
, ,

. S
:
1. ,
:
k : a'k > ck.
(6.2.51)
, , (k-),
,
(6.2.51).
2. ,
, :
(6.2.52)
3. Ik
,

(6.2.52), . .

(6.2.53)
.
Ik,
(6.2.43), . 1.
, .
4.
(l-)
(6.2.54)

. 6.2.3. - , .
(. .
6.2.3.6).

5. Ik i,
Il (j-) ,
ai a'l aj < ai.
(6.2.55)
j- Il ,
(6.2.47).
ai aj a'k ck
(6.2.56)
Ik , . 1.
. 5.
aj
.
Il ,
(6.2.55), . 4, ai.

Il, . 4, . . ,
l- .
- . 6.2.3.
6.2.3.4.

[115]

S (
).
(6.2.11) X=const .
1. (k- l-)

(6.2.57)
(


).
2. :

a'l = cl a'l;
a'k = ck a'k

(6.2.58)

( k- , .
. a'k<a'l).
3. {Z} k-o
,
az a'l (z Ik),.
(6.2.59)

. . l- .
,
Il:
(6.2.60)
,

(6.2.61)
kil, . .
Ik Il.
, . .
(6.2.59) Qz>0,
,

(6.2.62)

(6.2.63)

(6.2.64)

ljk.
, (6.2.62) Qzk<0,
, .
4.
k- l- . i
Ik, j
Il.
ai a'l + aj;
aj a'k + ai;
(6.2.65)
Qij < 0
( (6.2.49))
kilj,
(. . 1).
,
,

(6.2.65).
,
(. . 1).
(1)/2 , ,
,
(, ).
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
- . 6.2.4.
[271].
,
1
, . .
(6.2.66)

. 6.2.4. - .
(. .
6.2.3.6).

2 ,
:
(6.2.67)

Qzw (6.2.49).
[224].
(6.2.67)
, (6.2.65)
,
(6.2.67).
[115].
1. (n=8)
[27] (. 6.2.5).
(6.2.68)


(ai=l).
( =
(cj =

2)
4).

, :
(6.2.69)

. .


(6.2.70)
[27],
(. . 6.2.5).
2.

[112].
.


(. 6.2.6). 19 ,
20 . n=22.
.
:

(m=2) ,
,
=21. ,
19 20 .
(. 6.2.6):

Q (U0) = 7.

(6.2.71)

19 20 ,
, .

. 6.2.5. 1. .
. 6.2.6. .
. .
1, 2, 3 6.

, ,

(6.2.72)

,
.
(6.2.61), (6.2.63) (6.2.65) ,

Q(U). ,
:
(6.2.73)
,
()

.
,
, . . Q(U).


.

.

,
.
,

.

.
6.2.3.5.

Q(U) [114]

,
6.2.3.4. . ,
:
(6.2.74)
5
.
(6.2.74)
U*1, ..., U*N.

(6.2.75)

, .
(6.2.61), (6.2.63) (6.2.65)

(6.2.76)
Qij < ,
. >0

. ,
.

. 6.2.7. . , > 0.


. = 0 U*1,
Q*1 = Q(U*1).
= 0.
Q*2 = Q(U*2) Q*1.
Q*2<Q*1, Q*1 U*1 Q*2
U*2, , . . ,
.
[114].
n = 60, , . . = 7
= 9.
(ai = 1).
U*k : i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Q(U*1) 875 874 863 853 855 853 857 848 868 871 870 877
Q(U0) = 1242.
,
Q(U*8) = 848.
. 6.2.7 .
A1 A2
, .
,

.

6.2.3.6.

, (6.2.4)
:
ai = ai (X, t);
(6.2.77)
bij = bij (X, t),

, . . X(t) .
() U* (6.2.16)
, . .
.
, S .

S,
.
S (. . 6.2.3.3)
(. . 6.2.3.4).
. 6.2.3 6.2.4 .
S (. . 6.2.3)
: . ,
.
(6.2.13).
- ,
, . 6.2.8.
. 6.2.3.

. 6.2.8. -
.

, .
(
) ,
, . .

(6.2.77) .
U*(X,t) .
X
,
,
. .
6.2.3.7.

(6.2.18)

:
(6.2.78)
(6.2.18) S, (6.2.15). ,
, . .
A = const;
B = B (X).

(6.2.79)

, 1,...,XN

, (), , ,
. {k} , (6.2.79), {k} = {, B(Xk)},
.
(6.2.78), 1,
..., XN. , , k
(2.6.80)

, U*1,...,U*N U*.
k (k=1,...,N).

B=X

(6.2.81)

( ). X
,
X = || xij || nn

(6.2.82)

bij
. X
, pij(ij)
. ; k
.
k
X
(n) .
ij X
i-o j- .
,
P = || pij || nn

(6.2.83)

, X,
. ,
X .
,
(6.2.84)

. 6.2.9.

( 13 . 6.2.3.7).

(6.2.85)

,
Xk (k = 1,
..., N).
,
(. .
6.2.8), ,

,

(6.2.78).

.

, . .
i = 1. n = 16 ,
,
1 2, (p1>>p2).
. 6.2.9 .
U* :
(6.2.86)

U
N-. :
*

(6.2.87)
nN , N-
U*.

128, . . (6.2.82) 128
.
1. p1 = l / 8; 2 = 0. :
(6.2.88)
k0 = 0,56.
. 6.2.1,
, (N
= 7) .
(m0 = 3)
(m7 = 2).
2. p1 = 7 / 64; p2 = l / 64. ,
, (6.2.87).
(. 6.2.2)
,
U3 = U*, . ,


, -. ,
-

6.2.1

UN N-

.

.

kN

QN

(6.2.88)

0,56

72

0,6

61

0,7

32

0,75

0,75
0,75
0,9

0
0
37

1
2
3
4
5
8
7
8
9
10

I1= (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
I2= (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
I3= (6, 13, 14, 15, 16)
I1= (1, 2, 3, 4)
I2= (5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
I3= (6 13 14 15 16)
I1= (1, 2, 3, 4)
I2= (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
I3= (13 14 15 16)
, N=3
, N=4
I1= (1, 2, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16)
I2= (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
I 3 =(3)
I1= (1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16)
I2= (5, 6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
N=7
, N=8
, N=9

1
1
1

0
0
0

6.2.2*

UN

kN

QN

(6.2.88)

0,56

75

0,6

52

0,9

33

12

1
0,9

11
22

15

1
1
1
1

18
15
17
20

I1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 16)
I2 = (9 7 10)
I3 =(5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14)
2
I1= (1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, 16)
I2= (7)
I3= (5, 6. 8. 9, 10, 11, 12, 15)
3
I1= (1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16)
I2= (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
4
, N=3
5
I1= (1, 2, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16)
I2= (3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
6
I1= (1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16)
I2= (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
7
, N=6
8
, N=7
9
, N=8
10
, N=9
* , . 6.2.1.

6.2.3*
N

UN

kN

QN

(6.2.88)

0,56

78

0,75

56

0,75

45

0,75

35

0,75

50

0,8

45

0,8

37

0,9

36

39

1
1

40
37

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

/1 = (1, 2, 3, 4)
I2 = (5, 6, 7, 8,9, 10, 11, 12)
I3 = (13, 14, 15, 16)
/1 = (2, 3, 8)
I2 = (1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12)
I3 = (13, 14, 15, 16)
/1 = (3, 8)
I2 = (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14)
I3 = (1, 2, 13, 15, 16)
/1 = (2)
I2 = (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13)
I3 = (1, 3, 9, 14, 15, 16)
/1 = (1, 3, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16)
I2 = (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12)
/1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 13, 16)
I2 = (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15)
/1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 13, 15, 16)
I2 = (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14)
/1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14. 15, 16)
I2 = (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12)
, N=8
, N=9
* , . 6.2.1 6.2.2.

,
. ,

, .
3. p1 = 6 / 64; 2 = 2 / 64. (6.2.88)
.
. 6.2.3. ,
,
, , .
,

.

, X
, . .
p (X, t).

(6.2.89)

6.2.3.8. ,

U* , . .
:
U* = U*(t).

(6.2.90)

(. . 6.2.8) .
. (n=16)
p1=7/64
2=1/64 (. 6.2.10) ,

( ). . 6.2.10
,
. i i- (i+1)-
().
:
ii+l
i=1,...,16-l;
i i + l - 16 i>16-l.

(6.2.91)

l ,
.
128
. .
(. 6.2.4) ,

. kN'
N- , a kN

( 1).

.
. 6.2.11

. j
(. .
),
N
l . 6.2.10.
( .
6.2.3.8).

6.2.4

. 6.2.11.
.

. Q
.
,

,
, .
6.2.4.

, 6.2.1, .
l- k- (l,k).
. 6.2.2.2 6.2.2.4,
l- k- .
(l,k)

. , (.
6.2.1) :
(6.2.92)

(. . 6.2.2.3)
(l, k) = | l - k |.
(6.2.93)

(6.2.94)

li , i- (
), a kj
, j- (
). ,
U (6.2.10), . .
li = (U, j);
(6.2.95)
kj = (U, j) ,

, , ,
,
U. , ,
.
,
,
(6.2.96)

(6.2.94) ,
,
.

.
(. . 6.2.3.2)
(6.2.42) (6.2.43) ,

(6.2.97)
, (6.2.92) (6:2.46).
(6.2.93)

(6.2.98)
, Q<0 ,
.

(6.2.47).
(
(6.2.50)):

(6.2.99)
, (6.2.92),
(6.2.49).
(6.2.93). ,
,
. 6.2.3.4 .

(k, l) .
( = = 16)
(6.2.93)
X [116].

6.3.


6.3.1.
, n ,
ci (i = l, ... ..., n).
, k , ,
, ,
.

{j} (j = 1, ..., ),
(6.3.1)
aj (, ) j- .

(6.3.1) -

, ,
,

.
,
ci ,
.
, ,
,
-. j- Ij
,
.

,
,
.
, , :
1) , . .
,
,
;
2) .
6.3.2.

. ij , ( ij =1) ( ij =0) i-
j- . ,
,
:
(6.3.2)
, ,
k ,

(6.3.1):
Pl = (p1l, ..., pml)

(l = 1, ..., k), .... (6.3.3)

pjl , l-
j- .
, . .
(6.3.4)
( ,
).
l- i-
: ,
.
(6.3.5)


,
-l- , i- ,

, .
. .
p''li = pli (U).

(6.3.6)

,
( )
1, ..., k

(6.3.7)

(
)
1, ..., n,

(6.3.8)

(6.3.1) ,

:
(6.3.9)


(6.3.10)

U=
(u11, ..., un1, ..., unm);...... (6.3.11)
Q(U) ;
(6.3.10)
:
; (6.3.10)
(6.3.2).
(6.3.9)
(6.3.11)
.
(6.3.3) ,
(6.3.7) (6.3.8)
. .
,
[274].
,
.
.
6.3.3.


. .

(,
):
I10, ..., In0,
(6.3.12)
Ii0 , i- .
(6.3.2)
(6.3.13)

() V
, ().
I V n- :
Ij = (i1j, ..., imj) (j = 1, ..., n);
Vl = (v1l, ..., vml) (l = 1, ...).

(6.3.14)

k- j- ; .
;
l- k- ;
.
(6.3.14) ,
l- ,
j- :
(6.3.15)

. l-

= (1l, ..., ml)

(6.3.16)

(j-) , 8
, . .
:
(6.3.17)
j- vj,
, il
( i=j). ,
vi.
. .
, ,

N = (v1, ..., vm),

(6.3.18)

(
).

. ,
i- Ii,N+1

Ii,N ZN+1 ,
. ,
Ii,N ZN+1 = 0,
(6.3.19)
. . . Ii,N+1

(6.3.20)


:
Ii,N+1 = (Ii,N, ZN+1),

,

(6.3.21)

.

[3],
:
1.
Ii,N ZN+1 ,
(6.3.20), , ,
,
(6.3.20).
2. ,
() ,
.
3. .
,
.
4. [3],

.
.
,
.
.
j- ,
, hj,N,
j- N ( i ,
).
(h), ,
0 (hj,N) 1 (j = 1,..., '),
(6.3.22)
' , .

.

. 6.3.1.
(h).

,
hj.
:
hj,N+1 = khj,N + j,N,

(6.3.23)

0<k< 1 >0 ;
j- N;
.
, j-
hjN / (1 k), hjN 0.
(h) (. 6.3.1)
(6.3.24)
0 < < /
(1 k) >0.
h :
hj0 =
(j = 1, ..., m).
(6.3.25)
,

= (k, , , ),
(6.3.26)

(6.3.27)

:
.
,

. ()

(6.3.28)
Q(C, i) i-
.
N (6.3.18) , . .
(6.3.29)


, . .,
:


(6.3.26) (6.3.18),
.


[143, 144, 211, 282284].

6.4.

Y X
R,
:
Y = R ().
(6.4.1)

() ,
, 0 1 ().

[62].

R*
,
. ,
.

,
,
( ).

.

, . .
.
6.4.1.
, ,

(6.4.2)
X n- ,
; ,
( 1,
0).
(6.4.2) n-
{X}
.
R(X)
,
L<.


, ,
.


(),

, . .
.

(6.4.3)


(6.4.4)
() = {l(X), ..., m(X)}
R(X), V = (v1, ..., vm) ,
[V, (X)] V
(X).
R V ,

, . . (6.4.3)
(6.4.2).
P(V,) (
) R
(6,4.3).
V
,
, . .
(6.4.5)
Rm , V*
. (6.4.5) .

. - . 6.4.1.
()
[13],
[199] .


(X), .
R
. ,
,

:
(6.4.6)

- . 6.4.2.

. 6.4.1. -

. 6.4.2.



= ' (X, S),
' , a S ,
.
S* :
(6.4.7)

.
S
. (,
,
[176],
[186].)
6.4.2.

, (6.4.3),
vi i-o , a i(X,S) ,
i- - :

(6.4.8)

xj j-
(xj
{0; 1}, j = = 1, ..., n); j j- A; sji j- i A- (sji {-1; 0; 1} ,
i = 1, ..., m).

S = || sij ||

n x n,

(6.4.9)
l ,
.
,
(6.4.5) V A-
, L

(6.4.10)

- [199].
, 1,
:

(6.4.11)
h ( ), Yh
, (6.4.3) Xh.
, ,
Y = R (X, V, S), S
, V .
[199] ,
S
A-
. A ( )
(6.4.5)
, . . (6.4.10)
. , , ,
n-
{X}
m- A- (. .
,
A-) .


A-
, . . .

S,
(6.4.6),
-
(. 3).
.
1. . S:
SN = ,

(6.4.12)

SN S N- ;
, sij {-1; 0; 1}
(6.4.9).
(6.4.11)
.

(6.4.13)
Q(SN)


SN; Q*N
N
; S*N N , :
(6.4.14)
2. S
-.
A- ,
,
q.
S S = || s1, ..., sm ||, sj ,

j- A- (j=1,...,),

Qj (sjN) q j = 1, ..., m;
Qj (sjN) > q j = 1, ..., .
(6.4.15)
Qj(sjN)
j- A-
N- ; q
, A-; '
(nm) - j, . . = (1, ..., m),

Qj (sjN) q;

(6.4.16)

Qj (sjN) >q.
,
{-1; 0; 1} (6.4.9).
6.4.3.


, ,
,
.
,
.

: 1)
A-; 2)
, . .
S. S
A-
.
,
,
,
. n ,
p1;
1 1

(6.4.17)
(i=l,...,n),

2< 1/2, . .
p2;
1 - p2 (i = l, ..., ),
t ; 1 2 . [58, 61]
,
S*
. A-
, ,

(6.4.19)
k1
(k2 ), 1

( ) (k1 + k2=k, k
); l1 (l2)
() A- (l1 + l2 = l), ][
.
S*
-. , k1 k2
A- A .
A- q A
.
S*
A-
[58]

(6.4.20
)
A-
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(6.4.19)
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.
-

(6.4.18

,
A-. A, q, N
A-,
,

. ,
A-


,
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:

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,
A-,

.
A-

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,
A-,
[61]. A-
, A-,
, , , .
,
A-
, k1 k2 ,
, (.
. , k1
k2 A- [61]).
, A-, ,
+1 -1 , A-,
, -

0. V A :
;
1 ;
(6.4.22)
(j = 1, ..., m),
() , A-
( ) [61].

V*, ,
-1, +1.
:

(6.4.23)
A- ; 1 (2)
A-, () .
Pm(V*)
, ='

A-. N
A-
[61]:

(6.4.24)
,
S ' -,

, A- .
6.4.4.

,
[60].

(6.4.17) (6.4.18), n =
64; p1 = 0,5; 2 = 0,3; t = 50, ,
.
100
50 .
64 ( = 64) A, 100 25. A- :
.
A- 1.
.

,
.
25 100 A- : 1)
I: - (6.4.11); 2)
II: -
(6.4.13).
A- A- ,
q.
100 A- ,

, . . (6.4.11).
25 A-
-
. , . .
(6.4.6). ,
, , 0,92, . 6.4.3.
,
.
, [42]

. 6.4.3.
( I)
( II).
Q (
, %); q'
(%)
-

.
(6.4.17) (6.4.18),
: =32; p1=0,5; p2=0,2 t=48,
. 96
,
32 , 32
.
-32

A- . A-
100 25, A-
(n=32),
A- .

.
10 30,
,
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,
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6.4.1

- A

10
30

25
100

7
12

;
%
71,8
91,8
73,4
89,1

36
214
30
8

,
,
, (
,
).
6.4.5.

A-

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6.4.5.1.


- [56].


(, , ) ,
.

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()
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.

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,
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,
, . 20 (. 6.4.4,
6.4.5), 20-
(. 6.4.2).
20 (n = 20) 25 A-.
A-
. 9 A .

6.4.2

2
3
4


40
l
200

3


3

3


0,7 l

0,7 l


l/D (D )
0,5 < l / D < 5

20

3





50

.
()

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

40

i- 1
401000
401000
2001000

>3

>3
>3
>4

0,7 l
0,7 l

.
20

>3

50
.

, 40, ,
:

,
.
: I (-
) II (-

).
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12 .
6.4.6.
,
-

. 6.4.6. , .
6.4.46.4.5. , . 6.2.3.


1015%
;
80%.
6.4.5.2.
[63]



, . .
,

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[206].
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.

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, , , , . .

k ,
r
:
Zi = (z1i, ..., .zri) (i = l, ..., k), .....(6.4.25)
zji j- (j = = 1, ..., r)
i- , (6.4.25)
(,
).
k ,
.
Zi ,
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,
(6.4.25),
,
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:
(6.4.25)
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Yi = (y1i, ..., yti)

(i = l, ..., k),

(6.4.26)

yji 1, i- Zi
j-
, 0 (i = 1, ... ..., k; j = l,
..., t).
,
:
Y = (y1, y2, y3, y4, y5),

(6.4.27)

y1 , y2
, y3 , y4 , y5
, ,
, , ,
, ,

,

Y1 = (1, 0, 1, 0, 1); Y2 = (1, 1, 1, 1, 0); Y3 =(1, 0, 0, 0, 1). (6.4.28)

t
:
yj = Rj(X) (j = 1, ..., t)
(6.4.29)
,
X Z.

. 32- X,
,
.

, .
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, . 6.4.3.
6.4.3

x
0


l,

x
0
l 80

0
1
1

1
0
1

80 < l 200
200 < l 500
500 < l

3 x4 S ,
:
;
;
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(6.4.30)
S2 .
X .

(t=14), ,

.

:
z1 ( );
z2 ( );
z3 ;
z4 ;
z5 ;
z6 ;
z7 ;
z8 ;
z9 ;
z10 ;
z11 ;
z12 ;
z13 ;
z14 .
.

.
[63]
32 (n = 32) - m,
25 200.
A- ,
.
A- .

:
I: -
(6.4.11)
A- (6.4.12),
(6.4.13);
II: -
(6.4.11)
A- (6.4.15);
III: -
(6.4.11)
.
,
A-

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(j = 1, ..., m)

(6.4.31)
Anl n l; li
li (i = l, 2); l1 (l2) A () ;
.
j- A--
nk- :
Pj = (p1, ..., pnk),

(6.4.32)

. I II

pj 1/nk. N- pi j- A- i-
,
Qj (SjN, ni) q.
(6.4.33)
Qj (SjN, ni)
(, j- A-
) i- , SjN; q .
nt (ti)
.

Qj (SjN, ni) q; Qj (SjN, ni)
> q,
.
43 ,

IIII.
(R-) (
R4, R7, R11 R14),
.
.


30 , 13
. ,

(I III).
. 6.4.4.

6.4.4
(%)

(R)
1

I II III
(m=200)
(m=200)
(m=25)
92,3
89,4
88,5

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

96,1
84,6
49,9
92,3
76,9
60,4
80,6
84,6
84,6
57,7
84,6
96,1
38,5

87,2
87,2
56,4
87,2
72,4
64,1
82,0
84,6
79,4
59,0
84,6
94,9
62,2

84,6
69,2
50,0
69,2
69,2
69,2
88,5
88,5
80,8
57,7
84,6
94,9
53,8



. II
, ,
. .
6.4.7 .
,

. 6.4.7. 25 A- R3 ( ).
L=32.

4, 7, 11, 14,
,
.

.
6.4.5.3.

, ,
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.
,
,
.


.
,
,
.

, ,
[93].
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.


,
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.
[59, 158]

- 1,3- [28].
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. 6.4.8, .
N
R1,...,Rk,
t
.

. 6.4.8., :
, 1,3-.


n- X,
,
. X

. ,
.
, . 6.4.8, .

R1, R2, R3 .

.
64- .

: , H, CH, CH2, CH3.
,
- - .
,
. .
6.4.9 .
, R1 ,
R2 R3 .

.

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.
46 [29]
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. 6.4.9.
.

22, 24 26.

.
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(6.4.11) II
(6.4.12) (6.4.13),
.
, ,
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L = 24, . 6.4.10.
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, 75%.
58%, . .
.

. 6.4.10.

I
II.

6.4.5.4.



[57].
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; 46 5
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64 100 A. A- ,
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[57]
25, 26, 27, 34,
35, 36,
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8085%.
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[151].
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),

A-,

.
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( .), . .

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6.5.

6.5.1.


[180].

q 1, ... ..., uq
ui (i = 1, ..., q) Ni i1, ...,
iNi. {U}
U(j) (j = 1, ...
..., N). m<N, . .
:
(6.5.1)
Ui {U(j)} (j = 1, ..., N),
.


,
N.
.
.
, :
(6.5.2)
{i(U)} (i = 1, ..., k) ,
, . .
i(U) = u11(i)... uqq(i).

(6.5.3)

||j(i)|| (j = 1, ..., q; i = 1, ..., k), ,


{i(X)} (i = 1, ..., k), 1(i), ... ..., q(i)
.
, 4.4,
= (c1, ..., ck):
= K (DC),
(6.5.4)
DC (4.4.15) ,
.

( ),
(4.4.10), . . D .
6.5.2.
( )


, -

,
.
, . . 1 = (1/N, ..., 1/N).

(j = 1, ..., r) D- Kj(1)).
r-
(6.5.5)

,
.

, .
mq.

(6.5.6)

Uj = (u1j, ..., uij, ..., uqj), a Si i- ,


Ni.

, K(1)
Km(1),

.

,
(1)
max .
, . .
.
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,
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k-
:
:

(6.5.7) (6.5.8)


(6.5.9)

(6.5.8).
, (k+1)-

, . . [278].
,
.

.
1. q = 2; Ni = 3 (i = l, 2), , . u1 u2,
: 1, 2 { 1; 0; 1).
. 6.5.1 (N=9).
( )
y(U) = c1 + c2u1 + c3u2 + c4u1u2.

(6.5.10)


1 = 1; 2 = u1; 3 = u2; 4 = u1u2.

(6.5.11)


(6.5.11). i

Ui (i = l, ..., 9). (6.5.11),

(6.5.12)


= {Ui1, ..., Uim}, ij
, . 6.5.1, :
(6.5.13)
()
m<4,
D- , ,
.
m=4
= {U1, U3, U7, U9},
. , |
1 + 3 + 7 + 9 | = 256.
0, 4, 16 64.
m = 5,
:
= {U1, U3, U7, U9, Ui} (i = l, 3, 7, 9),
512.
m = 6 = {U1, U3, U7, U9, Ui, Uj} (i
j = l, 3, 7, 9) { } = 1024.

, 7 8
;
.

2048 4096.


: h- = h+ =
. 6.5.1.
0,1;
0,05;
0,01. - q=2.

. 6.5.1,
R,
.
,

(R = 318),
h

.

.
2. q=3;
. 6.5.2.
:
q=3 .
y(U) = c1 + c2u1 + c2u2 + c4u3;
(6.5.14)
ui (i = l, 2, 3) , 1 -1
.
. 6.5.2. m=4.
, D- ,
U1, U4, U6, U7 U2, U3, U5, U8.
256.
: r = 100, h+ = h- =0,05.
. 6.5.2, ,
,
: pi* =
l/4 (i = = 1, 4, 6, 7), *i=0 (i = 2, 3, 5, 8).
3. q=3; :
y(U) = c1 + c2u1 + c3u2 + c4u3 + c5u32 + c6u33 + c7u34 + c8u35,
(6.5.15)
1 2 : 0 1, u3
6.5.1

kmax

R
h- = h+ =0,l; h- = h+ =0,05; h- = h+ =0,01; r =
15
r=15
r=15

h- = h+ =0,05;
r=10

256

12

5
6
7
8

512
1024
2048
4098

3
4
7
5

3
10
7
8

10
18
4
15

3
11
11
6

6.5.2

p1
0,175

p2
0,125

p3
0,125

p4
0,175

p5
0,075

p6
0,125

p7
0,175

p8
0,175

m
256

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

0,225
0,225
0,125
0,125
0,171
0,171
0,171
0,171
0,215
0,215
0,265
0,315
0,215
0,115
0,065
0,065
0,115
0,165
0,215

0,125
0,125
0,125
0,075
0,073
0,073
0,073
0,073
0,071
0,071
0,071
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021

0,125
0,125
0,125
0,125
0,122
0,122
0,122
0,122
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021
0,021

0,075
0,125
0,175
0,225
0,220
0,270
0,270
0,270
0,214
0,214
0,264
0,214
0,264
0,314
0,364
0,364
0,314
0,264
0,214

0,075
0,075
0,025
0,025
0,024
0,024
0,024
0,024
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0,125
0,225
0,175
0,120
0,225
0,175
0,175
0,225
0,220
0,170
0,120
0,220
0,170
0,270
0,170
0,270
0,165
0,314
0,215
0,264
0,165
0,214
0,165
0,264
0,215
0,264
0,265 . 0,264
0,314
0,213
0,265
0,262
0,265
0,263
0,265
0,263
0,215
0,313

0,025
0,250
0,025
0,025
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

256
256
256
256
256
256
256
64
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256

. 6.5.3. (m=12; N1=N2=2; N3=5).


, [65]; , ,
: 2, 11 (.
. 6.5.3)

. 6.5.4. (m = =
13; N1=N2=N3=3). ,
[65], ,
,

: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.


. 6.5.3.
m=12.

,
[34]
:
Ui (i = l, 3, 6,
8, 9, 11, 14, 16, 17, 19, 22 24),

.

D-

102,4103.
, . 6.5.3,

,
.


[34] ,
[261].



K [198] (. 6.5.3).


, . .

.
D
(

( 6)
).

. 6.5.3 , (2 11)
. . 6.5.3, , ,

.
.
( 11) .
4. q= (N1=N2=N3=3);
:
(U) = c1 + c2u1 + 3u2 + 4u3 + c5u12 +
+ c6u22 + c7u32 + c8u1u2 + c9u1u3 + c10u2u3.
(6.5.16)
ui (i = l, 2, 3) : 1, 0, 1.
.
6.5.4. =13.

= 20 058 300 . -D-


[65] (. 6.5.4, ).
, . 6.5.4. ,
( 1 10) , 18.
.
. 6.5.4, , ( 9 16).
, , ,

[65].
, , 3, .
,
, ,
(. .
6.5.4, ).
,
,
. ,
N .
6.5.3.


.

Kmax(2)/103

,



R(2)

81,9

178,6

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

50
18,8
50
85,1
100
74,2
100
89,6
100
168,3
50
84,1
50
85,1
50
68,5
100
113,3
100
111,4
100
106,9
[65]

6
2
1
5
8
9
7
7
10
1
8

220,1
177,3
163,8
159,4
168,3
178,6
119,0
138,2
163,8
220,1
163,8
102,4

6
1
1
8
8
1
1
5
1
10
1

1
2
3
4
5

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

50


,
R = 10
Kmax(1)/103
1
R( )

,


R(1)

Kmax(2)/103
R(2)

5,5

11,5

50
7,5
50
9,9
75
14,9
75
15,7
75
9,2
100
10,2
100
22,8
100
10,3
50
5,0
50
9,1
50
10,8
75
14,9
75
7,8
100
12,4
100
17,4
100
14,7
[3]

1
9
1
8
1
1
1
8
1
3
1
1
3
9
1
1

27,6
18,1
14.9
27,0
21,8
10,2
22,8
31,9
11,5
22,4
24,3
30,2
24,3
26,9
33,7
14,7
6,09

1
1
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
4
4
4
4
1

50


R = 10
Kmax(1)/103

* , . 6.5.3.

6.5.3
-

338
2028
338
388
3104
3104
388
388
826
388
1576
388

1, 3, 5, 7,

11,

13,

16,

19,

21,

22,

22,

24

1,
1,
1,
3,
2,
1,
2,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

11,
9,
12,
14,
9,
11,
10,
11,
12,
11,
11,
9,

13, 18,
15, 17,
14, 17,
19, 20,
14, 15,
13, 16,
12, 14,
13, 13,
14, 17,
13, 18.
13, 18,
11, 14,

20,
19,
17,
21,
17,
19,
17,
19,
19,
20,
20,
16,

22,
21,
21,
21,
21,
21,
19,
22,
21,
21,
21,
17,

22,
21,
21,
22,
,22,
22,
21,
23,
21,
22,
21,
19,

24,
22,
22,
22,
22,
22,
21,
23,
22,
23,
22,
22,

24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
23
24

3,
,
,
5,
4,
3,
4,
3,
3,
3,
3,
3,

5,
6,
6,
6,
5,
5,
5,
6,
6,
6,
5,
6,

7,
8,
7,
11,
7,
7,
7,
8,
7,
8,
8,
8,

6.5.4*
-

341
341
341
366
1182
366
391
391
391
341
1023
682
146
1464
1564
1564
391

1
1
1
1
1
1,
1
1
1
1,
2
1,
1,
1
1,
1,
1
2,


0*

2,
3,
3,
3,
3,
2,
2,
3,
3,
2,
3,
3,
3,
3,
,
2,
3,
4,

4,
5,
5,
4,
4,
3,
3,
5,
5,
4,
4,
6,
5,
6,
5,
3,
6,
6,

7, 9,
7, 9,
7, 9,
5, 7,
7, 9,
5, 7,
6, 7,
7, 9,
7, 9,
7, 9,
6, 7,
7, 8,
6, 7,
7, 8,
7, 9,
5, 7,
7, 8,
8, 10,

10,
11,
11.
9,
10,
9,
9,
10,
10,
10,
9,
9,
9,
9,
10,
9,
9,
12,

12,
12,
13,
10,
14.
10,
10,
12,
12,
12,
10,
11,
11,
13,
12,
12,
12,
14,

14,
13,
18,
11,
16,
12,
13,
14,
17,
14,
16,
14,
12,
14,
13,
13,
14,
16,

16,
17,
21,
13,
20,
17.
20,
20,
20,
16,
19,
18,
13,
18,
17,
17,
16,
18,

19,
19,
22,
20,
21,
20,
21,
22,
22,
19,
21,
19,
19,
19,
20,
19,
18,
20,

21,
24,
24,
21,
22,
22,
23,
24,
24,
21.
23,
21,
21;
21,
21.
21,
19,
22,

22,
25,
25,
25,
26,
25,
25.
26,
25,
22,
25,
25,
25,
,25,
25,
25,
24,
24,

27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
26
26

.
.

lm [17], . .

l (,

).

, . .
(6.5.17)

(6.5.18)

(6.5.19)
. .
:
1. l

.
2. l
N .
3. ,
( ) . 1 (ii+1).
,
. 1.
, l=
6.5.1 (
).
,
:
,
. l ,
.
() , .
. :

(6.5.20)
(i = l, ..., q; j = 1, ..., m),


j-

Uj = (u1j, ..., uqj)


(6.5.21)
, . . (6.5.20) i
= 1, ..., q. ,

.
,

,
(6.5.22)

.
(il, ... ..., aiNi).
(i = 1, ..., q) (j = 1, ..., )
, . . ,
(
).
,

.
.

.
.

, .

,

[180].
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
.


,
,
. , ,
,
.
, .

,
,
,
. .
.

,
, .

,
,
( )
.

, .
,
.
.

. ,
1014 (
!) .

. ,
,
, , .
,
,
. -


, , . .
, .
. .
. ,
,
, . ,
,
, .

, , . .
,

.

,
.
,
. .

, ,
,
, , . .
.

() . ,
, ,
.
, . . .

, . .
.

. , ,
, . . .

, .

.
,
. ,
.


1. . ., . .
. .: .-. .
. , . , -, 1971, . 2,
. 6676.
2. . ., . ., . .
. ., . , 1978. 268 .
3. . ., . . .
., , 1978. 240 .
4. . . . . . .
, , 1978. 174 .
5. . , , 1977. 94 .
6. . .,
, 1977. 174 . (.
).
7. . ., . , 1972. 184 .
8. . .,
, 1974. 256 . (. ).
9. . .,
, 1976. 190 . (. ).
10. . . . . . . , .
. 1. 1972. 154 .; . 2, 1972. 92 .; . 3. 1973. 116 .; . 4.
1974. 136 .; . 5. 1974. 79 .
11. . .,
, 1977. 214 . (. ).
12. . ., . ., . . . ., , 1976. 280 .
13. . ., . ., . .
. ., , 1970. 384 .
14. . ., . . .
.:
. , , 1977, . 512.
15. . ., . .
.
(), 1977, . 9, . 5457.
16. . . . .
. ., , 1976. 264 .
17. . . -

18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

35.
36.
37.

. .: 5- . .
. , - , 1975, . 8089.
. ., . .
. ., , 1971. 192 .
., ., .
. ., , 1969. 486 .
., . . .:
. ., , 1974, . 3444.
. . . .,
. , 1975. 216 .
. . . .
(), 1975, . 4, . 209214.
. .
.
(), 1976, . 6, . 2531.
. .
. . , 1976, 3, . 22.
. ., . ,
. . , 1967, 6, . 1820.
. ., . .
. .:
. , , 1968, . 119129.
. . ., . .
. , . 9. , 1976,
. 4(20), . 96106.
. ., . . .
- 1,3-.
.-. ., 1968, . 2, 9, . 312.
. ., . .
. , , 1973. 530 .
. , . ., , 1967. 320 .
. .
. . . . , 1964, 2,
. 3039.
. ., Puna .. .
. .
(), 1980, . 8, . 254270.
. ., Puna . .
. . (),
1981, . 9, . 263284.
. 3., . ., . ., . .
. .
', . 47. -
. .,
, 1978, . 624.
. 3. . .,
, 1976. 223 .
. . . .,
, 1979. 230 .
. ., . .
.
, 1974, 9, . 104110.

38. . ., . .

. . , 1976, 4, . 7276.
39. ., . . ., , 1962. 484 .
40. ., . . .:
, ., , 1973, . 295315.
41. . . ., , 1972. 296 .
. . .
.: . ., . , 1973, .
110116,
43. . ., . ., . ., . .

. .: II . .-. .

. , 1972, . 2, . 99100.
44. . . .
., , 1979. 448 .
45. , . ., . . . .,
, 1974. 414.
46. . . . ., , 1973.
400 .
47. . . . ., , 1962. 560 .
48. . ., . . D- .
. , 1969, . 68, . 519.
49. . ., . .
. , 1969, 11, . 171177.
50. . ., . .
D- . .:
. ., , 1969, . 6978,
51. . .
. .:
. .,
, 1977, . 154157. (. ).
52. . .
.
, 1978, 2, . 6272.
53. . ., . .

. , 1976, 9, . 96104.
54. . ., . ., . .

. .:
. , 1974, . 6369.
55. . ., . .
. . , 1962, . 17, . 1, . 325.
56. . ., . ., . .
.
(), 1972, . 1, . 3748.
57. . ., . .
.
(), 1972, . 2, . 7690.

58. . ., . .

. .: . , ,
1971, . 131142.
59. . ., . ., . .
.
. , 1972, 1, . 3745.
60. . ., . .
. , 1972, 4,
. 1926.
61. . ., . .
.
. (), 1972, . 1, . 167182.
62. . ., . .
. . . . , 1974, 6, . 192201.
63. . ., . ., .
.
, 1977, 2, . 1419,
64. . ., . .
.
.:
. ,
, 1975, . 334385.
65. . ., . ., . 3.
. 2- . . 1. ., - , 1974. 387 .
66. . . . . . .
, 1969, 1, . 7985.
67. . ., . ., . .
. , - , 1978. 208 .
68. . ., . .
. ., , 1974.
111 .
69. . .
. . . . . . . . . , 1975.
24.
70. . .
. . , . 33. .
., ,
1978, . 7078.
71. . ., . .
. .
, . 45. . .,
, 1978,
. 124134.
72. . ., . . . . (), 1976, . 5, . 167184.
73. . ., . . .
. , 1976, 1, . 4851.
74. . ., . ., . .
. .: V .
. (, 1971). . . ., 1971,
. 2, . 132134.
75. . .
. , , 1979. 152 .

76. ., . . ., ,
1976. 680 .
77. . . ., , 1967. 343 .
78. . ., . .
. , 1979,
6, . 38.
79. . ., . .
. .: . .
, , 1979, . 168179.
80. . ., . .
.
(), 1981, . 1 ( ).
81. . ., . .

. (),
1982, . 2 ( ).
82. . ., . ., . X.
: .:
. , , 1977, . 5463.
83. . .

. . . . .
. . . . , 1972. 17 .
84. . ., . ., . ., . .
. .: -.
. .
27.062.07 1977. , . . , 1977, . 7783.
85. ., 3., .
, . , , 1975, 13, . 80, . 913.
86. . ., . .
. . , 1978, 4, . 5154.
87. . ., . .
. . (), 1975,
. 4, . 4853.
88. . .
. . (.), 1978, . 33, . 568.
89. . ., . ., . .
. , , 1974. 119 .
90. . . . ,; . ,
1972. 206 .
91. . ., . . .
.: . , , 1967, . 107116.
92. . .
. , , 1971. 372 .
93. . ., . ., . ., . .
.
, 1969, . 189, 6, . 1290.
94. . .,. . .
. .:
. , . 1971. . 197202.

95. . . . , 1947 . 56,


3, . 233236.
96. . ., . ., . 3.
.
, 1974, 6, . 4757.
97. . ., . ., . .
. .
(), 1980, . 8, . 6391.
98. . ., . .

. . (), 1973, . 9, . 3438.
99. . ., . .

. , 1976, 10, . 6677.
100. . ., . .
. .: . . . .,
, 1971, . 1, . 333338.
101. . ., . .
. . . .:
. ., , 1975, . 713.
102. . .
( ). ., , 1976. 488 .
103. . ., . .
.
. , 1970, 4, . 3238.
104. . . ., , 1975. 216 .
105. . . . 3. .
, , 1978. 840 .
106. . ., . ., . .
. .
, 1976, 2, . 5563.
107. . ., . .
. .
., 1974, 3, . 302305.
108. . . .
., , 1974. 118 .
109. . ., . . . .,
, 1969. 366 .
. . ., . .
. .: IV .
. , , 1972, . 5, . 106
109.
111. . .

(). .: . ,
, 1978, . 107129.
112. . ., . .
.
(), 1980, . 4, . 617.
113. . ., . .
. .:
. , , 1977, . 321.

114. . ., . .
. .:
. , , 1978, . 5662.
115. . ., . .
. .: . ,
, 1978, . 620.
116. . ., . .
. .:
. , 1980, . 6678.
117. . ., . .
.
(), 1980, . 4, . 5263.
118. . .
. . .
, 1960, 3, . 3745.
119. . ., . ., . .
. ., , 1977. 208 .
120. . .
. . , 1977, 4, . 54.
121. . .
. .: VII . .
. , 1978, . 3, . 8084.
122. . .
. . , 1977, 4, . 54.
123. . . . ., ,
1970. 160 .
124. . ., . . . .,
, 1971. 160 .
125. . . . ,
, 1974. 282 .
126. . . . . .
, , 1975. 370 .
127. . . -
. ., , 1973. 376 .
128. - . ., . ,
. .: . ., , 1956, . 362384.
129. . ., . .
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177. . ., . .
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224. . ., . .
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226. . ., . .
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731

28.11.80.
04.11.81. 07376.
60X90/16. . 1.
.
. 23,5. . . .; 23,5 . .
.; 20,55 .-. . 1500 .
Ns 2535. 1 . 60 .
, 226018 ,
. , 19.

CCP
,
, 226011 , . ,
38/40.