Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 350

...........................................................................

................................................................................................................


1. ........................
? .....................................................
? ........................................................................................
? .................................................................................
? .. ..............................................
. . , ..... .................................................................
......................................
............................
......................................................................................................

9
10
10
13
14
15
1,7
18
20

2. .. ..............................................
.................................................................................
.................................................................................
.....................................................................................
, ... ...............................................................................................

21
22
27
29
31



3. ...................................................
.....................................................................
..........................................................................
.......................................................................................................
, ... .................................................................
..............................................................................................
.................................................................
......................................................................................................

32
33
37
40
41
43
46
48

4. , .........................................................
..............................................................................
, . . .......... ...................................... ....... .
. ........................................................................
" ..............................
............................................................................................ 59
.............................................................................

.........................................................
...................................

49
49
53
54

62
64
^
72

............................................................................
75
.....................................................................................................
76
5. ........................... ...................................................
78
.......................................................................................
79
, . ... .....................................
83
...................................................................
89
............... ...............................................................................
89
. ... ........................................................................
60
.....................................................................................................
60
6. . . ...................................
62
............................ - ................................................. S3
.......................................................................................
93
.......................................................................................
96
................................................................................
99
.............................................................................
100
................ ..... .....................................
102
...............................................................................
112
.....................................................................................................
113
7. ........................................................
114
.................................................................
114
..................................................................
118
...................................
120
. .......................................................................................
122
......................................................................
124
.......................................................................................... .
126
8. ....................................
127
...............................................................
127
.. .............................................................
129
.................
134
......................................................................
141
...............................................................................
146
................................................................................
147
............................................................................... ..... . . .
149
......................................................................................................
151
...............................................................................
151
.. ..................................................................................................
154
9. ....................................................................... 15&
......................................................................................
155
...................................................................................
159
................................................................................... 160'
............................................................ ..... ...............................
164
... ................................................................................
165

.....................................
168
.. .................................................................................................. 170.

3
f


10. .........................................................................
.................................................................................
............................. :..............................................
.............. .......................................................................
.............................................................................
............................................................................
...................................................
................................................................................
..............................................................................................
......................... ...............................
? ...................................................................... ...............................
................................................................................
. ...................................................................................................

171
174
177
180
180
183
186
188
188
189
189
193
197

11. .. ...........................................................................
...................................................................................
.................................................................. ; ......................
..................................................
................................................................
....................................................................
.............................................................
......................................................................................................

199
199
210
211
215
215
217
218

12. .
................................................................
.............................................................
.....................................................................................
..........................................................................

...................................................................................................
......................................
........................................................................
..............................................................................
......................................................................................................

219
219
221
229
233

13. .......................................................................................................
........................................................................................
...............................................................................
, ................................................................................
..........................................................................
. ...................................................................................................

250
250

241
245
248
248
249



14. ................... ................................
, ..................................................................

263
264

- ........................................................................
267
..... ..................................... * ...............................
269
..............................................................
272
.....................................................................................................
274
15. ............................................
275
..................................................................................................
278
................. .......................................................................................
280
......................................................................................
282
. , ..... ......................................................
284
..............................................
287
. .. ......................................................................
290
.....................................................................................
292
^ ..................................................
293
' .................................
295
.....................................................................................................
2S6
16. ...........................................................
298
.........................................................................................
300
, , , , ..........................................................................
304
..........................................................................................
306
. ......................................................
307
..................................................................................................... 308
17. ............................................
310
.............................................................
311
. . .
319
......................................
322
. . . .
324
.....................................................................................................
327
18. .................................................................................
329
............................................................................
330
....................................................................
335,
.................................................................
336
....................................................................
338
.........................................................................................
340
.....................................................................................................
342
19. , . ...... ......................................................
344
.........................................................
344
... .......................................................................
351
......................................
...........................................
353
.................................................................................
354

.
,

, ,
,
, .
,

,
. ,

, .
,

, .
,
, .
,
1979 ,
.
,

.
, .

.
,
.
. .

60- ,
,
.
! , ,
0.00 ,
,

,
,
.
0.00 , ,
- .
, , ,
.
,
,
1000 100 - .
, .
,
, ,
, .
,
.
.
.
,

.
.
,

. 2
,
.

.
3

,
.
* ,

.
.
, ;
4.
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , . .
,
, .

() .

.

, , -. ,
,
, , ,
, .
,
.
, : ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
,

.
,
.
, .

.


,
, .

IBM
-.

IBM . ,
. . X. ,
. . , . .
. . 4. ,
;
, ,

IBM.
-, .-.
1976


.
, , -,
, -, .
.

,
.
,
, .
,
( , )
:
,
, ,
,
.
.
,
[.

1952 .
1952 ., , , , . .
, ,

.

?

, :

? ,
, ,
, : ,
.
Ballistic
Missile Early Warning System ,
, ,
,
, , .

, . ?
( ) .
, .
,

,
.
, - ,
.
, .

,
.

,
, .
:
, .
, ;
.
, , , . ,
,
, .
,
,

. .
,
. ,
. ,

. , , ,
200 .
201
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,

. ,
. ,
, -
, , .

.
,
, : ,
- .
,
,
. ,
, , ,
.
, ,

. ,
. , ,
-
100 ,
150 ,
( ),
, . ,

,
.
, , , , :
,
, .
.
.

: !
: . ,
? ,
,
,
.
,
, , ,
.
, ,

- .
( , , ,
. .)
,
( , ). , ( , )
.

: .
, , (
, ) (
), .
(, ), ,
,
. ,
,
.

, .
,

239, 10. ,
10 .
?
, , , ;
.
,
-
; -, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
[2].
. 2 4.

, ,
.
, ,

.
,
.
. : -
, ,

(,
).
,

, .
:
,
.
,
; .

. ,
. ,
- ,
DO .
;
, .
, , ,
,
.
.

. , , ^
.
?

,

: ,
( ) ,
.
?
, , , ?
,
. , , , ,

, , ,
.
,
.
, .
,
IBM OS/VS2
,
370.
()
.
, ( 16
36 ), () ,
, . ,

,
.
;
, .

.

.
.
,
, .
,
.
( )
.
: , , , .

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
,
.

, ,

, .
;

. , ,


.
: ,
. ,
.
, , , -

.
,
- ,
. ,

. ,
,
, , ,
, , , ,
. .
,

.
. 1.1
.
. -

. 1.1.
.

, ,
, , .
, ,
.
,
,
.

,
.



.

. ,
. , (,
)
,
.

, . .
, . ,
, (
),
, . 1.1.
, ,
.
.
. 1.1 ,
.
,
.

,
.
.
' - ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
.
,
. , ,
,
.

; .
,
.

. 18
.

,
.
,
, .
. 1.2

. (
)
75% . ,

SAGE 10 20 .
250 .
[3[. , 60 ( 76)
OS/360 IBM ,
.
.
, ,
80%

(
), 1972 .

750 .
[4].
,

)

.


.


. ,
,
,
.


, . .,
.

.
.
1. (,
) .
. ,
,
( ) .
, ,
, ,
,

, 28 : 1 [5]. , .
2. . , ,
,
, ,
,
, .
.

. , .
(
)
10 20 . .
,
,
. - -
.
3. ,
. , .
, IBM -

.
, , : ,
, ,
?
4. ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
. , ,

, , , .
, ,

, .

1. Brooker R. A., Gill S,5 Wheeler D, J, The Adventures of a Blunder* Mathematical


Tables and Other Aids to Computation, 6 (38), 112113 (1952).
2. Martin J. Design of Man-Computer Dialogues. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice*
Hall, 1973.
3. Thayer R, H, Rome Air Development Center R and D Program in Computer
Language Controls and Software Engineering Techniques, RADC-TR-74-80,- Griffiss
Air Force Base, Rome, N. Y., 1974.
4. Shelly M, Computer Software Reliability-, Fact or Myth? TR-MMER/RM-73-125,Hill Air Force Base, Utah, 1973.
5. . . , . .: ,
1973.
6. Baker F. . Chief Programmer Team Management of Production Programming}
IBM Systems Journal, 11 (1), 5673 (1972).
2

1971 . . 115 -
,
.
: ,
,
, . ,
.
, 72 ,
.
, ,
.
, : -
, , ,
?
- ,
? -
?')
,
, ,
, , , 17%
, 22%
. .

, : , ,
29% , 13%
. .
,

, .
,
,
. ,

. , ,
,
,
.
, , .
.

( ).
'
,
,
. , ,

( ), .

, . .
,
.
,
, .
(, ),
. ,
, ,
.


,
.
. 2.1. ,
. .
,
( ) . ,
( 2
3), .
,
(, ,
,

).

,
, . 2.1.
1. .
.
,

, ,
,
.
;
,
,
. , , ,
.
2.

. ,

( . 4). ,
,

, , ,
, .
3.
, . .
.
.
,
.
4.

,

,
, .
,
(, )
(, -).
,
.
5.
.
, ,
. (, ,
.)
:

( ) .
. ,
,
.
( , ,
).
6.
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,
.
. ,
( 4

6 ). ,
,
, , , ,
. , . 1,
,
(,
1, 2 3, 4- 6 ).
7.
. ,
(, ,
, )
.
.

.
8.
,
- .

.
9.
.
.
10. : , , . 10
,
.
, ,
, , . -
, (,
- , ),
.
. .
, ,
, .
11.
,
.
(. . ),
.
, ,
.

12. ,
, .
( 12) , .

.
. 2.1 ,
, ,

, .
( ) (
).
;
.
, , ,
,
,
.

. ( ,
.)
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
, ,
. .
. ,

, .

. 2.2. .

, ,
. 2.2. ,
: , ,
.
. .
1. ()
R ( , ).
2. .
3. , ,
, W ( ,
).
4. ,
.

.
1.
,
, . ,
, . .
,
,
. ,
, , ,

,
.

. ,
,
. , , ,

. :
, , , .
2. ,
, .

.
* ,
.
3. :
. , ,

, .
4. ,
, 4.
.
,
. ,
,
. ,
.
, , ,


.
.
(,
) .
(, )
.
2.

eiufe
-,
. ,
,
, . .
,
.,
.
,
, .

.
, ,
.

, . ,
, , :
---- -.
, .
,
, - ,
.
,
. ,
. . 1,
:

.
, :
!
,
.
- ( , )
.
-

. .
212 958 72 ,
2 342 55 .
.

, ,
(
).
, ,
, 15 ,
.
, ,
100 , . ,

IBM 1401 IBM 360, , 0 00 .
, .
,
.
-8 . 10 14 18 .

[11:


.
.
, .
660 .
. - ,
,
.


. ,
NORAD 1963 .
-
465 L ,
12 ,
.

. ,
[3],

, ,

, .

.

. ,
; .

' 1. Ulsamer . Computers Key to Tomorrows Air Force, AIR FORCE Magazine, 56
(7), 4652 (1973).
2. Thayer R. H. Rome Air Development Center R and D Program in Computer
Language Controls and Software Engineering Techniques, RADC-TR-74-80,
Griffiss Air Force Base, Rome,' N. Y., 1974.
3. Boehm B. W. Software and its Impact: A Quantitative Assessment, Datamation, 19
(5), 4859 (1973).
4. Naur P., Randell B., Eds. Software Engineering: Report on a Conference Sponsored
by the NATO Science Committee. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Scientific Affairs
Division, 1968, p. 121,

:
. 2
,
. 3 ,
.

oueCi. - .

,
, , ,
. ,
;
,
. ,
,
, .
, , : .
,
,
, , .
,

.
, .


: ,
, ~
. ,
.

, .
,
.

.

,
.

.
:
1. , ,
, .
2. .
3. .
4. .
,
.
,

.

. , ,
. , - .

, -
, ( )

. 2001:
, .
: .
-35.
, . 72
.
.
: ,
,
, .

;
, ,
.

.

.

.
,
.

, ,
.
, ,

.
, , ,
,
.
,

.
, ,

, ,
,
. .
.


. : ,
.
1. .
. , .
,
. ,
,
,
, , , .
,
. ,
,
', .
.
, .
,
-
.
, ,
,
.

, ,
, . ,
.
, . . [1]
,
. ,
,
,
,
,
.
2.
.
, ?

. , ,

,
,
,
.
.
, - ,
,

.
3. .

,
, ;

. ,
,
,
.
,
, .

. ,
,
.
, .

, ,
.
, ,
, ,

. , ,
.
,

. ,

.
. , ,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
,
-

/. 5,6,

. 4.59

7,8

.7

.7

. 3.1.
.

, .
. 3.1
.
.
, , ,
.
. ,
. ,
, . 3.1.


.
,
,
.

: - -
, ,
, .
. 3.2
. ,
.
, ,
,
, . .
, . .
, .
,
.
.

, , , -.
.

,
.
,
.

,
, .

.
,
.
. 3.2
.
, .
. 3.2
, ,
- . ,
. . 3.2
,
, . ,

.
, ,
.
. , ,
.
,
. :
,
.
, .
. ,

,
.
,
,

.
. 3.2, ,
. ,

;
.

, , . ,
. ,
,

.
. ,

,

.
.
.
.

[2]. .

. ,
,
,
.
.
.

.
, . ,
, , .
,
.
.
, .

.
,
. -
, , , .
, -
.
,
.
,
. ,
,
, .
(
) : ,
.
,
. -
. , ,
,
.


, .
,
. , ,

[3]. ,
,


.
, , ,
,
.

. 1 ,
, ,
.
: ,
?
.
,
,
.



.

. ,
: ,
,
. ,

.
( )
, , . . ,

. , , , ,
.
,
.
,,
.
.
-


.
,
,
.
, ,
,
. , , ,
, .
, ,
,
, , .
( ) ,
. , ,
.
,
, .
, ,
, , ,
.
,
.
,
.
,

, .
,
, ,
^.
,
,
.
, .

.
-
,
.
,
. -

, ,
.


.
:
, ,
.
, .
()
().
,

. ,
,
, , ,
.

[4].
,
.


, .
. 3.3 .

1.
.

.
? ?
2.
?

?
" ?
?

?
?
3.
.
.
4.
?
.

?

. 3.3. .


, , .
: .
, ,
. ,
.
, , ,
,
. . , -
,
.
.
.
, . , ,

, ,
, . .
, ,
,
.

, .
. ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
, .

;
,
. ,
:
,
,
. ,
. 4, .
, ,

.
.

.
,
.
,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, .
, , -
.
,
,

. , ,
, .
, .
,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
.


.
,
.

, .
, ,
, .
,
, ,
, .
.


, . .
, .
. 3.4. ,
, , ,

, ,
, .
,
. - .

. 3.4.
.


.
, .
- :

+1 1.
, ,
. . 3.2, , 1
,
+1 .
.
,
() ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
1 (
) : -
,
. +1
, .
:
,
, , ,
.
, ,
.

.

, . 3.2. ,
, ,

.

1. Randell . System Structuring for Software Fault Tolerance, IEEE Transactions on


Software Engineering, SE-1 (2), 220232 (1975).
2. . . , , .: , 1972.
3. . . , ,
. .: , 1979.
4. , , , , .: , 1961,
f

, .
.
,
. ,
.
[1]:
, ,
/ , ,
.

:
,
.

-.
,
. ,
.
,
.
, , ,
-.
-

, , ,
.


. ,
, ,
. , , -
.

.
, . ,
'
. , ,
-
.

,

,
, .

.
-,
, . , ,
.
,
. ,
.
-
. ,

. ,

. ,

,

.
. , , .
12].

,
[3, 4]. , Information Algebra ADS TAG,
,
.
-

, 4.1. ,

, , ,
,,

-,

>

>

-
-
-

>

-
-
'

-,
( ) ,
. (
)

-, , .
6.2.J.J.

- ,.S.2.1.3.,
,
"

"

.2.1.
. 4,2, HIPO-.

>

HIPO- (Hierarchy plus Input- ProcessOutput: --) [5]. HIPO-


& ;

.
(visual table of contents).
. 4.1 4.2
[61.
. 4.1 , .
. 4.2 HIPO- .
-,
.

.
: , ,
.
, 1- .
(, , , )
.
,

,
.
,

.


. .

. ,
, :

, , , , ,
.

,
. ,
, , ,
.
.
1. .
2. ,
.

3. , ,
. ,
, , . ,

, .
4. , , .
: ,
. .
, , , , ,
. .

,
. 3,

, .

, .
, ,
.

,
. ,
, ,
;

.
,
.
, , ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
, , , -

.

.


,
, , .

, ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
.

,
.

, .
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
, .


.
,
. , ,
,
.

,
,
,
. ( )

.
,
.


. , ,
. .

. . 1
; ,
. ,

.


.
, . ,
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
,
,
, ,
. :

, ,
,
.

, ,
. ,
, (,
),

-
,
. ,
, ,
, . ,
( ) .
:
(
) (
, ).

(
, ,
). .
, .
,
.
, ,
. , ,
500, .

, .
,
,
. .

.
, ,

, .
,
.
, ,
.
1960 ,
.
.
,

.
, .
State Farm Automobile Insurance [7]:
State Farm 15
2.3
. ,
,
. , State Farm

, 50

. ,
, . ,
.

, ,

, . ( ,
,
.)

, ,
; .
(
);
.
, ;
, .
, ,

, .

, , , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.


, ,
. ,
: .

.
.
1. . .
2. . ,
,
.
3. . ,
.
4. . ,

,
.
5. . , , , , ,
, ,
.
6. .
, . -

.
7. .
,
, , ,
,
.
8. . ,
. (,
), .
9. .
,
, .
10. .
.
11. . , ,
. ,
, .
a.
( , ,
) .
b. .
c. , .
d.
.
e. , .
f. ,
.
g. , .
h. , .
i. , .
j. , .

,
.
, ,
[8], ,
, .
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , , , .
5. , .
6. ,
.
7. .
8. .

, 3.
(

, , ,
. , , .
;
.
,

.
, ,
.
3
.
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
(,
, ),
.

.
, ,
. ,

. ,
,
.

---
.
, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, .
,
, - .



. (
) .
,
, (
), ,
, ,
.

.
. 2.1 3.2,
, .
,
[9].
( )
;
, ,
, -
. , ,
, , ,
.

. ,

, ,
;

. ,
,
. , ,
,
. ,
( ),
( ), .
. , ,
,
.
, , ,
. . ,
, , ^
, .
,
.

. , , .

- .
, , ,

. , ,
, ,
, . ,
;
,
, .
,
, , . .
, , . .
.
?
, -.
( ) ; ,
, .
,
,
, .


.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
.
,

, ,

.
-

.
,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
, (
, ).

(
). , ,
, (
).
,
.


,
: ,
, ,
. [10]
.
[11].
,
, .
.
.
,

.
.

.
1.
, ,
. , ,

, .
, :
:
. 1.969x10"
2. , , , , ,
.
( ),
.
3.
. , ,
, , ,
.
4. :
, -

[12]. ,
?HELP!HOW CAN I TERMINATE
AN EDIT? ( ?)
50 ,
.
5. , ,
.
, , .
6. -
. ,
, ,
.
,
, -
, ,
. ,
-
SPRINT ,
, [10].
.
1. , .
,

, .
2. ,
,
, , ,
.
: 222, , 23, 2 F
:
2
222
AMERICAN AIRLINES ORD () JFK
(-) 23 , 8.00 ,
10.30 .
?
3. , .
F23 F42 -
883, ,
883 -.
, . - ,
,
, F23 F42 -.
, F23 , ,
,
. , ,
,
, F23 , .
4. , ,
. ,
,
.
,
, ,
[13].



. ,
,
,
, (,
). .
,
, ,

,
. , EDIT
GJMPROGSET. 1 TYPE(TEXT) DISP(80)

: TEXT
TYPE.
, , , INVALID TYPE. ENTER TYPE
FIELD ( . )? -,
.
? ,
. ,
,
, , . ,
TEXT? ,
, EDIT FILE?
?
,
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
, ,

. OS/360 ,
SYSGEN ( ),
. ,
OS/360
, IBM .
, IBM
SYSGEN,
,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
(
) PL/1.
, ,
PL/1, , ,
, . ,

.
,
. ,

.
. ,
,
, ,
.
, , , ;
, .
, .
,
, ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
, :
, .
,
,
.


. ,
.
, ,
, ,
, , .
.
.

.
. 2 :
.
,

.
( ,
), , (
) .
.
,
, ,
..

: -,
^ ,
-,


.

.
1. . (,
, , )
, . ,
, ,
.
2. .
(, , , ,

).

; ,

,
. .
.
3. .
, .
,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
: ,
, , .
:
.
4. .
, .
, ,
.
,

.
,
,
.
5. . , , ,
.
, -

, ,
,
. . ,

,
.
6. .

.
-
. , ,
,
.


.
.
. 4.3
.
: , .
, ,
.

. ,
. 4.3
: .

.
,
. ,
, .
,
, .

. ,
, [14]. ,
. 4.3,
, .

, .
-
.
, .

N"

3*

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

. 4.3. .


, .

: , , , , , ,
,
. , .
, , .
-
, .
, (
) .
; , , .
, ,

.
;
- . ,
, .
, ,
( ,
) .
(
).

.
;
. ,


.

.
, ,
. .
,
, ,
, ,
.

,
. ,
.
-
- .
1 , +1
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
,
,
.

,
.
- (,
),
-,
;
.

(
), (
) ( )
.



. -

( ).

. - ( )
, . .

( ).
,
. ,
,
-
, , .
,
(,
)
.
, ,
, .
,
, .
,
. ,
- , ,
.

,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
. , , . .
, ,


.
.
, -

, ,
.
,
,
.
,
.

.

,

.

. ,
,
. . 12.

. , (, ), , ,
.
; , ,
, ,
,
.


.
,
. ,
,

, 3.
-
.
, ; ,

.
.
.

.
.

( , , ,
, ).
(
) .

. ,
, .

.

,
.
, ,
.
,

.
,
. ,
, , ,
.
,
. ,
, .

1. Williams R. D. Managing the Development of Reliable Software, Proceedings of the


1975 International Conference on Reliable Software. New York: IEEE, 1975, pp.
38.
2. Bingham J. E., Davies G. W. P. A Handbook of Systems Analysis. New York:
Halsted, 1972.
3. Teichroew D. A Survey of Languages for Stating Requirements for ComputerBased Information Systems, Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press, 1972. pp. 12031224.
4. Cougar J. D., Knapp R. W. System Analysis Techniques. New York: Wiley, 1974.
5. HIPO A Design Aid and Documentation Technique. GC201851, IBM Corp.,
White Plains, N. Y., 1974.
6. Tinanoff N., Luppino F. M. Structured Programming Series, Volume VI, Programming Support Library (PSL) Specifications, RADC-TR-74-300, Volume VI,
IBM Federal Systems Div., Gaithersburg, Md., 1974.
7. Fandel P., Milligan L. PL/I Structured Programming Case Study, Proceedings of the
39th Meeting of GUIDE International. New York: GUIDE International Corp.,
1974, pp. 585605,
8. Weinberg G. ., Schulman E. L. Goals and Performance in Computer
Programming, Human Factors, 16(1), 7077 (1974).
9. . rf . .
. .: , 1979.
10. Martin J. Design of Man-Computer Dialogues. Englewood Cliffs, N. J,: Pren- ticeHall, 1973.
11. Orr W. D., Ed. Conversational Computers. New York: Wiley, 1968.
12. Pirtle M. W. HELP, in W. D. Orr, Ed. Conversational Computers. New York:
Wiley, 1968, pp. 96101.
13. Gilb T. Reliable EDP Application Design. New York: Petrocelli/Charter, 1974.
14. Hughes M. L., Shank R. M,5 Stein E, S, Decision Tables, New York: McGrawHill, 1968,


.
: , ,
.
,
, .
,
,
.
, .
, ,
. , .
, '4' ,
DO,
.
,
, ,
,
. , ,

, .
,
,
, .

:
.

,
, .
,
, .
;
. 4,

,
.
,
.

, ,
.
,
.

.

[1, 2].
,

.
.
,
.
, (,
. .) ,

.
, .
5.1 5.2 . . 5.1 ,
,
.
, ,
,
, .
, (
), , .
, . 5.2,
,
.

, .
1. (
) [3]. ,
-

. 5.1. .
.

. 5.2.

, .
2.
.
, .
3. (
).
, . . .
, , ,
.
.
4.
,
. ,
,
.
, , , .
5. .
,

.
6. , , [4]. ,
,

. ,
,
, , ,
(,
, ,
) .
7. , . [5]. ,

( ) [6].
8.
, . 6. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.

.
: THE [1,
2] [7]. THE ,

().
(
). ,
. 5.2.
0
(). ,
,
().
1 ,
.
. , ,
.
2
. ,
.
3 .
,
- ,
.
( )
4.

( ), 0. ,



.
(. ) :
, [1].
,
(,
/ ),
. ,
;
, .
, ,
, , THE
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
[7]. ,
THE, . ,
(
) .

:
.
0,
,


.

,
( , ).
( ),
.

,
,
; ,
,
,
.
,

, [810].

,
,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
GO , , ,
( ) ,
.
;
, .

.

,
( ).
( ) .
, . .
.
,
. - ,
.
.
, .
,
. / ()
(, , ). , , .
. 5.3 ( ' ,
).


. 5.3. .

, .
1 (, , )
1
, .


(X, ) X
,
.
,
.
.
,

.
,
.
. 5.3 .

. . 5.4 ,
. .

, .

, .
:
2 ABC 1
XYZ , ABC
2, /
1 XYZ. , -



. 5.4. .

-**

0-1

.;

. 5.5. , .

,
.
. 5.5 - ,
.
( ,
). , ,
,
, :
.
: ;
.

.
, ,

. ,
.
(,
), (
)
.
. ,

, .
/
/ , ,
. /
.
1. , .
2. , ,

,
.
3. --,
, .
4. - -, .
5. , /,
.
6.

(,
, -, ).
7. (
), ( )
(, ,
).
8. (
)
.
9. ,
.
10. ( ).
11.
( ).
,

,
.
/
, ,
.
, [11]
, [12] .

/
, (
), ( )
(
). , ,
,
, , .
. 5.6 ,
[13].

.
, ,
.
,

.
/
,
.
-, , ,
.
. 5.5 ,
. ,
,
,
.
,

.

-
-
-
/

-
-/-
_______________________

. 5.6. ,
,

,
,
, .
, .
,
.

- ,
,
. ,

, ,

.

25 , ,
-
. , ,
, ,
[6].
, .
.


(. 6).


,
(, , ,
).
,
.
.
1. (. .
).
2. .
3. ( ), . . // .
4. . ,,
(,
).
5. (,
- ).
,
. 6 8.

,
.

- .
-
, , ,

. . 3.2 , . 1
. +1
, .

,
, .
, , . 4
, .
,
,
, -
.
, ,

.

1. Dijkstra . W. The Structure of the THE-Multiprogramming System, Communications of the ACM, 11(5), 341346 (1968).
2. Dijkstra E. W. Complexity Controlled by Hierarchical Ordering of Function and
Variability, in P. Naur and B. Randell, Eds. Software Engineering: Report on a
Conference Sponsored by the NATO Science Committee. Brussels, Belgium:
NATO Scientific Affairs Division, 1968, pp. 181185.
3. Goos G. Hierarchies, in M. Beckman et al., Eds., Advanced Course in Software
Engineering. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1970, pp. 2946.
4. Parnas D. L. Information Distribution Aspects of Design Methodology, Proceedings
of the 1971 IFIP Congress, Booklet TA-3. Amsterdam: North-Holland,
1971, pp. 2630.

5. Liskov . H. A Design Methodology for Reliable Software Systems, Proceedings of


the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference. Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press,
1972, pp. 191199.

-6. Myers G. J. Reliable Software Through Composite Design, New York: Petrocelli/
Charter, 1975.

7. Liskov . H. The Design of the Venus Operating System, Communications of the ACM, 15
(3), 144149 (1972).
8. Morenoff E., McLean J. B. Inter-Program Communications, Program String
Structures antf Buffer Files, Proceedings of the 1967 Spring Joint Computer
Conference, Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press, 1967, pp. 175183.
9. Balzer R. M. Ports A Method for Dynamic Interprogram Communication and
Job Control, R-605-ARPA, Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Ca., 1971.
10. Balzer R. M. An Overview of the ISPL Computer System Design, Communications of
the ACM, 16 (2), 117122 (1973).
11. Knott G. D. A Proposal for Certain Process Management and Intercommunication Primitives, Part I, Operating Systems Review, 8 (4), 744 (1974).
12. . . . 1.
.. . . .: , 1976.
13. Sorenson P. G., Hamacher V. . A Real-Time System Design Methodology, JNFOR,
13 (1), 118 (1975).


.
, .
,
,
.

.

, . , ,
.
[11 :
1. ,
.
2. ,
( - )
.
3.
.
, [2], ,
. , , :
,

, ,
, .



4
. ,
.

,
, .
,
(,
PL/1 ).

:
.
,
( ,
), , , ,
() ,
,
.
, -,
( )
,
( ).

.
, ( ), ,
. ,

.
, , . :
,
.
; , ,
, .
, , .
. ,

.
, ,
PL/1.
83-- .
,
. ,


( ) .
.
,
(,
). ,
,
.
, , ,
.
, .

. , ,
post factum,

.
( ) ,
,
.
,
,
.
, , .
,
. ,
.

.
.
, ,
.
.
,
,
, .

, '
. :
.
.
, ,

. ,

. ,

, , ,
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
[2].

:
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
.
.
.
,
, , ,
.
()
.
,
. ,
:
, ,
. , ,
.

,
, .
.
,

. ,

, ,
.
[3],
,
, .

. ,
,

.
,

.

,
,

[2].
.
,
. ,

. ,
.


. , . . ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.

,
. ,
, ,
( ).
,
. , -
, ,
. ,
,
. ,

.
,
. PL/1,
, EXTERNAL,
. ,
COMMON, ,
( ),
.
.

,
.
.

, OS/360 IBM
, .
( )
.
,
. ,
,
.
.
:
DO WHILE ();
CALL L (X,Y,Z);
CALL M (X,Y);
CALL N (W,Z);
CALL P (Z,X,Y);
END;


(, W,X, Y Z)
, ,
. ,
, .
L, , N , ,
, DO!
,
GO ,
[4, 5, 6].
,
(,
). , PL/1,
( ), EXTERNAL,
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
, ,
: ()
.
,
,
.
,
.

, ,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
.
,
, . (-,
, , ,
.)
,
, , .
, (), .
.
,
(
) . ,
.
,
, , , ,
.
. ,
,
.
, ,
(
, ,
, [2].

. ,
, .
() (
).

. , , , ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
.
, , , ,
.

,
. ,
[7], .
1.
,
2. , .
3. , .

, .
.
.
, (,
).
,
,
.
,
,
. ,
10 100 .
. ,
. ,

(, ),
. , . .

. , ,

.
. , ,
,
, ,
()
. .
-, ,
,

.
. ,
, .
,
.

( ),

, , .

. ,
,
, .
.
,
.
.
( ), ,
, .
. ,
: ,
. (
)
( ,
). ,

,
.
,
.

, ,
.
,
, . 1) >
(problem) ( )
, ,
, , .


.
. ,
. .

.
. STS (-) , ,
.
-,
.
, .

STS ,
,
.

, ,
. STS ,
.
1. ,
310 .
2. ,
, .
3. .
: ,
,
, , .
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.
4.
( ). ,
.
,
.
5. .

. ,
,
(, , ).

( , . 8).
,
, .
:
( , ,
50 ).
,
(
), .
[2].


.
.
,
. ;
,
. (,
)
; -

. ,

. ,
, : ,
.
,

. , ,
,
.

(
,
).
(INFILE),
, .

(PROGLIB),
, '.
:
1 (OUTFILE),
,
,
, .
,
.
,
. :
(ESD ),
,
(TXT ), () ,
(RLD
), ,
() (END).

, ( ,
) .
.
,
.
, . . ,
,
.
(
).
, ,
. ,
,
.
:
1.
.
2. , . ,
, ,
, .
, , . ,
,
.
3. .
, . ,

OFFSET

( ) 0
PR
PR0C

50
100

200

CALL

30

CALL

60

ENTRY

Y DCL ADDR (X)

220
300

D C L

ESD

M MD

0000

ESD

EP

0100

ESD

ER

0000
0300

TXT
TXT
TXT

|oooooo h
---------------- ------- {000220

RLD

0054 3

RLD

0200 1

......._ ..........

54

200
X

END
ESD

MD

0000

ESD

ER

0000
0060

TXT
TXT 000000 1
RLD

34

0034 2

END

. 6.1. .

. ,
,
. ,
,
.
, , .

, --
.

100000

100100

100300


100000-1002FF
100054

100200


100300
100220

100300-100360
100334

. 6.2. .

100100

, . 6.1
, . 6.2 . . 6.1 6.2
, .
, ,
,
-,
, .

,
. - (LOAD-APROGRAM).

, , , STS,
. . 6.3 ,
,
. ;
(
). ,
,

, (
).
, . 6.3.

( 1,2 ). -

/
\

,,

. 6.3. .

3. ,
( )
. 3
(ESTAB)
, , .
,
(,
).
3
.
- (RELOCATE-ADCONS)
: ( ,
) . 2
: (RLTAB), ,

( ).

, .

JpfcZu

,.

,,

. 6.4. --.

.
1; ,
, ,
.
, . 6.3,
. - (PRODUCE-OUTPUT-LISTING) ,
. ,
-- (LOADRESOLVED-OBJ-PROGRAM).
,
. 6.4. X ,
,
. ,

.
.
(
)
4
.
5, ,
. , (RESOLVE-EXTERNAL-SYMBOLS)
,
, .
, .
,
-- (LOAD-INFILE-MODULES).

,,
,,

, , ,

. 6.6. --,

,,

,, ,,
,.*

6'

,7

. 6,6. .

,
. 6.5. ,
: , ,
( ,
), . ,
--
.
6,
7,
. () 6
()
().
.
--, . 6.4.
(, ) ,
.
. 6.6.
. - (LOAD-PROGLIB-MODULE) - ,
, .
, : -,
- , -,
( ,
). , , ,
--,.
.
-- (MATCH-ERI- TEMS)
.
( ).
, .
,

. , (
) ,
( ).
-- ;
- - - ,
, .
, .
[8],
. ,

1. GET (
) GET MAIN ( ).
2. FIND GET ( )
GETMAIN.
3. PUT ( ).
4. , (, . )
.
5.
.

, ,

, ,

, .

, , ,

, -,

, -, .

, ,
. .

, ,

, ,

10

11

12

13

, , ,

12

. 6.7. .


, . ( ,
;
.)
,
, .
. -
,
.

,
, . 6.7.
,
() -- (FIND- ITEM-INESTAB), - - ,
. , ,
,
, (ESTABMGR) (RLTABMGR),
. , ,
,
, . .
, . 6.7,
:
1. ;
.
2. , .
3. .
4. ,
.
5. (
), .
6. -
.
,
: ,
.


: - ,
. -
1 (
), ,
+1 ( ), ,
,
,
.

,
.

: ? , ? ?
? ? (
?)
?
, .
(, . 6.1
6.2 )
,
. ,
, . . .
, ,
, .
,
.
(, ),
(,
).

1. Liskov . . A Design Methodology for Reliable Software Systems, Proceedings of


the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press,
pp. 191199.
2. Myers G. J. Reliable Software Through Composite Design. New York: Petrocelli/
Charter, 1975.
3. Parnas D. L. On the Criteria to be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules,
Communications of the ACM, 15(2), 10531058 (1972).
4. Wulf W., Shaw M. Global Variable Considered Harmful, SIGPLAN Notices, 8 (2), 2834
(1973).
5. Spier M. J. A Critical Look at the State of our Science, Operating Systems Review, 8 (2),
915 (1974).
6. Goodenough J. B., Ross D. T. The Effect of Software Structure on Reliability,
Modifiability, Reusability, Efficiency: A Preliminary Analysis, Report R-2099,
SofTech Corp., Waltham, Mass., 1973.
7. Holt R. C. Structure of Computer Programs: A Survey, Proceedings of the IEEE, 63 (6),
879893 (1975).
8. Knuth D. E. Structured Programming with GO TO Statements, Computing Surveys, 6
(4), 261301 (1974).
9. , ;
. . Yourdon and L. L. Constantinef Structured Design. New York: Yourdon, 1975 1).
1}
. .
. .: , 1979,

. 3 ,
. , ,
,
.
,
: ()
,
.
,
.

,
, , ,
. ,
(, ), .
:



. ,
.

.
, , . .
, ,
. , ,
.
,
:

1. . ,
. - -
,
, ,
.
2. .
. ,
.
3. .
( ).

.
:
1. .
,
. ,
. , - ,
.
2. [1] ,
.
, . ,
. 6
. ,
,
.
3. ,
. , ,
.
, , .
, ,
.
4. .
, ,
, 1, 2, ..., 9,
10.
5. - ,
.
6. , , .
,
. ,
, ( ) .
.
, , ,
,
.
7. , -

.
, ,
.
,
(. .
, . 4,
). ,
(, ),
. ,
, ,"
.
( )
. ,
, ,

. ,
(,
, ).
.

, .
.
OS/VS2MVS IBM.
,

.
, ,
, ( ).

.
,
, .
(
), .
: PRIME
PRIME
, [2].
. 7.1.

( central control monitor)
,
, (
)
. ( extended

control monitor)
,
, -
/.
. PRIME
:


.
.
PRIME
,
,
.
.
-

, 7,1, PRIME,1


. , , ,
.
,
. ,

.

PRIME /,

. -
-.
.
, -,
.

. ,
- ; ,
, , .
, ;
,
, . .
-
. -

.
,

. ,
,
. ,
, , .
,
,
.

,
,
. ,
.
.

: , .
, ,
, . ,


.
,
,

.

(, )
,
, . ,

, .
, ,

.
: ,
.

- ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
, .

, ,
.
: ,
TRW
IBM
OS/360 ,
. , TRW
,
,
[3].
.
OS/360 .
, , , ,
, OS/36Q
.
,

.
- ,

OS/360 .
- ,
.

,
, ,
. ,

, ,
. . 3,
(,
) ,

. , ,
, . ,
,
, .
/
, .
,

/,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
, , . ,
/ - ,
( ), ,
, ,
.

.
,

.
: TSPS

TSPS
[4].
,
:
-
40 . TSPS
, ,
, . (,
. ,

,
.)
TSPS ,

.
,

.
,
.
,,
.
, . 7.2 ,
.
. , ,
,

. ( TSPS audit program)
. ,
(
,
),
L ( lost
) 1. -
.
L 0 ( , ),
.
-

,
.
-.
, ,
. ,

. ,
, .

.
TSPS
. TSPS
10 100
.


, ,

.
.
,

( ,
),
.
1.
.
2.
. (
)
,
.
3.
,

.
4.

.
5. ,
.
6. ,
. ,


.
7. , , . , OS/360 ,
, ,
. ,

, .
8.

.
,
.
9.
,
.
10. ; ,


.

11.
,
.

.
. 16.
,

. ,
' [5],
.
. 4 :
.
IBM
OS/360.

(, )
,
- .

,
(
. ).
, ,
( ).
, . 4
,
.
,
.
, ,
(, )
, (,
). , ,
,
.
, ,

.
1. .
(, , , ).
, (,
-), ,

.
2. .

(,
), ,
.
3. . , , 1, -,
-, ,
,
.
4. .
,
- ,

.
-.
5. !.
. , , , ,
.
6. .
, ,
, ,
.

.
7. . ,
, ,

.
,
,
, " ,
,
. ,
[610].

1. Randell . Operating Systems: The Problems of Performance and Reliability*


Proceedings of the 1971 IFIP Congress. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1971, pp.
11001109.
2. Fabry R. S. Dynamic Verification of Operating System Decisions Communications of
the ACM, 16 (11), 659668 (1973).
3. Pinchuk P. L. TRW Evaluation of a Secure Operating System, Data Security and
Data Processing, Volume 6, Evaluation and Installation Experiences: Resource
Security System, G3201376, IBM Corp., White Plains, N. Y., 1974, pp. 39121.
4. Connet J. R., Pasternak E. J., Wagner B. D. Software Defenses in Real-Time
Control Systems, Digest of the 1972 International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant
Computing. New York: IEEE, 1972, pp. 9499.
5. Stepczyk F? M. Requirements for Secure Operating Systems, Data Security and
Data Processing, Volume 5, Study Results: TRW Systems, Inc., G320 1375, IBM
Corp., White Plains, N. Y 1974, pp. 75205.
6. Watson R. W. Timesharing System Design Concepts. New York: McGraw- Hill,
1970.
7. . . 2- , ,
, .: , 1975.
8. . , , 2. , ,
.: , 1974.
9. Yourdon . Design of On-Line Computer Systems, Englewood Cliffs, N, J,5
Prentice-Hall, 1972.
10, IBM Systems Journal, 6(2), 1967 ( ^ *
IBM 9020),


.
(. . )
(. . , , ,
).
;

,
.

. ,
,
. , , , (.
9). , ,
-, ,
(. 14). ,
, .
10 .


.
, ,
, . ,

. ,

,
.
:

1. . , .
(
).
2. . , . ,
(. . 6).
3. . ,
.
4. .
. , ,
, (, )
.
5. . ,
. ,
, ,
.
, . . ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
6. .
, .
,
, , .

. ,
,
, .
(, ),
,
.
,
.
(,
, ). . 8.1
ESTAB- MGR (),
. 6 . /*
*/
/* EXTERNALSPECIFICATION FOR MATCHES

/*
/* FUNCTION!
/*
/*

V
MATCH ALL EXTERNAL
REFERENCE
ITEMS IN
ESTAB.
IF ONE IS ENCOUNTERED THAT
CANNOT
BEMATCHED,
RETURN ITS NAME.

/
*/
/

*/

/ PARAMETER

/ INPUT j

/ OUTPUT:
/*
/+
/*

/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

J*
/*
/*
/+
/*
/*
/*
/*
/

/*

*/

LIST: CALL MATCHES(ESTAB,UNRESNAME.MATCHCODE)


ESTAB

POINTER

POINTER

TO

ESTAJBLE

V
POINTER
TO UPDATEDESTABLE */
NAME OF
AN UNMATCHED
EXTERNAL REFERENCE
MATCHCODE FIXED BIN(15) RETURN CODE (0, 1, OR 2)+/
ESTAB
POINTER
UNRESNAME CHAR(8)

+/
*/

/
+/
*/

CAUSE/EFFECT RELATIONSHIP:
AN* UNMATCHED (NULL ADDRESS
FIELD) EXTERNAL
REFERENCES ARE MATCHED WITH
A MATCHING MD OR
EP ITEM BY TRANSFERRING THE
ADDRESS OF THE MD
EP ENTRY TO THE ER ENTRy UNTIL AN ER CANNOT BE
MATCHED.
-IF ALL ER'S CAN BE
MATCHED, MATCHCODE=0
AND
UNRESNAME IS UNCHANGED.
-IF AN ER CANNOT BE
MATCHED, MATCHCODE=1
AND
UNRESNAME = NAME OF ER ITEM
-IF AN ERROR OCCURS
(INVALID
ESTABLE), MATCHCODE=2 AND UNRESNAME IS UNCHANGED

/ EXTERNALEFFECTS: NONE

*/
/
OR*/
+/
*/
*/
/
/
+/
/
*/

*/

. 8.1. .

, ESTAB ( )
, ESTAB
, .
, . 6:
.
-, ESTAB,
.



() .
,
.
.
11
.
1. .
.
,
,
(, ,

).
2. .
,
.; .
3. .

,
, ;
.
4. Bbrfjepume .

.
; ,
, ,
. ,
,
. (. .
), .
[1]
. ACM
(Collected Algorithms from ).
,
.


.
( ,
, ),
, , ,
(,

, ). ,
, ,
!
5. .
. PROCEDURE END (
,, ).
,
ENTRY. ,
-; .
6. .
,
.
7. . ,
. , ,

.
8. . , ,

.
,
.
9. .
, ,
. ,

,
. 9.
10. .
. .
11. . .
;
, ,
.
,
(ESTABMGR). 1
, PL/1. , 2
3 (
. 8.1).
4
(ESTAB) ,
, .
,
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
/* MODULE ESTABMGR (EXTERNAL SYMBOL TABLE MANAGER)

*/

/*
/* THIS IS AN INFORMATIONAL STRENGTH MODULE WITH 3
/* POINTS:

*/
ENTRY

/*
/* MATCHES
(MATCH EXTERNAL REFERENCES
IN ESTAB)
/* ADDTOES
(ADD AN
EXTERNAL SYMBOL TO ESTAB)
/* FINDES (FIND AN EXTERNAL SYMBOL IN ESTAB)

/*

/* THE DESIGN OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO HIDE ALL


KNOW- */
/* LEDGE OF ESTAB.
ALTHOUGH ESTAB IS AN INPUT
AND OUTPUT
/* OF THIS
MODULE,
THE INTENT IS THAT NO OTHER MODULES
HAVE
/* ANY KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE OF ESTAB. HENCE THIS
/* IS AT WORST DATA COUPLED TO ANY OTHER MODULE.

*/
*/

*/
*/
*/
*/

*/

*/
*/
*/
*/

/*

-9

*/

/* STRUCTURE NOTES: EACH OF THE 3 FUNCTIONS ARE ENCLOSED IN */ /*


BEGIN BLOCKS TO
ISOLATE NAMES. MODULE- */
/*
WIDE DATA DEFINITIONS (ESTAB) ARE PLACED*/
/*
OUTSIDE OF THE BEGIN BLOCKS. ONE OF THE*/
/*
FUNCTIONS (MATCHES) IS REPRESENTED BY */
/*
THE PROCEDURE STATEMENT. THE OTHER TWO */
/*
FUNCTIONS ARE REPRESENTED BY ENTRY
*/
/*
'
STATEMENTS.
*/

*******.************/

MATCHES: PROCEDURE (ESTAB,UNRESNAME,MATCHCODE) ; module-wide data declarations and parameter


declarations MATCH_ER_ITEMS_IN ESTAB: BEGIN;
local declares for MATCHES function code for MATCHES
function
END;
ADDTOES: ENTRY (ESTAB,ESNAME,ESTYPE,ESADDR,ENTRYNUM,ADDCODE) ADD_EXTSYM_TO_ESTAB:
BEGIN;
local declares for ADDTOES function code for ADDTOES
function
ENDFINDES: ENTRY (ESTAB,ENTRYNUM,ESNAME,ESTYPE,ESADDR,FINDCODE)* FIND_EXTSYM IN ESTAB:
BEGIN;
local declares for FINDES function code for FINDES function

END!

END;
. 8.2. ,

.
(),
: , .
, () .
,
. (, ,

. ,
.
/*

MODULE-WIDE DATA DEFINITIONS

*/

/* */
DECLARE ESTAB POINTER;
DECLARE TABSIZE FIXED;
*TABSIZE=2000;
/* [Jo. OF POSSIBLE ESTAB ENTRIES
DECLARE 1 TABLE BASED (ESTAB) ,
2 HEADER,
3 TAG
CHAR(H),
/* DOG TAG ESTB */
3 SIZE
BINARY FIXED (15), /*
NO. OF CURRENT ENTRIES */
2 BODY (TABSIZE),
/* ARRAY OF ENTRIES
3 NAME CHAR(8),
3 TYPE CHAR(2),
3 ADDRESS POINTER;
DECLARE
/* TYPE VALUES */
MODULE CHAR(2) STATIC INIT' ('MD'),
ENTRYPT CHAR(2) STATIC INIT (*EP'),
EXTREF CHAR(2) STATIC INIT ('ER');
DECLARE NULL BUILTIN; /FUNCTION RETURNS VALUE OF EMPTY POINTER*/
DECLARE MATCHCODE FIXED BINARY (15); /MATCHES RETURN CODE*/
DECLARE UNRESNAME CHAR(8);
/* OUTPUT FROM MATCHES FUNCTION */

"/

*/

. 8.3. .

,
.)
5
. PROCEDURE
-- (MATCHES),
ENTRY - - (FINDES)
- (ADDTOES). BEGIN PL/1,

. . 8.2.
6
. ,
(ESTAB) , .
,
, .
, : MATCHES. . 8.3
, MATCHES
NULL,
() .
7
MATCHES. ,
, MATCH _ ER _ ITEMS _ IN _
ESTAB :
DECLARE
I FIXED BINARY (15);/* */
J FIXED BINARY (15);/*
*/
,
,
.

, ,

, , , ( ). ,
,
.
, :
[2, 3].

,
, .
60- ,
1968 .
. [4]. ,
( )
( ,
)
(GO ) .

GO .
, GO
,
, , GO
. ,
GO ,
. [5].

, ,
. ,
:
1.
: (),
() ().
2. GO , .

. 8.4. -

4ZZ3
4Z1

GO
,
() .
3.

--

(. .

9).

4.
,
*~
(, - -"

DO , ,
THEN
ELSE . .).
5.

. ,
,

.
6. ,
.
.
7. .
: ,
, .


, . 8.4.
,
(CASE).

, . ,
. 8.4 -

IF (1=2)

GO TO 4
GO TO 5

THEN
A=3
B=2
GO TO 10

ELSE
A=2
B=3
CONTINUE

10
. 8.5. .

;
. , ,
,
.
(, ).
, CALL
RETURN . : CALL RETURN
.
,
, .

.
PL/1, PL/,
.
, ,
.
,
. 8.4.
, ,
GO PERFORM.
PERFORM .
,
PERFORM. -

.

,
. 8.4 ,
GO . - [6]
,
,

, . . 8.5
. ,
, ,
.
( ) , .
,
.
.
,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
.
,
:
,
, .
,
, . 15.


, , ,
, .
- .
,
GO [7].
,
1}
. , ,
,
, ,
.
GO :
GO , ,
[7] . ,
GO , . .

. [5],
GO .
GO
, ON

PL/1
,
( )
.

,
GO .
;
.


.
: ,
,
. ,
,
[8],
[9, 10].
,



,
.

.

MATCHES. :
DO 1 = 1 SIZE WHILE ( ,
);
IF ( )
THEN ;
IF ()
THEN ;
ELSE ;
ELSE;
END;
, ,

(PL/1). .
- CODE

(MATCHCODE = 0)
(MATCHCODE = 1),

MATCHCODE.
:
MATCHCODE = 0;
DO 1=1 SIZE WHILE (MATCHCODE = 0);
IF ( )
THEN DO;
MATCHCODE = 1;
;
IF ()
THEN MATCHCODE = 0;
;
ELSE ;
END;
ELSE;
END;

: BODY (I). ADDRESS = NULL ( PL/1
NULL
).
,
. :
DO J=lTO SIZE YVHILE(MATCHCODE=l);

IF ()
THEN DO;
MATCHCODE=p;
B0DY(I).ADDRESS=B0DY(J). ADDRESS;
END;

ELSE;
END;
IF (MATCHCODE= 1) THEN UNRESNAME = BODY(l).NAME;
ELSE;

, , .
, ( )
.
. 8.6.
MATCHCC)DE=0 ;
DO 1=1 TO SIZE WHILE (MATCHCODE=0);
IF(BODY(I).ADDRESS=NULL) /UNMATCHED NAME?*/
THEN DO;
MATCHCODE=1;
DO J=1 TO SIZE WHILE (MATCHCODE=1);
IF((BODY(I).NAME=BODY(J).NAME)&
((BODY(J).TYPE=MODULE) f
(BODY(J).. TYPE=ENTRYPT)) )
THEN DO;
MATCHCODE=0;

ELSE;

BODY(I).ADDRESS=BODY(J).ADDRESS; END;

END;
IF(MATCHCODE=1) THEN UNRESNAME=BODY(I).NAME; ELSE;
END;
ELSE;
END;

. 8.6. .

, MATCHES,
; . ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, .
( -)
- .
MATCHES
, ,
. ,
MATCHES,
, PL/1, . 8.6.
,
, , -,
. , , ,

. -
,
.

GO
TO

ELSE? ,


r

. ,
.
, ,
.
IF,
.
[11]
. , ELSE
, ELSE IF ()
THEN. ELSE ,
THEN .
,

IF (1) THEN DO;


onepl;
IF ( 2) THEN 2,
ELSE DO;
) THEN ;
ELSE 4;
END;
END;
ELSE ;
:
1(1) THEN onepl;
IF(ycfll & 2) THEN 2;
1(1 &I 2 & ) THEN ;
IF(ycfll |2 &1) THEN 4;
IF(|1) THEN );
(, 1
). -, ,
(,
). -,
, ,
, .

, . 7,
;
.

, ,
(, ,
).
:
, ,
, .
,

, .

, - ,

, .
, ,
, .
,
(
), (
) , . ,
,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .

,
.

MODULE ESTABMGR (EXTERNAL SYMBOL TABLE MANAGER)

MATCHES (MATCH EXTERNAL REFERENCES IN ESTAB)

ADDTOJ5S (ADD AN EXTERNAL SYMBOL TO ESTAB)


FINDES '(FIND AN EXTERNAL SYMBOL IN ESTAB)

THE DESIGN OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO HIDE ALL KNOWLEDGE OF ESTAB.

ALTHOUGH ESTAB IS AN INPUT AND OUTPUT OF THIS MODULE, THE INTENT IS THAT NO
OTHER MODULES HAVE ANY KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE OF ESTAB. HENCE THIS IS AT

WORST DATA COUPLED TO ANY OTHER MODULE.

MATCHES.
ESTAB .
( , ):
/*
/*
/*
J*
THIS IS ACjf INFORMATIONAL STRENGTH MODULE WITH 3 ENTRY POINTS:

J*

/*
/*
J*

/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

STRUCTURE NOTES:

EACH OF THE 3 FUNCTIONS ARE ENCLOSED IN BEGIN BLOCKS TO


ISOLATE NAMES. MODULE- ' WIDE DATA DEFINITIONS (ESTAB) ARE
PLACED OUTSIDE OF THE BEGIN BLOCKS. ONE OF THE : FUNCTIONS
(MATCHES) IS REPRESENTED BY THE PROCEDURE STATEMENT. THE
OTHER TWO FUNCTIONS ARE REPRESENTED BY ENTRY
STATEMENTS.

J*

/**********************************************
MATCHES: PROCEDURE (ESTAB,UNRESNAME,MATCHCODE); /*
/*

MODULE-WIDE DATA

DEFINITIONS

/*
DECLARE ESTAB POINTER;
%DECLARE TABSIZE FIXED;
NO. OF POSSIBLE ESTAB ENTRIES
%TABSIZE=2000;
/
DECLARE 1 TABLE- BASED (ESTAB) ,
2 HEADER,
3 TAG CHAR( 4 ) ,
/* DOG TAG ESTB */
3 SIZE BINARY FIXED (15),
/* NO. OF CURRENT ENTRIES ARRAY
2 BODY (TABSIZE),
/* OF ENTRIES */
3 NAME CHAR (8) ,
3 TYPE CHAR(2),
3 ADDRESS POINTER;
DECLARE
MODULE CHAR(2) ENTRYPT
CHAR(2) EXTREF CHAR(2) DECLARE

NULL BUILTIN
STATIC
INIT
/* TYPE VALUES
STATIC
INIT ( M D ' ) ,
STATIC INIT
/FUNCTION RETURNS VALUE OF EMPTY POINTER*/ DECLARE
MATCHCODE FIXED BINARY ( 1 5 ) ; /MATCHES RETURN CODE*/ DECLARE UNRESNAME C H A R ( 8 ) ;
OUTPUTFROM MATCHES FUNCTION */

/* */

/*

('EP') ,
CER'I;

MATCH ER ITEMS_IN_ESTAB: BEGIN;

/*

/* EXTERNAL SPECIFICATION FOR MATCHES

/*

* FUNCTION: MATCH ALL EXTERNAL REFERENCE ITEMS IN ESTAB.

IF ONE IS ENCOUNTERED THAT CANNOT BE MATCHED,


RETURN ITS NAME.

'*

PARAMETER LIST: CALL MATCHES


INPUT:

(*

ESTAB

POINTER

(ESTAB,UNRESNAME,MATCHCODE)
POINTER

TO

ESTABLE

OUTPUT: ESTABPOINTER
UNRESNAME CHAR(8)

POINTER
TO
UPDATED ESTABLE
NAME OF
AN
UNMATCHED
EXTERNAL REFERENCE MATCHCODE FIXED
B I N ( 1 5 ) RETURN CODE (0, 1, OR 2)

CAUSE/EFFECT RELATIONSHIP:
ANY UNMATCHED (NULL ADDRESS FIELD) EXTERNAL INFERENCES ARE
MATCHED WITH A MATCHING MD OR EP ITEM BY TRANSFERRING THE ADDRESS
OF THE MD OR EP ENTRY TO THE ER ENTRY UNTIL AN ER CANNOT BE MATCHED.
-IF ALL E R ' S CAN BE MATCHED, MATCHCODE=0 AND UNRESNAME IS
UNCHANGED.
-IF AN ER CANNOT BE MATCHED, MATCHCODE=1 AND UNRESNAME = NAME OF
ER ITEM -IF AN ERROR OCCURS (INVALID ESTABLE), MATCH- CODE=2 AND
UNRESNAME IS UNCHANGED
EXTERNAL EFFECTS: NONE
MATCHES LOGIC INFORMATION
MODULES CALLED: NONE
INITIAL REFINEMENT:
DO 1=1 TO S I Z E WHILE(DON'T ENCOUNTER AN ITEM THAT CANT BE MATCHED)
IF (ENCOUNTER AN UNMATCHED ITEM)
THEN SEARCH FOR A MATCHING EXTERNAL SYMBOL IF (FIND A MATCH)
THEN MARK UNMATCHED ITEM ELSE
OUTPUT ITS NAME
ELSE
END
/* LOCAL DECLARES
*/
DECLARE
I F^XED BINARY ( 1 5 ) , /* INDEX FOR SEARCHING FOR AN
UNMATCHED NAME */
J FIXED BINARY ( 1 5 ) j /* INDEX FOR SEARCHING FOR A
MATCHING NAME */'
MATCHCODE=2;
I
IF (ESTAB-*=NULL)
/*NULL
THEN
1
IF ( (TAG=' ESTB ) & (SIZE>0) & (SIZE-i>TABSIZE) )
THEN
DO;
MATCHCODE=0;

IS

UNSET

POINTER*,/

DO 1=1 TO SIZE WHILE (MATCHCODE=0);


IF(BODY(I).ADDRESS=NULL)
/"UNMATCHED NAME?*/
THEN DO;
MATCHCODE=1;
DO J=1 TO SIZE WHILE (MATCHCODE=1) ;
IF((BODY(I) .NAME=BODY(J).NAME)6 ((BODY(J).TYPE=MODULE)|
(BODY(J).TYPE=ENTRYPT)))
THEN DO;

MATCHCODE=(>;
BODY(I) .ADDRESS =BODY(J).ADDRESS; END;
ELSE;

END;

END;
ELSE;

END;

ELSE;

IF(MATCHCODE=1) THEN UNRESNAME=BODY(I).NAME; ELSE ;


END;

ELSE;
RETURN;
END;
END;

. 8.7. MATCHES.

, 1 7, ( ,
1,
7 MATCHES ).
. 2, 3 4
,
. 5 6
MATCHES ( ,
- , ,
MATCHES ).

2, 3 4. 2 , . 3
, , ESTAB.
4 SIZE;
(
, ,
SIZE).
. 8.7.
ADDTOES FINDES,
.


; , ,
. (,
, )
, ,
- ,
:

;
(
, ,
, ,
, ).

, , ,
, .
,
,
. -
,
, .
,

.
, ,
.
, ,
(
),
[12, 13].

.
,
, .
. ,
,

. ,

.

Multics, PL/1 ,
[12]. 5%
. , PL/1
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
(
).
, , ,
.

,
,
: ( ) .
:

.

, [14],
.
,
, .
,

, .

,
, . ,
, , ,
...
. [14].

.
,
:
,
. -
, , ,
, ; : !
! , , !
, , !
, , :
!, :
! ,
? , :
.

. ,
. , , ,
.
, :
1 * 5 - 1
; , ,
.
,
. :
, ,
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
.
,

, , ,
, . ,

.
, ,
-,
.
.
1.
. , , ,
. , ,
.
2. .
. ^,
, , .
3. , ,
. ,
, - , ,
.
4. . ,
:
, .

.
,
,
. ,
, .

,
. ,

, ,

. . 4
, . . 4
,
. . 5 . . 6
,
.
: - (

)?

,
. , - -
.
, ,
(, -). -
, , ,
.
, . ).

1) . , .,
. . .: , 1980, - , , .

,
. -,

. ,
: - .
,
. 8.4 -,
,
GO .
-, ?
: ! ,
?
. 8.7, , MATCHES


MATCHES. (, ) ,
. , -
. ,
( ,
),
,
.
-
, HIPO- [15].
HIPO- : ,
, ,

. HIPO- -,
, ,
.
-

.

. ,
. 8.7; MATCHES,

(,
).
.

.
,
.
, .
,
. ,
.
: ,
.
. ,
; ,
.

.
, .

;
, ,

( ).
,
,
.

, .

,
, .
,
,
. , ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
, -

, .


.
, . .
.
, . . , 3.

.
,

[141.

, .
.
,
. ,
, . . , .
, .
.
, ,
, ,
.


[16].

.
IF DO. ,
, , , ,
. .
, - , ,
.
, .
DO ( )
. ,
DO 1 = 1 N WHILE (FOUND);
:
(FOUND N 1)
(1 N ,
FOUND ).
, - (
, ).
, ,

, .
,

.
( ),
. ,
,
,
.
(. . ).
,
,
. ,
,
- , .

.
,
.
(
, ).

. ,
,
,
.


.

. , PL/1
.
,
,
.
,
- ,
. ,
[17], , .
10 . 62
,
251 . 60 ( 196 . 70 ).
, , , ,
, . , ,
. ,
, :

.
( ) ,
,
,
.
, , .
17.


: ,
,
, , ,
.
,
,
. . 8,

; - (,
GO )
.
, , , . . ,
( )
, (
) .
,
, : ,
GO ,,
, , ,
GO .
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
[1]..

, . 8,
, ,

, , .
,.

, ( ,
, ) .
.
.
.
XX, XXX, , XY, , , AI,
, .


. ,
4 12 . ,
_ _ _ , ,

.
. (
6 ). PL/1
31 ,
,
.

,
. , , ,
1974 ., : ,
;
, . .,

!
. ,
, VALUE VALUES,
BRACA, BRACB, BRACC BRACD.
. , ,
.
,
. , I, 2 5 , I, Z S.
, .

.
PL/1, .
FORMAT(l6)f=!

^ IF IF=THEN THEN THEN=ELSE;


. ELSE ELSE=THEN;
.

.


X = (0,+ 1/(1)

AL= (1)
X - 1 + 1/AI

,
TOTAL = Y + /* VAR
== X + /*

ABC *=
/*
TOTAL = Y + ABC
VAR =
X + ABC

.
,
.
, ,
.
(XREF).
, ,
.
,
.
.
()
. ,
**2
?
- , ,
.
,
, ,
. ,

, -
(CALL). ,
:
CALL SUB(X,Y);
CALL SUB((X),(Y));

,
.
, .
:
CALL SUB(X#2)
1=2
WRITE .(6,101) |
SUBROUTINE SUB(S,J)
J=3
RETURN
I 3,
2, 2.
.
,
.
, ==
PL/1, , ,
. , ,
0 1 ,
. PL/1;
:
.
.
,
, .
.
,
BEGIN,
ON PL/1. ,
(

).
,

,
( )
.
, ,
.
.
PL/1, DO
. ,
=0.
DO ,

,
=(*2)+. SEARCH,
.
,
:
.
.
,
( , , , ),
.
, , PL/1
80 ,
MIN (
), , , SUM, PROD
( ),
, , ANY (=) (
?) ALL (=) (
?). PL,/1
, , INDEX (Z,
DOG) ( Z DOG), VERIFY (,
)
TRANSLATE (
). ,
,
.
. ,
. , ,
,
( ),

PL/1,

.
. , ,
,
, .
; , ,
.
,
.

.
.
, .



, ,
.
,
( -) ;
: .
, -
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
(
).

,
TSS IBM.
TSS,
IBM .
,
, 1020%,
. ,
TSS ,
.

,
TSS .
, -, , ,
,

.

.
, ,
-- ,

- ,

.
, ,
, ,
(,
,
).
,
!

: .
, .
,
. , ,
,
. , ;
, ,
. - [2]
, -
.
,
, .
, 10 .
, , :
.
: .
, ,
.
.

: , **2,
,
,

.
; .
.
. ,

.
,
, : ,
,
,
[1].
. 9.1
,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
. , , ,
. , ,

(,
, ).
,
, !
DO,
:
,

DO 20 I = 1,
DO 20 J = 1 ,N SUM = 0 DO 10 = 1,1 10
SUM = SUM + A(I,K) * B(K,J)
20 C(I,J) = SUM

n:

1 =
13 = -1 DO 20 J = 1 ,N DO 20 I = 1 ,M SUM = 0
13 = -13 Ml = Ml + 13 DO 10 = 1,L
SUM = SUM + A(I,M1) * (Ml,J)
10
M1 = M1 + 13 20
C ( I, J ) = S U M

. 9.1. .

, , . 9.1,
(, J) (J, ).
,
IBM/360,

BXLE ( ).
, ,

,
!
, .
,
.
;
, ,
.
.

, ,
[3]. .
'
-,
. ,
.
,
.
, .
,
. ; -
.

, .
( ,
), ,
5% ,
90% .
( , ), post
factum .

. ;
,
,
. , . .
,
. ,
,
.


,
,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
, .
.
, . ,
,
, ..,
, ,
- , 50%
; ,
.
, , .
, . ,
,
. ,
,
.

.
, ,
. ,
.
.
. ,
, ,
.

,
.
. ,
.
, ,

-.


1).
.

, , .
,
. , 11

; , , ,
'. . . ,

,
.
.
, , ,

, :
MVC DPSREP+32(2), = X 0009'


(, ,
).
DPSREP,
0009\

, ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
OS/36C) IBM.
OS/360
(, R6 6),
,
. ,
, ,
,
:
R6 EQU 5 R7
EQU 4 R4
EQU 4

,
.

.
EQUIVALENCE , REDEFINES
DEFINED PL/1 ,
.
.

DECLARE
. :
TIME ,
.

.

.
:
, (=0 .

.
, .
, .
, ,
, .
,
.
. ,
. 10.0 0.1
1.0.
,
.
. . I
, , I
2*1/2, , I
:
.
.

(, , , )
;
. ,

, .
,
,
. , PL/1
DCL I FIXED BIN(15), N FIXED DEC(5);

N=10;
DO I = 1 TO N/2;

END;


N/2 BIN I,
. ,

DO 1=1 0;


.
EN D.
PL/1 END DO.
,
.
( ) END, ,
END AMODULE;

, ,
END
END.
ELS E T HE N.
THEN ELSE. -
ELSE, .
, ELSE ,
.
, ,
. 8
ELSE.
;
ELSE, , ELSE.
. . ,
1, 2
, 3, 1, 2.

.
. ,
PL/1 ALTER ,
GO , *).
. .
, PL/1,

, .
. 6
.
.
.
, ,

. ,
, ,
, ,
,
. ,

(. .
) .
, , ,
. ,
(!=*(1)!)
. , ,
,
( DO),
.
,
. L5.
, [4, 5]
, , [6]

.

1)
CASE (), , ,
&.

1. Kernighan . W., Plauger P. J. The Elements of Programming Style. New York:


McGraw-Hill, 1974.
2. Weinberg G. M. The Psychology of Computer Programming. New York Van
Nostrand Reinliold, 1971.
3. Myers G. J. Reliable Software Trough Composite Design. New York: Petrocelli/
Charter, 1975.
4.
Ledgard H. F. Programming Proverbs. Rochelle Park, N. J.: Hayden, 1975.
5.
Ledgard H. F. Programming Proverbs for FORTRAN Programmers.
Rochelle Park, N. J.: Hayden, 1975.
6. Weissman L. M. A Methodology for Studying the Psychological Complexity of
Computer Programs, CSRG-37. University of Toronto Computer Systems Research
Group, Toronto, Canada, 1974,

,
, 50% , ,
,
. , ,


.
, , ,
,
.
( , )
, ,
, ! ,
,

.
, ;
.
, , ,
.
,
,
, .
:

.
(
), .
() .
, ;
, .

;
.
, , ;
, ,,
. ,

,
, .
"
.
, .
,

. ,
, ,
,
,

, ,
(, , ),
.
, . . ,
.
,

,
.
,
, ,

.
:
,
. ,
.

. 10.1. 70- .

, ,
,
.
,
.
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
, .

5%
(), 2000 .,
1 %. , .
10.1,
.
,
, (,
, ) (,
) .


, , , , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
,
ACM [1].
, ,
.
(testing), ,
( ) ( )
.
(p ro o f )
.


.
,
.

;
. 17.
(verification) ,
, , .
(validation) ,
.
(certification) ,
Underwriters Laboratories.

.
,

[2, 3]
NATS [4].
(debugging) .
,
.
, ;
,
.
.

, . ,
, :
, , ,
.
, (module testing,
unit testing) ,
(. . ).

.
(integration testing) (, , ).
(external function testing)

.
(system testing) /
.
,
, ,
, .
(acceptance testing) .
(installation testing) ^
, .
,
, . 10.2.

. 10.2.
.

< ----------------- - ----------------------------------- >


.((
)
)

. 10.3. .


,
.
, , , ,


, .
.
, ,
. 10.3.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
( ) ,
, , ,
. .
: ,
. ,
, .
.
, ,
, . ,
,
.
, ,
.
, .
( ) .
.
, , , , , , ,
,
. , ,
.
,
.
.

. ,
,
,
, . ,
, one-

,
, .

, ,
.
.

:
. ,
- .
.
t o i
. ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
,

.
, , ,
.

,
. ,
, ,
. (
, 100 ), ,
, - .
. 10.4
. ,
( ).
, 0 10 ,
.
, . ,
(,
),
10 18.
, , 41017
. ,

TITAN 60 [5].
, < ,
, - -

.
, / ,

, . 10.4, . 1018 .
, (
, ). : ,
? :
.
,

.
,
, ,
. , ,
.
(,
,
),
.
410

<,10

.
. , ,
. :
IF(A+B+C)/3=A
,
, ( ,
( ) , ).
,
, .
, , ;
, . ,
.
, ,
.
. 10,4, .

. 11.

(
)
.
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.

.
,
.

, .
,
.


. ( ;
, ) ,
. ,

,
. ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
.
. 10.5 , 2. .
,
.
.
G,

. 10.5. ,


1. GET (
) GETMAIN ( ).
2. FIND GET (
) GETMAIN.
3. PUT ( ).
4. , (/ . )
.
5.
.

, ,

4
5

, ,
,

, ,

6 , , ,

, -,

, -, .

, , .
.

, ,

, ,

10

11

12 ,
13

, , ,

12

. D F, , .
,
PERT- (. 10.6).

: .


, ,
. :
,

. . 11
.

(
[6]) ,
.
.
.
, (, )
, ,
. ,
.
: ,

( ),
. ,
-,
.

,
. ,
.
RETURN,
.
, .
,
, .
,
,
.
:
?
, :

. , ,
.
- ,
- .
, ,
(
, ),
,
- .
,

: ,
.
: ,
? :
. , , .
,
-, . ,
. 10.5, D ,
.
. ,

,
G.
.

, . G,
,
, .
,

.
.
,
.
,


( ,
).

-.
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
, .
, G . ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
. , , , D
. ,
D .
G
. -,
, ,
.
- ,
(, ,

).
,
.
.
,
. ,
,
.
- ,
.
,

.


;
. , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
. ,

.
,
. , ;
,
. ,
.
,

,
.
, .
,
. .


,
,
, .
,
.

, ,
, .

,
. ,
- ,
.
,
f
2++=0.

,
, .
,
(,

,
,
).
, , ,
(. .
,
).
(
). , ,
,
, . ,
, , -

, .
.
,
,
.
. 8
.
, ,
(
, ,
). , ,

,
( ,
).
,
, ,
, .
, ,
: ,
. .
,
, .

,
.
.
.

.
1 .
, ,

.
,
.

. ,
, ,
,
.
.
.
(, , ) ,
.
.


.
, .
, ,
- .

. ,
,
,
,
(
), - -,
.
, .
, ,
.

,
. , ,
,
.
, ,

.

,
, .

, .

, -
.

.
, . ,

.
?

,

.
, . 10.7.
,

.
,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
(. . )
. ,

(

)?

, 10.7. .

,
.
:

? ,
.
, , ,
.
:
.
,
.
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
, .

. ,
.
.

.
,

,
3. ,
,
2. , , 1
. ,
, 1, ,
, , ,
. .
. 10.8 .
,
, ,
.

, .
,


.

+
3

?.

(
)?

+
1

. 10.8. .

+*

+7


,
.
. ,

3.
,
, ,
. , .
, , ,
,
.
,
. , (.
. ) . ,
:
, (
) .
,
,
.
.
.

. ,
,
.
. 8
.
,
,
.
(, )

. ,
- ,
,
(, )
.
.
,
.
,

,
, ( ,
).

,
- -.

.
,
.
, , ,
. ,

,
.
, , ,
,
.
,
. -

, - ,

, -
.
, .
, ,
,
,
.

.
.
[7].
, .
. ,

.
, . ., ,
, , .
.
, ;
. ,
(, ),
.

. ,
( , ).
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
;
. , ,
- ,
.
,
,

. , .
10.9, , , . .
. ,
(, , , )

.
, . 10.9
, ,
, .
. 10.9. . *
,

OS/360 IBM.
,
.
,
. ,
, .
.
, ,
,
. ,
. , ,

. ,


,
.
,
.
.
2,
.
, ,
, . 5 6 (,

), .
(
,
.
-
. ,
,
.
, .
, . 6,
, ,
1>.
, .
,
. , , ,
, 100 , ,
10 . ,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
, , , ,
.
,
(
, . .) ,
.

1. Hetzel W. . A Definitional Framework, in W. . Hetzel, Ed., Program Test


Methods, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp. 210.
2. Baird G. N., Cook . M. Experiences in COBOL Compiler Validation, Proceedings
of the 1974 National Computer Conference, Montvale N. J.fAFIPS Press,
pp. 417421.
3. Sadowski W. L., Lozier D. W. A Unified Standards Approach to Algorithm Testing,
in W. C. Hetzel, Ed., Program Test Methods. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall,
1973, pp. 277290.
J
> .
(. . .
. .: ,
1979). ,,
4. Boyle J. ., Cody W. J., Cowell W. R., Grabow B. S., lkebe Y., Moler . B.,. Smith .
T. NATS: A Collaborative Effort to Certify and Disseminate Mathematical Software,
Proceedings of the 1972 ACM Annual Conference. New York: ACM, 1972, pp. 630
635.

5. Thayer R. H. Rome Air Development Center R and D Program in Computer Language Controls and Software Engineering Techniques, RADC-TR-74-80, Gri-f- fiss
Air Force Base, Rome, N. Y., 1974.
6. McHenry R. C. Management Techniques for Top Down Structured Programming,
FSC-73-0001, IBM Federal Systems Div., Gaithersburg, Md., 1973.
7. Cody W. J. The Evaluation of Mathematical Software, in W. C. Hetzel, Ed., Program
Test Methods, Englewood Cliffs, N, J,: Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp. 121133,
11

. 10

.
,
. ,
, .

, ,
( ,
), .
,

, .



:
, ,
.
,
, .
.

, ,
,
.
;
.
,
.

,
, . 11.1.
: -, . 8 ,
-
. - ,
; -
,
. 8 ,
, .

,
. ,
- . 11.1 - .
. 11.2 -

< -\-

56

28

84

95


: /4 =

46

100

. 11.2.
.

,
.
, ,
,
, ,
, , . 11.2, .
,
,
. ( , , ,
, 124,
).

,
,
(, 223,
232 322).
, ,
- , ,

2
36, ( 236
).

1 , 28%
.
, . 11.2,
.
,
, .
,
.
(,
), 37% ,
.

,
. , ,
X, 2++=0.
.
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
. -
( ),

. :
, ,
.



. ( ,
., ).
(, ),
.
, .
,
.

1 ,
,
,,
, .
2 , ,
. ,
.

.
1.0 +1.0, .
0.0
, .
( +0.0,
0.0), .
.
,
,
. , ,
.
,
,
.

(, 1
65535 1 255 ). ,

. ,
.
, 1, . , ,
.

.

MATCHES , 2.
2, 3 4. . 8.7
MATCHES.

ESTABLE

ESTB

001

ESTB

ER

ESTB

00200

MATCHCODE =
UNRESNAME
ESTABLE

null

MATCHCODE = 1
UNRESNAME = 'X'
ESTABLE

001

002

ABCDEFGH ER

null

ABCDEFG MD 44444
H
MATCHCODE =
ESTB 006
XX.

MD 00003

ER

XX

ER

null

null
null
ER null

XXXXXXXX ER

z
z

EP

MATCHCODE = 2
UNRESNAME

UNRESNAM
E ESTABLE ,
=
44444

MATCHCODE = 1 UNRESNAME
= '' ESTABLE

= 00022
=00003

00022

. 11.3. MATCHES.

MATCHES ( ESTAB
ESTABLE) :
ESTABLE, (UNRESNAME)
(MATCHCODE).
, ,
:
1. ESTABLE, .
2. ESTABLE, .
3. ESTABLE, .

DO /= 1 N
WHILE ( =0)

4. ESTABLE,
, , .
5, ESTABLE, ,
(. . ).
,
ESTABLE
.
11.

4. .

,
ESTABLE. ,
, . 11.3. ,
,, -, , , . 10,
.
.
, .
, .
,
,
.
.


.
-
. ,
,
). . 11.4 ,
IF DO PL/1
.

, - .
: ,
.
()

(
, ,
).
.
MATCHES . 11.5.
, 13 ,
. ,
26 , ,
5 , , .
,
,
*> ,
,
,
.
. .
.

KEY

ESTAB_1=NULL

F
G

1
J

TAG = 'ESTB'
S1ZE>0
SIZE-> TABSIZE
I<SIZE
MATCHCODE=C)
ADDRESS = NULL
J<SIZE
MATCHCODE=1
NAME(I)=NAME(J)
TYPE=MODULE
TYPE = ENTRYPT
MATCHCODE= 1

11.5.

MATCHES.

. 8,
. , MATCHES,
, . 11.6.
( ),
, .
, .
, ,
. MATCHES
, , -

ESTAB-=NUll

TAG=,ESTB'

12 3

4 5

T X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

F
T
F X

SIZE>0

T
F

SJZEi>TABSlZE

I < SIZE

MATCHCC)DE=0

ADDRESS=NULL

J<SIZE

r
F

MATCHCODE1

T
F

X X

X X

X X

X X

NAME(I) =NAME(J)

X X

MODULE

F
T

X
X

X X

TYPE-ENTRYPT

MATCHCODE=1

X X

. 11.6. .

ESTABLE. - MATCHES
,
. , ,
, .
MATCHES, ,
(SIZE , WHILE
).

mecmcf

ESTAB
NULL
MATCHCODE= 2
ESTB

UNRESNAME
ESTAB
MATCHCODE = 2

UNRESNAME

ESTABLE

MATCHCODE=2
UNRESNAME
ESTABLE

ESTB 4000

ESTB 003
ABC

CDEF

M
D
ER

'<

null
null

MATCHCODE=0
UNRESNAME
ESTABLE

22222

. 11.7. MATCHES.

(SIZE) ,
.
(,
DO WHILE IF),
(, ,
((=0) & (=4)), ).
MATCHES ,
.

. , .

.
MATCHES ,
. 8.
(,
), MATCHES
. , MATCHES
(. .
) .
. . 11.7 ,
.

,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
- , ,
.

,
, .
. 10,
.
,
, ,
.

() (
).
.
, .
( )
.
, , ,
.
.

, ,
.
, , ,
.
'
.
;
( ) .
,
.
,
.

,
.
, . -
, ,
,

,
.
.
,
,
.

,
, , , .
,
, .
( ,
), ,
. . 11.3 11.7 ,
MATCHES ,
. , ,
,
- .
. 10.
, ,
, ,
,
,
. ; ,
.
, .

,
, ,

,
, . ,
, ;

,
.

, .
* ;
.
, .
,
, .
(AUT Automated Unit Test)
,

IBM [1]. ,

, -
, (,
) .
,

.
MIL-S,

.
MIL-S .
MATCHES AUT MATCHES,
AUT MIL-S- MATCHES,
. ,

.
MIL-S . 2 (.
11.3) :
IN02
ESTAB
UNRNAME
MCODE
ESTABLE
SIZE

*
OUT02
MCODE

PARMLIST
PTR
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA

ESTAB,UNRNAME,MCODE;
ESTABLE;

DATA
DATA
PTR

(8) ('A');
(2) ('EP');
ESTABLE; TO GIVE ADDR FIELD
ANY NON-NULL VALUE

COPY;
DATA

(B) (' ');


(2) IGNORE;
(4) ('ESTB');
(2) ('I'D);

(2) fO'D); EXPECT NO UNMATCHED

ITEMS


, , , ,
.
(- IGNORE ,
). COPY
, , MIL-S

. (
MCODE)
,

, .
.
AUT
:
1. .
2. .
,
ESTB, 1,
, - ,
ESTABLE (
) .
3. (
, UNRNAME ).
4. , .
- , , ,
.
AUT.
, AUT:

(,
). . AUT
, ,
,
.
AUT , ,
,
AUT. AUT
,
, . MATCHES
, ,
,

INVERT.
MATCHES
INVERT CALL IN07;

AUT. MATCHES
INVERT, AUT .
( AUT ) 07
INVERT. AUT , INVERT
, 07, , ,
,
INVERT ,
MATCHES. ,

.
(MTS Module Testing System),
Management Systems and Programming Ltd. MTS
IBM/360, 370 ICL ,
, , PL/1 .
MTS , MIL-S AUT.
, PARAMETER
, TEST , PRINT
COMPARE SIMULATE
. FINDMEAN,
, :
PARAMETER

6 CORE

PARAMETER

6 CORE

PARAMETER

6 CORE

PARAMETER

MEAN

6 CORE

X
Y
Z
EXP-MEAN
TEST

D(6)

1230.0-

D(6)

2722.00

D(6)

1502.00

D(6)
1B1B.00
FINDMEAN XYZ MEAN

PRINT COMPARE MEAN EXP-MEAN

TESTMASTER,
Hoskyns Inc.
, IBM 360/370.

, , ,
.
;
- (),
.

, ,
( ,
). ,
,
(, . 11.5).

,
.

ASES (Automated Software Evaluation System)
[2]. ASES
. ASES

. - ,
, ,
,, .

RXVP, General Research. [3].
RXVP .
,, ,
,
,
, , .


.
: ,
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
. , ,
, , .
, ,
.

,
,
,
.
,
.
, ,

(checkout)

(optimising)
PL/1 IBM. COUNT,
,
. , Applied Data Research,
, . Series-J
National Computing Industries ,
,
.

PET (Program Evaluator and Tester)
[4]. ,
, ,
( IF GO ).
:
DO , ,
.
ASES
.
, ASES

. TRW ,
(Product Assurance Confidence Evaluator
),
[5].
, .
RXVP
. , ,
,
,
. RXVP ,
.
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, .
,
, .

,
, -
. , ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.

,
, , ,
[6].
1. =, =, =0. 0=0
X.
?
2. =0, =0, =10. 10=0,
. .
3. =0, =5, = 17. (5+17= = 0)
. ?
.
4. =6, = 1, =2. ,
.
?
5. =3, =7, =0. .
, .
6. =3, =2, =5. ,
?
7. =7, =0, =0. ,
.

8. ,
.

1. Heuermann . A., Myers G. J., Winterton J. . Automated Test and Verification,


IBMTechnicalDisclosureBulletin, 17 (7), 20302035 (1974).
'2. Meeker R. E., Ramamoorthy . V. A Study in Software Reliability and Evaluation,
Tech. Memo., No. 39, Electronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, Texas, 1973.
3. RXVP Users Guide, RM-1942, General Research Corp., Santa Barbara, Cal.,
1975.
4. Stucki L. G. Automatic Generation of Self-Metric Software, Record of the 1973
IEEE Symposium on Computer Software Reliability. New York: IEEE, 1973, pp.
94100.
5. Brown J. R., DeSalvio A. J., Heine D. E., Purdy J. G. Automated Software Quality
Assurance, in W. C. Hetzel, Ed., Program Test Methods. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.:
Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp. 181203.
6. Gruenberger F. Program Testing and Validation, D A T A M A T I O N , 14 (7), 39 47
(1968),


,
( ) ,
.
( ),
( ), (
), ,
( ).

.

.
, .

(, ),
.

,
. 11,
. ,


,

4
.

.
,
(icause-effect graphing).
,
. ,
IEBDG [1]

.
:

,
. ,
,
( , ).
,
.
(,
, ) ,
, . -
.
, . . ,
,
( ,
, ).
,
(
). ,
, .
, ,
,
,
.
,
(. 10.3), ( ) .
,
.
, ,
.

, , .

,
. -
, .
,
-. -

, (. . , ).
. .

12, 3],
,
, , .
, , , ,
. 4,
.


() (),
(--), .


. .
.
,
.
, . 12.1. ,
,
.

( ) ( ).
,
, .
.
.
1. , ,
,
/.
2. /.
3. 1 .
4. 1 30.
5. 1 2 29.
6. 2 .
7. 2 30.
8. 2 1 29.

.

3.4.1.
3.4.
:
/! /2
! , . 1
30 , /. 2
, !. 0 30
, /. 2 (
), 1 .

3.4.2.

.
,
!, .
, .
3.4.3.

! , ! ,
2.
! 2.
' !,
.

. 12.1. .

9. 1.
31. .
32. 1
2.
33. .
34. .

, 1 2 30x31
,
80 , .
3 8 ; ,

( )
1 2. 32 ,
: ,
, 1
. ,
.
.
,
. ,
. 12.2,
.
(,
( )) .
,
: (. . , ) (. .
, ).
. 12.3
. 19
3134. 21 22 ,

-0

@ ^

:
:
" 1'

-:
&
"

:

b

- ()

"

3.4.

-:
(
) "

, 12,2. .

. 12.3. .

1 2 . 23
, ,
.
. 12.4 .
. 12.1
.
,
, ,
, .
,
-
. ,
. . 12.5
,
. , , --,
.
,
, * , .
12.4.

.
..
12.6
. 3, 4 5
, 1
. --, 1
30. 6, 7 8.

.
, ,

. . 12.7 , 31.
32.
, , 31,
.

--:

"

J
"XD

'.


js>

"

--0

<
*)
:

^-)
. 12.5. .

33 ,
1018. , 34-,
, 23 .
, :
1, 2, 21 22. ,
,
(. . ).
.
,
, ,
. ,
1 2 , ,
. 1922

,
34.
. 12.7 .
22 .
, ,
.
512 ( , ),
22 .
,
512 , 2030
- . , , ,
, 20 30
.
, .
,
. 1018 , 1
. ,
2 ( 6
8). ,

. 12.6. .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 S

S 1

1 S

1 1 1

S S

S 1

1 S

1 S

S S

1 1

1 1

1 S

S 1

S 1

1 S

S S

S S

1 S

1 S

1 S

1 S

1 1 1

1 S

S S

X X

31

32

33

34

S: I: X: .- :
. 12.7. .

11, 12, 14, 15, 17 18, , , , 16.



,
, , .
,
. ,
, , -

,
,
.


, . 10 11.
.
,
. , 1018,
, ,
32 (. . ,
).
.
,
,
, , . . 12.7
, ,
( ) 1 2,

.
.
, ,
, .
IBM
,

12].

.
, ,

.
, ad hoc

. , ,
, , ,
. 11, : ,
.
, .

, . 10,
, (). , ,
,
,
.
,
.



, , , , ,
.
.
, , (
, -
, . 11). 0
, , .
0
.
, 0 .
N , . . .
, , ,
.
.
(
), ,
.
.
. ,
; , ,
. ,
,
.
,
, ,
OS/360 IBM
.
,
. .
,
.
. ,
, , ,
.
- . ,
.
,
.
OS
OS/VS2. . ,
OS, ,
.
- .
, -
.

, , , ,
.

.
,
:
1. ,
-.
2. ,

.
3. ,
.
4.
(,
).
.
5. , ,
.
,
(scaffold code) (
).
.
. ,
( ).
, , -
, .
-,
, , .

,
,
1000 .
, , -
.
.
- ,
,
,
.


. .
, , ,
.

.
. , ,
( )
( ), .
, ,
.. , ,

-.
, ,
,
(
), ,
,
-. 0
,
. (
), , , ,
, -. ,
.

:
, ;

,
, ,
. ,

.
, ,
,
. ,
, , .

, ,
. ,
;
.

. , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.

. 4 .
:
, .
.
, , ,
,
,
, .

, .
,
. ,
,
, .
,
(. .
, , ). ,

(
) .
, ,
,
* .

.
,,
.
.
14 ,
:
1. .
,
,
.
,

100 ,
,
.
, (
, ),
, , ,
, ,

.
. , ,

(, -
). ,
,
.

, -11.
2. .

,

.
, ,
.
.
.
. ,
,
.
3. . , ,

. ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
(. .
), .
4. . ;
.
, ,
,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
.
.
,
, .
5. .
,

. ,


.
, ^
.
.
, . .
.
6. .
, ,
.
,
.
7. . ,
,
.

, [4].
8. . ,
. , ,
OS/360 IBM.
,
, ,
,
.
9. /. .
,
(
, , ,
/ . .).
,
. ,
( , ),
, .
. ,
250 ,
250 ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. . 18- ,
.
10. .
,

,
.

. ,
, .
11. .
, ,
() .
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, . ,
,
.
12. .
.

. ,
.
13. . ,
, ,
.
,
4 (
).
. ,
,
-'
.
14. .
,
,
. ,
,
, .
14
(,
), ,
.
.
,
, , (,
). , - ,
,

, . ,
,
. ,
, .


, ,
, ,
, .
. ,
,
,
.
;
, ,
.
,
.

,

,
,
.
, ,
,
,
[5].
,
, ,
.
( ).
,
.

. ,
.

, 1020
.
; ,
. ,
.

,
. 10.
; , ,
.

, , .

.
; -
, ,
, .
. ,
(,
). ,

,
,

, ,
. .
TSO (Time-Sharing Option) IBM ,
IBM
, .
,
.
,
. ,
,

.
, :
, .
,
, *

iI ---------------------------- 1 ________ t ___________ i

--- .--

. 12.8. .

;
. , ,
, ,
14 , ,
.
. 12.8 ,
. ,

, .
, , , .

. ,
, ,
. : -
, ?
, ,
,

.
, , , 1 10
(,
). ,

0.2,

0.3
1 10. , ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
,
.
.

.
.

1969 .

,

. ,
. 12.9,
OS/360, OS
.

- OS/

(360/)

. 12.9, .

,

. ,
:
1.

( )?
2. , OS/360,

, ,
, OS/360?
3.
, ?
:
,

-.


(
- ),
.
-
.
- ,
,

. ,
,
.

.
- ,
, OS/360,

. OS/360,

.

,
.
-
.

- . .
,

. 12.10. .

, , .
, .
,
.

.
,
.
,
,
. ,
, .

.
. 12.10.

, ,
, (
)
. ,
, ,
,
.
.

MUSE
(Multi-User Environment Simulator)
TTY RESPOND CD 6000 [6]. MUSE
RESPOND , 64
. MUSE ,
RESPOND.

, ,
RESPOND.
MUSE
RESPOND.
,
, ,
-
.
,
, , [6].

.
-
DB/DC IBM [7] Mitre [8].

:
, , ,
. , , ,
.

NORAD
9].
,
.
NORAD , ,

.

NORAD .
,
.

-
[10]. ,
.
. ,
.

,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, , IBM VM/370,

,
.
,
(, ).
, ,
,
.

, , ,
, .
,
.

,
, . ,
.
(, ),
,
, .
. ,
, ,

... , ,
, ,
- ,
,
.
,
.
, .
:
1. . .
2. . ,
,
, .
3. . , .
4. . ,
, ,
.
5. .
,

, .
6. .
, .
7. .
.
8. . ,
. . 13.
9. . ,
,
.
10. . .
- .
.

. , ,
100% .
( , ),
, ,
.
,
, : ,
,
.
,
. ,
,
, (
, ?).
, ,
, - ,
, ,
.
,
, (
).
-
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
, , :

, ,
X .
,
(, ). *
,
.
.
,
, .
, ,
. , ,
- ,
,
.
,
. 10, ,
, , ,
. -

,
, , .
:
,
, , ,
.
, :
(,
, ) ,
, ,
.

,

, , .
,
- ,
.
, ,
-
,
,
, -
,
. ,
.


: ,
, ,
, ,
,
.

,
, ,
.
.
, ,

.
,
.


.
, - .
,
,
. .

, .

1. OS/VS Utilities, 35-5, JBM Corp., White Plains, N. Y., 1974.


2. Elmendorf W. R. Cause-Effect Graphs in Functional Testing, TR-00.2487, IBM
Systems Development Div., Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1973.
3. Elmendorf W. R. Functional Analysis Using Cause-Effect Graphs, Proceedings of
SHARE XLIII. New York: SHARE, 1974, pp. 567577.
4. .,
. . . .: , 1976.
5. Shelley . Computer Software Reliability, Fact or Myth?, TR-MMER/RM-73- 125,
Hill Air Force Base, Utah, 1973.
6. Pullen E. W., Shuttee D. R. MUSE: A Tool for Testing and Debugging a Multiterminal Programming System, Proceedings of the 1968 Spring Joint Computer
Conference. Washington: Thompson, 1968, pp. 491502.
7. The Data Base/Data Communication Driver System: Design Objectives, GH20- 4281,
IBM Corp., White Plains, N. Y-, 1974.
8. James D. L. Remote-Terminal Emulator (Design Verification Model) Data
Structures, Scenario Instructions, and Commands, MTR-2677, Mitre Corp.,
Bedford, Mass., 1974.
9. Stevens R. T. Testing the NORAD Command and Control System, IEEE Transactions
on Systems Science and Cybernetics, SSC-4 (1), 4751 (1968).
10. Jacobs J. H., Dillon T. J. Interactive Saturn Flight Program Simulator, IBM Systems
Journal, 9(2), 145158 (1970),

13

2,
- ,
.
. ,
13, .
:
,
, . ,
, , -
, .
,
, ,
. , ,
: ,
[1], ,
[2], .

,
.
,
, ( 100 )
.

,
, .
[3] ,
, . 3
.
1. . ,
. ,
, ,
.
.

,,
, , ,
,
.
(,
), ,
, , .

[1].
. 13.1 .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
, .
, 2 .
, ,
,
. ,
, , . 13.1.
. 13.2.
2. .
.
. 13.2, ,
(
CALL ), ,
, _ _ .
3. . , ,
. , .
,

_ .
4. . ,
, -

Korea

. 13.1. .

, . ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
, , ,
, [4]. , ,
,
.
, ,
. = , ,
, ,
, .
( )
, -
.
,

. , , ,
,
, .
, ,
. ,
.


CALL
CALL

, , ,


CALL
CALL

. 13.2. .

,
.
,
, , . 10.9,
,
.
. ,
.

, ,
[5]. , ,
, [6].

( ).
, .
, %
, .
( ),

. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,,
2, . ,

,

, ,
. , . 7 8,
,

.

, ,
.
;
.
(, ; -
, , ); ,
,
.
, , . ,

, .
,
. ,
,
.
. , .
,
, , ,
,
.

.
, ,
. ,
( 20 50%).
,

.
.
. ,
, ^ ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

, ,
, ,
: ,
. ,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
,
(
),
,

,
.
, ,
, ,
,
. ,


.
.


.
,
( ,
),
, (
),
.
(Checkout
Compiler) PL/I IBM [7].
.
PL/1,
, =2,
.
, , ,
-,
. PL/1 Multics Honeywell

[8]. IBM
[9].

,
.
,
,
, .
,
.
, OS/VS1 OS/VS2 IBM
, DSS (Dynamic Support System
) [101. DSS

. ( )
,
.
EXDAMS
,
, EXDAMS (Extendable Debugging and Monitoring
System ) [11]. EXDAMS
,
.
EXDAMS ,
. ,
,
. EXDAMS
. ,
,
.
, .

.
1. : ,
33.3. EXDAMS
,
.
2. - ,
.
, EXDAMS,
,
.
3. .

,
, .
,
.


. PL/1 CHECK,
,

. ,
(CHECK (TRAN, TABLE, I)): DIST: PROC;
, DIST
TRAN, TABLE I.
PL/C [12],
PL/1. , PL/ CHECK, PL/
,
. PL/
;
,
. ,
/* 4 PUT SKIP(3) LIST('HIT POINT 32', ICOUNT); */
,

COMMENTS=(4);
PUT.
,
,
.
PL/ .
, ,
,
, 18 .

,
.

,
,
.
, , PL/,
,

.

,
[13].

. ,
,
, .

,
64.
, ,
.

, ,
.
,
.
,
, , ,
, . ,
4 ( ),
^ 02005000,
,
, ,
.
, , ,

. ,

DIMENSION,

.
.


:
? ?.

, .
. 11 ASES
,
/
?. Cross-Program
Analyzer AUTOFLOW II Applied Data Research

,
, ,
,
, ,
, .


,
. ,
. 7,
, , .
,
,

.
.

.
,
, .
,

.
, N (,
100) .


,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, : ,
, ,
.

. ,

. , ,
,
:
1. ?

, .
,
,
.
2. ?
,
?
3. ,
?
4. ,
?
,
.
, ,


. ,
.
. , IBM
, SMP (System Modification Program
) [14],
, ,
.

, "
. , ,
.

. , , (, 32%
),
. ,
- (, ,
, ,
, , ,
),
. , , . [15]
,
DOS/VS IBM. [16]
,
, i 17]
.

1. Brown A. R., Sampson W. A. Program Debugging. London: Macdonald, 1973.


2. Mathis R. F. Teaching Debugging, SIGCSE Bulletin, 6 (1), 5963 (1974).
. . . . .: , 1961.
4. Weinberg G. . The Psychology of Computer Programming. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1971.
5. . . . . .: ,
1973.
6. Gould J. D., Drongowski P. A Controlled Psychological Study of Computer
Program Debugging, RC 4083, IBM Research Div., Yorktown Heights, N. Y., 1972.
7. OS PL/I Checkout Compiler: Programmers Guide, SC33-0007, IBM Corp., White
Plains, N. Y., 1971.
8. Wolman B. L. Debugging PL/I Programs in the Multics Environment, Proceedings
of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference. Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press,1972, pp. 507514.
9. IBM OS COBOL Interactive Debug and (TSO) COBOL Prompter: General
Information, GC28-6454, IBM Corp., White Plains, N. Y., 1974.
10. OS/VS Dynamic Support System, GC28-0640, IBM Corp., White Plains, N. Y.,
1973.
11. Balzer R. M. EXDAMS Extendable Debugging and Monitoring System,
Proceedings of the 1969 Spring Joint Computer Conference. Montvale, N. J,:
AFIPS Press, 1969, pp. 567580.
12. Morgan H. L., Wagner R. A. PL/C: The Design of a High-Performance Compiler
for PL/1, Proceedings of the 1971 Spring Joint Computer Conference, Montvale, N,
J,: AFIPS Press, 1971, pp. 503510.
13. Kirsch . M. An Improved Error Diagnostics System for IBM System/360-370
Assembler Program Dumps, OSU-CISRC-TR-74-3, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1974.
14. OS/VS System Modification Program (SMP), GC28-0673, IBM Corp. White Plains,
N. Y., 1974.
15. Endres A. B. An Analysis of Errors and Their Causes in System Programs, IEEE
Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-1 (2), 140149 (1975).
16. Shooman M. L., Bolsky . I. Types, Distribution, and Test and Correction Times
for Programming Errors, Proceedings of the 1975 International Conference on
Reliable Software. New York: IEEE, 1975, pp. 347357.
17. Craig G. R. et al. Software Reliability Study, RADC-TR-74-250, TRW Corp.
Redondo Beach, Ca., 1974.


,
, .
,
,
.
,
.
, ,
:
? , (
) , ?
:
,
. ,
{ )
, .
, ,
,
,
, . ( , ,
.) .
: (1) ,
( )
() , ; (2)
( ), (3)
.


.
,

[1] ( ,
) ,
, - .
,
.

(., ,
[2])
, ,
.
,
.
.
, , ,
,
.

:
: 50
,
.
.
( . 4
),,
.
,
, ,
.
,
(
),
, .
,
, :
?
, ,

. , ,
,
.
,

(,
, , ).
, , , . 4:
.
,

, ,
. .
,
, , ,
.


, ,
. . - .

, .
, , ,
,
. -
,
.
.
, ,
, . ,
. 12,
.
, ,
,
. ,

. ,
X
X.
- X,
,
.

,

. ,
,
.
,

.
. . ,
.
,
,
. ,

.
.
, ,

,
(, 100

X).


.
, . .
,
, ,
,

.
( ,

), ,
, ,
.
( ,
)

,
.
, , , ,
.
,

.
, ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
,
, , ,
. ,
, , , ,
.
(, , ), . 2,
.
: (
)
.
, . .

.
-

-:
,
[3, 4].
,
(, , ),
, , ,
, .
-

, ,
,
.

,
, ,
.
,

, ,
HIPO-.
,
.
1. ,
.
, , ,
,
,
, ( ) ,
.
- ,
,
.
2.
(,
XVELOCITY YVELOCITY)
. ,
; ,
(
).
3. , ,

,
, -,
,
. ,

, ;
, .
4. .
( )
; ,
.
,
-
.

,

. ,
,
.
( , . 1,
), ,
, ( , ., , [5]).
, ,
,
, .
,
, .
, ,
-,
.
,
. ,
;
,
(. . - ,
). .,
,
, . . 13
,
, , .

,
,
. ,
:
,
,

, ,
,
, ,
.

: ,
.
1
X. IBM [31. :
.
, ,
.

, ,
.
:
, ,
,
, .
-.

. ,
,
.

,
.
, ,
.

.

, ,

.
,
.

. , ,
,
,
.
:
,
[6]
,

... [71.
,
, .

-
.
, -,
. ,


[6].
,
.
, , [21.

,
,
.
(),
.
, ,

. ,
: , ,
, , .
.
,
.
, ,
-.
: ,
( )
. ,

. : ,
.
[8].
,
.
(
), ,
. ,
.
.

, ,
. , ;


. , ,
.
,
, ,
. , ,
.
,
.

, . (,
,
).
,
. , '
-
, ,
, *
.

,
.
,
,
. , ,
,
,
.

, ,

. ,

, ,
. ,
.
, ,
. . ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
, . .

( )
.
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
[9].
,
, ,
,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, ( ), ..
, . ., , .
, , ,
, .
. 3
,

,
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
, , .

,
.
,
, ,
; ,
,
, ,
,
- ,
, , ACM, IEEE
,
,
, .


!
,
.

[8].

1. Ogdin J. L. The Mongolian Hordes versus Superprogrammer, INFOSYSTEA4S} 19


(12), 2023 (1972).
2. . . . .
.: , 1979.
3. Baker F. . Chief Programmer Team Management of Production Programming,
IBM Systems Journal, II (1), 5673 (1972).
4. Yourdon E., Abbott R. Programmers are Paid to Program: Enter Program Librarian, INFOSYSTEMS, 21 (12), 2832 (1974).
5. Martin J. Design of Man-Computer Dialogues. Englewood Cliffs, N, J,: PrenticeHall, 1973.
6. Baker F. T. Organizing for Structured Programming, in . E. Hackl, Ed., Programming Methodology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1975, pp. 3886.
7. McGowan C. L., Kelly J. R. Top-Down Structured Programming Techniques, New
York: Petrocelli/Charter, 1975.
8. Weinberg G. M. The Psychology of Computer Programming, New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1971.
5. Boehm B. W. Keynote Address The High Cost of Software, Proceedings of a
Symposium on the High Cost of Software, Menlo Park, Cal,: Stanford Research
Institute, 1973, pp. 2740,


.

,
,
.
.
,
, DO :
DO 3 7=1.3
.
,
, ,
. ,
DO,


D037 1.3.
4
. ,

,
?

,
, . (
, ,
).
,

. ,
.

. -
PL/1,
, PL/1 . PL/1
1963 ., ,
PL/1 . PL/1 ,
( )
( , ,
, , RPG),


.
, , , '
.
" ;

,
,

, , (, -,
- )
, .
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
STUM ,
;:
. ?,;;?

.> , -
(,
, a RPG

).
, ? ,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
,
.
. , SUE
( )
[1]:

1. , ,
, .
, .
2. , , .

,
,
, ,
.
,
, .
[2] [3]. PL/1 .
,
, PL/1, JOVIAL,
, ,
. , PL/1
,

.
51 ( ,
) . TOPPS,
,
. , TOPPS II,
. , TOPPS
, TOPPS II ,
.
( )
1248 . ,
.

( ). ,

,
. , , ,
( [4])
. , , ,
, ,
, , ,
(,
),
..

. , ,
(,


-,
,
).
(, 1=()
I -
I ,
). ,
,.( PL/1,
, )
, . . .

PL/1.
( ),
PL/1
, I N,
,
. , , ,
.
,
,
21 .

DECLARE

AUTOMATIC FIXED BINARY(15,0) REAL

DECLARE I;

AUTOMATIC FIXED BINARY(15,0) REAL

DECLARE I

FIXED;

DECLARE I

BINARY,- AUTOMATIC FLOAT BINARY(21) REAL

AUTOMATIC FIXED DECIMAL(5,0) REAL

DECLARE I STATIC; STATIC FIXED BINARY(15,0) REAL


. "/"
DATA COMMON,
EQUIVALENCE .
FORMAT
(
F8.0, 6,15),
(, 4). PL/1 IBM
31

,
7 ( ,
7 ,
).
, ,
. PL/1
, , , .
CALL ;
, .
CALI AMOD(X);
CALL AMOD((X));

,
, PL/1
, .
1, ,
. , -
:
==--; , =(=);
IF == , IF (=)=
IF , .
IF ,
, .
DO PL/1 ,
,
t'- i-ro . ,
,
DO 1=0,1= 1;
PUT DATA(I);
END;
, 0 1.
; ,
0.
(
).
.
,
, ,
, . ,
PROCEDURE, REDUCIBLE VARYING
PROC, RED VAR , SEQUENTIAL,
FIXEDOVERFLOW CONTROLLED SEQL, FOFL CTL.
, ,
, . ,

PL/1 (, ,
), ,
,
. PL/1?
, .
, - ,
,
,
.

, . 4,
. ,
.
,
, ,
. . 4 ,
,
( ,
). ,
,
SUE - .

,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
[4]

(, ,
).
.
.
, ,
, ,
. .
.
PL/1 ,
(
). , - ,
PL/1, . PL/1
30 , , ,

, . LABEL,
,
.
, GO :
DECLARE XLAB LABEL;

XLAB= ALAB;

XLAB= BLAB;

GO TO XLAB;

GO TO ,
,
.
PL/1 , ,
. , PL/1
, :
80% ,
( )
.
;
.
.
; ,
. SUE ,
, ,
, , IF THEN
ELSE, DO, CASE ASSERT, ,
.

,

. (, )
,
(,
)
( ).
,
. ,
.
( ) ,

, . ,

TNDEX = INDEZ 4- 1

INDEX,
. ,
INDEZ , , ,
,
.

,
, !

SUE [1]. , 2.
, 2, ,
' .

, .

(
),
. PL/1.

[2]. PL/1
. DEFAULT,
. PL/1
, , ,
! ,
PL/1 ,
.
, ,
, .

[4]; , , ,
, .
.
, ,
/J) = 1.0
.
, J .
ON PL/1 ,


, ON

( ).

, EQUIVALENCE ,
REDEFINES DEFINED PL/1. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
.
PL/1
, . ,

:
DECLARE (10) FIXED DECIMAL(5,0);
= 0;

DECLARE
, ,
:
DECLARE (10) FIXED DECIMAL(5(0) INITIAL(O);

, ; .
INITIAL(10(0)).
, 10,
.

, -,
.
, PL/1 30 , ,
(
),
. ,
,
,
.
( ) PL/1
240
, 992
, 33
109
.

. , (
11010.110112) ,
.

( ) , ,
.
; PL/1 ,
.
(,
), ,
. ,
, .
, .
,
. , , .

. ( )
( ). , , .
. PL/1
,
, . ,
, ,
, , ,

J).


. , ,
,
. , PL/1,
,
.
, ,
.
. [61 ,
-- ,
.
,
: ,
(
),
,
,
. 68

SUE .
.

(, ), .
,
. ,
SUE ,
, , ,
, , , [7].

, , ,
, . PL/1
.
, ,
' . PL/1
,
,
.
PL/1 ,
,
.
[8] ,
HaPL/1, , .
PL/1 25+1/3 5.333... ,
25+01/3 25.333... , ,
,
. :
DECLARE (l,J) FIXED BINARY (31,5);
I = 1/

. J = 1;
I = I + .1;

J = J + .1000;

I 1.0625, I 1.09375,
, .
?
DECLARE 1(1);
=1;
IF =1 THEN GO Y;
ELSE GO X;

,
, , , ;
X. , 1 (,
(1,0))

.
,
. ,

DECLARE BIT (5);

00010.
PL/1
. ,
, X.
( X ). ,
,
,

X,


. , , X,
X ,
.
.
,
.

. , ,
,
, .
,
. 68 [9].
integer real (
) complex, real
complex,
.



, . 5 6. ,
, ,
.
.
,
, , .
,
.
;

.
,
, . 6.
,
.
(,
),
, ;
. PL/1
, , . 8.2 8.7,
.
( ),
. ,
, BEGIN,
. ,
BEGIN ENTRY,
.
,

1, . , , . 6,
, . PL/1
,

.
,
, . .

. ,
,
, .
CALL .

/ ,
.
CALL, :
CALL FINDTOK IN(XSTRING) OUT(SIZE,TOKEN)

,
. , , ,
,
).

CALL.
, , N
CALL .

CALL X (1,1);

Xs PROCEDURE (M,N);


CALL.
,
,
: , ,
,
. . 5 6 ,
, ,
. .
,
.
,
,
. ,
; ,
( ),
. ,

, I, ,


I .

, , , . .
(, PL/1, ,
), .
, ,
.
[10]
. , ,
, .
.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
(,
) .


,
GO . ,
COME
FROM ( ) [11]. GO
,
,
[12].
. ,
GO .
[2], , .
, 266 , (119) ,
. , GO
147 ; 32

.

CASE. , ,
,
. , ALGOLW CASE,
.
, ,
. , , ,
. CASE
ELSE, ,
,
.
CASE , , ,
IF-THEN.
, 1
(,
,
TRANCODE ADD, UPD, DEL DIS) ).

) CASE
(. , . . . .: , 1977). . .

, ,
. PL/1 END,
, ,
, DO, BEGIN.
END, DO BEGIN
END, . PL/1

E N D. END
(, ),
END
( END).
; , ,
- . END
;

. , ,

: .
, (,
,
GO ).
ALTER.
ALTER ROUTINE-1 PROCEED END-ROUTINE

, GO ROUTINE-1
GO END-ROUTINE.
, ,,
(, DOWHILE IF-THEN-ELSE)
.
;
, , , . ,
X Y,
6, X Y , 6,
.
6 X t (X=Y)
6 X (X = Y)


, . [13].

, ,
.
,
, . PL/1

(, ),
,
.
,
, .

, , . ,
, / 1 2,

IF I = (1 OR 2 )
, ,
. :
1 2 ,
OR ( ,
3),
I .
, I 3, , I
! [3]
ALL ANY 3).
/ :
IF I = ANY (1,2)

. ,
31+2 0, 4. ,
,
,
.
(, , . .)
.,
, [3].
. 8' ,
,
. ,
.

3 ALL , ANY , , .

. ,
, . ,
,
, .
.
,

,
.
, ,
DO .
,
:
L == 10
DO 20 1= 0,1 20
CONTINUE

IBM
, .
, WATFOR
[14].
,
, .
,
Dit- ran [151:
, ,
.
56%
,

,
[16].

, ,

.

,
, ,
, (,

).
(
-)

, ,
, .
,
.
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
IBM ,
SQRT IF
DO 11 I = 1,5 DO 12 J - 1,5
IF (B(I).LT.O) GO TO 11 12
C(J) = SQRT(B(1))
11 CONTINUE

, , ,
, .
, ,
THEN ELSE IF,
, , ,
:
IF = THEN = /2;
ELSE = /2;

, .
:
,
. , , , .

. ,
.
,
, , , (
). , ,
X ,


X , ,
, , .
,
,
. , SUE
:4)
TYPE angle = ( 359);
TYPE direction= (north,east,south,west);
DECLARE angle a;
DECLARE angle b;
DECLARE direction movement;


, movement. ,
(, ,
, /
),
.

,
.
( ),
.
,

.


.
,
, "
, . ,

, , - ,
.
, GO
.

:
4 , . . . 290.
. .

I=5
GO (11,12,13,14),!
3

,
14, , GO ,
11,
.

,
, (
). . . ,
,
, , [12].

, , ,
:
ASSERT (O<INDEX<IOO,ORDER<ONHAND+INTRANS)

,

. ,
,
.
5).

1. Clark . L., Horning J. J. Reflections on a Language Designed to Write an


Operating System, SIGPLAN Notices, 8(9), 5256 (1973).
2. Rubey R. J. et al. Comparative Evaluation of PL/I, ESD-TR-68-150, U. S. Air
Force, Bedford, Mass., 1968.
3. Gannon J < D . , Horning J. J. Language Design for Programming Reliability,
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-1 (2), 179191(1975).
4. Nicholls J. E. Complexity and Duplicity in Programming Languages TR-12.101,
IBM United Kingdom Laboratories, Hursley, England, 1972,
5. Clark B, L., Horning J. J. The System Language for Project SUE, SIGPLAN
Notices, 6 (9), 7988 (1971).
6. Hoare C. A. R. Hints on Programming Language Design, STAN-CS-73-403,
Stanford University, 1973.
7. Clark B. L., Ham F. J, B. The Project SUE System Language Reference Manual,
CSRG-42, Computer Systems Research Group, University of Toronto, 1974.
8. OS PL/I Checkout and Optimizing Compilers: Language Reference Manual,SC33-0009, IBM Corp., White Plains, N. Y., 1972.
5
,
, , .
, . SIGPLAN
Notices, v, 14 (5), 1979, part A and (1979), , .

'9. Valentine S, H, Comparative Notes on ALGOL 68 and PL/I, The Computer Journal,
17 (4), 325331 (1974).
10. Wulf W., Shaw M. Global Variable Considered Harmful, SIGPLAN Notices, 8 (2),
2834 (1973).
11. Clark R. L. A Linguistic Contribution to GOTO-less Programming, DATAMATION, 19 (12), 6263 (1973).
12. Knuth D. E. Structured Programming with go to Statements, Computing Surveys, 6
(4), 261301 (1974).
13. Kelley R. A. APLGOL, an Experimental Structured Programming Language, IBM
Journal of Research and Development, 17(1), 6973 (1973).
14. Siegel S. WATFOR,,, Speedy Fortran Debugger, DATAMATION, 17 (22), 2226
(1971),
15. Moulton P, G., Muller . E. DITRAN A Compiler Emphasizing Diagnostics,
Communications of the ACM, 10 (1), 4552 (1967).
16. Kosy D. K. Approaches to Improved Program Validation Through Programming
Language Design, in W. C, Hetzel, Ed., Program Test Methods, Englewood Cliffs, N,
J,: Prentice-Hall, 1973, pp, 7592,

. ( )
, .
,
. , ,
;
,
,
.
, ,
,
, :


.
,

, ,
, -
CALL,,
-

, - .

, ,

4
.
,
[1].
, , 15
/ 100 .
, 1975 . ,
100
.

, ( ),
, ;
.
/-
,
.
,
, ,

. ,

. ,
. ,
[2]; ,
,
.
,
;
.
,
, .

.
1. .

,
.
,

.

- ,
.
2.
. .
, ,
, ( ) ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
. , , ,

; ,
, .

, ,
: , ,
.

,
,
. :
.
:
-,
, -,
. ,


.
.

.

. ,
.
( )
( , ).



.
.


; .
,
.
,

.

. 16.1. .

. , ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
[3],
. 16.1.
. . 16.1,
.
. 16.1,
. (, , .
; -
). , ,
.
(, -),
. (
) .
; ,
, , , -
. - [41 32 .

, (. .
-).
(,
),
.
- (
-) .
,
( )
.
,
.
.

, *
,

. ,
- ,
..
,
.
1. . ,

, .
.
.
2.
- (, ,
, ), .
(, ).
.

: ,
(
).
3. ,

.
4. .
3 (,
).

, , , .
, 6500 48-
3- [5].
R-2 Rice Research 54 , 4 2
[6]. ISPL
[7].

.
,
.
. 16.2.
,
, .
,
. .


. 16.2.


. , . ,
, .
.
.

.
- .
.

, , ,
.
;
, .
16.3.
,
. ,
,
. , ( )
,
. ,
,
.
CALL . 15.
. , , ,
.
.
,
, , ,
.
,
.
,
. ( )
(,
,

. 16.3. .

).

- .
,
.

. ISPL
/ [7]. SYSTEM 250 [8] ,
(capability),
.



.
;
. ,
370 IBM, - ,
,
.

, ,

, 16.4, .

,
,

. :
CALL, ACTIVATE RETURN. CALL RETURN
CALL RETURN/END
. ACTIVATE
PROCEDURE, SUBROUTINE ENTRY;

. ,

, .
,
,
. 16.4. ;
MULTICS,
[9], ,

.
.
,
,
. ,

.
CALL,
( , CALL)
( ,
,
).
ACTIVATE.
.
RETURN,
,

.
.
, CALL,
.

RETURN.

,
.

,
. , ,

(
). ;

CALL.
(, LINK OS/360),
,
,

. CALL
:
.
, .
, .
, , ,
.
.
, ,
.
,

. (, ,
;
).

, ,

. ,
, ,
, ( ) ,
, .
, , , ,
,
.
,
, .


,
. , ,
,
,
, ,

.
.

,
.
,
.
, ,
( )
(
),
.

,

. , ,
, ,
PL/1 DECLARE, , DO
..
,
.

,
.

; ,
,
(
,
). ,
,
,
, , .

, , SYMBOL 2R [10, 11].
SPL,
PL/1, .
SYMBOL ;
(. .

).
PL/1, ,
PL/1,
PL/1,
?
1700
[12]. .

,
.
, 1700
. ,
, .

. ,

,
. [13].
,
,
[14] 6).

1. Turn R. Computers in the 1980s. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1974.
2. Gagliardi U. O. Software-Related Advances in Computer Hardware, Proceedings of
a Symposium on the High Cost of Software. Menlo Park, Cal.: Stanford Research
Institute, 1973, pp. 99119.
3. . . : , 1973.
4. Feustel . A. On the Advantages of Tagged Architecture, IEEE Transactions on
Computers, C-22 (7), 644656 (1973).
5. Burroughs B6500 Information Processing Systems Reference Manual. Burroughs
Corp., Detroit, Mich., 1969.
6. Feustel E. A. The Rice Research Computer A Tagged Architecture, Proceedings
of the 1972 Spring Joint Computer Conference. Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press,
1972, pp. 369377.
7. Balzer R. M. An Overview of the ISPL Computer System Design, Communications of
the ACM, 16 (2), 117122 (1973).
8. Hamer-Hodges K. J. Fault Resistance and Recovery Within SYSTEM 250,
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Computer Communications.
New York: IEEE, 1972, pp. 290296.
9. Organick E. I. The MULTICS System: An Examination of Its Structure. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972.
10. Richards H., Wright C. Introduction to the SYMBOL 2R Programming Language,
ACM-IEEE Symposium on High-Level-Language Computer Architecture. New
York: IEEE, 1973, pp. 2733.
11. Hutchinson P. C., Ethington K. Program Execution in the SYMBOL 2R Computer,
ACM-IEEE Symposium on High-Level-Language Computer Architecture. New
York: IEEE, 1973, pp. 2025.
12. Wilner W. T. Design of the Burroughs 1700, Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint
Computer Conference. Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press, 1972, pp. 489497.
13. Wilner W. T. Burroughs 1700 Memory Utilization, Proceedings of the 1972 Fall
Joint Computer Conference. Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press, 1972, pp. 579 586.
14. ACM-IEEE Symposium on High-Level-Language Computer Architecture, New
6 , , . (. . .
.
, 1977, 1, . .
, , 1977, 3). ,
.

York: IEEE. 1973.

,

. . 10,
, ,
, .
, , - ,
, ,
.
, , , ,
. , , ,, ,
,
,
,
, .
, ( ), , ,

.
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, -
, .

,

. ,
. ,
, , ,

.
: ,
? :

, ,

,
. ,
,
, , ,

.
, ,
.

; ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.


, [1] [2].
(
),
.

. ;

. ( )
,
.
,
, , .
17.1. , ,
,

.
, ,
. . 17.2 ,
Z=AB, (
[3]).

pAq

P q

pVQ

p q

pZ>q

p q . To , (-1p ) V 4

p q . To ,

p^q

Vx ( p ( x ) )

3*(PW)

{ )

( )

. 17.1. .

,
, 2
. ,
(, 2, 4, 8 . .)
1,
. , 13 ( 1101),
Z 84 1.
13 ( ,
,
). Y=Y/2
, IF ,
. ( ), ,
,
.
, .
17.3 -.
1 2.
,
. -

POWER: PROCEDURE (A,B,Z)


Z=1
X =

A
=
DO WHILE (Y?<0)
IF (Y^(2*(/2))) THEN Z = Z*X IS Y AN ODD NUMBER? Y = Y/2 X =
X*X

END
ENP

. 17.2. .

, 17,3, - .

:
1: (>0)( )
2: (7=)/\{, )

, , .
, 1 1,

,
1 2 1
2, ,
( 1)
9. : ^
( ,
), 2, . . .
,
9 2.

,
1. ( )
: 1 ,
1.
, . , . 17.2
, (
), ,
.
,
{ ,
). . 17.4
.
:
,
? 2 . 17.4 :
(5=+4)(^0), =2, 1
(5=+2)(^2). , ,
, , .
, ,
. 17.4. 5 =0.5 ,
g : > 1000, 3 :
(1/>1000)(=0.5 MV 2 ) .
,
..,, :

2----------- (,)

1 -------------- P(f(x,y),y)

x = f(xty)

. 17.4. .

? 1
.
(
),
.
,
.
- ,
3 . 17.3.
: ( Z X v =A B )A (y ^0 )A (Y )(, )
,,
. ,
.
,
.
,
,
.
( ,
).
,
.

,
.
, . 17.3
1.
2.
3.
4.

1
2.

.
.


; .

, i< .
,
. 8
3 ( ),
8 3 . 7, X
*,
(Z*X2V =*)( ^ 0)()(, )
6, YI 2 ,
(Z*X2 (/2> = )(/2^5= 0)(/2) (, )
,
, (2*(2)
Y ). 5
(Z*X1+2

(/2)

= )(/2^0)(/2) (, ) 4

( ) [ 5]
3
(=/=0): {(Y ) [ 5]}
, ,
.
;
. 17.5.
.
,
.
pziq,
, , q , (
, q ).
1. [(^)( )]
\ ( \ * = ) ( ^0) ( ) ( , )]

2. l(Z-*XY = 4)(^0)(1/ ) (, )]^ {( =


0)[(2=^ 4)(, )]}
3. |(Z*XY = ) (Y ^ 0)) ( )]^ {(
?^0){( )[(& 1 + 2 < 1/ / 2 > = >4 ) (/2 ^ 0)

(/2 ) ( , )]}}

4. [ ( Z * X y = A b ) a ( Y ^ 0 ) a ( Y )(-4, )]^
2
{(F;0)z){(F )[(2* <172> = )(/2;&0) (/2 ) ( ,
)]}}
[. 17.5. , .

, .
,
. Y/2, ,
, Zv.X Y =A B
2*1+2(/2)=, Y . , (
) ,
(, 5/2 2). 2 (Y /2 )
Y1, Y ,
(=1+1). .
,
, .
(. . )
. ,
.
, Y .
, Y
, : ,
.
, ,
.
, :
1. - ( ,
).
2. .
3.
.
4. .
5. ,
.
9. . ,
:
, ,

.
7. , .


. ,
.
; , [41
,
.
,
. - ,
. ,
, /:
(/)^(/+1)
.
/ , X,
:
[(X ) => = (1 ) \ [(i(X 6 )) = /=01 [ ]
, , ,
.
, , ,
.

, , ,
.

, .

.
CALL , ,
,
, CALL.

,
.
, , ,

.
,
,

, ,
,
.

, ,
.
, ,
. ( )
.
, ,
, ; ,
, ,

.
.
1.
.
, ,
. , ,
(,
), .
2.
, . ,
,
(,

,
).
3. (,

) .
4. . ,
,
, .
, , [5]
25 ,
7 .
, , ,
.
5. , ,
.
, .
,
, , ,
.
6. ( ,

) .
, ..
7.

, - (,
).
. 15,
(45%, ) -
.
8.
,
. , MATCHES . 8 .
9.
.
,
.
10. ,
, ,
, ,
.
11.
.
PL/1 -
PL/1.
,
.
, , , ,
. ,

IF (=(++)/3).
. , ,
,

. ,
.
,
.

. , , .
(
)

(. . ,
).

.
, ,

,,
.
,
.

,
.
,
- ,
.
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
,

.
, ,
,

. ,
, , ,

.
,
,
. 10:
, .
; ,
, ,
. - , ,
, -
. ,
, ,

, .

,
,
: ,
, .
, ,
,

( )?
: , .
,
.
,
,
(
).

.

,
.

, . ,

,
.

.
, , ,
.
,
, ,
, .
. -
,
.
PL/1 , , ,
.

. ,

.
,
, , ,
. [6]

, , (
).
.
[7], , ,

. ,
,

( 100 ) .
, , -
.

; , ,
. , . . [8].

. :
.
.
,
.


.

, .
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.

. VISTA [9].
( - ),
, VISTA
. .
,
.
, .
.
, VISTA ,
. , , ,
,
.
.
, ,
.

. (
)
.



. ,
[10] ,
.

,
, .
, ,
. 17.6, S
+, 2
,
D 2-. ,
.
,
, ,
IF,

BD
, CU, D
1
CCALL
A L CC
: APLRCO( A,
CE
R)E; ( W , X, Y , Z) ;
2
S = X +
Y*W;
3
T =
S 2 * X;
4
Z =
S 1}
5
END;
. 17.6. .

. , .
,
IF P>N THEN D O . . .
ELSE DO...

,
, P>N.
THEN ,
P>N.
ELSE
i(P>N).
,
.
EFFIGY [11]
, PL/1.
, EFFIGY
, .

. EFFIGY
, , .
,

. ,
, ,

.

,
.

(

), (
)

[12, 13]. ,

.

,
.
, [14, 15]. ,
.

,
. ,
,

.
,
, ?
(, [1618]).

. ,
,

;
.
, ,
( ),
( ).
,
,
.
[19]
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
. ,
PROW ,
[20].
,
,
post factum.
,

- .

, , ,
( ).
( ) ,
.
,

, ,
,
.
[21].

1. Floyd R. W. Assigning Meanings to Programs, in J. T. Schwartz, Ed., Mathematical


Aspects of Computer Science. Providence, R. I.: American Mathematical Society,
1967, pp. 1932.
2. Naur P. Proof of Algorithms by General Snapshots, BIT, 6 (4), 310316 (1966).
3. King J. C.
A Verifying Compiler, in R. Rustin, Ed., Debugging Techniques
in Large Systems. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971, pp. 1740.
4. London R. L. Proving Programs Correct: Some Techniques and Examples, BIT, 10
(2), 168182 (1970).
5. Goodenough J. B., Gerhart S. L. Toward a Theory of Test Data Selection, IEEE
Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-1(2), 156178 (1975).
6. Robinson J. A. A Machine-Oriented Logic Based on the Resolution Principle,
Journal of the ACM, 12 (1), 2341 (1965).
7. King J. C.
A Program Verifier, Ph. D. thesis, Carnegie-Mellon Univ., 1969.
8. Good D. I.,
London R. L., Bledsoe W. W. An Interactive Program Verification
System, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-1 (1), 5967 (1975).
9. German S. ., Wegbreit B. A Synthesizer of Inductive Assertions, IEEE Transactions
on Software Engineering, SE-I (1), 6875 (1975).
10. King J. C. A New Approach to Program Testing, in . E. Hackl, Ed., Programming
Methodology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1975, pp. 278290.
11. King J. C. Symbolic Execution and Program Testing, RC-5082, IBM Research Div.,
Yorktown Heights, N. Y., 1974.
12. ., ., . . . .
.: , 1975.
13. Dijkstra . W. A Constructive Approach to the Problem of Program Correctness,
BIT, 8(3), 174186(1968).
14. Jones . B. Formal Definition in Program Development, in . E. Hackl, Ed.,
Programming Methodology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1975, pp. 387443.
15. Date C. J., McMorran . A., Sharman G. . H. Program Proving and Formal
Development: A Tutorial Introduction, TR-12.127, IBM United Kingdom Laboratories, Hursley, England, 1974.
16. Floyd R. W. Toward Interactive Design of Correct Programs, Proceedings of the
1971 IFIP Congress. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1971, pp. 14.
17. . A. R. Proof of a Program: FIND, Communications of the ACM, 14(1),
3945 (1971).
18. Jones . B. Formal Development of Correct Algorithms: An Example Based on
Earleys Recogniser, Proceedings of an ACM Conference on Proving Assertions
About Programs, S I C P L A N Notices, 7(1), 150169 (1972).
19. Manna Z., Waldinger R. J. Knowledge and Reasoning in Program Synthesis, in .
E. Hackl, Ed., Programming Methodology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1975, pp. 236
277.

20. Waldinger R. J., Lee R. . T. PROW: A Step Toward Automatic Program Writing,
in D. E. Walker and L. M. Norton, Eds., Proceedings of the International Joint
Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Bedford, Mass.: Mitre Corp., 1969, pp. 241
252.
21. Elspas B., Levitt K. N., Waldinger R. J., Waksman A. An Assessment of Techniques
for Proving Program Correctness, Computing Surveys, 4(2), 97147 (1972),
*8

,
,
.
( )
,

.
,
.

, , ,
.
, , .
,

. ,
, (,
,
)
.
,
( ).
.


.
,
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
[1] [2].

,
, . I
R (f) , . . ,
0 t; F (f) :
, 0 t. ,
F (0=1R (0- F (t) f (/),
,
dF{t) _ dR(t)
I ( ' dt ~ dt '

z (t ): ,
t t+k t,
t . , .
z (QA/=/>{f<7<f+A/|7,>f},
, .

,
.
18,1.

-/ , P { t < T < t + M } F ( t + A t ) - F ( t )
' >
{ <t}
R (t)

At At ,
, z ( t )= f (t ) /R (t ) z(/)=[d R (t )ld t] /R(t ).
R (t ).
R (0)=1,
R (0 = exp J z () d x
()
00

= J R(t )d l.
0



.
, ;'
,
.
,
( ,
, ). ,
,
. -
,

.

( t ). (t )
(,
),

(
) (.
. 1.1).
,
R (/)= (c t ),
.

,
. , .
18.1,
R ( t ), ; R (/)
().
, z (t )
(
. 18,1. .
) ,
z ( t ) , , ,
. , z (I )

. 18.2. .

. , z (t )
, . . z (t )=
K ( Nt), . N ,
i ,
. (0 . 18.2. ,
( ,
, 2 (i)
.
(, ,
).
N ,
(,
). , , *[11, [2], ..., []
. z
( t ) , x[i\
p (x[ i ))= K (N i )exp { K (N i )x[ i] ).
-
,
:
^l = n / (N - (l / ) ( * *')) =
N
N. N . ,
[<] ,
N
. N :
.
t --------- >-

. 18.3. .

(+1)-, (+2)- . . .
.
,
(
)
. 18.3 [3]. z ( I )

() . ( ) ,
. 18.3.
, -, ,
( ) , .


.
, . ( )
.
,
(,
). ,

N .

. 18.4.
.

(
,
). , (
).
,
. [4], ' ,
. , z (t )
,
, (,
, ,
).
, ,
(0 . 18.2.
, z (I )
, , , -,
.
, z (/) .

, ,
.
, , ,
. z (I ) ,

, , ,

. , , , z (t )
(. 18.4), ,
,
. , [5], z (0
(. 18.46), , ,
, ,
. ,

, , z (f )
, (.
18.4).
z (t ) . 18.2 18.4
,
,
.
,
.
14 [6] ,
,
.
, ,
, z
( ( ) z (t) .
[7] , z (t )
.
, (
,
),
. , = 10 ( )
( )
9, 17, 21, 54, 32, 78, 82, 33, 57, 82 ,
3.3 (iV=13.3). 10, 11, 12
13 135, 245 1265 .

,
. ,
, z (t)
-
[5]. [81 ,
,
,
, .
,

,

[9].
[10, 11].
19
, -
.
,
, , (. . ,
) ,
. ,
. ,

, ,
, .
,
R (t ) .
, R (t )
.

[12].
z ( ( ) ,
.
.
,
,

.
, N
.
, s ,
.
n +v , , a v
. N
:
, 20
15 5 ,
N 60. N
; [12]

N.

N. , k ,
s . ,
,
(

). :
(
1
> k,
=<

{ j+k+T < -

^ # *

; ,
. ,
, (&=0), ,
4 , ,
, =0.80. 95%,
19 . ,
, , ,
, 60%.
;
[12].
N ;
,
.
, ,
( , ,
). ,
,
, / (/^s) [7]:

>

1
k,

(,-.)/(st+T) "
, k3 , a s=6, 5 6
, 60 33%. ,
, k
, 90%.

. ,
,
, , .
,
,
.

, ,
( ).
,
,
, ,
. ,

,
.
, :
[13].
, , ,
.
, ,
.



. -
,
, ,
.

,
. (
)
,
. iVj iV2 ,
, iV12
, (. . ).
. 18.5.
N .
:
E X = NJ N , E 2 N 2 / N. ,
( ,,
), -

. 18.5. ,

.

N .
10% ,
10%
,

iV2. , ,
'1=(iV1/iV)=(iV12/iV2). JV2,
E 1 = N 1 2 / ( E 2 X N ),

N 1 2 , 2 N 1 2 / N 2 N 1 2 / N t ,
N.
, , 20 30
, , , ,
. ^=0.27, 2 =0.4, , N =74 32
(742030+8).
,
, ,
, .

, ,

10 .
, , ,
32 000
320 .
,
, ,
,
.
,


.

IBM
OS/360 OS/VS1 OS/VS2.
OS/360

=23 ()+2 ();
- ,
( ) ,
10 , , . ,,
, ,
.
OS/VS1 90% 15%
. 15%
6% . (
.) , ,
.
-

.
.
N,
.

.
- , .

,

, .

.

. 6 [14].

. ,

(
, ).
,


0.15 (S; -j-

Sy) -J- 0,7


0,
1,

C J J , C,y=^= 0,

C u = 0,

i = j.

D i f
, /
, i,
i j ( ). S , S j , j j
(D(/=0, ). D
,
, .
,
(. .
, . . ).
, ,
.

.
.
1. ( ) .
2. (
).
3. ,
, .
,
( ,
).
,
.
. 18.6.
. ,
, , F ,
0.11. ,
,
. ,
, 1.22. ,
1.0 ,
,
. ,
0.32.

A
A

1.00

0.21
0.32
0.30
0.04

0.21
1,00

0.11

0.32 0.30
0.11C D 0.08
1.00 0.53
0.53
1.00

0.08
E
0.20
0.02
0.02
F
0.11 0.21 0.24 0.13
. 18.6. .

0.04
0.20
0.02
0.02
1.00
0.04

0.1
0.21
1
0.24
0.13
0.04

1.0
0

,
.

, ,
,
.
, ,
( ,
). , ,
[15], ,
.

, . [16]
, ,

, .
,

.

1. Jelinski Z., Moranda . . Software Reliability Research, In W. Freiberger, Ed.,


Statistical Computer Performance Evaluation. New York: Academic Press, 1972,
pp. 465484.
2. Shooman M. L. Operational Testing and Software Reliability Estimation during
Program Development, Record of the 1973 IEEE Symposium on Computer
Software Reliability, New York: IEEE, 1973, pp. 5157.
3. Shooman M. L. Probabilistic Models for Software Reliability Prediction, in \V.
Freiberger, Ed., Statistical Computer Performance Evaluation. New York:
Academic Press, 1972, pp. 485502.
4. Miyamoto I. Software Reliability in Online Real Time Environment, Proceedings of
the 1975 International Conference on Reliable Software, New Yorki IEEE, 1975, pp,
194203,
Littlewood ., Verrall J. L. A Bayesian Reliability Growth Model for Computer
Software, Record of the 1973 IEEE Symposium on Computer Software Reliability.
New York: IEEE, 1973, pp. 7077.
Craig G. 6. et al. Software Reliability Study, RADC-TR-74-250, TRW Corp.,.
Redondo Beach, Ca., 1974.

Richards F. R. Computer Software: Testing, Reliability, Models, and Quality


Assurance, NPS-55RH74071A, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Ca., 1974.
Schneidewind N. F. Analysis of Error Processes in Computer Software, Proceedings of the 1975 International Conference on Reliable Software. New York: IEEE,
1975, pp. 337346.
Trivedi A. K., Shooman M. L. A Many-State Markov Model for the Estimation and
Prediction of Computer Software Performance Parameters, Proceedings of the
1975 International Conference on Reliable Software, New York: IEEE, 1975, pp.
208215.
Schneidewind N. F. A Methodology for Software Reliability Prediction and Quality
Control, NPS-55SS72111A, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Ca., 1972.
Schneidewind N. F. An Approach to Software Reliability Prediction and Quality
Control, Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference. Montvale, N. J.:
AFIPS Press, 1972, pp. 837847.
Mills H. D. On the Statistical Validation of Computer Programs, FSC-72-6015,
IBM Federal Systems Div., Gaithersburg, Md., 1972.
Weinberg G. M. The Psychology of Computer Programming. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1971.
Myers G. J. Reliable Software Through Composite Design. New York: Petrocelli/Charter, 1975.
Haney F. M. Module Connection Analysis A Tool for Scheduling Software
Debugging Activities, Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference,
Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press, 1972, pp. 173179.
Sullivan J. E. Measuring the Complexity of Computer Software, MTR-2648-V,
Mitre Corp., Bedford, Mass., 1973,

, -

,
.
:
,

,
(, , ,
), ,
.
:
, ,
-
?


:
, ,
, , , .
,
( ),
.
, .
. ,
. ,
.
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
3000
,
-
.
.
,
,
.
, .
(, ,
, , )

, , . .,
.
, .
, ,
,

() .

. ;

,
.
PANVALET
PANVALET, Pansophic Systems,
.
IBM 360 370.
PANVALET ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , .
/ ,
( ,
)
/ .
PANVALET
. (,
PL/1) . ,
() ,

.
.
.

. .

. , ,
, D. ,
(, ),
, D.

.
(, ),
, , ,
. ,

, , ,
, ' .

,

. PANVALET ,
.
PANVALET
. .
.
,
, , ,
.
,
.

.
SBS
SBS ,
IBM [1]. , ,
, , ,
.
PANVALET, SBS
,
. , ,
.
, , , .
. 19.1,

. 19.1. SBS.

, ( ,
, , , ,
). SBS
3 XYZ, SBS
(

) .
:
, , SBS
,
, .

() .

,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
,

.
System Development [2].
, . 19.2.
: (
) (
). ,
, , ,
;
. -

,
.

,
,
, . .
,
.
,
,
,
, , , . .
.
, , ,
, ,
IMPACT.
FACE.
.

.

, IMPACT (Integrated Management,


Project Analysis and Control Technique
, )
.

.

,
. IMPACT

, ,
,
.
Simon
Simon , Mitre [31.
Simon ;
,
,
. Simon
(, ,
, ).
, .
, ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, .
, (, ,
, ).
,
,

.

,
, .
,
.

.
, , , ,
(. - SBS).
, ,
(, ),

(,
).
, :
X, X , Y,
X.
, ,
.
(, )
, . ,
,
, ,
.

.

.
,
.
(
.
[4] ,
PL/1.)
,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, , (
), .
,
.
. ,
: ,
X.

.
' :
,
, 100% ,

, .
,
, ,
. , ,
,

( , ).



. :
,
.


. ,

( ),
, , (. 6)
(. 8),
.
DACC (Design Assertion Consistency
Checker ),
TRW
[5]. DACC
, ,
, (, , ,
) . DACC

; (,
,
) 30
.


IBM.
, .
,
. ;
, ,

.
.
.
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
-

.
.
,
, .

, , ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
,
. , ,
.

.
, ,
.
, ,
.
, :
X?, F?

;
,
. [6] [7]
.
-
,
.
-
, [8]
. ,
, [9]
- ,
. ,

, [10]
.

1. DeJongS. P. The System Building System (SBS), RC-4486, IBM Research Div.5
Yorktown Heights, N. Y., 1973.
2. Bratman H. The Software Factory, Computer, 8 (5), 2837 (1975).
3. Clapp J. A., Sullivan J. E. Automated Monitoring of Software Quality, Proceedings
of the 1974 National Computer Conference Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press, 1974, pp.

337341.
4. Allen F. E. Interprocedural Analysis and the Information Derived by It, in . E.
Hackl, Ed., Programming Methodology. Berlin: Springer-Veriag, 1975, pp. 291
321.
5. Boehm B. W., McClean R. K., Urfrig D. B. Some Experience with Automated Aids to
the Design of Large-Scale Reliable Software, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering,
SE-l(l), 125133 (1975).
6. Cougar J. D. Evolution of Business System Analysis Techniques, Computing Surveys, 5
(3), 167198 (1973).
7. Teichroew D. A Survey of Languages for Stating Requirements for Computer- Based
Information Systems, Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference.
Montvale, N. J.: AFIPS Press, 1972, pp. 12031224.
8. Freeman P. Automating Software Design, Computer, 7(4), 3338 (1974).
9. Winograd T. Breaking the Complexity Barrier Again, SIGPLAN Notices,. 10(1), 13
30 (1975).
10. Overton R. K. et al. Developments in Computer-Aided Software Maintenance* ESDTR-74-307, AMS Corp., Claremont, Ca,, 1974,

79
7983

322324 65, 60, 96
306
38, 7890, 265, 266
174
39, 266
147149,
269 66, 59, 117, 124, 303
344
361
, 267269, 270
271, 345
188,
191
- 131, 149150, 200, 317
269272
269271
271272
269272
, 8183
345346
"245 255, 302,
306 39,
127^ 129
27, 62-^-75,
264, 265, 266
62, 6875
180183, 191
270
316
81, 9697, 100, 289,
320 113, 202, 203
346347 - 277
255, 258259, 302, 346
119
206, 215
152153 174
278280, 283284
184 186, 189
56, 59, 117, 124, 303
141 146,
220
40, 79
76 36,
56, 122124 243
315

311^27
180192, 229233
230231
33, 34, 120
121 174
56
147149 140, 1509-151, 164165
100112
49
174 84
84
84
4 62. 11.
280
93
160164

194
341342
307
308 216

251
78
160
164 82
92, 287, 305
39,
127~~ 129, 202
39, 127
330
15, 329330
13
101
40, 93
49
183186
186188
3334, 114 119
114, 118119
114116
54
239
330
175, 250262
10
12
2226

2728
2228, 70, 193
41, 211, 229, 320 231
147149
, 6468
8388
8488
8388
8488
/ 8388
79, 131, 138140
99
33

167,
284287, 302
72
72
15
15

157 8388
9396
95
95


94 *
94
94
94
95
41 ^ 55
STS 101 102
101 102
101 102
283 116
220, 232 4346
330
277, 282, 290, 293 320
188189

189
15
231
299, 300, 304
324336
326327
7374, 90, , 152 153
4 0, 340342
59
17, 65
230
() ,
60, 330, 331, 336 59, 151, 350
112113,
152
9, 1718, 56
41,
131
134 138, 290
9699
97
98
96
96
97
98
70, 225228
175, 119219
175, 219248
235
175, 233245
235
/ 236
175, 236, 248249
234235
175, 248
236

237
237
220, 232
235
175, 229233 ~
236
234
236 *
237
237

37, 4953, 248, 265 115
49
311327
33, 35, 120121
,
296, 311
347-
348
300308
203
75, 221229
93
37,
6362
54, 5960
54, 6061

45.

179180, 202^
203, 209
67, 69, 69, 160161, 236*
298299 137
134-^137, 146^
147, 159160, 257268, 275296, 320
ADS 50
ASES 215216, 259 AUT
212214 AUTO FLOW 259
1700
308
6500
302
Cross-program Analizer 259
DACC 351
DB/DC 244
DOS/VS 261
DSS 256
EFFIGY 325
327 EX DAMS
256
GO TO 134, 137138, 281, 290291
HIPO- 53, 150, 268
IEBDG 219
Information Algebra 50 1SPL
302, 304

MIL-S 212
MTS 214
Multlcs, 147, 256, 305 MUSE
244 NORAD 244
n 46^47, 61, 73, 90,

OS/VSI 256, 340


OS/VS2 116, 231, 256, 340
QS/360 97, 119, 423, 124, 196, 230, 236

112

216
PANVALET 345*
346 PERT 163 PET
216 PL/C 257
PRIME 116118
PROW 326
RESPOND 244
RXVP 215 R-2 302
SAGE 17 SBS 346
347 SeriesJ 210
Simon 349
SMP 260
SUE 280, 285, 295
SYMBOL 307
SYSTEM-260 304
TAG 50
TESTMASTER 214
215
THE 8182
TITAN 179
TSO 239
TSPS 121122
TSS 161
VISTA 323324
VM/370 246

SOFTWARE RELIABILITY
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES

Glenford J. Myers Staff


Member,
IBM Systems Research Institute
Lecturer in Computer Science,
Polytechnic Institute of New York

A WILEY-INTERSOIENCE
PUBLICATION JOHN WILEY & SONS
NEW YORK LONDON SYDNEY
TORONTO 1976

. .
. .

. 1080

.
. , .
,
.
-^
.

150200000G
20204-026 041
(01)-80 26'80
1976 by John Wiley

and Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Authorized translation from English
language edition published by John Wiley
and Sons, Inc.
, , 1980

. . , . . . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
2087
28.02.80. " 25.06.80. 60X90'/te-
2. . . 11,25 . . ..
22,50. .-. . 22,93. . 1/0418. 23 . . . 75 6. 1 . 80 .
, l- ., 2,
2
. ,
. 198052, . , -52, * ,
29
. .
,
. , -54, , 28

1. ESTAB .
2. ESTAB .
3. ESTAB ,
.
4. SIZE ( ) .
. .
6. ( ) . ' 7.
.. ( )

"1 .- i:* -

*'

1. . . . 1.
. . . .: , 1976.
2. ., ., . . . .
.: , 1975.
3. McGowan . L., Kelly J. R. Top-Down Structured Programming Techniques,
New York: Petrocelli/Charter, 1975.
4. Dijkstra E. W. Go To Statement Considered Harmful, Communications of the
ACM, 11 (3), 147148 (1968).
5. Knuth D. E. Structured Programming with GO TO Statements, Computing
Surveys, 6 (4), 261301 (1974).
6. Charmonman S.', Wagener J. L. On Structured Programming in FORTRAN,
SIGNUM Newsletter, 10(1), 2123 (1975).
7. Ashcroft E., Manna Z. The Translation of GO TO Programs to WHILE Programs,
Proceedings of the 1971 IFIP Congress, Booklet TA-2. Amsterdam: NorthHolland, 1971, pp. 147152.
8. Dijkstra E. W. A Constructive Approach to the Problem of Program Correctness, BIT, 8 (3), 174186 (1968).
9. Wirth N. Program Development by Step-Wise Refinement, Communications of the
ACM, 14 (4), 221227 (1971).
10. Wirth N. On the Composition of Well-Structured Programs, Computing Surveys, 6
(4), 247259 (1974).
11. Bloom A. M. The ELSE Must Go, Too, DATAMATION, 21 (5), 123128(1975).
12. Corbato F. J. PL/I as a Tool for System Programming, DATAMATION, 15(5), 68
76 (1969).
13. Myers G. J. Estimating the Costs of a Programming System Development Project,
TR 00.2316. IBM System Development Div., Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1972.
.14. Weinberg G. M. The Psychology of Computer Programming. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1971.
15. HIPO A Design Aid and Documentation Technique, GC201851. IBM Corp.,
White Plains, N. Y., 1974.
.16. Fagan . E. Design and Code Inspections and Process Control in the Development
of Programs, TR 21.572. IBM System Development Div., Kingston, N. Y 1974.
17. Shooman M. L., Bolsky . I. Types, Distribution, and Test and Correction Times
for Programming Errors, Proceedings of the 1975 International Conference on
Reliable Software. New York: IEEE, 1975, pp. 347357.

3. ,
. , ,
,,
.
4. -

*) ,
, , , .
*) , , ; . . ., . .
, .: , 1973. . .

Оценить