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Books.Ru 
ISBN 5932860480,
Cisco.
 Books.Ru  .
 ,

.
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bol.ru), .

Sams Teach Yourself

Cisco Routers
in 21 Days
Second Edition

Jerome F. DiMarzio


Cisco


2003

High tech

Cisco

.

.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

. .
Cisco. . . .
: , 2003. 512 ., .
ISBN 5932860480
. Cisco, 
. , 
Cisco. Cisco
IOS , Cisco 

. , 
IP, IPX, RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF BGP. 
: IP
(NAT).
,
Cisco.

ISBN 5932860480
ISBN 067232296X ()
, 2003
Authorized translation from the English language edition, entitled SAMS TEACH YOURSELF CISCO
ROUTERS IN 21 DAYS, 2nd Edition by DIMARZIO, JEROME F., published by Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Sams, Copyright 2002 by Sams Publishing.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval sys
tem, without permission from Pearson Education, Inc. RUSSIAN language edition published by SYM
BOLPLUS PUBLISHING, Copyright 2003.
, SAMS TEACH YOUR
SELF CISCO ROUTERS IN 21 DAYS, 2nd Edition by DIMARZIO, JEROME F., 
Pearson Education., Inc. (SAMS), Copyright 2002, Sams Publishing.
. 
 , , ,
 , Pearson Education, Inc.
, Copyright 2003.
, 
. 
, , .

. 199034, , 16 , 7.
. (812) 3245353, edit@symbol.ru. N 000054 25.12.98.

00593, 2; 953000 .
25.02.2003. 701001/16 . .
32 . . 2000 . N

199034, , 9 , 12.


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I. Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Cisco:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

2. Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Cisco . . . . . . . . 40
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

3. Cisco IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Cisco IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
IOS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
IOS,  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
IOS, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Cisco IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

4. Cisco IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
IOS . . . . . . . . . 78
IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Cisco IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
IOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
. .111
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
startupconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
runningconfig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
. . . .129
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

7. Cisco . . . . . . . . . . .148
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Cisco . . . . . . . . . . .152
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Cisco IOS . . . . . . . . .160
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
runningconfig startupconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165

II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
OSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

9. IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
IP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
IP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
IP Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195

10. IP Cisco . . . . . . . . . .196


IP Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
ICMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
ICMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Ping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
traceroute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Telnet . . . .214
rlogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220

11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Cisco
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241

12. IPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242


IPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
IPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
IPX Cisco. . . . . . . . . .246
IPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
IPX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
ISDN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
X.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275
Frame Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
Frame Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
Frame Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281

14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291

10

III. Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . .293


15. RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
, RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308
RIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

16. IGRP EIGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319


IGRP EIGRP RIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320
IGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
IGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
. . . . . . . . . . .324
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
IGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
IGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
. . . . .328
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
EIGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
EIGRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335

17. OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336


OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337

11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354

18. BGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
ASN IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
EBGP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .367
BGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
BGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373
BGP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374
IBGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
BGP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
BGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
BGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385

19. ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386


ISIS DECnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
DECnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388
DECnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
DECnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
DECnet Phase V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
ISIS CLNP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396
ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
ISIS, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405
ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
hello. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
IS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416

12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
ISIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424

20. Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425


IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434

21.
Cisco Catalyst PNNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
UNI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
ATM . . . . . . . . . .443
PNNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
PNNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
PNNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452
PNNI QOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
PNNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
PNNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
PNNI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462

A. Cisco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495


. (Jerome F. DiMarzio) ,

. 1991 Walt Disney
Company .
. . 
.
MCP, MCP+I, MCSE CCNA.
GOLD IEEE, 

.


(Michelle Truman),
(CCIE # 8098),
, 
( . , ).
8 

, AgriBank, Pillsbury, Burger King, Guinness Brewing
Haagen Dazs. LAN WAN 
BGP OSPF.
AT&T Business Internet Services.


 (Andre PareeHuff) ( CCNP, CCDA,
MCSE+I, ASE, A+, Network+, INetwork+, Server+) 
.
Com
paq Computer Corporation  
, , . 
, 
OSI. 
,
. 
CCDE CCIE.

14

: , .

, . (William
E. Brown), (Mark Renfrow), (Matt Pur
cell) SAMS Publishing, (Molly Re
denbaugh), (Jerome Colburn), (Dave
Mason) .
(
) (Walt Adams) Double Eagle Servi
ces , (Lou Vella) Allme
rica Financial, (Heather Osterloh) ,
.

, , ,
.
(Diana Mitchell). , , ,
,
, , .
, , 
, .

15

, !

. , , 
, ,
; 
, .
Sams Publishing,
. ,
, ,
, 
, , .
, , &
,
, , , &
.
, , ,
,
. 
, .
:

3175814770

Email:

feedback@samspublishing.com

Jeff Koch
Sams Publishing
201 West 103rd Street
Indianapolis, IN 46290 USA

Cisco 
, 
Cisco. 

,
Cisco.
, ,

. . 
, ,
, 
.


,
Cisco. , ,
.
Cisco:
1 Cisco: 
. , 
Cisco , 
. 
.
2 Cisco.
, 
,
, .
3 Cisco IOS. 
Cisco, 
, .

18

4 Cisco IOS.
,
Cisco IOS .
5 .
, Cisco, 
.
6 .
, Cisco
( ) .
7 Cisco. 
,
, 
.
, 
:
8 . 

,  
.
9 IP.

IP.
10 IP Cisco.
, 
IP .
11 . , 
IP, 
.
12 IPX.
Cisco
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange).
13 .
, 
(WAN), Frame Relay.
14 . 

.
, 
:
15 RIP. 
, RIP
Cisco.

19

16 IGRP EIGRP. ,
Cisco
(IGRP)
EIGRP.
17 OSPF.

(OSPF).
18 BGP. , 
(BGP).
19 ISIS. 
, . 

(ISIS).
20 Cisco. 
(NAT) IP.
21 Cisco Catalyst
PNNI.
: Cisco Catalyst
PNNI (Private NetworktoNetwork Interface).


, 
Cisco.
, , Cisco,
. ,
IT, ,
. ,
, 
, 
.


. ,
.

20

, :
, , 
.
, ,
.

. , 
,
, .

I
Cisco
1

Cisco:

Cisco

Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS

Cisco

1
Cisco:

,
, Cisco.
,
, . 
,
, 
.
.
(
). 

. , , 
, , ,
. ,
. 

.
Cisco , 
, , 
.
. ,

,
, ,
50 000 .

24

1. Cisco:

, ,
: , , 
, ?
,
. ,
, ? 
.
Cisco. 
, , Cisco Certifi
ed Network Associate (CCNA).

Cisco Career Certifications 


. ,
, Cisco
( Cisco),
. , ,
?


. , 
( ), 
. .
,
, 
Cisco Career Certification? 
, , , , 
, 
. ? 
.
, ,
, Cisco. (, Cisco 
,
. , 
, .) 
, , 
, . 
,
, .

Cisco 
, , 
. 
Cisco, .

25

( ) , , 
, 
. 
.
Cisco , ,
(CCNA),
CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional, 
Cisco ) CCIE (Cisco Certi
fied Internetwork Engineer, Cisco
). , , , 
CCNA, ,
CCIE. , , ,
, 
Cisco.
Cisco , 
Cisco.
Cisco

(LAN) (WAN) . ,
, 
, IOS, 
.

, 
Cisco Career Certification (, CCNA), ,
, . , 
CCNA, . 
, .

( ).
; 
.
Cisco .
, 
, 
.
, 
. , 
Cisco:
Cisco ( 1 2)
Cisco Catalyst PNNI
( 21).

26

1. Cisco:


. , , .

, ,
, . 
,
, 
.
Cisco, 
, ,
.

Cisco
1984 
.
,
60,
( TCP/IP) 
. , 
, .
60, 70
( , 
, ). 

. 
,
. 
. , 60 
, ,
; 
. . 1.1
.


, 
. ,
, ; 
.

60 70 
,
. 

Cisco

27

. 1.1.

: ,
. , ARPAnet (
DARPAnet)
.
, 
ARPAnet , 
.
1980
().
. , 
, ,

. 
.



( ), 

28

1. Cisco:

. 60 , 
,
66 (60 6 ) 
.

, . 
, 
. , Token Ring,
Token
Ring. 
, MAU (Media Access Units,
) , 
. ,
,
. Token
Ring, 4 /c.

, .
, ,
( ).
.
, 
, 
. ,
, 
.
. 
.
, Token Ring
Ethernet, .
, , 

. . 1.2 , .
 . 
. , 

. ( 
) .
1.3 .
, , 
.

. ,
, . 

Cisco

29

. 1.2.

, 
? .


. 
, .

.

, (Sandy Lerner), 
,
(Leonard Bosack), 
, .
,
: .

30

1. Cisco:

. 1.3.

, . 

,
.
( ) 
, 
. (

.) ,
: ,
,
.

, 
.
Cisco.

31

Cisco
Cisco
1984 . 
. 
.
. , 
( ),
Cisco.
.
(, ).
,

, 
. , ( )

, .
Cisco
, .
1991 (John Chambers) Wang
Cisco , 1995 
CEO. Cisco
20 .
, Cisco
, :
.
Cisco .
, 
. 
, .



. ,
,
.
, ,
. 
, .

.
. 1980 ,
, 
(BBS).

32

1. Cisco:

,
, 
.
BBS 
, , (
). ( ) 
, BBS,
, . 
, 
, .
BBS . 
( ) 

BBS 
. , ,
, ,
.
, Cisco
, , 
BBS . ,
BBS (), 
,

.
80 Cisco 
. Cisco
,
BBS. BBS
Cisco .
.

Gopher. , Lynx
Trumpet, BBS 
, 
. . 

, Genie, Prodigy CompuServe.
( ),
. .

. 
. 
, .
,
. 

33

, ,
. 
, ,
, .
Cisco,
, , 
. ,
. 
Cisco.
,
Cisco,
Cisco .
Cisco
IP, , 
, , 
. 

.
, Cisco 
. . 1.4 , 
.

. 1.4.

34

1. Cisco:

Cisco
, 
.

Cisco WAN
, ISDN (Integrated Services Data Network, 
), DSL (Digital Subscriber Lines, )
T, LAN, Ethernet; Cisco 
. 
, 
Cisco, .

,
, .

 Cisco
.
. , 
, (
), ,
NAT (Network Address Translation,
).

, , , 
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol ).

BGP.

,
, ,
(Network Authentication Device).
,
.


. , 
.

, www.marzde&
sign.com. 
IP 207.217.96.36, 
www.marzdesign.com.
. 
, , , IP 

35

,
. ,
IP, (
, ) 
, ( 
). ,
www.marzdesign.com. (
, ) 
.
, .


1990 , 
, .
, 
, Cisco. , 
, , 
,
, .
Cisco
? Cisco 
,
. 
,
, .

, Cisco
SOHO (small office/home office / ).
SOHO
. ,
, WAN ,
,
. Cisco

 , 
.
, 
. 
, Cisco.

WAN. . 1.5.
ISDN.
(, 7500) .
ISDN

36

1. Cisco:

. 1.5.

, SOHO (
, Cisco 1600) 
ISDN,
ISDN. 
, , 
.

Cisco , 
,
. 
(Cisco IOS), 
,
.

WAN, ISDN Frame Relay,


, 
. 
, , WAN
.
VPN (Virtual Private Network,
).

37

. 1.6 , VPN
. , ,
, . 1.5, . . 1.6 
.
, 
Cisco 1600.
, 
.
Cisco 7500, 
,
.
. , 
Cisco
. , 
 ,
Cisco.

.
,
Cisco ,
, .
, 
.

. 1.6.

38

1. Cisco:

, , 
.
, 
, 
.


Cisco ,
Cisco Career Certification.
Cisco , 
.

, ,
, .

Cisco
.



, Cisco 
.

Cisco , 

.



, ?


.
.
, 
, 
.

1. ?
2. Cisco?

1. .
2. .

2
Cisco
, 
Cisco. 
,
. , 
, , , 

. 
, Cisco.

, , Cis
co Cisco IOS, . 
, IOS . , 
Cisco 
. 700. 
IOS, IOS700.
, ,
.

Cisco .

, Ford Explorer Ford Expedition,
Cisco . 
(, Ethernet)
(
). 
, , 
. ,
ISDN, .

40

2. Cisco

, ,
Cisco. 
. 
, .

Cisco 
: 
, .
, ,
(RAM), . 
, 
.
, , 
( 
, ). 
Cisco 
.
, , :

Cisco.

, .

,
.
, 
, .


Cisco
Cisco ,
. , 
, .
,  ,
Cisco. ,
( ). 
,
. 
: 
.

, . 
, . 

Cisco

41

, 
Cisco.



Cisco ,
. 
,
,
, . 
,
. 
, .

Cisco,
.
. ( Cis
co) .
, 
, ,
.
Cisco .
Cisco, 2500,

.

, . , 
2500 2501, 2502, 2503, 2504, 2505, 2507,
2509 18 .
, , 
, 
.

, 
, ( 
).
, 
,
.
Cisco,
, 1600, 
.
.

42

2. Cisco

Cisco 
, , ()
.

Cisco, 
, , 
. , 
1600, . 
.
, 
: , , .

.
. 1605
Ethernet (ETH0 ETH1)
WAN (WIC). , 
1603 ISDN (BRI0)
WIC.
,
, 2500,
.
, 1600 , 
. 
, .
, 
.
( 
Ethernet ).
, 
, , , , 
. , 
.

,
( ) , 
, .
Cisco 
.
,
. 

.

Cisco

43

, 

( , ).
, Cisco 
( ).


, ,
. 
. 
, RJ45. 
RJ45, .

(
), 
RJ45.
, .
, RJ45,
.
.

3 Cisco
IOS. , 
, . 
Cisco ( )
.

Cisco 
. ( 
) ,
Ethernet Telnet IP. 
, , 
. 
.
, , 

RJ45 ( , 
Ethernet). (
), 
Cisco. 
.
Cisco
6 .

44

2. Cisco
Cisco. 
, , , 
.  ,
.

Cisco
, .
WAN .

WAN
WAN, , 
, , 
Cisco. 
WAN, ,
.

Cisco WAN 
. WIC, 
, .
, WAN, ISDN T1,
.

WIC,
, ( 

). WAN 
, ISDN T1, 
.
,
, WIC 
. , IOS
.


WIC 
. 
, ,
Cisco 1605, 
( WIC)
( Ethernet).
WIC.
.
 
, (
).

Cisco

45


Cisco ( 
, ) .
( 4
24 ), .
 
IOS. ,
, . 
,
( ). 
 ( )
Cisco IOS.

Cisco 
, , 
.
. R (
, Cisco 1605 R) .
 .

,
Cisco. 
, ,
.


, , 
Cisco . 
,
.
Cisco 
Motorola 68000 ( 68360 68030
28 M). 
, .
68000
.
. 
, 
( )
.
.
Cisco
(DRAM) SIMM, ,

46

2. Cisco

. 
, . (,

.)

,
, 
.
, . 
. , (SRAM) 
, ,
.
DRAM , 
,
. , 
.

,
Cisco. , 
.



. (
.) 
. , ,
,
, 
, .

, Service Provider Series, 


 (ISP).
.

( , 
, ), , 
, .
, 
. 
( ,
, ).

47


Cisco
, ,
.
 , 
, .
,
. , , 

. 
, 
.
.

800
800 ,
, .
LAN WAN. 
,
.
Cisco 805. 

WAN PPP. 
, ,
() .
Ethernet Cisco 805 (
),
. 
HUB/NO HUB, , 

. 
( ,
)
HUB/NO HUB .
Cisco 805
.
PPP (PointtoPoint Protocol 
)
Frame Relay CSU/DSU (channel
service unit/data service unit /).
IOS.
805 . 2.1.

48

2. Cisco

2.1. Cisco 805

16

12

Motorola 68000

Ethernet

1 (10BaseT)

1 (./.)

WAN

1600
Cisco 1600 

,  
. 1600 
, .
1600 . 2.2.
2.2. Cisco 1600
Ethernet

WAN

1601

1 ( )

1602

1

56/ DSU/CSU

1 ( )

1603

1 ISDN 1

1604

1 sbus ISDN
1

1605

1 ( )

1603 , ISDN
.
1605
Ethernet, 
. 
1605 
. 2.3. ( WIC 
1600, 
.)

49

2.3. Cisco 1605

24

4 ( ) 16

Motorola 68360 33

2 (10BaseT)

Ethernet

0
WAN

WIC

(/.)
56/c CSU/DSU
1 CSU/DSU
ISDN BRI S/T
ISDN BRI
NT1, U

2500

2500, , 
.
2500 .
20 , 
, . 
, . 
2500 
.
Cis
co 2520,
Ethernet. ,
CSD/DSU
. , , , 2525
2524 WIC. 
2500 WAN. 
Cisco 2520 . 2.4.
2.4. Cisco 2520

24

4 EPROM

12

Motorola 68EC030 20

50

2. Cisco

2.4 ()

Ethernet

1 (AUI 10BaseT)

1 (./.), 2 .

WAN

1 ISDN BRI



Cisco. ,
, , 7000
12000 , VoIP ( IP) 
PPP.
,
, Cisco 4000.
, 
.
FDDI.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface 


 ) 
. ,
,
, .

Cisco 4000 .
, 
. FDDI
. Cisco 4000
.2.5.
2.5. Cisco 4000

16

4 EPROM

Motorola 68EC030 40

Ethernet

51

WAN

Ethernet

Token Ring
FDDI


Cisco. , 
, 
. ,
Cisco. 
, 
Cisco IOS.
Cisco IOS , 
Cisco. Cisco IOS ,
. 
, .


Cisco
?

. 

. ,
, ,

.

1. Cisco?
2. , 
?

1. DRAM.
2. WIC (WAN Interface Card).

3
Cisco IOS
Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System)
, 
Cisco ( 700). 
, 
Cisco, IOS.
,

Cisco.
IOS , 
Cisco .
, Exec, 
, Cisco IOS.
IOS.
Cisco IOS ,
. 
Exec.
Cisco , 
. , 
, &
. &
. ,
Exec.

Cisco, 
, . 
Cisco IOS. 

Cisco IOS

53

, . ( , 
, , 
.)
Cisco, ( ,
, ), 6
. Cisco
.
. Cisco IOS, 
.
Cisco IOS , 3.

, Cisco IOS,
4 Cisco IOS. 

Cisco IOS.
, :

Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS
( 
), Cisco 
. Cis
co Cisco IOS, ,
,
Cisco .
, , 
, . Cisco
(
), , , 
. 

.
, 
, .
Cisco IOS 
. ,
Cisco, 
,
. 
. IOS 
, 
.

54

3. Cisco IOS

, Cisco IOS , , 
. 
, , 
.
, (
) Cisco IOS
. Cisco IOS
. ,
, .
Cisco IOS, 
, 
.
,
Cisco IOS.
.

IOS
, ,
. 
, 
. 
.
, 
, . , ,
, Microsoft Windows 2000, 
Microsoft Windows XP ,
.
Cisco IOS .
IOS 12.0(3), 12.2
, 
.

Cisco IOS ,
,
(VPN).

( )
Cisco IOS. IOS 
, IP IPX. 
IP/IPX 
.

, Cisco IOS 

Cisco IOS

55

, ,
. ,
, , 
, .
, , 
IOS IP, 
IPX
Cisco IPX IOS. ,

. IOS
IP , 
IPX ( IPX), IP
. 
Cisco IP/IPX IOS.
, .
Cisco IOS ,
.
, Cisco IOS
Cisco ,
Cisco. Cisco
IOS .
. 
Cisco 
IOS .
, ,
.
?
, 
Cisco,
.
Cisco ,
 Cisco,
. 3.1.
Cisco ( 
) Cisco IOS
. IOS (,
)
. , , 
, IOS,
.
IOS CCO (Cisco Connection Online) 
.
Cisco IOS . 
(, ,
).

56

3. Cisco IOS

. 3.1. Cisco IOS


IOS, 
. IOS 
. , IOS, 
,
.
Cisco 
. , IOS , 
RFR (RunfromRAM), , IOS 
, RFF (RunfromFlash).

R ,
RFR , Cisco 1605R.
, R RFF.

IOS , 
.
RFR RFF. 
,
.

Cisco IOS

57

RFF

, , 
.
,
Cisco  
.
, IOS 
.
, RFR RFF, IOS . 
, IOS
.
RFF , 
Cisco. 
. 3.2 
RFF.
IOS 
. IOS , 
.

. 3.2. IOS, &

58

3. Cisco IOS


. . 
IOS , 
. ,
. ( RFR 2 3 
, RFF 
.)
 .

IOS ( , 
),
.
.
RFF
. IOS
, .
IOS, , 
(
) , 

.
RFF .
, IOS ,
. 
. 
, .
,
RFR.

RFR

RFR. , RFF, IOS
. . IOS
 
RFF.

Cisco 
. IOS, ,
.

IOS 
.
. RFR
. 3.3.

Cisco IOS

59

. 3.3. IOS,

IOS . 

. 
RFR ,
RFF.

: Cisco 
.

IOS , 
.
. 
,  
.
RFR, RFF, .
. IOS
, 
, . 
IOS
, RFF.

60

3. Cisco IOS

RFR
IOS.
, RFF, 
.
RFR
IOS. (
7 
Cisco.)

IOS, 
IOS
RFF.
Flash Load Helper (FLH), , 
 IOS.

.  (SIMM) 
, , 

, IOS. 
, .

,  IOS 
. Cisco IOS 
4.



 IOS
.
.
, Cisco 
. ,
,
SIMM . 
, 
.

 .

 
. 

Cisco IOS

61

IOS , 
.
, IOS
,
Flash Load Helper
.
, 
 , .
, 
.
Router>enable
Router#


.
Router#configure
Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? terminal

.
<Ctrl>+<Z>.
Router(config)#

,
.
Router(config)# partition flash

, 
.
Router(config)#partition flash ?
<1 8> Number of partitions in device
Router(config)#partition flash 2 ?
<1 64> Size of partition 1

 , IOS
. copy 
IOS .

, 
. , ,
.

copy


62

3. Cisco IOS

.
.
Router#copy tftp flash

TFTP (Tri
vial File Transfer Protocol )
. IOS
, .
:
TFTP
, IOS
,


TFTP ( ) 
. , , FTP 
, TFTP. FTP TFTP.

IOS ,
, .
,

. , 
.
, 
, boot
.
Router(config)#boot system flash 2

,
.
IOS. 
RFF 
, Flash Load Helper.

Flash Load Helper



RFF Flash Load Helper. FLH
, 
.
RFF.
Flash Load Helper,
,

Cisco IOS

63

.
Flash Load Helper, .
Router# copy tftp flash
***************** NOTICE ***************************
Flash load helper v1.0
This process will accept the TFTP copy options and then terminate the current
system image to use the ROM based image for the copy. Router functionality will
not be available during that time. If you are logged in via telnet, this
connection will terminate. Users with console access can see the results of
the copy operation.
*******************************************************

, 
Flash Load Helper, 
IOS.
FLH
. TFTP,
IOS, , ,
, . FLH 
, .
FLH
, , 
. 
( ). 
Flash Load Helper .

IOS,
Cisco IOS 
RFR. Cisco 
RSL (Router Software Loader).
, IOS
. , IOS 
, 
. 3.4 RSL.

 RSL IOS 
. 
: , IOS 
. . 3.5.
, , 
,
IOS, . , IP
IOS 12.0(3) Cisco 1600, ,
c1600 y mz.120 3.bin. RSL , 
aaa0269.bin. ? .

64

3. Cisco IOS

. 3.4. Router Software Loader

,
IOS .
Cisco IOS.
,
. 
,
. (
, 
. 
 TFTP, copy flash TFTP.)
IOS
Router>enable

. 3.5. RSL

Cisco IOS

65

, copy,
. , 
 TFTP .
Router#copy tftp flash

: IP (
DNS) TFTP, , IOS,
, .
Address or name of remote host []? 10.16.4.152
Source filename []? c1600 y mz.120 3.bin
Destination filename [c1600 y mz.120 3.bin]?

,  (,
) 
. ,
IOS.
:
%Warning: Run from flash images are recommended for this platform.
Erase flash: before copying? [confirm]
Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]
Erasing device... eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ...erased
Erase of flash: complete
Loading c1600 y mz.121 8a.bin from 10.16.4.152 (via Ethernet0):
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!
[OK 2868332/5736448 bytes]
Verifying checksum... OK (0xD6C8)
2868332 bytes copied in 106.936 secs (27059 bytes/sec)

, IOS ,
reload.
Router#reload

, IOS
. , .
IOS TFTP . 
, IOS
. , ,
.
IOS TFTP Boot Loader,
Cisco IOS, .

66

3. Cisco IOS

, 
. ,
startup config, .
Router#configure terminal
Router (config)# no boot tftp 1: < >
Router (config)#^Z
Router#reload

< >
IOS, .

IOS TFTP.
, , 
Cisco IOS.

IOS. ,
IOS .
, copy , ,
.

IOS. , 
. , , 
, , , 
.
, .
:
, Xmo
dem (break).
IOS (
). .
.


, . 
HyperTerminal,
Microsoft. HyperTerminal Windows NT4
. , , 
.


. 
. 

Cisco IOS

67

. 
:
rommon 1 >


XModem:
rmonitor 1 >xmodem r s9600 aaa0269.bin

, :
Xmodem (xmodem),
( r),
9600 /c ( s9600) aaa0269.bin (aaa0269.bin). (
, .)
, . 
, , , 
. ,
, 
. .
, ,
XModem . 
IOS.
( 
), IOS,
. .

IOS 
, . 
Cisco IOS, , 
.

Cisco IOS
, ( ) IOS, 
, . 
Cisco IOS Exec,
.
, Cisco IOS 
.
, Exec.
IOS 
, ,
. ,
.

68

3. Cisco IOS

( ) 
> .
Router>


, 
.
.
:
ping
rlogin
telnet
show

,

.
( ) 
Exec. #.
Router#


enable.
Router>enable
Password:
Router#


. (
6
.)

.
, ,
, , 
.

:
configure
erase
setup

69

, 
Cisco IOS, ,
. 
Cisco
, . 
,
.

, Cisco,
. IOS 
.
Cisco,
,
IOS, 
,
.
Cisco :
RFR RFF. ,
IOS (RFR)  (RFF).


Cisco 700 
IOS?

700 
, ( ) 
. ,
, .

1.
Cisco?
2.
Cisco?
3. Cisco?
4. IOS 
Cisco ?

1. RFR ( ) RFF ( ).


2. IP Basic.

70

3. Cisco IOS

3. .
4. TFTP.

1.
Cisco.
2. IOS
RFF?
3. IOS 
RFF RFR?
4. Cisco Exec.
5. ?

4
Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS. 3 IOS
. 
.
Cisco
:

IOS

IOS

Cisco IOS

IOS

Cisco IOS 
. 
,
.
, , ,
(GUI, Graphical User In
terface) Cisco IOS. Cisco IOS 
. , 
, , Cisco
Unix DOS.
, Windows
MacOS, .
, 
. Cisco
IOS , 
.

72

4. Cisco IOS

IOS
Cisco :

. () 
, IOS
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol 
). 
Cisco, 
. . 4.1 
, .
4.1.

ping

ping

traceroute

traceroute

help

help

terminal

configure
erase

, 
. Cisco
IOS .
, ( 
).
Cisco IOS ( 
) 17 , 16 
, .
, 
.
.
16 
( 0 15).
, 
 . 
.

,
IOS 15 (
).

IOS

73


6 . 
, 
.

, , 
, IOS , 
15.

, 
IOS 
. 
, , 
.

, , 
. 
.

. .
Cisco IOS
IOS,
, ,
. 
Cisco IOS 
.

Cisco ( 
) 
HTML Cisco IOS. 
.
Cisco IOS.


. 
IOS (

). Cisco IOS 16 (

), 
Cisco 100 .
,
, 
.

74

4. Cisco IOS


. , IOS 
, .

Cisco
IOS. 
. ,

.

,
Cisco IOS, . 
IOS.

, 
, , 
. ,
:
Router>terminal no editing

, , 
:
Router>terminal editing

Cisco IOS. ,
, no ,
. , no editing 
, editing .

: <Enter> <>.

, 
. IOS ,
,
, ,
:
More

<Enter>,
,
<>,

IOS

75

. ,
( ,
):
Current configuration:
!
version 12.0
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password encryption
!
hostname Router
!
boot system flash
no logging console
!
ip subnet zero
!
!
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 10.16.4.153 255.240.0.0
no ip directed broadcast
!
interface Ethernet1
no ip address
More

,
, IOS .
<Enter> :
!
version 12.0
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password encryption
!
hostname Router
!
boot system flash
no logging console
!
ip subnet zero
!
!
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 10.16.4.153 255.240.0.0
no ip directed broadcast
!

76

4. Cisco IOS
interface Ethernet1
no ip address
no ip directed broadcast
More

<Enter>
:
no ip directed broadcast

, 
. 
, 


. 
, <>.
<>, 
:
More
no ip directed broadcast
shutdown
!
ip classless
!
!
line con 0
exec timeout 0 0
transport input none
line vty 0 4
login
!
end

,
.
.
<Ctrl>+<B> <Ctrl>+<F>
, , 
. 
, 
.
 
,
<Esc>+<B> <Esc>+<F>, .
<Esc>+<B> <Esc>+<F> 
. , 
( 
Cisco )  

77

IOS

,
, .
,
<Ctrl>+<A> <Ctrl>+<E>.
<Ctrl>+<A> ,
<Ctrl>+<E> .
.
(, , ) 
IOS, <Ctrl>+<P> <Ctrl>+<N>, 
. ,
.

<Ctrl>+<P> <Ctrl>+<N>, 
.

<Ctrl>+<P> 
. , 
 Cisco. :
Router#dir
Directory of flash:/
1 rw

2202092

<no date> aaa0269.bin

4194304 bytes total (1992148 bytes free)


Router#

dir, IOS 
. , 
<Ctrl>+<P> ( ). 

.
<Ctrl>+<P>
. ,
:
Router#
Router#dir
Directory of flash:/
1 rw

2202092

<no date> aaa0269.bin

4194304 bytes total (1992148 bytes free)


Router#ping 10.16.4.152
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.16.4.152, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
Router#sho flash

78

4. Cisco IOS
PCMCIA flash directory:
File Length Name/status
1 2202092 aaa0269.bin
[2202156 bytes used, 1992148 available, 4194304 total]
4096K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read/Write)
Router#

, 
<Ctrl>+<P>. dir
.
<Ctrl>+<P>
( ) , 
.
<Ctrl>+<N>, 
.
.

. 

Cisco IOS.


IOS
Cisco IOS 
: , , 
IOS . 
. 4.1.

. 4.1. Cisco IOS

IOS

79

, . 4.1,
, , 
. , (. 4.1)
Router, >. 
IOS.

, ,
, 
. ,
, 6 
.

Cisco IOS
: .
( )
( ). 
,
Frank.
Frank(config)#

, 
. 
. (
Router.)
. >
,
.
#. ,
Router>

, Exec Router 

,
Router#

, Exec Router 
. 
, , 

. , 

.
, 
, .

80

4. Cisco IOS

,
. ,
, Router
:
Router(config)#


. 4.2.
4.2.

(config)

(config router)

(config if)


, ( ,
). 
Cisco IOS
(), IOS. ,
. 4.1, , con0 ( 0)
. 
, .
, 
. Cisco IOS

.

, 
, Cisco.

.
, ,
. 4.2.
. 4.2 ,
run, Cisco IOS . 
IOS ,
, ,
.
, . 4.2
, , :
Translating "run"domain server (255.255.255.255)

IOS

81

. 4.2. ,

( 
), , IOS ( )
, translating.
. 4.2, % Unknown command or
computer name, or unable to find computer address, &
, . ,
run,
, .
, 
, %.

Cisco IOS.
Cisco IOS 
. 
Cisco IOS , IOS 
, , .

. :
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]:

, ,
. 

82

4. Cisco IOS

, 
. .
, [ ] ( ),
. Cisco IOS () 
.
/ ( 
, ). IOS yes
no.
.
, 
. :
Enter host name [Router]:

Cisco IOS .
Router. Enter,
, 
, .
(
IP ), IOS 
. , , Ethernet
10.19.25.1.
, :
Enter IP address for Eth0 [10.19.25.1]:

, Ethernet (Eth0)
10.19.25.1. , En
ter, . 
, .
,
Cisco IOS, 
IOS, .

IOS
Cisco 
IOS. 
,
, .
Cisco IOS.
Cisco Boot Lo
ader ( ). 
, ,
. ,
, :
1. Cisco System Bootstrap

IOS

83

2.
3.
4.
. 4.3 Cisco . 
.
, . 4.3,
. ,
, 
, 
. , 

.
#. 
, IOS [OK]. 
, 
.
,
. 
IOS .
IOS . 4.4.
IOS, , 
. 
.

. 4.3. , Cisco IOS

84

4. Cisco IOS

. 4.4. IOS

, 
. 
. , 
. 
6 .

Cisco IOS .
Cisco,
,
, . 

.
,
Cisco IOS, , 

. 
Cisco, 
. , Cisco IOS.

Cisco IOS
Cisco IOS

.

Cisco IOS

85

, help 
:
Router>help

help ,
. . 
, , 
, , 
, 
.
,
?. , ,
, ,
, ? 
.
:
, ? 
(, show ?)
.
, 
,
(, show pr?).


, 
, ?
Cisco. 
, ?
,
. , ? 
:
Router>?
Exec commands:
access enable
access profile
clear
connect
disable
disconnect
enable
exit
help
lock
login
logout

Create a temporary Access List entry


Apply user profile to interface
Reset functions
Open a terminal connection
Turn off privileged commands
Disconnect an existing network connection
Turn on privileged commands
Exit from the EXEC
Description of the interactive help system
Lock the terminal
Log in as a particular user
Exit from the EXEC

86

4. Cisco IOS
name connection
pad
ping
ppp
resume
rlogin
set
show
slip
systat
More

Name an existing network connection


Open a X.29 PAD connection
Send echo messages
Start IETF Point to Point Protocol (PPP)
Resume an active network connection
Open an rlogin connection
Set system parameter (not config)
Show running system information
Start Serial line IP (SLIP)
Display information about terminal lines

,

.  
, ( )
.
Cisco IOS , 
. ,
terminal 
, :
Router#terminal
% Incomplete command.

? terminal, 
,
terminal:
Router#terminal ?
autohangup
data character bits
databits
default
dispatch character
dispatch timeout
domain lookup
download
editing
escape character
exec character bits
flowcontrol
full help
help
history
hold character
international
ip
length
monitor
no

Automatically hangup when last connection closes


Size of characters being handled
Set number of data bits per character
Set a command to its defaults
Define the dispatch character
Set the dispatch timer
Enable domain lookups in show commands
Put line into 'download' mode
Enable command line editing
Change the current lines escape character
Size of characters to the command exec
Set the flow control
Provide help to unprivileged user
Description of the interactive help system
Enable and control the command history function
Define the hold character
Enable international 8 bit character support
IP options
Set number of lines on a screen
Copy debug output to the current terminal line
Negate a command or set its defaults

Cisco IOS
notify
padding
parity
rxspeed
special character bits
speed
start character
stop character
stopbits
telnet
terminal type
transport
txspeed
width

87

Inform users of output from concurrent sessions


Set padding for a specified output character
Set terminal parity
Set the receive speed
Size of the escape (and other special) characters
Set the transmit and receive speeds
Define the start character
Define the stop character
Set async line stop bits
Telnet protocol specific configuration
Set the terminal type
Define transport protocols for line
Set the transmit speeds
Set width of the display terminal

terminal ?.
. ,
Router>terminal ?

,
Router>terminal?.

, 
terminal, , 
terminal.
(
), .


, ,
. 
IOS :
Router>run
Translating "run"...domain server (255.255.255.255)


 Cisco 

. , ,
name , 
, ,
.
IOS ? , 
, ,
, . , 

88

4. Cisco IOS

name ? (,
):
Router>name ?
name connection

,
name , name connection.
.
 
,
. ,
, :
Router>t?
telnet terminal traceroute tunnel
Router>t


 . Cisco IOS ,
, 
. t? 
t. ,
, t.

IOS
, Cisco IOS,

. IOS.
.

,
.

Cisco IOS 
. tr, IOS 
traceroute,
IOS , tr.
, t, traceroute, . 
, t Enter,
(ambiguous) :
% Ambiguous command: "t"


( ). , . .
.

IOS

89

, , enable 
,
Cisco 
:
Router>en
Router#

, , 
( ),
, .
, ,
. 
. ,
.
Router#disa
Router>

disable 
.
exit .
enable disable, 
.

ping
, ping. Ping 


ICMP . Cisco IOS
ping .
Router>ping 10.16.4.152
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.16.4.152, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

, , ping 
100 . 
,
, .
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5). 
ping
. 4.3.

90

4. Cisco IOS

4.3. ping

&

show
show 
.
show , 
. 
show . 4.4.
4.4. show

access expression
access lists

accounting

aliases

arp

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol 


)

async

, 

bridge

Bridge Forwarding/Filtering (
)

buffers

cdp

Cisco Discovery Protocol


(CDP)

clock

compress

configuration

()

controllers

91

IOS

debugging

dhcp

DHCP (Dynamic Host


Configuration Protocol 
)

diag


WAN

dialer

dnsix

Department of Defense Intelligence


Information System Network

dxi

Asynchronous Trans
fer Mode (ATM)

entry

file

flash:

flash:

flh log

Flash Load Helper

frame relay

Frame Relay

history

hosts

IP, ,

interfaces

ip

IP

key

line

TTY

llc2

IBM LLC2

location

logging

memory

modemcap

Modem Capabilities (
)

ppp

PPP (Pointto
Point, )

privilege

processes

protocols

queue

queueing

92

4. Cisco IOS

4.4 ()

registry

reload

rhosts

rmon

rmon

route map

rtr

Response Time Reporter (RTR)

running config

sessions

Telnet

smf

MAC

snapshot

snmp

SNMP (Simple Network


Management Protocol, 
)

sntp

SNTP (Simple Network Time Pro


tocol, )

spanning tree

stacks

standby

HSRP (Hot Standby Rou


ter Protocol, )

startup config

subscriber policy
subsys

tacacs

Terminal Access Controller


Access Control System (TACACS+)

tcp

TCP (Transmission Con


trol Protocol, )

tech support

terminal

traffic shape

users

version

whoami

TTY

x25

X.25

x29

X.29

IOS

93

show , 
: interfaces, running config startup config.
show interfaces 
. 
, 
 (
). 
show interfaces , 
. (
, .
.)
Router#sh int e0
Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is down
Hardware is QUICC Ethernet, address is 00d0.58a8.e150 (bia 00d0.58a8.e150)
Internet address is 10.16.4.153/12
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 128/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input never, output 00:00:00, output hang never
Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
6496 packets output, 389772 bytes, 0 underruns
6496 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
6496 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

, sh int e0.
e0 show,
Ethernet 0. 
e0, IOS .
show running config show startup config
, 
. 
, 
show.
, 
IOS. 
, .

94

4. Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS
Cisco. , 

( 5).

Cisco IOS
( Linux MS DOS).
Cisco 
(
), 
.
Cisco IOS :
.
IOS 16 .
Cisco IOS 
. 
, 
.


Cisco 
?

.
, , ,
. 
, Cisco
.

1. Cisco IOS?
2.
: Router>sho?
3. 
Cisco?
4. ?

95

1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
enable.
.

1. :
, clock.
.
Router#clo ?
set Set the time and date
Router#clo set ?
hh:mm:ss Current Time
Router#clo set 09:32:00 ?
<1 31> Day of the month
MONTH Month of the year
Router#clo set 09:32:00 07 July ?
<1993 2035> Year
Router#clo set 09:32:00 07 July 2001
Router#

2. :
.
Router#sh flash
PCMCIA flash directory:
File Length Name/status
1 2202092 aaa0269.bin
[2202156 bytes used, 1992148 available, 4194304 total]
4096K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash
(Read/Write)

,
. 
, 
.
:
Cisco

, 
.
,
.

. 
OSI (Open Systems
Interconnect ) 
, .
, 
Cisco.
.
, , 
Cisco IOS
.

Cisco

97

, Cisco
( )
OSI.

Cisco

.
OSI. OSI
,
, . 

,
.


. , 
, , 
, .

, 
. , , 
,
. , , 
, 
, OSI.
,
( ) .
, ,
, 
OSI. 
.
.

OSI . 
Cisco OSI. 
,
.

, 
,
. , Cisco 
OSI, , IOS 


98

5.

. Cisco
, IOS .

, ,
.
. ,
() 
. .
,
, . , 
.
, , :
123 Maple Street
Anytown, Massachusetts

.
.
.
, .
, 
, .
,
.
, , 
. .
.
.
, , , 
, . 
.
.

. 
OSI. ,
MAC, 
. , ,
(, 
).
,
. ,
IPX, .
.

99

.
,
, , .
, ,
, .
.

, , 
.

. 
. ,
.
, , 
,
. , 
. ,
; .

. , 
, . 
.


(
),
. , ,
,
? 
, , ,
.
, , 
, , .

.
, 
. 
. 
, , 
. 
, .

100

5.

, 
, .

( ), 
, .

, 
, . 
, , , ,
. 
. ,
.
,
( ).
, ,
, x . 
, .


,
, . , 
, 
, . 
, , ,
. ,

, , .
,
, , 
, 
.

, , 
. , .
. 
, ( )
.

IP
. IP, 
, . 
, (, 

101

), 
. . 5.1 IP.
, , , IP
. 
IP4, IP6 
( IP8).
,
, .
. ,
IP. 
, , 
.
(TOS, type of service) 
.
, Cisco
(TOS routing) 
. (
)
.

. , 
, (
).
,
. 
.

. 5.1. IP&

102

5.

, , ,
. , 
, 
. 
.
Cisco , 
, , . ,
,  
, , 
. ,
, 
, 
. . 
.
. 
, .
 
( ).

. 
, .
(TTL, Time to Live) 
. 
,
.
, , ,
TTL, . 
, , .

TTL . , 
(
), TTL , ,
.
 TTL.

, 
. , 
.

. 
, ,
.

. , 

103

. 
. ,
, , 
. 
.
, ,
. 
. ,
.
IP , , 
, ,
.
, , 
. , 
. 
, 
.
, ,
, . 
.



,
. 
.


.
, 
. (, 
, ) , ,

.
, ,
.
, , .
, 
.

, , .
, ,
.

104

5.

, 
( 
). 
, .
, 
, .
, 
, .
,
.


,
. 
. 
, ,
, .
,
Cisco
.

, 
,
. 
, , ,
.

, ,
.


, 
(. 5.2).
,
( A B), IP
.
, .
.

.
( , )
.

105

. 5.2.

,
.
(
) .
(default
gateway), . 

. . 5.3
.

. 5.3. ,

106

5.

:
.
, . ,
, .

(hubs),
(switchs) , . 

,
.


. ,
, , 
. , , 
10.198.50.0, 10.198.50.x, 
, 10.198.60.0, 10.198.60.x.


. , 
.

, 
, , A 
B.
A (10.198.50.0)
. , 10.198.50.5
10.198.50.8. 
. , ,

.
. , , 
, .
10.198.50.8. ,
.
,
, 
.
A 
B. ,
, , (
) A.
, ( 

107

) , , 
, .
,
. 
(10.198.60.0) (10.198.60.17) 
, A.
,
, 
. , 10.198.60.1
10.198.60.0. 10.198.50.1
10.198.60.1, , , 
B.
, 
, 
.  
.
.



,
.
. 5.4.
, , A, 
D.
:
1. 
A.
2. A 
, D,
, . 
F G, H G.
3. A, , 
OSPF (Open
Shortest Path First 
), ,
, F G, 
( ).
4. A (
IP) OSPF. 
OSPF D.
5. A OSPF 
F.

108

5.

. 5.4.

6. F OSPF , 
G.
7. F , 
, 
G, .
8. G , OSPF 
IP D.
. 
(
).
, ,
.

109

Cis
co .
, , , 
. ,
, 
.



. ,
.
,
. ,
(, RIP), 
.
, , 
,
. ,
A ( , . 5.4)
:
Network
Network
Network
Network
Network
Network
Network
Network

A
B
C
D
D
E
E
F

ME
Router
Router
Router
Router
Router
Router
Router

B
C
F
H
F
H
E


, . 5.4. 
G D,
A D F H. ,

, 
. ,
G A , 
D F H.
A D, ,
. , , 
, D. A 
F H, 
:
Network D Router G

110

5.


. 
( ). 

. , 
.
,
. , 
, 
.
, , 
(convergence). 
, 
. 
.
, 
, , 
. 
,
.
: 
(routing metrics).
. 
, , 
, , 
, , 
.
, . 5.4, A
, D.
F, 
H , , D. 
A ,
.
.
: 99%
, 
.
, , 

. ,

.
, , ( 
) . 
.

111

H
200, F 100. A
( 
), . 
.
. 
, 
.



, . 
, , 
, 
.
, , , .
, ,
.
.

.
, . 
.
,
.
,
.
,
.




.
, 
.
, 
. 

112

5.

, TCP/IP Frame Relay. 


, 
. 

.
, ,
.


.
. ,
, .

, ,
, ,
. ,
Cisco .

Cisco ( ) 

.
.

. , 
, .
, ,
, . 
, 
, .
, 
.
. 
, .



OSI?
OSI
.
.
?

113


.
, 
.

1. ?
2. IP ?
3. , 
?

1. .
2. TTL ( ).
3. .

6



. 
( )
.
: 
, .
,
:

:
( ) .
, 
.

. 
.

,  
.

115

( )
Cisco 1605R IOS
12.0(3). Ethernet
(Eth0 Eth1), WAN .
, , 
, , 
1605R. ,
, Cisco (
IOS 12.0(3)).

, 
, , . 
, ,
. 
, , .


.


Cisco, 
. , Cisco
, 
. ,
, 
, .
.
. IOS 

. (
)
, , 
. ,
.
, 
, ,
.
Cisco, 
.


Cisco (
),

116

6.

: 
. . 
( Cisco) 
,
.
,
RJ45,
DB9.
,
, ,
.
(,
),
,
.

Cisco
Telnet Ethernet.
. 
, .

, (RJ45
DB9), .
,

. 
rollover Cisco RJ45/DB9.

, RJ45 
, rollover Ethernet, .
Ethernet, Ethernet 
, ,
. Ethernet ,

. 
Ethernet . 6.1.
6.1. Ethernet
Ethernet

11

22

33

117


Ethernet

44

55

66

77

88

(crossover) Ethernet .
Ethernet 
, . 3 1
6 2. Ethernet
. 6.2.
6.2. Ethernet
Ethernet

13

26

31

44

55

62

77

88

Cisco rollover .

. RJ45/DB9.
(rollover) Ethernet DB9
. 6.3.
6.3. DB9
Ethernet Ethernet DB9
( 9 )

18

88

27

76

36

62

45

55

54

45

63

33

72

24

81

17

118

6.

,
,
.

,
, 
:
Baud: 9600
DataBits: 8
Parity: None
StopBits: 1
Flow Control: Hardware


, .
,
,
.


( ),
, 
. 
( 
).

, , 
.

. 
, , 
. (
) :
System Bootstrap, Version 12.0(3)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
C1600 platform with 8192 Kbytes of main memory
program load complete, entry point: 0x4020060, size: 0x165eac
%SYS 6 BOOT_MESSAGES: Messages above this line are from the boot loader.
program load complete, entry point: 0x2005000, size: 0x2199cc
Self decompressing the image : ############################################
################################## [OK]
Restricted Rights Legend
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is

119

subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph


(c) of the Commercial Computer Software Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227 19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227 7013.
cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, California 95134 1706
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600 Y M), Version 12.0(3), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 08 Feb 99 20:15 by phanguye
Image text base: 0x02005000, data base: 0x02455958
cisco 1605 (68360) processor (revision C) with 7680K/512K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 17531816, with hardware revision 00000002
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
2 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
System/IO memory with parity disabled
8192K bytes of DRAM onboard
System running from RAM
8K bytes of non volatile configuration memory.
4096K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read/Write)
System Configuration Dialog
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]:

.
,
: Would you like to enter the initial configuration di
alog? ( ?).

, ,
. 

.

Cisco IOS , ?
. IOS startup con
fig. .
, .
, , ,
.

, yes 
.

120

6.

no,
. .

yes, ,
, , 
, .

.

, Cisco.


yes 
, Cisco IOS :
At any point you may enter a question mark ? for help.
Use ctrl c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.
Default settings are in square brackets [].
Basic management setup configures only enough connectivity
for management of the system, extended setup will ask you
to configure each interface on the system
Would you like to enter basic management setup? [yes/no]:

.
, 
,
extended setup ( ),
. , , no 
: Would you like to enter basic management setup? (
?), 
. ,
. .
yes, . 
,
:
Would you like to enter basic management setup? [yes/no]: y
Configuring global parameters:
Enter host name [Router]:

, , , 
. , 
Cisco,
.

121


(, IP, 
IP). , 
:
1. , ,
.
2. ,
.
3. , 
, .
, 
, . 
, MyCorp1 Floor4A , Router1. 
,
MainSecurityFirewallForTheOfficesFinancialCenter,
( , 30 ).
, <En
ter>. :
Enter host name [Router]: STYSCisco
The enable secret is a password used to protect access to
privileged EXEC and configuration modes. This password,
after entered, becomes encrypted in the configuration.
Enter enable secret:

enable secret.
, , 

.

, , 
, :
Router>enable
Password:

enable  
, , 
.

enable secret ,
Cisco IOS , 
. ( Cisco IOS
,
.) , 
, 

122

6.

IOS. 
, .
, ? ,

,
,
.

IOS ,
.
.


.
, enable:
The enable password is used when you do not specify an
enable secret password, with some older software versions, and
some boot images.
Enter enable password: Enable

IOS , enable , 
. , 
.
.
, 
, .
The virtual terminal password is used to protect
access to the router over a network interface.
Enter virtual terminal password: vterm


Telnet Cisco.
Cisco, Tel
net . , 
Cisco , ,

Telnet , .

. ,
, , 
, 
.

123

, Cisco (
, ). 
.

, 
, SNMP (Simple
Network Management Protocol 
).
Enter virtual terminal password: vterm
Configure SNMP Network Management? [yes]:

, yes. 
no. yes,
. SNMP 
,

. ( , 
SNMP , 
. SNMP

.) no :
Configure SNMP Network Management? [yes]: n
Current interface summary
Any interface listed with OK? value NO does not have a valid configuration
Interface IP Address
OK? Method Status
Protocol
Ethernet0
Ethernet1

unassigned
unassigned

NO unset up
NO unset up

down
down

Enter interface name used to connect to the


management network from the above interface summary:


. 
, OK? NO,
Protocol down. ,

.
.

, . , 
. 
Cisco . ( 
, .)

124

6.

,
. Cisco IOS , 
.


, 
. 
, Cisco 
(up), .
,
, 
.
( ), 
. 
Ethernet0.
Enter interface name used to connect to the
management network from the above interface summary: Ethernet0
Configuring interface Ethernet0:
Configure IP on this interface? [yes]:

, 
IP. no,
.
, ,
, yes.
Configuring interface Ethernet0:
Configure IP on this interface? [yes]: y
IP address for this interface:

IP 
( 5):
IP address for this interface: 10.162.24.153
Subnet mask for this interface [255.0.0.0] : 255.0.0.0

IP 
, .
Class A network is 10.0.0.0, 8 subnet bits; mask is /8
The following configuration command script was created:
hostname STYSCisco
enable secret 5 $1$ohv2$phQNY94qZoJAZ2h7XBigG0
enable password enable
line vty 0 4

125

password vterm
no snmp server
!
no ip routing
!
interface Ethernet0
no shutdown
ip address 10.162.24.153 255.0.0.0
!
interface Ethernet1
shutdown
no ip address
!
end
[0] Go to the IOS command prompt without saving this config.
[1] Return back to the setup without saving this config.
[2] Save this configuration to nvram and exit.
Enter your selection [2]:

Cisco IOS , 
( 2
).
,
, , 
0. , ,
.
, 
, 
.

.

, .


.
, no IOS .
Would you like to enter basic management setup? [yes/no]: no
First, would you like to see the current interface summary? [yes]:

IOS , 
. yes, , 
,
no SNMP.

126

6.

, IOS 
, : ,
, enable .
SNMP.
no,
:
Configure SNMP Network Management? [yes]: n
Configure IP? [yes]:

,
, IOS 
. 
, 
. IOS , 
.

5 , , 
, IP IPX.
,
. , 
. (
,
. 5
,
.)
, , 
. ,
IP ( ), 
IP, IP/IPX,
IP, IPX.
Configure IP? [yes]: y
Configure IGRP routing? [yes]: n
Configure RIP routing? [no]: n
Configuring interface parameters:

( , no
: IGRP RIP. 
,
IP. IP, IGRP RIP .)
IOS
:
Configuring interface parameters:
Do you want to configure Ethernet0 interface? [yes]:

127


, .
Do you want to configure Ethernet0 interface? [yes]: y
Configure IP on this interface? [yes]: y
IP address for this interface: 10.162.24.153
Subnet mask for this interface [255.0.0.0] : 255.0.0.0
Class A network is 10.0.0.0, 8 subnet bits; mask is /8
Do you want to configure Ethernet1 interface? [yes]:


, IOS
.
, 

, .

, 
, 
:
00:38:14: %QUICC_ETHER 1 LOSTCARR: Unit 0, lost
problem?
00:39:14: %QUICC_ETHER 1 LOSTCARR: Unit 0, lost
problem?
00:40:13: %LINK 5 CHANGED: Interface Ethernet1,
administratively down
00:40:14: %QUICC_ETHER 1 LOSTCARR: Unit 0, lost
problem?

carrier. Transceiver
carrier. Transceiver
changed state to
carrier. Transceiver

, ,
. 
Ethernet .

shutdown:
Router#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#int e0
Router(config if)#shutdown

( e0 , , , 
, e1, bri0 token1.)

, IOS . 
, IOS 
.

128

6.


, ?
Cisco IOS .
startup config, running config. 
, .

startupconfig
, 
, 
. startup config.

, Microsoft, 
startup config autoexec.bat Cisco.


startup config, . 
, . 
startup config, 
( ,
).

. 
, startup config ,
.

, 
startup config running config.

running config.

runningconfig
running config 
( ). , 
, running config .
star
tup config running config.
running config , 
. , 
IP Eth0, running
config. 
.

129

,
. , 
, ,
.



startup config running config 
.
( 
).
startup config running config 
. running config,
system dir.
STYSCisco#cd system:
STYSCisco#dir
Directory of system:/
2 dr x
1 rw

0
541

<no date> memory


<no date> running config

startup config , ,
nvram (nonvolatile RAM 
):
STYSCisco#cd nvram:
STYSCisco#dir
Directory of nvram:/
1 rw
2

604
5

<no date> startup config


<no date> private config

( private config
.)
startup config, show. (,
4 , Cisco IOS 
.)
STYSCisco#show startup config
Using 604 out of 7506 bytes
!
version 12.0
service config
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password encryption
!
hostname STYSCisco

130

6.
!
enable secret 5 $1$8HHJ$6dzol4.tGP2gUB6uFfwHS0
enable password enable
!
ip subnet zero
!
!
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 10.16.4.153 255.240.0.0
no ip directed broadcast
no cdp enable
!
interface Ethernet1
no ip address
no ip directed broadcast
shutdown
no cdp enable
!
ip classless
!
dialer list 1 protocol ip permit
dialer list 1 protocol ipx permit
!
line con 0
exec timeout 0 0
transport input none
line vty 0 4
password vterm
login
!
end

,
, , 
startup config. 
.
running config 
:
Router#show running config

:
startup config, 
running config, 
. , .
startup config setup. 
setup ( 
) , 
, startup config

131

. , 
setup, 
. startup con
fig. startup config ,
, 
. (, 
startup config .)

startup config,
running config. ,
.

Cisco
IOS running config. 
,
. , 
IP ,
running config.
, , RouterA , Ether
net IP
, IP.
, 
.
, startup config
running config. , run
ning config, .
startup config running config,

, :
1. ( show) , star
tup config .
2. , ,
:
STYSCisco#copy starting config running config
Destination filename [running config]?
604 bytes copied in 2.136 secs (302 bytes/sec)

3. startup config running config. 


, running config,
.

, , 
, . 
running config startup config. 

132

6.

, 
.
STYSCisco#copy running config startup config
Destination filename [startup config]?
Building configuration...


, , 
.


Cisco, , 
, .
,
. 
, .
, startup config
. ,
.
STYSCisco#erase startup config
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]
Erase of nvram: complete
STYSCisco#

,
reload.
STYSCisco#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]
02:33:39: %SYS 5 RELOAD: Reload requested

,
,
.

setup . 
, (
) startup config.
STYSCisco#setup
System Configuration Dialog
Continue with configuration dialog? [yes/no]: y
At any point you may enter a question mark ? for help.

133

Use ctrl c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.


Default settings are in square brackets [].
Basic management setup configures only enough connectivity
for management of the system, extended setup will ask you
to configure each interface on the system
Would you like to enter basic management setup? [yes/no]:


. ,
.


.
: 
.

 ,
. , 
, , Eth0.
,
. 
, .


( ) 
. 
, 
.
, ,
. hostname 
. (, 
, , 
running config. running config 
startup config, .)
Router>enable
Password:
Router#configure
Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#

134

6.

config (configure) running config


.
IOS, config
: , . 
. Cisco, 
, .
Router(config)#hostname STYSCisco
STYSCisco(config)#

hostname, , 
. , 
:
.
<Ctrl>+<Z>, running config
( ).
STYSCisco(config)#^Z
STYSCisco#
00:12:39: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console



: enable secret, enable
.  Cisco IOS
. (
) .
IOS.


, 
, 
configure.
STYSCisco#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
STYSCisco(config)#enable secret 0 secretpassword
STYSCisco(config)#^Z
STYSCisco#
STYSCisco#configure terminal

, enable,
,
enable. enable secret 0 secretpassword
: , 
enable secret secretpassword.
, .

135

5 ( enable secret 5 secretpassword),


, .
show , 
$1$SuLj$3frAAOQrjkr3GyBT737lk1.

enable
enable, ,
, :
STYSCisco#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
STYSCisco(config)#enable password newpassword
STYSCisco(config)#

, enable 
.
enable .


,
Telnet, line configure.
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line vty 0 4
Router(config line)#login
Router(config line)#password 0 vterm
Router(config line)#^Z
Router#

,

.

, 
.

line, ,
04:
Router(config)#line vty 0 4

, 
. , 
0 vterm:

136

6.
Router(config line)#login
Router(config line)#password 0 vterm

, <Ctrl>+<Z>,
.


(auxi
liary) , .
(
, , 
). 
Cisco,
.
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line aux 0
Router(config line)#login
Router(config line)#password 0 auxpassword
Router(config line)#^Z
Router#

,
Cisco, .


. 
,
, , , .
:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line con 0
Router(config line)#login
Router(config line)#password 0 conpassword
Router(config line)#^Z
Router#

, Cisco
IOS. , ,
. ,
? , 
, ?


. 

137

.
, 
, no.
, ,
:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line con 0
Router(config line)#login
Router(config line)# no password 0 conpassword
Router(config line)#^Z
Router#

no, password. IOS,


.
IOS , ,
no.

no, ,
IOS .
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line con 0
Router(config line)#login
Router(config line)# no password 0
Router(config line)#^Z
Router#

, .

, 
Cisco IOS. , IP Ethernet, 
:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#no ip address 10.52.189.122 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#

, no , .

,
, ,
? .

138

6.

, 
. ( 
enable secret) running
config, startup config.
, running config startup config.
enable secret, 
.


(
),  Cisco, 
.

show version 
.
:
Router>show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600 Y M), Version 12.0(3), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 08 Feb 99 20:15 by phanguye
Image text base: 0x02005000, data base: 0x02455958
ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.0(3)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
ROM: 1600 Software (C1600 RBOOT R), Version 12.0(3)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Router uptime is 1 hour, 8 minutes
System restarted by power on
System image file is flash:aaa0269.bin
cisco 1605 (68360) processor (revision C) with 7680K/512K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID 17531816, with hardware revision 00000002
Bridging software.
X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
2 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
System/IO memory with parity disabled
8192K bytes of DRAM onboard
System running from RAM
8K bytes of non volatile configuration memory.
4096K bytes of processor board PCMCIA flash (Read/Write)
Configuration register is 0x2102

, , , 
. ,
.

139


, 
.

. (
60 ), .
ROMMON (ROM mo
nitor ):
System Bootstrap, Version 12.0(3)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
C1600 platform with 8192 Kbytes of main memory
monitor: command boot aborted due to user interrupt
rommon 1 >

 confreg.
:
rommon 4 > confreg
Configuration Summary
enabled are:
load rom after netboot fails
console baud: 9600
boot: image specified by the boot system commands
or default to: cisco2 C1600
do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]:

yes : Do you wish to change the configurati


on? ( ?). no
, : Ignore
system config info? ( 
?):
do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y
enable diagnostic mode? y/n [n]: n
enable use net in IP bcast address? y/n [n]: n
disable load rom after netboot fails? y/n [n]: n
enable use all zero broadcast? y/n [n]: n
enable break/abort has effect? y/n [n]: n
enable ignore system config info? y/n [n]

yes. no ,
: Change boot characteristics? ( 
?). yes <Enter> ( 
2).

140

6.

, 
. no .
, .
,
, no 
enable secret .
Cisco 
.

. 
.
, 
.


Cisco , 
. Ethernet, Token Ring,
ISDN, AUX . 
.
, , .
, 
0. , Ethernet Cisco 1605R Ether
net0 Ethernet1. , 
. 142
Ethernet0,
:
Router#show interface ethernet 0
Ethernet0 is administratively down, line protocol is down
Hardware is QUICC Ethernet, address is 00d0.58a8.e150 (bia 00d0.58a8.e150)
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 170/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input never, output 01:39:31, output hang never
Last clearing of show interface counters never
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
48 packets output, 2880 bytes, 0 underruns
48 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets

141

0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred


48 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
Router#

show interface . 
100 .

: Ethernet0 is administratively down, line pro


tocol is down, .
, .
, Ethernet0 is
administratively down ( Ethernet0 ).
, ( IOS) 
. Cisco 
, 
, .
.
, 
shutdown. configure:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#
01:58:38: %LINK 3 UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0, changed state to up

configure 
, IOS, Et
hernet0. Router(configure if)# 
, .
(
) shutdown.
no. 
IOS, Ethernet0 .
, 
,
sh int e 0:
Router#show interface ethernet 0
Ethernet0 is administratively up, line protocol is down
Hardware is QUICC Ethernet, address is 00d0.58a8.e150 (bia 00d0.58a8.e150)
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 170/255, load 1/255

,
. ( 

142

6.

.) 
. 
. IP.
IP 
.
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip address 10.52.189.122 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#
02:16:09: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#

IP .
ip address IOS,
.
ip address 10.52.189.122 255.255.0.0

,
. : 
, .
, ,
. 
, .

sh int Ether
net0.
Router#show interface ethernet 0
Ethernet0 is administratively up, line protocol is up
Hardware is QUICC Ethernet, address is 00d0.58a8.e150 (bia 00d0.58a8.e150)
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 170/255, load 1/255

,
, int e0 ,
.

Cisco, .


, 
Cisco, , 
.
, ,
.

143

,
, :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#banner motd ! This is the message of the day !
Router(config)#

,
.
, , 
. . 6.4 
, Cisco IOS, , .
6.4. Cisco

MOTD
(message of the day)


. 

MOTD.

Exec

Exec ( MOTD) 
,
.

Incoming

Incoming ,
Telnet 
.

Login

Login MOTD,
.

, 
, Cisco
IOS.
Cisco IOS
, 
.

, ,
. 
.
 ,
, setup
.

144

6.




?
, 
. 
,
, (

). , WIC,
.

1. Ethernet,
?
2. 
?
3.
?
4. 
?

1. rollover.
2. line ( ).
3. MOTD (Message of The Day).
4. setup ( ).

1. MOTD :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#banner motd B This is Sophias router! So Back Off B
Router(config)#

, :
This is Sophias router! So

B .
, 

145

, B
Back.
2. IP Ethernet1
, 
:
running config:
Current configuration:
!
version 12.0
service config
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password encryption
!
hostname Router
!
enable secret 5 $1$Zk7H$Svxp5px.vyLcRg7hDXo8Z1
enable password enable
!
ip subnet zero
no ip routing
!
!
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 10.52.189.122 255.255.0.0
no ip directed broadcast
no ip route cache
no shutdown
no cdp enable
!
interface Ethernet1
no ip address 198.56.34.1 255.255.0.0
no ip directed broadcast
no ip route cache
no shutdown
no cdp enable
!
ip classless
!
!
line con 0
exec timeout 0 0
transport input none
line vty 0 4
password vterm
login
!
end
startup config:

146

6.
Current configuration:
!
version 12.0
service config
service timestamps debug uptime
service timestamps log uptime
no service password encryption
!
hostname Router
!
enable secret 5 $1$Zk7H$Svxp5px.vyLcRg7hDXo8Z1
enable password enable
!
ip subnet zero
no ip routing
!
!
!
interface Ethernet0
ip address 10.52.189.122 255.255.0.0
no ip directed broadcast
no ip route cache
no shutdown
no cdp enable
!
interface Ethernet1
no ip address 10.75.24.125 255.255.0.0
no ip directed broadcast
no ip route cache
no shutdown
no cdp enable
!
ip classless
!
!
line con 0
exec timeout 0 0
transport input none
line vty 0 4
password vterm
login
!
end

10.75.24.125
3. Telnet goaway?

Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

147

Router#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#
Router(config)#line vty 0 4
Router(config line)#login
Router(config line)#password 0 goaway

Router#setup ( goaway)

7

Cisco

. ,
. , 
,
(, , ).
Cisco , 
, .
Cisco, 
:

Cisco IOS

,
. , 

, .
Cisco ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

. , 
, ,
: running config startup config. 

149


.
( 
, ), 
, Cisco.
.



. 
, 
. , , 
.

, 
.
, ( ), 
,

. ,

. ,
, 
.
, 
.

, ,
. 
.
.


. ( 
) , 
:

()

( Cisco)

. 

.
.

150

7. Cisco

,
,
.
( )
.

. 
, .

, , , 
. 

. , 
, 
.
.


. 20
.
, .

,
. Cisco
. 
, ,
, .
(offline) 
. , 
,
. 
.

, 
( 
, Cisco 
, ).
, 
, ,
.
, 
.
, .

151


,
, . ,
, , . 
. Cisco, 
.


.
.

. ( )
. 
.
, , 
.
,
, .
.
, 
.

,
.

()
. . 

Cisco.
Cisco 
( 2
Cisco). , ( 
), .
Cisco ,

. Cisco DC ;
Cisco .

Cisco
( ISP), 
.
, 
.

152

7. Cisco
, 
Cisco. Cisco 
( ), 
. 

.

Cisco

. 
, 
, , .

. ,
, 
,
.
, 
,
,
, .
( ) 
. Cisco
, 
, . 
( ).
,
, 

.


: 
. , ,
, 
. 
, ,
.
. 
,
.

Cisco IOS (

153

, ).
Cisco
.

: . 
,
.


Cisco
,
. 
,
, 
.

: , 

. 

,
.
, 
. . 7.1 
, 
.
( ) . 7.1
Cisco 2600 Ethernet.
/
.


. .

D, 
. A, B C
D, E F.
.

, D.
, , , 
, .

154

7. Cisco

. 7.1.


, 
.

.
, (30 ).

(1 ).

show interface 
. ( 
, proto
col down, administratively down.) show interface 
:

155

Ethernet0 is administratively up, line protocol is down


Hardware is QUICC Ethernet, address is 00d0.58a8.e150 (bia
00d0.58a8.e150)
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 252/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input never, output 1w0d, output hang never
Last clearing of show interface counters never
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
3 packets output, 180 bytes, 0 underruns
3 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
3 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
Ethernet1 is administratively up, line protocol is down
Hardware is QUICC Ethernet, address is 00d0.58a8.e151 (bia
00d0.58a8.e151)
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 252/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
Last input never, output 1w0d, output hang never
Last clearing of show interface counters never
Queueing strategy: fifo
Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops
5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 input packets with dribble condition detected
3 packets output, 180 bytes, 0 underruns
3 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
3 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

protocol down,
, .

.
,
,
,

156

7. Cisco

, , 10
.

.
(2 ).

(2 ).

Ethernet (3 ).
TFTP 
(2 ).
, 
,
.

20 , 
. 
. 
.
, , 
,
, 
. 
.




, .

, 
, 
, , 
.

. , 
.
, . 
, ,  .
, (
) 
. 
, 
,

157

. , 
, .

.
,

.
, .
, 
. . 7.2 ,
.
1 2
D E. , 

. 7.2.

158

7. Cisco

/ . 
, . 7.2,
(switches) 
(habs).

(hab), , 
. , 
.

( Cisco), 
. 
Cisco , 
D. D
,
, 1.
,
? , 
?

. 
, 

Cisco. . 7.3 , ,
.
, : 
D 1, 
E 2. 
.
, , 
.
, ,
.

.

, ,

STP (Spanning Tree Protocol ).



. , D , 
40% , 

159

. 7.3.

1 60%. 
,
.
( )
Cisco , 
7000.
,
.
, , 
, 
Cisco.
.

160

7. Cisco


Cisco IOS

Cisco. 

, ,
.
: 
, .
, .
,
. 
,
.


, , :
, . , 
, 
. , 
, running config. 
,
.
, running config ,
. running config 
, 
.
, , startup config.
6 , startup config running config
. , . 
running config
startup config. 
.

running config startup config .


, , running config, 
startup config ( startup config
). 
.

Cisco,
, Cisco IOS. IOS
,

Cisco IOS

161

. IOS 
(
). ,
IOS, 
.
Cisco, 
, startup config
running config.

runningconfig startupconfig

TFTP. TFTP
:
IOS star
tup config running config. ,

.

, , , , TFTP,
, . 
,  ,
, .


TFTP
TFTP 
,
, 
. 
,
startup config ,
.
copy 
.
, TFTP.

running config startup config startup


config . ,
startup config .
, running config startup config,
.

162

7. Cisco

running config startup config, 


copy :
Router#copy run start

, 
, startup config.
, , 
startup config, IOS
running config.
startup config running
config .
running config startup config,
, 
.
IOS TFTP
.
IOS  Cisco CCO (Cisco Con
nection Online; . 3 Cisco IOS). , 
Cisco IOS
( 
IOS). TFTP,
, Cisco.

IOS Cisco. 
 Cisco CCO (www.cisco.com).
,
Cisco.
IOS .

Cisco IOS, ,

. Cisco Remote Software
Loader. Cisco RSL Windows,
IOS TFTP. RSL 
TFTP, TFTP
.

Cisco,
, .

TFTP

, copy.

. ( ) 

Cisco IOS

163

, copy,
TFTP .

copy
Cisco.

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol ) 


, FTP, 
UDP (User Datagram Protocol
). TFTP FTP.

3 Cisco IOS
Cisco IOS TFTP . ,
, 3. 
copy , , 
, 
.
, 
. ,
startup config running config, 
, .
TFTP, 
:
Router#copy running config tftp
Address or name of remote host []? 10.4.16.152
Destination filename [running config]?routera running config

, 
running config startup config.
TFTP, IOS
IP . 
, IOS TFTP.
TFTP, 

.

, ,
( ) , 
, . TFTP
root ( ). ,
running config TFTP,
, .

164

7. Cisco


, 
. 
, 
. 
, (
6).
, 
TFTP :
Router#copy tftp startup config
Address or name of remote host []? 10.4.16.152
Source filename [startup config]?routera running config

Router#reload

, , running
config running config, startup config. 
, ,
 . startup config 
,
reload, . 
.

, Cisco.
. 8
.


Cisco . 
Cisco.

Cisco , 
, 

.


TFTP.


running
config, startup config, 
?

165

, 
, 
running
config startup config.

1.
?
2. Cisco

?
3. , running config startup con
fig ?
4. ?

1. copy.
2. .
3. . startup config running config 
.
4. .

.

1. copy, IOS
TFTP , 
.

Router#copy runnning config tftp


Address or name of remote host []? 10.4.16.152
Destination filename [running config]?routera running config
Router#copy tftp startup config
Address or name of remote host []? 10.4.16.152
Source filename [startup config]?routera running config

Router#reload

II

8

IP

10 IP Cisco
11

12

IPX

13
14


Cisco.
, : .

, .
( )
. 
, 
, .
:

OSI


:
. 
, 
. 
. , IP IPX,
.

170

8.

, 
( 
).
RIP OSPF. 
.

, 
Cisco, . 
, 
, :
IP (Internet Protocol )
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange )
:
RIP (Routing Information Protocol )
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 
)
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
)
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First 
)
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol )

,
, , 
. 
IP IPX. ,
, Cisco.
( ),
. 
, ,
. 

. 
.
, ,
, ( 
, 
). 
OSI;
 .

, . , 
 

OSI

171

, , . , 
.

, , TCP IP.
OSI,
.
OSI Cisco.

OSI ( , 
)
. . , ,
World Wide Web ,
Web . OSI
, World Wide Web 
.

, ,
, .

.
, .
,
. ( 
.)
, 
Cisco, ,
. 
OSI.

OSI
1980 
(International Organization for Standardization, ISO)
OSI (Open Systems Interconnect, 
). OSI 
DoD. ISO DoD 
. OSI.
OSI 
.
OSI . 
, 
, 
. :
1. .

172

8.

2. (, ) 
.
3. .
OSI .
, , , 
. 
,
, , 
.
, ,
4 7 , 
.


. OSI,
IP IPX.


( 7)
. OSI 
, , 
, . 
:

World Wide Web (WWW)

(Electronic Data Interchange, EDI)

,
, ,
. 
, .
( )
, ,
. OSI ,
.
, ,
. , 
, OSI ,
OSI
. 
.

OSI

173



, .
,
OSI.
 .
:
MP3
RealAudio
RealVideo
JPEG
GIF
, . MP3
, GIF 
. , 
, 
. 
, , 
.
( )
.


( 5)
. ( 
) 
. 
. :
SQL (Structured Query Language, 
)
X Windows
NFS (Network File System, )
, ( )
( 5, 6 7), .

, .


( 4) 
( 
) . , 

174

8.

, .
.

, , 
OSI . 
, ( )
. , TCP 
, .


. 
( 
). 
.
. , 
. 
, . 

. ,
( ),
. , 
TCP, . 8.1.

. 8.1. TCP


, 
3.
(, 
) OSI.

OSI

175


. 
. 

, .


. , 
.

. , 
, .


OSI, . 
WAN, , , 
. , .

,
.
.

.

, , 
Cisco . ,
, .
,
.

, A
B, 
(A). ,
.
A, .
A , B,
.
B, 1.

( ) , 
B. 1 
. ,
, 

176

8.

,
, B.
,
. 
.


, (
2) 
.
. 
:
( )
()

( Ethernet) 
,
( Ethernet_II) ,


( , 
)
,
.
: MAC LLC.
.

MAC
MAC (media access control, )
.
, MAC 
, MAC.

, , 
, .
MAC.

MAC
. 
, 
. , 
, .

177

8.1.

, 
. (

)

.
, 
,

, MAC
. MAC
,
.

LLC
LLC (logical link control, 
) 
( MAC 
). 
, 
.


OSI
.
.
Cisco 
. 
Cisco 
OSI. . 8.2.
OSI , 
, , , 
, .
OSI, ,

.

Cisco, ,
.

178

8.

, , .
NetBEUI. NetBEUI
, ,
.

, 
, , .
, OSI
?
,
Cisco .



, 
. 
,
,
.
, TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol ), 

. 8.2. OSI

179

OSI. 
( 
), 
. ,
, , 

, .
, 
. 
. ,
 ,
. 
teardown, 
, 
. 
. 8.3.
( )
;
.
,
.
,
, . 
, 
.
(acknowledgment ACK) 
, . 

, 
.

. 8.3.

180

8.


. 
, 
. , 
, .

, 
.
. 
, .


. ,
, , 
. ,
 , 
.

.
, 
. ,
, 
. , 
LAN, 
,
, .
, IP, (
) OSI. 
Cisco ( , 
) . 
,

.

.
, 
. 
. 
, :

181

,
, 
. ,
, ( ),
,
.

, 
. 
,  .
, 
, , 

. 
, , 
, .
Cisco 

( ). ,
, (
),
.

. ,
.
.

.

, . ,
, 
, .

.



IP. , , 
IP.
,
IP, ,
IP ,
, .

182

8.

IP
IP . IP 
( ), 
. , IP 
,
.

.
.
127 16 
, 2 254 
.
IP () . 
, 
.

IP (A, B C),
. A, B C . D
E , .


, . ,
( ), 
. , IP A
16.10.20.6 16.0.0.0
0.10.20.6. C 225.198.40.9 
225.198.40.0 0.0.0.9.
, 
, . (
) ,
.
.

IP
, IP, , 
, 
, . 
IP.

, , .
, , . 

, .

183

CIDR

CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing
). 
IP B, CIDR IP.
CIDR,
IP . IP
,
.
, 

. 
, .

, 
. 
, , 
,
, .

.
,
,
. 
.

.

, ,
OSI, . ,
, . 
: ,
.

. (

. IP 5 
.) 
.

184

8.

. 

, .
.
.
, ,
, .
(, 
,
, . 
, ,
.)

.
, ,
. , (
) .
( ) 

, 
, .

.
, 
, 
,
Cisco . 
Cisco , 
IP.

.

, 
, .

.
, 
, .
, 
, .
.

185


, 
?
, 
.

.
,
.
.

?

.

, , .

1. IP
?
2. OSI 
?
3. ?
4. CIDR ?

1. IP ( TCP 
).
2. .
3. 
, 
, .
4. CIDR , 
IP .

9
IP
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol 
/ ) 
.
, , , 
Cisco. 
IP Cisco.
 , , IP.
( IP Cisco 
IP Cisco.)

, OSI TCP 
, IP .
, , , 
, . 
TCP/IP IP, TCP.

TCP/IP ? 
IP,
:

IP

IP

IP Cisco

187

IP

IP
IP . (
6
, Ethernet.) 

, IP. , 
?
IP, .

IP . 
IP,
. IP .

IP 128.95.95.178 , 
. IP 32 4 .
, , 
, 255. IP
0.0.0.0255.255.255.255. ( 
, .)

.
IP, , 
. 9.1.
9.1. IP&

0.0.0.0

00000000.00000000.
00000000.00000000 .
RIP

255.255.255.255

11111111.11111111.
11111111.11111111 . 

127.0.0.1

01111111.00000000.
00000000.00000001

,

. , .
.

() .

188

9. IP

, 
, IP : A, B
C. ( )
D, . ( D 
.) ,

.

A
A , 
.
A
. 9.1.
A 1 127. ,
IP, , , 
A. .
A 0. , 127.0.0.0 
: 01111111.00000000.00000000.00000000.
, 0.

B
B ,
. B 128 191.
IP B, ,
. 9.2.
, , 
B 10, 
10. , 140.75.0.0
10001100.01001011.00000000.00000000. 10.

. 9.1. A

. 9.2. B

189

IP

C
C ,
.
192 223. C
. 9.3.

. 9.3. C

C : 198.40.50.0
11000110.00101000.00110010.00000000.
C : 110.

,
C 223, IP
256. D (223239) E (240255).
, .

. ,
C 230.230.230.0
255.255.255.0 ( C), 
.

255.255.255.0.
230.230.230.0 , D.


IP ,
. , ,
IP . , , C
198.68.85.114:
11000110.01000100.01010101.01110010

190

9. IP

IP C 255.255.255.0, 
:
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

IP , , 
? 
, , , ,
, . 
, ,
, .

IP , .
:
A = 255.0.0.0
B = 255.255.0.0
C = 255.255.255.0

,
Cisco. 
, , 
, ,
. 
, . 
,
.


, 
, .
IP
(). . 9.4 , 
.
10.0.0.0 , 
. ? , .
( , 
.) ,
, .
10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 ( )
11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000.

,
, . ,

191

. 9.4. ,

, , 
, :
11111111.11000000.00000000.00000000

255.192.0.0.
, 
,
, :
2x 2 = ( x )

. , 22 2 = 2.
22 , ,
222 2 = 4 194 302.

192

9. IP

2 ? , 
, , ,
.

. 
256
. 
,
:
i

yi = i * (256 x), i = 1, 2, . . . , [ ] x

x .
192,
256 192 = 64
, 10.64.0.0 10.128.0.0
(128 = 64 + 64). 64, 192,
.
, . 9.4,
. , ,
. 
, 255.224.0.0 (224 =
= 128 + 64 + 32), (23 2), 2 097 150
. , ,
.

. , ( 
CSMA/CD) 
.
, 
, ,
.

,
. , 
.
(CIDR).

IP
CIDR
. 

IP Cisco

193


IP,
. .
, , 
, 
. , 
: 215.50.25.0 215.50.26.0, ,

.
255.255.255.0 ( C 
) 11111111.11111111.11111111.
00000000.
, 
, .
,
11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000 ( 255.255.
252.0). 215.50.25.0, 
, .
215.50.25.0, 
: 215.50.25.0 215.50.26.0.
, , 
, , 
(
22 2) .

, , 255.255.
252.0 B, C, .
215.x.x.x. C
215; C.

, 
. ,
, .

IP Cisco
Cisco IP.
IP 
Cisco, , 
. , ,
, , 
IP, .

194

9. IP


IP. Cisco IOS Basic IP 
Cisco. 
, IPX, 
.
.
Cisco IP 
. ;
, IP, 
Cisco. , ping, trace
route telnet, TCP/IP 
.

IP, IP . ,
Cisco.

IP Cisco.
IP A
.
B
10.
C 110
, .
,
IP ,
.
, 
IP . , 
, 
.


TCP IP , 
IP, TCP?
,
. TCP
OSI, IP 
, 
.
IP 
Cisco IOS?

195

IP . 
,
, IP
, .

1. IP?
2. IP C?
3. IP 126.45.30.1?
4. IP ?

1. ( A E)
2. 255.255.255.0
3. A
4. 127.0.0.1

10
IP
Cisco
9 
IP. 
, IP,
. TCP/IP
, (TCP IP).
: ICMP
(Internet Control Message Protocol 
) Telnet.
IP Cisco 
, IP. 
, :

IP Cisco

ICMP

ICMP

Telnet

Telnet

rlogin

ICMP , IP. ICMP


. ICMP
,
Cisco, ,
. 
ICMP.

IP Cisco

197

,
IP, Telnet. ,
Telnet . Cisco
. , Telnet
Cisco,
. ( ) Tel
net , Cisco

Cisco. , Telnet, Cisco 
Cisco.
,
,
.
IP.
, TCP/IP. IP
, , 
, 
.
, .
, , 
IP. 
.

IP Cisco
IP 
. Cisco IOS, IPX Basic, 
IP. , IP , 
.
IP.
IP 
. 
Cisco, :
Router>enable
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#

enable 
Exec. configu
re terminal. 
.
interface ethernet 0
( 

198

10. IP Cisco

Ethernet 0).
, IP
:
Router(config if)#ip address 10.156.4.16 255.255.0.0

ip . address ,
IP . 
IP .
, 
IP.
, ,
, :
Router(config)#ip routing

ip routing IP 
.
IP 
.
,
IP, . (
IP 8 
9 IP.) , 
, :
Router(config)#ip classless

, ip classless
, 
IP .
, 
.
,
. ,
128.46.69.0 128.45.77.0 
128.46.68.15,
128.46.68.0, 128.46.x.x 
.1
,
, . 
, ,
. 
, .
1

, 128.46.
68.0, . . . .

IP Cisco

199

, 
, . 
, 
.
, , 
, ,
. ,
,
.

,
ip default gateway:
Router(config)#ip default gateway 198.2.65.1

, 
, , 
. ip route 
IP:
Router(config)#ip route 198.52.2.0 255.0.0.0 Ethernet 0 100 perm

ip route 
. , 
. ip route
. .
ip route ,
IP .

, , 
. 
, , 
: Ethernet 0.
, , 
, . , 100,
.
, 
. ,
.
, perm, 
(permanent). 
startup config. , 

200

10. IP Cisco

perm. 
, .
IP. 
, , 
. 10.1, IP
A B?

. 10.1. IP&

, 
:
Router>enable
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip address 10.13.50.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config if)#ip address 10.13.60.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#ip routing
Router(config)#ip route 10.13.50.0 255.255.255.0 e0 perm
Router(config)#ip route 10.13.60.0 255.255.255.0 e1 perm

IP Cisco

201


, ,
.
, 
IP Cisco, 
. 
.
. 10.2 , .

. 10.2. ,

, 
. , 
.
secondary ip ad
dress IP .

Cisco ,
, . ,

202

10. IP Cisco

, 
.

, 
. 10.2, :
Router(config if)#ip address 10.98.20.1 255.255.0.0 secondary

, , IP
, . 
IP .

ICMP
ICMP IP.
ICMP 
. IP . 
, IP 
ICMP. ,
,
IP, , , ICMP
.

, ping traceroute.
ICMP
. ,
, ,
.
ICMP.
ICMP 
, , .

ICMP ICMP 
, 
, IP. 
IP, ICMP, 
, IP
.

ICMP 
.
Cisco, 
, .

ICMP

203

ICMP
ICMP ,
.
 
.
,
.
.
, 5 10 
. . 
,
. 
. 10.3.

. 10.3.


. ,
,
. ICMP,
.
,
,
, .
Cisco ICMP (ping
traceroute) .
.

204

10. IP Cisco

Ping
ping
. , , TFTP 
TFTP 
:
%Error opening tftp://10.16.4.153/

, , 
, . , , 
. ,
ping.
ping ICMP 
, ,
(
pings) . 
IP , 
, 
. .

Ping , IP ICMP. 


ICMP, 
.

, , ping,
, ;
. ( 
), ping IP TFTP 
, . 
, 
IP, , , 
, . ,
, , , ,
.
Cisco IOS, ping 
, . 
ping 
, ,
. ping
.

, ICMP
IP. 

ICMP

205

,
:
% Unrecognized host or address, or protocol not running.

ping ( )
ping 
. ping 
:
Router>ping
% Incomplete command.

, ping .
Cisco IOS, 
ping:
Router>ping ?
WORD Ping destination address or hostname
ip IP echo
tag Tag encapsulated IP echo

: ip tag .
, ip, , ping
IP. Cisco , 
apollo, appletalk, clns, decnet, ipx, vines xns. 
IP ( ).
tag . 
.

, IP , 
ping:
Router>ping 10.16.4.152

ping .
, ,
, .
Router>ping 10.16.4.152
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.16.4.152, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent, round trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms

(Type escape sequence to abort.) 


IOS , .

206

10. IP Cisco

, , 
. ping, 
<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<6>.
, Cisco
IOS. ping.
ping 100 IP
10.16.4.152.  2 .
, TTL (Time To Live, ), , 
, . 
, . 
, 2 ,
, . 
, .

ping. ( ) 
, 
. , ICMP 
. 
, ; 
, ping.
:
! ()
. ()
U ( )
N ( )
P ( )
Q ( )
M ( 
)
? ( )
. IOS
ping ,
( ).

(hop), , ping 
. 
( ,
, ). , 
, , , 
.
ping ( ) 
. ,

ICMP

207

, 
, .
, 
.

, ,
. 
ping, 
.

ping ( )
Cisco IOS , ,
ping, . 

, , .
, ping 
. 
Cisco IOS, ,
:
Router#ping ?
WORD Ping destination address or hostname
ip IP echo
tag Tag encapsulated IP echo

( .)
ping
:
Router>ping
% Incomplete command.

ping 
, ping. 
:
Router# ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.16.5.152
Repeat count [5]:
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.16.5.152, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent, round trip min/avg/max = 2/3/4 ms

208

10. IP Cisco

, , 
ping .
, : 
ping. 
IP, . ( ,
ping Cisco ,
.) 
, .
ping . 
.
, ping 
. (, .)
, 
, . 
, , ,
. , 
,
. 
, ,
, . , 
,
.
ping .
. , 100
,
. , 
(, ), 

100 .
.

. ,
2 . ,
, .
ping ,
. yes ; no,
. 
.
, ping 
. ,
.
ping ,
, ,
.

ICMP

209

ping . 
, :
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: 10.153.16.4
Type of service [0]:
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]:
Validate reply data? [no]:
Data pattern [0xABCD]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]: Record
Number of hops [ 9 ]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[RV]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.153.16.5, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet has IP options: Total option bytes= 39, padded length=40


ping .

. 
, ,
. ,

. 
. 
, 
,
ping 
. , .
.
, ,
.
, .
DF IP , 
(dont fragment DF). IP
,
. ,
,
, .
. DF, 
:
, , , ,
. 
, ,

, .

210

10. IP Cisco

validate replies ( 
) set data pattern ( ). 
,
: . 
, 
, .

. , 

. 
.

, ,  .
.
:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:

, . Loose, Strict, Times


tamp Verbose ,
( . 10.1).
none.

, Loose, Strict, Timestamp, Record Verbose 


options IP. ,
, .
Cisco.
10.1. ping

Loose source routing


,
( . 
) ,
, ,
loose,

Strict source routing


loose, 

(
)
Record
( )

Timestamp
( )

211

ICMP

Verbose
( )

( none) 
verbose. 


Record,
, 
. , :
Number of hops [ 9 ]:

, , 
.
ping , 
.
, 9 ( ).
ping
, . ping
,
traceroute.

traceroute
, ping , 
ICMP. ,
 .
, ICMP
, traceroute. 
, , 
.
traceroute, ping, Cisco IOS :
. 
, 
ping ( ). tracerou
te , .
, traceroute ,
, :
Router>trace 10.16.4.153
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.16.4.153
1 Router.testnode.com (10.16.4.199) 62 msec 82 msec 78 msec
2 RouterB.testnode.com (10.16.4.189) 80 msec 99 msec 117 msec
3 RouterC.testnode.com (10.16.4.177)100 msec 110 msec 124 msec

212

10. IP Cisco

, , 
.
, traceroute  (
ping).
,
traceroute ping.

, .
ping,
traceroute , 
.

traceroute ( )
ping,
traceroute .
.
traceroute
:
Router#trace
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.16.4.153
Source address:
Numeric display [n]: n
Timeout in seconds [3]:
Probe count [3]:
Minimum Time to Live [1]:
Maximum Time to Live [30]:
Port Number [33434]:
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.16.4.153

,
ping . 
ping, Protocol, Target, Timeout, Pro
be count, Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp Verbose 
.
, ping (
).
, 
traceroute . ( 
, ping)
.
ping,
. ,

213

Telnet

. , 
, 
ping.
, Minimum Time to Live (
) Maximum Time to Live ( )
. trace
route , 
. 
TTL traceroute 
.
traceroute , ping, 
,
. , 
ping, traceroute. 
, traceroute 
. 1
30 . 
.
traceroute . traceroute
, IP (
) traceroute.
.
traceroute, 
, , , , ,
, .
, tra
ceroute , 
.
(ping traceroute)
.
, . ,
ping traceroute, ,
.
, ICMP IP,
IP Telnet.
IP, .

Telnet
, , , 
Telnet ( ). Telnet

, 
UNIX.

214

10. IP Cisco

Cisco Telnet
. , Telnet
(
). 

.

Telnet .
( )
Telnet , 
, Cisco. 
Cisco Telnet
Cisco.
, Cisco 
, , ,
Cisco.

Cisco .
, 
( ), 
, ,
, Telnet. 
. 
Cisco.


Telnet
Telnet 
. 
Telnet, .
Tel
net ( 
), .
Telnet Cisco 
. 
, 
. Telnet ,
Telnet 
, .

(Ethernet0 Ethernet1). Telnet 
. line 
( ,

215

Telnet

; line 0 5,
0 5).
, Tel
net, , Telnet
:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line 0 5
Router(config line)#telnet ?
break on ip
Send break signal when interrupt is received
ip on break
Send interrupt signal when break is received
refuse negotiations Suppress negotiations of Telnet Remote Echo and
SuppressGo Ahead options
speed
Specify line speeds
sync on break
Send a Telnet Synchronize signal after receiving a
Telnet Break signal
transparent
Send a CR as a CR followed by a NULL instead of a CR
followed by a LF

.
speed. speed
.

line 0 5, 
Telnet.
,
.
Cisco Telnet 
, .
, , 
, .
, Cisco IOS 
, .

Telnet, 
:
Router(config line)#telnet speed 9600

( ) 05 Telnet
9600. ,
, Telnet
.
, 
Telnet. ,
. 
Telnet.

216

10. IP Cisco

Telnet 
. 
:
C:\Telnet 10.16.4.153
Line 0
Password required but none set
Disconnecting

, Telnet;
Cisco Telnet.
Telnet
, .
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line 0 5
Router(config line)#password telnet
Router(config line)#^Z

. 
:
C:\telnet 10.16.4.153
login
User Access Verification
Password: telnet
Router>


Telnet.
Telnet.
Telnet
( 
Telnet). Telnet 
Cisco , 
. 
( )
telnet, connect rlogin.

, telnet, connect rlogin 


Unix. Cisco 
. Cisco 
Telnet Unix ( , Tel
net). Telnet
Cisco.

217

Telnet

telnet connect 
. Telnet Router
RouterB, :
Router>telnet RouterB
Translating RouterB...domain server (10.16.4.188) [OK]
Trying Server3RouterB.STYSCisco.com (10.16.4.188)... Open
login: userforRouter
Password:
RouterB)

connect .
. 
Telnet Unix, ,
Cisco Telnet. Cisco Telnet .
Cisco Telnet Telnet,
.
Telnet 
.
Telnet 
. ,
, :
Router>RouterB
Translating RouterB...domain server (255.255.255.255)
% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address

Cisco IOS 
Telnet ( ,
). Telnet
RouterB ( RouterB), 
. Telnet Rou
terB , :
Router>RouterB
Translating RouterB...domain server (10.16.4.188) [OK]
Trying Server3RouterB.STYSCisco.com (10.16.4.188)... Open
login:

: Telnet 
Cisco, 
telnet connect. 
, Telnet Enable, 
:
Router> connect enable
Translating enable...domain server (10.16.4.189) [OK]
Trying Server3enable.STYSCisco.com (10.16.4.189)... Open

218

10. IP Cisco

Telnet ,
, 
:
RouterB)

,
. , 
,
.
, 
. Cisco resume.
,
resume <connection name>:
Router>resume RouterB
RouterB)

resume .
, exit:
RouterB)exit
Router>

,
, Telnet. 
notify refuse message.
notify ( )
, ( ,
) .
,
notify:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line 0 5
Router(config line)#notify
Router(config line)#^Z
Router#

refuse message , 
Telnet , , 
:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#line 0 5
Router(config line)#refuse message ! line in use !
Router(config line)#^Z
Router#

219

rlogin

refuse message ,
.
telnet connect 
( Telnet). 
, (
) : rlogin.

rlogin
rlogin , telnet connect. 
, , Tel
net, rlogin. rlogin BSD
Unix. , rlogin, ,
,
rlogin.
telnet:
Router>rlogin RouterB

rlogin , 
. , 
, 
rlogin.
Router>rlogin RouterB debug

, ping, traceroute, Telnet, connect rlo


gin, 
. , 
, .

IP
Cisco Cisco IOS, IPX
Basic Feature Pack.
IP 

.
, 
interface.
IP startup config 
perm.
TCP/IP ICMP.

220

10. IP Cisco

ping , 
ICMP.
traceroute ping. traceroute 
 
.
IP Telnet.
Cisco Telnet
, .


IP 
Cisco. ?
, IP .
IP ,
. (, IP , no ip routing.)
IPX
IP.

1. 
, 
ping?
2. Telnet?
3. ping traceroute
M?

1. Strict ().
2. 6.
3. 
.

1. Ethernet1 IP 198.5.42.1


255.0.0.0.

Router(configureconfig)#int e1
Router(configureconfig interface)#ip address 198.5.42.1 255.0.0.0

221

2. ping?
1) Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.16.5.152, timeout is 2 seconds:
. . . . .
2) Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.16.5.152, timeout is 2 seconds:
! ! ! ! !
3) Sending 5, 100 byte ICMP Echos to 10.16.5.152, timeout is 2 seconds:
U U U U U

1) ICMP .
2) .
3) .
3. 
ping trace
route?

ping (
).
4. Telnet
show?
Router>show

Telnet , show
Cisco IOS. : rlogin,
connect telnet.

11

. 
Cisco
, 
. ,

.
, 
,
IP. 
. 
, , 
.
,
Cisco.
. ,
, 
.
, IP
, ,
, 
.
IP.
, ,
, , 
IP. 
.

223


, :


IP . 
, , 
, .
, , 
, Cisco, 
.
IP 

. IP 
, IP.
. 

.
9 10 IP
. 
,
,

.


,
, ,
. , 
. 
IP
. ,
,
IP. IP4
.

IP4 IP,
IP6. IP6
.

IP
. , 

224

11.

 
.

IP
,
IP.
IP,
. , 
, , 
, , , . 
.

IP IP ( , 
), .
IP ,
.

, . 11.1 .

. 
,
IP, .
, , 695 IP
. ,
:
. 
, IP
750 .
IP B. IP
B 65 534 . ,
, 750
, , C
254 .
B .

IP. 
, , 750 
, . , 
,
B. ,
.

IP>

225

. 11.1.

B 135.55.0.0,
255.255.0.0. , 
(135.55) 65 534 ( 0.1 254.254). 
. 
. 11.2.
. 11.2 ,
( ) 
, .
HR 1.1 1.51; IT 
1.52 1.152, . .
.
,
,
( 135.55). 
, , ,
. 
 , 

. , 
B.

226

11.

. 11.2. IP&

B .
(135.55) ,

.
.
IP .
, . ,
, , 
. 

. , ,
IP .
.
IP,
, 
,

227

IP>

. ,
695 .
, IP
, ,
.
9. , 
, . 11.1.
11.1. , &

11000000.00000000

16382

11100000.00000000

8190

11110000.00000000

14

4094

11111000.00000000

30

2046

11111100.00000000

62

1022

11111110.00000000

126

510

6 
, 62 1022 
. , 
, .
, 
,
. 
, 
, .

, 9. 
:
256 =

. 
,
, .
, ,
.

. ,
, ,
IP.

228

11.

IP.
IP ,
. , .

, ( 
) .
, 
. , B, 
. 11.2.
11.2. B

11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000

255.255.128.0

11111111.11111111.11000000.00000000

255.255.192.0

11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000

255.255.224.0

11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000

255.255.240.0

11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000

255.255.248.0

11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000

255.255.252.0

11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000

255.255.254.0

, 255.255.252.0
B, 6
. 5 ,
255.255.248.0.
, 
. , 

:
256 = = 

(255.255.252.0),
:
256 252 = 4
, ,
135.55.4.0 255.255.252.0. 
, , 
. 1022 135.55.4.0
135.55.4.1 135.55.7.254. . 11.3
, , 
.

IP>

229

. 11.2 11.3. , . 11.2,


64 
, 63
300 .
.
, ,
. 
IP, . , 
Cisco, .
. 11.4.
, :
256 252 = 4 (135.55.4.0)
, 
. (4)
, (135.55.8.0).

. 11.3. ,

230

11.

. 11.4.

, .
1022 ,
255.255.252.0.

,
,
. 
. B
. 11.3.
11.3.

255.255.252.0 135.55.4.0

135.55.4.1

135.55.7.254

135.55.8.0

135.55.8.1

135.55.11.254

135.55.12.0

135.55.12.1

135.55.15.254

135.55.16.0

135.55.16.1

135.55.19.254

135.55.20.0

135.55.20.1

135.55.23.254

135.55.24.0

135.55.24.1

135.55.27.254

135.55.28.0

135.55.28.1

135.55.31.254

135.55.32.0

135.55.32.1

135.55.35.254

135.55.36.0

135.55.36.1

135.55.39.254

231

IP>

135.55.40.0

135.55.40.1

135.55.43.254

135.55.44.0

135.55.44.1

135.55.47.254

135.55.48.0

135.55.48.1

135.55.51.254

135.55.52.0

135.55.52.1

135.55.55.254

135.55.56.0

135.55.56.1

135.55.59.254

135.55.60.0

135.55.60.1

135.55.63.254

135.55.64.0

135.55.64.1

135.55.67.254

135.55.68.0

135.55.68.1

135.55.71.254

135.55.72.0

135.55.72.1

135.55.75.254

135.55.76.0

135.55.76.1

135.55.79.254

135.55.80.0

135.55.80.1

135.55.83.254

135.55.84.0

135.55.84.1

135.55.87.254

135.55.88.0

135.55.88.1

135.55.91.254

135.55.92.0

135.55.92.1

135.55.95.254

135.55.96.0

135.55.96.1

135.55.99.254

135.55.100.0

135.55.100.1

135.55.103.254

135.55.104.0

135.55.104.1

135.55.107.254

135.55.108.0

135.55.108.1

135.55.111.254

135.55.112.0

135.55.112.1

135.55.115.254

135.55.116.0

135.55.116.1

135.55.119.254

135.55.120.0

135.55.120.1

135.55.123.254

135.55.124.0

135.55.124.1

135.55.127.254

135.55.128.0

135.55.128.1

135.55.131.254

135.55.132.0

135.55.132.1

135.55.135.254

135.55.136.0

135.55.136.1

135.55.139.254

135.55.140.0

135.55.140.1

135.55.143.254

135.55.144.0

135.55.144.1

135.55.147.254

135.55.148.0

135.55.148.1

135.55.151.254

135.55.152.0

135.55.152.1

135.55.155.254

135.55.156.0

135.55.156.1

135.55.159.254

135.55.160.0

135.55.160.1

135.55.163.254

135.55.164.0

135.55.164.1

135.55.167.254

135.55.168.0

135.55.168.1

135.55.171.254

135.55.172.0

135.55.172.1

135.55.175.254

232

11.

11.3 ()

135.55.176.0

135.55.176.1

135.55.179.254

135.55.180.0

135.55.180.1

135.55.183.254

135.55.184.0

135.55.184.1

135.55.187.254

135.55.188.0

135.55.188.1

135.55.191.254

135.55.192.0

135.55.192.1

135.55.195.254

135.55.196.0

135.55.196.1

135.55.199.254

135.55.200.0

135.55.200.1

135.55.203.254

135.55.204.0

135.55.204.1

135.55.207.254

135.55.208.0

135.55.208.1

135.55.211.254

135.55.212.0

135.55.212.1

135.55.215.254

135.55.216.0

135.55.216.1

135.55.219.254

135.55.220.0

135.55.220.1

135.55.223.254

135.55.224.0

135.55.224.1

135.55.227.254

135.55.228.0

135.55.228.1

135.55.231.254

135.55.232.0

135.55.232.1

135.55.235.254

135.55.236.0

135.55.236.1

135.55.239.254

135.55.240.0

135.55.240.1

135.55.243.254

135.55.244.0

135.55.244.1

135.55.247.254

135.55.248.0

135.55.248.1

135.55.251.254


, 135.55.8.0. 
8.0. ,
, 
. (Sales)
135.55.8.1 135.55.8.101 . .
. 11.5.
.
, 
. ,
,
.

IP>

233

. 11.5. ,

Cisco


. Cisco 

(
). 
, Cisco 
.
, 
, .
, 
. Cisco 
, :
. 
Cisco LAN.
, 

.
, 
. , 


234

11.

,
.
, 
, 
.

, .
, .

,
. , 

. (,
RIP, 
, , 16 
.)


, ,
.

. ( .)

, ,
. 
, , 
.
. 11.6.
, 
. ,
.
, .
, 
Cisco .
, 
. 
Cisco, .
1. , ,
.
2. .
3. .
4. IP.
5. .

IP>

235

. 11.6. Cisco,


IP. , 
, , 
.
. 
, 
, (,
shutdown, 
):
Router>enable
Router#configure terminal
Router(configure)#interface ethernet 0
Router(configure interface)#ip address 135.55.4.1 255.255.252.0
Router(configure interface)#no shutdown
Router#configure terminal
Router(configure)#interface ethernet 1
Router(configure terminal)#ip address 135.55.8.1 255.255.252.0
Router(configure interface)#no shutdown
Router(configure terminal)#^Z

236

11.

, 
.

.
, ,
:
Router>enable
Router#configure terminal
Router(configure)#interface ethernet 0

interface ethernet 0 , 
.

, IP
( ) .
Ethernet 0 135.55.4.0; 
135.55.4.1 ( )
255.255.252.0 ( 3):
Router(configure interface)#ip address 135.55.4.1 255.255.252.0

, 
( 2 ). 
running config (<Ctrl>+<Z>
):
Router(configure interface)#no shutdown
Router(configure interface)#^Z

.
, , ,
. <Ctrl>+<Z>
.
:
Router#configure terminal
Router(configure)#interface ethernet 1
Router(configure terminal)#ip address 135.55.8.1 255.255.252.0
Router(configure interface)#no shutdown
Router(configure terminal)#^Z


. <Ctrl>+<Z> 
, . 
.

237

4 IP. 
.

, IP.
:
Router#configure terminal
Router(configure)# ip routing

IP ,
.
IP 
, 
, 
.

.
,

.
( ),
:
Router#configure terminal
Router (configure)#ip route 135.55.4.0 255.255.252.0 Ethernet 0 perm
Router (configure)#ip route 135.55.8.0 255.255.252.0 Ethernet 1 perm

, 135.55.4.0
Ethernet 0, 135.55.8.0 Ethernet 1.
ip route ,
. (
13 )
ip route.



,
.
.
Cisco :
.
, 
. , 
,
.

238

11.

, , 
. ,
IP:

, 
.

,
.


, 
(. 11.4), 
. ip route :
#ip route <Destination Network> <Destination Subnet> <Next Hop | Interface |
Null> <Next Hop | perm>

11.4. ip route

<Destination Network>

IP ( ,
)

<Destination Subnet>

<Next Hop | Interface | Null> , , 


,
Next Hop

IP , 

Interface

, 

Null

, 
( 
,
BGP)

<Next Hop | perm>

Next Hop

IP , 
,

Next Hop

(,
)

perm


startup config,

239


, . 11.4 . . 11.7
.
,

.
198.10.0.0 198.13.0.0, :

Router 198.10.1.1:
RouterA(configure)#ip route 198.13.0.0 255.255.0.0 ethernet 1 198.11.1.1 perm

Router 198.11.1.1:
RouterB(configure)#ip route 198.13.0.0 255.255.0.0 ethernet 1 198.12.1.1 perm

Router 198.12.1.1:
RouterC(configure)#ip route 198.13.0.0. 255.255.0.0 ethernet 1 198.13.1.1 perm

Router 198.13.1.1:
RouterD(configure)#ip route 198.13.0.0 255.255.0.0 ethernet 1 perm

, 
, 
. , 
198.13.0.0
( ) .

. 11.7.

240

11.

, , ,
, RIP OSPF.


. 
( ),
IP.
.
,
IP. 

.


IP
.

IP.
.
, 
, 
.

, , 
, 
, 
.


IP 
B,
255.255.0.0?
255.255.0.0 B.
,
. 11111111.11111111.00000000.
00000000 .
,
.
.
no
shutdown?

241

Cisco IOS 
, .

, , Cisco 

.
no. ,
( shutdown), no.

1. B
255.255.224.0?
2. , 2000
?
3. 
startup config?
4. IP,
?

1. .
2. .
3. perm.
4. no shutdown.

1. C 220.156.50.0 ,
20 .

, 25 2 =
= 30 6 . :
255.255.255.248.

12
IPX
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange, )
, IP, 
. IPX 
Novell NetWare ,
Novell. IPX
Cisco
IPX.
:
IPX
IPX
IPX

IPX, 
: 
. 
Cisco, 
.

IPX
Novell NetWare
Novell IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) 
, IP. 
OSI 
.

IPX

243

Novell IPX 80 .


Novell NetWare.
IPX ( SPX, )
, TCP/IP
NetWare.

Novell IPX Xerox, XNS.

Cisco IPX,

. Cisco IP,
IPX (
).
IP, IPX Cisco
. IPX, 

IPX. IPX
IPX/IP Basic IOS.
IPX, IP,
.
IPX ,
IP IPX. 
IPX: ,
IPX, .
IPX,
( IP) .
IPX 
,
, 
. 
Cisco ( IPX)
IPX IP. , IPX 
, IPX IP. 
Cisco 
.

IPX Cisco.
IPX 
. IPX ,
.

244

12. IPX

IPX
IPX IP ,
. IP 
( 
,
), IPX . IPX
: ..
IPX 32 , 
48 . IPX 80 (10 ),
, 4 IP. 
: IPX
. IPX 
. 12.1.

. 12.1. IPX&

IPX .

IPX , 
. 
IPX . 
(4
).
, .
,
 , . 
16
( 2 
: 0 1). 
. 12.1.

245

IPX

12.1.

0

10

11

100

101

110

111

1000

1001

1010

10

1011

11

1100

12

1101

13

1110

14

1111

15

,
8 , 
0 , 
. , IPX
76b8, Cisco 0x000076b8.

0x , 
. 0x, , 
. , bad , 0xbad 
, 2989.

, . IPX, 
, IP,
.
, IPX , 
.
IPX MAC
(MAC, media access control ).
MAC ,
IPX. 
, MAC
.

246

12. IPX

MAC , 
.
, . 
MAC OSI.
MAC ,
.

MAC 
.
, MAC
. , IPX MAC
,
IPX .

IPX Cisco
IPX , 
,
. ,
IPX,
IPX/IP Basic. , 
Cisco, 
show version:
Router#show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 1600 Software (C1600 NY M), Version 12.0(3), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1986 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 08 Feb 99 20:21 by phanguye
Image text base: 0x02005000, data base: 0x024A8D24
ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.0(3)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
ROM: 1600 Software (C1600 RBOOT R), Version 12.0(3)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Router uptime is 57 minutes
System restarted by reload
System image file is flash:c1600 ny mz.120 3.bin


, IOS. 
, IOS c1600 ny
mc.120 3.bin.  Cisco Connection
Online (CCO) ( 3 Cisco IOS ,

), , 
IP/IPX Basic Cisco 1600, 
12.0.3 IOS.

IPX

247

, ,
IPX . 
,
.
, , 
, 
. ,
IPX, . IPX
.

IP. Cisco 
, IOS 
.

IPX,
IPX, 
ipx routing. 
Cisco IOS ipx routing, ,
. IOS , 
:
Router(config)#ipx routing ?
H.H.H IPX address of this router

, IOS MAC
. 
:
Router(config)#ipx routing
Router(config)#^Z

IPX Cisco.
(, IPX , 
no, : no ipx routing.)
IP IPX.
:
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#ipx routing
Router(config)#ip routing
Router(config)#^Z


. , IPX
, IPX, 
, .

IPX, IP.

248

12. IPX

Cisco IPX
, . 
IPX 
, :




config if, IPX
.
, Ethernet 0:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet0
Router(config if)#


, . ipx network 
, . 
:
#ipx network <network number> encapsulation <encapsulation type>

, 
. IPX ,
MAC, .
, ipx network , .
ipx network Cisco, 
.

ipx network .
IPX
. ,
( ) .
8
. , , , 
8 , 
, ,
8. 1234. ( 
Cisco 0x00001234.)
encapsulation.
, 
IPX.

IPX. ,

249

IPX

, . 
,
.
,
.

IPX
IPX Cis
co . 
.
IPX . 
,
. , 
IPX, .
, , 
ethernet ethernet. 
IPX, Cisco, . 12.2.
12.2. IPX

Ethernet


Ethernet II
Ethernet 802.3
Ethernet 802.2
Ethernet 802.2 SNAP

FDDI

FDDI 802.2 LLC


FDDI 802.2 LLC SNAP
FDDI raw

Token Ring

Token Ring
Token Ring SNAP

, . 12.2 .
, .

, , 
. , Cisco 1605R
( Ethernet), Token Ring.


IPX. Ethernet ,
. 

250

12. IPX

, IPX
( ). 
, Ethernet .

Ethernet
IPX 
Cisco, , 
. 
, Ethernet, Token Ring FDDI, 
. , 
Ethernet.
Ethernet IPX 
Ethernet_II. Ethernet II
. IPX
Ethernet, , , 
Ethernet_II.
Cisco, Ethernet:
Router(config)#interface ethernet0
Router(config if)#ipx network 1234 encapsulation ?
arpa
IPX Ethernet_II
hdlc
HDLC on serial links
novell ether IPX Ethernet_802.3
novell fddi IPX FDDI RAW
sap
IEEE 802.2 on Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring
snap
IEEE 802.2 SNAP on Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI

, Cisco
Ethernet_II arpa. 
Ethernet_II, :
Router(config if)#ipx network 1234 encapsulation arpa
Router(config if)#^Z

Cisco
IPX 0x00001234 Ethernet_II. Et
hernet_II IPX ,
. . 12.2 
IPX Ethernet_II.
. 12.3 ,
IPX Ethernet_SNAP.
IPX,
. , 
IPX. . 
IPX, 
, IPX .

IPX

251

. 12.2. Ethernet_II

. 12.4 IPX. 
.
, 
. . 12.5 , . 12.4,
.

. 12.3. Ethernet_SNAP

252

12. IPX

. 12.4. IPX&

, IPX .
, , .
IPX.
, , 
. 
,
, 
. .

IPX
IPX , IP. 
, IPX 
.
, Cisco
. Cisco
IPX,
IPX.

IPX

253

. 12.5. IPX&

, .
IPX, Ethernet
(. 12.6).
Ethernet_II IPX.
, ,
,
. Novell Ethernet
IEEE 802.3. Cisco
,
.

. 12.6 , 
. 
.

254

12. IPX

. 12.6. IPX&,

Cisco, . 12.6.
IPX. 

. , 
Cisco , :
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#ipx routing
Router(config)#^Z
Router#
1d00h: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ipx network a1234b encapsulation arpa
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config if)#ipx network b1574c encapsulation novell ether
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#
1d00h: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#

IPX

255

ethernet 0 0x00a1234b
Ethernet_II, ethernet 1 0x00b
1574c Ethernet 802.2.
. ,
IP, 
, .
, ,

. ipx route 
, 
ethernet 0 ethernet 1 .
IPX
IP. 
IPX :
#ipx route <network> <network mask> <destination> | <tick> | <hop count> |
<float>

, ipx route 
, .
:
network () ,
.
network mask ( subnet mask
) , 
, .
, FFFFFFFF.
destination () IPX ( )
, .

ipx route . 
, 
.
tick . , 
, tick ,
.
hop count
, ,
.
float , ( )
.

(tick) . 
( , )

256

12. IPX

 .
() , 
.

ipx route,
. ,
:
Router(config)#ipx route a1234b ffffff b1574c.00d0.58a8.e150
Router(config)#ipx route b1574c ffffff a1234b.00d0.58a8.e150

IPX 
, 
. 12.6. IPX,
. 12.7.
, IPX, 
ethernet 0, . 
Cisco , 

. 12.7. , IPX&

IPX

257

(
).
, et
hernet 0, :
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#ipx routing
Router(config)#^Z
Router#
1d00h: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ipx network a1234b encapsulation arpa
Router(config if)#ipx network a52 encapsulation sap secondary
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config if)#ipx network b1574c encapsulation novell ether
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#
1d00h: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#

secondary IPX
. IPX
( show ipx interface),
, 
ethernet 0
:
Router#show ipx interface
Ethernet0 is administratively up, line protocol is up
IPX address is A52.00d0.58a8.e150, SAP [up]
Delay of this IPX network, in ticks is 1 throughput 0 link delay 0
IPXWAN processing not enabled on this interface.
Secondary address is A1234B.00d0.58a8.e150, ARPA [up]
Delay of this IPX network, in ticks is 1
IPX SAP update interval is 60 seconds
IPX type 20 propagation packet forwarding is disabled
Incoming access list is not set
Outgoing access list is not set
IPX helper access list is not set
SAP GNS processing enabled, delay 0 ms, output filter list is not set
SAP Input filter list is not set
SAP Output filter list is not set
SAP Router filter list is not set
Input filter list is not set
Output filter list is not set

258

12. IPX
Router filter list is not set
Netbios Input host access list is not set
Netbios Input bytes access list is not set
Netbios Output host access list is not set
Netbios Output bytes access list is not set
Updates each 60 seconds aging multiples RIP: 3 SAP: 3
SAP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 480 bytes
RIP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 432 bytes
RIP response delay is not set
IPX accounting is disabled
IPX fast switching is configured (enabled)
RIP packets received 0, RIP packets sent 0
SAP packets received 0, SAP packets sent 0
Ethernet1 is administratively up, line protocol is up
IPX address is B1574C.00d0.58a8.e151, NOVELL ETHER [up]
Delay of this IPX network, in ticks is 1 throughput 0 link delay 0
IPXWAN processing not enabled on this interface.
IPX SAP update interval is 60 seconds
IPX type 20 propagation packet forwarding is disabled
Incoming access list is not set
Outgoing access list is not set
IPX helper access list is not set
SAP GNS processing enabled, delay 0 ms, output filter list is not set
SAP Input filter list is not set
SAP Output filter list is not set
SAP Router filter list is not set
Input filter list is not set
Output filter list is not set
Router filter list is not set
Netbios Input host access list is not set
Netbios Input bytes access list is not set
Netbios Output host access list is not set
Netbios Output bytes access list is not set
Updates each 60 seconds aging multiples RIP: 3 SAP: 3
SAP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 480 bytes
RIP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 432 bytes
RIP response delay is not set
IPX accounting is disabled
IPX fast switching is configured (enabled)
RIP packets received 0, RIP packets sent 0
SAP packets received 0, SAP packets sent 0

,
Cisco IPX (
) . ,
. 

.

259

IPX , IP.
IPX 
.
IPX MAC .
IPX Cisco
ipx network.

.
Cisco 
.


IPX ?
IPX .
Novell
,
.
.
secondary
?
, , IP
IPX, secondary.
.

1.
Ethernet?
2. <float>?
3. ?
4. IPX?

1. Ethernet_II (arpa).
2. 
.
3. . 
. ( , 
.)
4. .

260

12. IPX

1. , 
, IPX. 
show ipx interface. 
, , 
?
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#ipx routing
Router(config)#^Z
Router#
1d00h: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ipx network ab encapsulation arpa
Router(config if)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config if)#ipx network bc encapsulation arpa
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#
1d00h: %SYS 5 CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#

show ipx interface :


Router#show ipx interface
Ethernet0 is administratively down, line protocol is down
IPX address is Ab.00d0.58a8.e150, SAP [up]
Delay of this IPX network, in ticks is 1 throughput 0 link delay 0
IPXWAN processing not enabled on this interface.
IPX SAP update interval is 60 seconds
IPX type 20 propagation packet forwarding is disabled
Incoming access list is not set
Outgoing access list is not set
IPX helper access list is not set
SAP GNS processing enabled, delay 0 ms, output filter list is not set
SAP Input filter list is not set
SAP Output filter list is not set
SAP Router filter list is not set
Input filter list is not set
Output filter list is not set
Router filter list is not set
Netbios Input host access list is not set
Netbios Input bytes access list is not set
Netbios Output host access list is not set
Netbios Output bytes access list is not set
Updates each 60 seconds aging multiples RIP: 3 SAP: 3
SAP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 480 bytes
RIP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 432 bytes

261
RIP response delay is not set
IPX accounting is disabled
IPX fast switching is configured (enabled)
RIP packets received 0, RIP packets sent 0
SAP packets received 0, SAP packets sent 0
Ethernet1 is administratively down, line protocol is down
IPX address is BC.00d0.58a8.e151, NOVELL ETHER [up]
Delay of this IPX network, in ticks is 1 throughput 0 link delay 0
IPXWAN processing not enabled on this interface.
IPX SAP update interval is 60 seconds
IPX type 20 propagation packet forwarding is disabled
Incoming access list is not set
Outgoing access list is not set
IPX helper access list is not set
SAP GNS processing enabled, delay 0 ms, output filter list is not set
SAP Input filter list is not set
SAP Output filter list is not set
SAP Router filter list is not set
Input filter list is not set
Output filter list is not set
Router filter list is not set
Netbios Input host access list is not set
Netbios Input bytes access list is not set
Netbios Output host access list is not set
Netbios Output bytes access list is not set
Updates each 60 seconds aging multiples RIP: 3 SAP: 3
SAP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 480 bytes
RIP interpacket delay is 55 ms, maximum size is 432 bytes
RIP response delay is not set
IPX accounting is disabled
IPX fast switching is configured (enabled)
RIP packets received 0, RIP packets sent 0
SAP packets received 0, SAP packets sent 0

. 
no shutdown.

13



(WAN). 
(LAN). 
, 
. , ,
.
WAN ,
. ,
,
, , 
. , 
:
.
WAN :

ISDN

X.25

Frame Relay

WAN, , 
, 
. ( ISDN 
Frame Relay) 
.
, 
Cisco, WAN.

263
Cisco , 
. 
WAN (WIC).
WAN (
), ( 
).
, 1600
WAN, WIC.
WIC , 
. . 13.1 , 
Cisco 1600 WAN 
WIC .
13.1. WAN&

ISDN ST

ISDNU

ISDN ST

56 /c
CSU/DSU

T1
CSU/DSU

1601

WIC
WAN

1602

56 /c CSU/DSU

1603

ISDN ST

1604

ISDN ST
/ISDN

1605

N/A

, 1600
WAN ( 
WIC), (, 1605) 
WIC.

, . 

Cisco.
WAN.
WAN, , ISDN (In
tegrated Services Digital Network
). ISDN 
, , .
ISDN, ,
WAN, Frame Relay X.25.

264

13.

ISDN
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) 
, 
. 
, ISDN
( , 
56 /).

, ISDN .
ISDN . ISDN 
,
, , 
100% (
) T1. ISDN 
. ,
, .
ISDN WAN, 
.
ISDN , 
, ISDN 
. 

ISDN .
, 
ISDN, SOHO (small office/home office
/ ) 
. 

, , , 
. , 
WAN.
ISDN
, .
ISDN .
, ISDN
Cisco.

ISDN
ISDN ,
. ISDN BRI
(Basic Rate Interface ). 
Cisco BRI ISDN. ISDN 
Basic IP Cisco IOS.

265

ISDN

ISDN , 
.

ISDN BRI :
B (bearer ) D (data ).
B ,
, D 
. , 
144 /. BRI ISDN
. 13.2.
13.2. BRI&

BRI

64 / ()

16 /

ISDN ,
ISDN .
, 
, ISDN 
. ISDN ( ,
WIC) Cisco
ISDN.
ISDN Cisco,
ISDN 
, .

, SPID (Service Profile ID
); , ,
. , 
ISDN, 
Cisco ISDN.
ISDN 
WAN, ,
. ISDN ,

OSI. ISDN
, , 
ISDN, .

266

13.

ISDN
, ISDN
, ISDN
Cisco. . 13.3 13.4
ISDN.
, ISDN
ISDN,
. 13.3.
, .
13.3. ISDN
 ISDN ISDN

TE1


, ISDN. 
1
,
. Cisco, 
ISDN,

TE2


ISDN
2

TA

ISDN, 
.
, 
, ISDN 
ISDN

NT1

NT1
ISDN ,

NT2


ISDN 
1

, ISDN, 
, Cisco.
Cisco TE1,
, , 
TE2.
, 
ISDN. ISDN ,
OSI. , 
ISDN, , ,
.
, . 13.4.

267

ISDN

13.4. ISDN

ISDN


. D BRI

ISDN
.
( IP IPX)


ISDN.
ISDN

Q LAPD (Link Access Proto


col [for Channel] D [ ] D). 
,
, ISDN. E, 
OSI ( 
), LAPD .
LAPD
ISDN ,
ISDN. 
Cisco, , 
.

, 
, LAPD ISDN.

, ISDN.
ISDN, 
ISDN. . 13.5 
ISDN.
13.5. ISDN
ISDN

TA

NT1 NT2

NT2

NT1

, ,
ISDN, ,
. 
ISDN.

268

13.

ISDN
ISDN WAN.
ISDN ( U)
. ,
ISDN , 
ISDN.
U 
. . 13.1
ISDN .

. 13.1. ISDN&

. . 13.1 
, Cisco 
, ISDN. 
( ), 
. ,
, .
, , 
NT1 NT2, ISDN 
. . 13.2 ISDN, 
, . 13.1.
,
. 13.2, , A B.
A IP. IP

269

ISDN

. 13.2. ISDN ,

(
). IP ( B)
, A (
TE1).
A IP 
. , B
WAN (
ISDN U). IP
ISDN, , 
(switch), 
. ISDN

.

(PSN, public switching net


works) .
ISDN
.
ISDN (E, Q . .),
. , ISDN 
.

() ISDN 
TE1 . 

270

13.

ISDN , 
ISDN . 
B ( ISDN
).
TE1 B,
IP. IP
. Cisco
IP (
) , ISDN.

Cisco ISDN. ,

TE1 TE2,
.

ISDN
, , ISDN, ,
Cisco
ISDN. 
TE1 TE2 ,
. 13.6,
SPID .
Cisco
, 
, , 
IPX.

WAN, ,
,
. , WAN
, (,
),
.

ISDN , 
, 
. , ISDN
, . . 13.6 
, ISDN.

, . 13.6, 
ISDN.

271

ISDN

13.6. , ISDN

ISDN , 
.
15
SPID

SPID
, .
ISDN
SPID

Frame Relay X.25

ISDN
, 

Cisco
.
. 
, ISDN,
. . 13.7 
, .

, primary, 
PRI (Primary Rate Interface ) ISDN,
231 B 64 / D.
13.7. ,

basic 5ess

BRI AT&T

basic dms100

BRI DMS100

basic ni1

ISDN1

primary 4ess

AT&T 4ESS ( PRI ISDN)

primary 5ess

AT&T 5ESS ( PRI ISDN)

primary dms100

NT DMS100 ( PRI ISDN)

, ISDN.
ISDN.

:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#isdn switch type basic ni1
1

. ( ) 30 B. . . .

272

13.

,
,
, SPID .
SPID. , ,
, 
. SPID .
:
Router(config)#interface bri 0
Router(config if)#isdn spid 1 123456789
Router(config if)#isdn spid 2 987654321

. PPP (Po
inttoPoint Protocol ) HDLC (Highlevel
Data Link Control ).
 ( 
PPP). PPP 
:
Router(config if)#encapsulation ppp

, , ISDN, 
:
Router(config if)#ip address 153.4.16.1 255.255.0.0

ISDN.
, 
, , IP ( IPX) 
ISDN. , IP IPX,
route . ISDN 
dialer , 
. 
ISDN.
Router(config)#dialer map ip 153.4.10.1 name NETWORK_B 234567891
Router(config)#dialer group 1
Router(config)#dialer list 1 list 99
Router(config)#access list 99 permit 153.4.16.0 255.255.0.0 153.4.10.0
255.255.0.0


, 
. (dialer map ip
153.4.10.1 name NETWORK_B 234567891) , 
ISDN,
IP 153.4.10.1 (, 
). 153.4.10.1 NET
WORK_B, ISDN 234567891.

273

X.25


1.
. (dialer list 1 list 99)
( ) 
IP.


.

(access
list 99 permit 153.4.16.0 255.255.0.0 153.4.10.0 255.255.0.0) 
IP, 
153.4.16.0 ()
153.4.10.0 ().
, :
IP 153.4.16.0
153.4.10.0 ISDN 234567891
( NETWORK_B).
ISDN , 
WAN. X.25 Frame Re
lay. X.25,
Frame Relay.

X.25
X.25 70 . 
, , X.25
,
. , X.25, 
,
. WAN, , , Frame Relay, 
, X.25.
X.25 ,
Frame Relay. X.25 
,
. ,
Frame Relay,
.

X.25, WAN.
Frame Relay.
,
. ,

274

13.

, .

, . 
, X.25, : 
.


, 

. , 
, 
. , , 
. .
, , 
,
.
, 
. 
. ,
. ,  
,
. , 
.
, , 
, , 
. 
, , 
.
, 
. (circuit).
, 
, .
(PVC, Permanent Virtual Circuit) 
, , 
. .
(
),
, . 
.

Cisco
, 
. . 13.3 
.

275

X.25

. 13.3. X.25. ,
A B, 1:2:3


. (, 
2 . 13.3), A B 
. , 
( ),

.
. 
(SVC, Switched Virtual Circuits).



. ,
.

. 
. .

, 
, . 

.
Frame Relay, 
, X.25,
, ,

276

13.

.
, Frame Relay.

Frame Relay
Frame Relay 80 
() X.25 ISDN. 
Cisco , 
Frame Relay. 
Cisco WAN,
Frame Relay.
Frame Relay , 
OSI. X.25, 
() 
().
. 
,
.

,
OSI, . , Frame
Relay . Cisco
Frame Relay. ,
WAN, 
, . 
, 
.

Frame Relay
Cisco
Frame Relay ,
.
, 
Cisco Frame Relay.
, Frame Re
lay, : DTE (Data Terminal Equipment 
) DCE (Data Circuit Terminating Equipment
). DCE 
, (Packet Switch No
de, PSN). DCE 
Frame Relay, DTE, 
WAN. Cisco 
DTE. ISDN,

Frame Relay

277

Cisco Frame Relay,



.
T1 ( ,
) .
Frame Relay,
. Frame Relay 
( ) Cisco. 
,
Frame Relay.

, T1, 
, . T1 24 
, , 
. T1 .
T1 .

T1 Frame Relay.

, Frame
Relay, DLCI (data link connec
tion identifier). , 
Frame Relay.

. Frame Relay
SPID ISDN. 
Cisco Frame Relay,
DLCI, .
Cisco DLCI 
Frame Relay , 
LMI (Local Management Interface 
).
DLCI . ,
SVC ( 
), DLCI 
. LMI DLCI
. 
, DLCI,
Frame Relay.

, Frame Relay
, .

278

13.

,
LMI. LMI ,
,
LMI, , . 
LMI .
PVC 
, LMI
. ,
X.25, 
, .
PVC ,
. LMI
PSN . 

Frame Relay Cisco.

Frame Relay

, 
IOS. Frame Relay , 
Cisco IOS.
,
.
, 
Frame Relay. Cisco 
, 
. ( 
), Cisco,
.

, 
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force 
). 

. , ,
Frame Relay.
Cisco Frame
Relay 
. , 
Frame Relay.
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface serial 0
Router(config if)#encapsulation frame relay ietf
Router(config if)#no shutdown

Frame Relay

279

, Cisco 
() ,
, 
Frame Relay. , 
, T1, Frame
Relay. , 
Cisco .

. 
,
.


.
Frame Relay, 
:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface serial 0.1 point to point
Router(config if)#encapsulation frame relay ietf
Router(config if)#no shutdown

. 
interface serial 0.1, 
0. ( 
2 2.3 . .) point
to point , . 
, .
.

DLCI ( Frame Relay).
, DLCI 
Frame Relay,
.
DLCI 
. , 
ISDN 
. (IP IPX) 
. ,
, Frame Relay,
. , , Frame Relay,
. IP IPX

. , 
Frame Relay:

280

13.
Router(config if)#frame relay interface dlci 56
Router(config if)#ip address 198.156.82.1 255.255.255.0

, 
(mapping). ,
dialer map
ISDN. Frame Relay 
: frame relay map. IP
Frame Relay. 
:
Router(config)#frame relay map ip 198.156.81.0 56

: 
IP 198.156.81.0 Frame Relay,
(DLCI) 56. ,
:
#frame relay map <protocol> <protocol address> <dlci number>

Frame Relay . 
, , 
.
.

. 
Cisco,
.

ISDN , 
BRI.

BRI (B)
(D).

ISDN ,
OSI.

X.25 .

Frame Relay X.25 


ISDN.

OSI, X.25,
Frame Relay.

281


WAN
() ,
Cisco?
, Cisco 
Frame Relay ISDN;

. 
, 
,
.

1. BRI ISDN?
2. D BRI?
3. ISDN TE1?
4. () OSI X.25?
5. , Frame Relay?

1. 144 /c: 64 / B 16 /c
D.
2. D .
3. ISDN TE1 Type1 terminal equipment
( ).
4. , .
5. DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier
).

1. . 
.
1>
Router#configure terminal
2>
Router(config)#isdn switch type basic nil
3>
Router(config)#interface bri 0
4>
Router(config if)#isdn spid 1 56342
Router(config if)#isdn spid 2 98654
Router(config if)#no shutdown
7>
Router(config if)#encapsulation ppp
8>
Router(config if)#ip address 198.37.134.1 255.255.255.0
9>
Router(config)#dialer map ip 198.37.135.0 name NETWORK_B 42156987
10>
Router(config)#dialer group 1

282

13.
11>
Router(config)#access list 108 permit 198.37.134.0 255.255.255.0
198.37.135.0 255.255.255.0

10 11 :
Router(config)#dialer list 1 list 99

2. 14 (IP 198.52.62.1) 
Frame Relay , IP 198.52.63.0 
DLIC 130.

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface serial 0.14 point to point
Router(config if)#encapsulation frame relay ietf
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#frame relay interface dlci 130
Router(config if)#ip address 198.52.62.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config)#frame relay map ip 198.52.63.0 130 cisco

 
Books.Ru 
ISBN 5932860480,
Cisco.
 Books.Ru  .
 ,

.
,  (piracy@sym
bol.ru), .

14

. 
:
,

. , , 
,
. ,
.


. 
( IP) 
.

.

. ,
RIP, IGRP, OSPF BGP,
, 
, .
:

284

14.

. 

.

. 
.
,

. , 

.

. .



, 

.
, 
.
:
. 
, . ,
, , 
.


, 
. , 
RIP IGRP . 
, RIP
.


.
.
. ,
, 
. . 14.1 
( 
).

285

14.1.

A B

B C

A C

C D

14.1 ,
, .

,
, 
. A , 
C, 
. A
C. A B,
C. , , 
.
. 14.1,
, , A
B C 5,
C 6. ABC
.
, 
, . 
,
. 

.
.


, 
(. 14.1). 
()
.
.

.
.
, 

286

14.

. , , 5
,
.
, 

. ( ) 
.
.

, .
. 


.
, .

.

, ,
. ,
, 
: .


RIP (Routing Information Protocol 
) BGP (Border Gateway Protocol 
), ,
Cisco. , 
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First 
), 
. , ,
.


,
, , 
. 
. , 
,
, 
, .
, , 
A E ACDE,

287

. ,
, A E
C, , C
.
,
.
.
.
 ( 
), ,
.

.
, ,
.


,
. 

, .

. , 
, 
. 
,
, ,
. 
, 
, :


, .


.

, 
.
, .
, 
. 
, 

288

14.

, .
. 14.1 .

. 14.1.

, . 14.2, 
() . 
. . 14.214.8 
,
 .
14.2. A

AC

AB

AE

14.3. B

BA

BD

14.4. C

CA

289

14.5. D

DB

DE

14.6. E

EA

ED

EF

14.7. F

FE

FG

14.8. G

GF

,
. 
. A , 
F, ,
. ( A 
,
F. A
, , 
.) 
,
.
, 

, , 
. 14.9.
, A
F. , 
A , F E,
, ABDE.

290

14.

14.9. A

AB

BD

AC

AE

DE

EF

FG

, , 
. 
.
, 
30 . , 
, , 
. 
, .

. , A
E, ,
, .
: 
. ,
. 

.

, ,
. , 

. ,  
. 

. ,
, , 
.

.
, . 

, . 

291


.

.
, (link state)
(distance vector), 
.

.

.
, 

.


?
, 
?
.

. ,
, ,
,
.

1. 
?
2. 
?
3. ,
?

1. (Link state).
2. (Hop).
3. ( ).

16
IGRP EIGRP
, 
, RIP 
.
. , 
RIP 15 , 
, . 
( 
RIP ).
,

. 
,
, RIP.
, RIP,
.
, 
, RIP, . 80
Cisco
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
). 
, RIP, 
. IGRP
, EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol 
).
.

320

16. IGRP EIGRP

IGRP EIGRP, 
Cisco. , 
,
Cisco. :
IGRP EIGRP RIP
IGRP
IGRP
EIGRP
EIGRP
IGRP EIGRP
. RIP 
, IGRP EIGRP 
, 
. IGRP EIGRP
RIP.

RIP,
. , 

 (BellmanFord). 
,
.

, . ,
, 
. , ,
.
RIP, IGRP EIGRP.

IGRP EIGRP RIP


, RIP
(IGP interior gateway protocol). 
RIP 
.
,
.
RIP , , 
, 
. 
. 
, .
, 
.

IGRP EIGRP RIP

321

,
. , 
,
. Cisco ( )
IGRP. 
RIP.
IGRP IGP;
, RIP,
, . 
, RIP, IGRP EIGRP,
, .

,
. IGRP EIGRP
. 

(). 
. 
. 
,
.
, 
, . , 
, ( 
), , , 
. , 
,
. . 16.1.

. 16.1.

322

16. IGRP EIGRP

, , 
, 
. ( ) 
.
, .
, 
. , 
. , 
, 
. ,
.
(
) .
(
, , 
, .)
, , 
. 
, , 
. 
. , 
, .
, , 
: . , 
( , ),
, , , .
, , , 
. , RIP,
IGRP EIGRP,
, (EGP, Exterior
Gateway Protocol) ,
.
(Enhanced) IGRP, EIGRP,
IGRP. IGRP 
,
, EIGRP
.
, IGRP EIGRP, 
Cisco.

IGRP
IGRP 
, RIP.

IGRP

323

, 
. ,
IGRP.
RIP, IGRP, 
, , 

(unequalcost load balancing). Cisco,
IGRP, , 
RIP: 
. RIP
, IGRP . 
, 
.

. ,
IGRP RIP.

IGRP
IGRP
. , RIP
: . IGRP 
.

. IGRP :

, RIP,
IGRP, ,
. ,
( 
), 
. IGRP , , 

.
, , 
, (
). 
1 16 777 216 ( ). 
, , 
. ,
,

324

16. IGRP EIGRP

. .
, 
.

, 1200 / 10 /. 
, 
.
. 
, 
.
1 255, 
.
, , 
.
, 

( ) ,
.
0
255. , 
. , 255, ,
100% .
, IGRP, 

. 
, IGRP, . 
, IGRP 
, .

RIP. IGRP
, ,
.


IGRP
RIP: .


RIP 15 .
Cisco IGRP , 

.
IGRP 15
255.

IGRP

325

. IGRP
, RIP.

(hop) (node).
( ),
, .



RIP IGRP
. IGRP 
, 
.


. , IGRP
, . 16.2
, 
.
. 16.2 A 
E. ABE 
, ,
ADFE. . ,
, ,
.

. 16.2.

326

16. IGRP EIGRP

,
 , 
. IGRP
: , ABE ADFE, 
E 
A E.

. A 
x , B. x 

.

IGRP 
.

IGRP
IGRP 
, RIP. ,
IGRP, 
. IGRP, RIP, 

.
IGRP 
RIP. , : 
(flash update).
IGRP 90 .
30 RIP.
: IGRP 
, RIP,
, 
, .

.
, , 
270 , 
. ,
. 
630 , .
IGRP ( 
) ( 
). IGRP
.

IGRP

327

IGRP, RIP,
. IG
RP 90 ,
. 
,
.
IGRP 
, 
. 
IGRP , 
.
IGRP , 
RIP IGRP.
, RIP, 
, 
, IGRP.

IGRP
IGRP , 
, , 
. 
IGRP , Cisco

. , ( 
), IGRP
.
RIP ( 
), IGRP
Cisco IOS. , IOS
, 
(ASN Autonomous System Number), 
. 
1 65 535. 
. 
, IGRP, :
#router igrp <asn>

, BGP, ASN,
, , IP.
, ASN.

, 
. IP 

328

16. IGRP EIGRP

. 
. network
#network <ip address>

ASN 
IGRP. 
IGRP Cisco:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router igrp 210
Router(config router)#network 198.10.0.0


IGRP. , , 
,
IGRP.
, 
, .



,
, ,

, 
,
 , .

, variance. ,

, variance , 
.
Cisco , ,
. variance :
#variance <multiplier>

, .
,
, ,
.
, 6,
2, ,
, ,
12 ( ).
, ,


IGRP

329

, , 
. 
, A D 4, 
B 3 ( ),
.

, 
, IGRP
. , , 
Cisco 
, variance:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router igrp 51
Router(config router)#variance 3
Router(config router)#^Z

, variance . 
, Cisco IOS
, . 
, , 
.
, ,
, , 
, . , 
, ,
.


, 
, IGRP .
,  , 
.
.
, .
, IGRP , 
. 16.1.
, IGRP
Cisco IOS, timers basic.
, 
. 
 IGRP
. IG
RP ( ):
#timers basic <update timer> <timeout timer> <hold down timer> <removal timer>

330

16. IGRP EIGRP

16.1. IGRP

90

270

630


10

,
. 
, , 
. 
:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router igrp 51
Router(config router)#timers basic 75 200 76 550
Router(config router)#^Z

Cisco 90 75;
 270 200;
76; 630 550.

/

IGRP
, 
. ,
, .
,  
, .
Cisco 
.
Cisco IOS.
.

, .
,
.
,
. ,
.

IGRP

331

 ,
. ,
; .

, 
no :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router igrp 51
Router(config router)#no metric holddown
Router(config router)#^Z

no metric holddown
. , 
IGRP, ,
.

Cisco IOS .

, . 
, A B.
B A, B
. , A
B . 
, A ( ) 
B B.

, 
RIP. (
RIP, , , 
, .)


. Cisco 
. 
, 
:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config int)#no ip splithorizon
Router(config int)#^Z

IGRP.
90 Cisco 

332

16. IGRP EIGRP

. IGRP,
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol IGRP), 
IGRP.

EIGRP
IGRP, Cisco .
, , 
. , 
, RIP,
. EIGRP 
IGRP.
DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm 
)
. 
, DUAL , (
), 
. 
, .
, DUAL, ,
EIGRP .
IGRP 
, 
.

DUAL ,
( 
). EIGRP,
.
.

IGRP, 
EIGRP, hello.

, hello. hello

.
EIGRP hello
( hello) 
. , 
. , hello

.

EIGRP

333

, 
. , 
.


. ,
, hello .

.  ,
.

EIGRP
Cisco IOS, EIGRP,
, IGRP.
:
. 
. 
, ,
IGRP, EIGRP.
, ,
EIGRP Cisco:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router eigrp 578
Router(config router)#network 10.0.0.0
Router(config router)#^Z

EIGRP
. IGRP,
EIGRP. , IGRP EIGRP
Cisco
.
, EIGRP, 
, EIGRP
. EIGRP 50% 
. Cisco 

.
, 
(
), 

, :

334

16. IGRP EIGRP


#ip bandwidth percent eigrp <percentage>


ip bandwidth percentage, 
, .
EIGRP 
.
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config int)#ip bandwidth percent eigrp 25
Router(config int)#^Z

EIGRP ,
EIGRP IGRP .
, 
, .

IGRP RIP.

IGRP 255.

IGRP EIGRP
.

IGRP EIGRP
.


, IGRP EIGRP
, .

EIGRP hello 
.


EIGRP, IGRP 
RIP?

EIGRP 

IGRP. EIGRP
, 
, 
IGRP.

335

1.
IGRP, EIGRP?
2. DUAL?
3. : 
,
?
4. IGRP 
?

1. ASN ( ) .
2. , EIGRP , 
.
3. . 
.
4. , 
.

1. 20 (
198.32.98.0) IGRP. 
Ethernet 0
, 25 .

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router igrp 20
Router(config router)#network 198.32.98.0
Router(config router)#timers basic 25 270 90 630
Router(config int)#^Z
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config int)#no ip splithorizon
Router(config int)#^Z

III

Cisco
15 RIP
16 IGRP EIGRP
17

OSPF

18 BGP
19 IS>IS
20 Cisco
21


Cisco Catalyst PNNI

15
RIP
, 
Cisco. 
Cisco, Cisco IOS,
WAN. ,
.
, ,
. 
,
. 
RIP. 
:
RIP
RIP
RIP
RIP
RIP

RIP

. 
. 

, , 
, , , ,
.

296

15. RIP

RIP (Routing Information Protocol 


) ,
. RIP 1982 .
Unix. ,
RIP, Xerox
PUP (PARC Universal Protocol) GWINFO. RIP 
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol,
). , RIP 
.
IGP (interior gateway protocols
) EGP (exterior gateway protocols 
). IGP ,
. IGP 
, .
EGP , .
, , ,
.

, RIP
. 
(single) () 
.
,
RIP, 
WAN.
WAN, , PSN
(public switched network, ).
WAN,
RIP.
RIP ,
, , 
, .
,
, RIP .
RIP 
. RIP ,
. 

. ,
, RIP .
,
, RIP.

, RIP
RIP 80 Xerox
. 

RIP

297

, Unix 
. RIP 
, 
.

, ,
. , 

.

RIP , ,
, 
. , , 
,
. , RIP 
, .
, , RIP, 
( ).
, RIP . RIP
, .
, .
RIP 
,
. 
.
, , , 
, .
. 15.1.

. 15.1.

298

15. RIP

. 15.1, A 
D, . D
, , D
. A B, C .
C ( D) 
( A). .
, RIP
: ,

. RIP 
. 
, RIP.
:


. 
, 
. 

.
,
.
,
RIP, .

RIP
,
, Cisco
. 
( ).
( ) 
.

, Cisco , 
. , running con
fig, . Cisco ( 
), .
running config,
,  , .

299

RIP


. Cis
co, RIP, . 15.1 ( 
D):
15.1.

153.19.88.0

30180240

198.63.35.0

30180240

153.19.89.0

30180240

. 15.1 . , 
. , , 
, 
.

,
. :

: .

: , 
.

: ,
, 
.

: , 
RIP. (routing update ti
mer) . RIP 
30 .
 (route timeout). 

180 , .
(route removal timer).

, 240 .

: RIP (
).

, . 15.1, ,
D 153.19.88.0 
A, 6 198.63.35.0 
B 153.19.89.0
C. D ,
153.19.88.0, RIP

300

15. RIP

, 
A.
. ,
, , 
. 
:

TTL (Time to Live )

. ( :
, .)

.
( ).

Cisco, RIP,

. 
.

. 
, 
. ( 
, ), .

() , 

.
: 
,
. 

RIP: , 
, 
.


RIP, 
(hop count limit). 
RIP 15 
. .

, ,
.
, ,
. , IP 
Time to Live (TTL), 5 

RIP

301

. , 
RIP, TTL 15. ,
, TTL 1.
, TTL
. 
, 15
, 
, . 
, IPX 
(transfer control),
1, , 16, .
, RIP, 
.
, 
, RIP.
, ,
( TTL (Time to Li
ve) IP). , 
. , , 
, ,
. , 
.
, RIP,
, 15 .
10
. , 15 , 
 .

,
15 RIP. 
RIP .
RIP ,
,
( ) . 
, OSPF,
, RIP.
RIP 
,
. 
,
, . ,
,
. RIP
, 
.

302

15. RIP


RIP , . 
(route poisoning) ,
16
.
.
.
,
.
, (
) , ,
.
, 16,
.
, .
. 15.2 , 
.

. 15.2.

. 15.2 , 1 
A . B
A, C, 1
2 . A, , 
1,
1 3: 1 ( ) + 2 (, 
B), . B
, , A 1 3,
4 .
.
, C ( 
B) , , 

RIP

303

16. A B
C, , 
.


(split horizon) , 
. 
,
,
. 

, .
. 15.3 ,
.

. 15.3.

. 15.3 (A, B, C D).


, 
A C . A
, , C 
. A B, 
. 
,
D, , A C 
. B 
A, A C (
). A B.
,
, , 
, 
, . 

304

15. RIP

, ,

.


(holddown timers) 
RIP, 
. , 
, 
.

, .
, 
. 

.
, 
( 
). , 
.

RIP
RIP , 
. 
, RIP

.
RIP, 
, , . 
(
). ,

.
,
(), 
. (), (
), 
, ,
, 
. ( ,
RIP 
.)

RIP

305

,
. WAN ( 
) .

RIP,
, 
, 
, .
( ), 
. , 
, .
( 
) RIP. 
, .
, RIP,
RIP Cisco.

RIP
RIP WAN
. RIP , 
, 
. 
, RIP, ,

.


, 
. ,
.
,
.

,
( 
: , 
). 

. .
, RIP , 
, RIP .

306

15. RIP
, RIP . RIP (
) , , 
, IP.


( ,
IP, . 15.2).
( 
). ,
;
: , 
. ,
.
, 
, , 
RIP. RIP 
, , . 
, 
, RIP
. , RIP
. . 15.2 IP
. , 
. . 15.3 . 
,
RIP.
15.2. IP&

16

TTL

15

17

1024

153.85.23.15

153.85.26.85


. 

307

RIP

, ,
: C D.
15.3.

153.85.23.0

30180240

153.85.24.0

30180240

153.85.25.0

30180240

153.85.26.0

30180240

153.85.26.0

30180240

203.152.0.0

30180240

:
, 153.85.26.0?

B, C.
RIP. : 2
C 3 D, , 
C.
, RIP
. IP,
. 
IP . 15.4.
15.4.

16

TTL

14

17

1024

153.85.23.15

153.85.26.85

. RIP, 
, ,

308

15. RIP

.
, RIP. ,
RIP :
. RIP 
,
.
,
. , 
RIP
. , RIP

.

RIP
,
RIP
, . 
RIP
.
() RIP 30
. , 
, RIP 
. (
)
.

,
, .

RIP : 
( update routing), 
RIP 
. RIP.
30
. ,

(, ).

.
, 
( ) 
, 


309

RIP

. , ,
, 
. 
.
, , Cisco, 
RIP, 
. 
. 
, .
, ,
RIP.

.
( ). , 
, 
. . 15.5
. ,
RIP 
, . 15.6.
15.5. RIP

RIP,
2

15.6. RIP

 , ,

IP

, . 15.6, RIP
, . ( 
25 .) 
, .

310

15. RIP

RIP 
, . 
,
.
, , 
. RIP 
Cisco , 
, , 
.
(
RIP) Cisco.
RIP Cisco.

RIP
, RIP 
Cisco,
. , ,
, RIP
. RIP, 

. router rip
:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#

router 
. .

, 
. RIP Cisco,
. 
, . 
network :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#network 198.124.0.0
Router(config router)#^Z

(
, ) 

RIP

311

. RIP 
, , .

RIP Cisco.

, . 
RIP 
.
.
Cis
co, RIP. 
, RIP .

RIP
Cisco
RIP. 
. , RIP, 
, 
.
, :

RIP

RIP, 

, 

.

RIP
Cisco,
, RIP. 
RIP : 
, , 
. 
,
. 
,
. RIP 
timers basic. :
#timers basic <routing update timer> <route timeout> <hold down timer> <route
removal>

312

15. RIP

,
timers basic, 
:
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#timers basic 30 180 45 270
Router(config router)#^Z

timers basic.
,
( ).


30 , Cisco
30 .
 180 . 
, 
180 , .
45 .
, 
,
,
.
, 270 . 
, 
, 
. ,
Cisco, 
.

RIP

Cisco RIP. RIP
, 
. Cisco , 
RIP 
. ,
, RIP, .

.
Cisco . 
, , 
RIP ,
.

RIP

313

.
neighbor.
Cisco IOS neighbor 
, RIP .
, passive interface , 
RIP . 

RIP .
neighbor,
. 
:
#neighbor <protocol address>

RIP 
198.53.10.1 :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#neighbor 195.53.10.1
Router(config router)#^Z

neighbor
. , 
,
show running config.
Router#show running config
!
router rip
network 153.5.0.0
neighbor 153.5.86.2
neighbor 153.5.46.1
!
(output abbreviated)

, running
config. , star
tup config.

running config , 
Cisco. 
, , no:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#no neighbor 153.5.86.2
Router(config router)#^Z

314

15. RIP

neighbor 
, passive interface
RIP . 
passive interface :
#passive interface <interface> <interface number>

Ether
net 1, :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#passive interface ethernet 1
Router(config router)#^Z

neighbor passive interface, Cisco


RIP . 
, 
, RIP 
. Cisco 
1, 2 (
). ,
.

RIP
RIP ,
, . , 
Cisco 1 RIP. 
2
RIP.1
Cisco , ,
RIP 
 . , version, , 
RIP .

1 2 RIP . Cisco 
RIP 1, 
( Cisco 
RIP 2). , ,
RIP.

Cisco IOS 12.2 :


RIP 1 2, RIP
1. . . .

RIP

315

version , 
Cisco , RIP 1
( , 
RIP 1) RIP 2 (
, RIP 2).
version version <version number>:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#version 2
Router(config router)#^Z


RIP . ,
RIP , 
.
,
. , 
,
RIP 1, 
RIP 2. RIP 

.

RIP ,
IP.

RIP 

:
#ip rip <direction> <version number(s)>

version , 
, Ethernet 1
RIP 1, Ethernet 2 1, 2:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config int)#ip rip send version 1
Router(config int)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config int)#ip rip receive version 1 2
Router(config int)#^Z

,
RIP Cisco.
RIP. 
RIP. , 

316

15. RIP


RIP.

RIP
RIP Cisco
Cisco.
RIP , 
, . Cisco

,
RIP.

show (
RIP) . ,
IP IOS, 
show.


RIP.
, 
, ,
. RIP 
, 
. RIP 
, show :
Router#show ip route rip

:
Codes: C connected, S static, I IGRP, R RIP, M mobile, B BGP
D EIGRP, EX EIGRP external, O OSPF, IA OSPF inter area
N1 OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 OSPF external type 1, E2 OSPF external type 2, E EGP
i IS IS, L1 IS IS level 1, L2 IS IS level 2, * candidate default
U per user static route, o ODR
T traffic engineered route
Gateway of last resort is not set
R 153.16.4.0 [90/1] via 153.16.4.1, 00:00:10 Ethernet1
C 198.56.0.0 is directly connected, Ethernet2

RIP
RIP ( )
. , , 
, , 
, .

317

RIP .
RIP
, ,
,
.
RIP , 15
.

RIP .
RIP 
30 .
Cisco RIP 2.1


RIP
15 ?
RIP 15 
, .
, RIP
.
, 
.

1. Cisco ,
( 
)?
2.
RIP?
3. ,
A.
A 30 
?

1. 240 .
1

. . 314.

318

15. RIP

2. show ip route rip.


3. , .

1. 10.0.0.0
RIP. RIP Ethernet 0 (
: Ethernet 0 Ethernet 1).
, ,
RIP , 
RIP 2. ( IP 
.)

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router rip
Router(config router)#network 10.0.0.0
Router(config router)#passive interface ethernet 1
Router(config router)#^Z
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0
Router(config int)#ip rip send version 2
Router(config int)#ip rip receive version 1 2

17
OSPF

, . 

. , RIP, IGRP
EIGRP, 
;
, .

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First 
). OSPF IGP
, ,
IGRP EIGRP. OSPF, RIP, IGRP EIGRP, 
, 
. OSPF 
. 
, OSPF, Cisco, 
OSPF.
:

OSPF

OSPF

OSPF

OSPF
OSPF 80 IETF 
RIP ( Cisco IGRP.) 

OSPF

337

RIP, IETF
. ,

, .
OSPF
.
OSPF, :


.

OSPF IGP,
(
) (EGP).

OSPF 
IP.

OSPF 
.

OSPF , 
. OSPF 
,
.
.
, OSPF IGP 
.

OSPF
, OSPF, ,
. 
, ,
, OSPF, ,
. ().

OSPF .
, Cisco
. OSPF .

OSPF, , . 17.1.
OSPF 
. ,
, IP.
. 
().

338

17. OSPF

. 17.1. OSPF

OSPF IP. OSPF


IP.

, 

. OSPF
, 
, .
OSPF ,
,
. ,
BGP. OSPF 
. EGP 

OSPF.
OSPF 
.
,
OSPF .

LSA (link state advertisement 
). 
, 
. LSA 
, (flooding) (

OSPF

339

,
).
LSA .
.
. 
, .

. 
,
.


. , 
( LSA), .

OSPF : (stub)
(notsostubby areas NSSA). ,

, . 
, 
.
,
. 
, , LSA 
. 
. . 17.2 
, .

. 17.2.

340

17. OSPF

, , 
(ABR area bor
der router). , , ABR
( . 17.2).
19 . 17.3, , 
, ABR ,
.
NSSA, , LSA.
(
) , 
.
, LSA
.
, OSPF
(DR designated router).

LSA . DR 
.

DR, 
DR. ,
DR . 
LSA DR.

. 17.3. ,

OSPF

341

OSPF 
, . ,
OSPF , 
. 
:


NSSA

OSPF


. 
. 
OSPF 
, 
.
,
, .
OSPF .


. ,
( )
.
(
A, B, C D ):
1. (A) (B C).
2. 
.
3. , 
(C).
4. 
(B D).
5. 2.
6. , .
1. , 
. , , 
,
, .

342

17. OSPF

2.
, , 
.
3. (
), .
4. 1 .
, 
, , 
.
5. 2.
6. ,
.
,
.
, . 17.4.

. 17.4. A

1. A.
2.
. A B C. 
, A . 
AC, AC 
.
3. , 
(C).
4. . 
A (B) C (D).
5. . ,
, . 
, AB 3, CD 2.
A, CD 
3 (AC + CD). AB AD .

OSPF

343

, 
. 

,
.

: . 
, , OSPF,
, , 
.
,

. OSPF ,
. 
,
. , 
OSPF , 
:
= 108/
, 
. , 128 / 
781, T1 64. 
, , 
, , ,
.
, ,
, . , 
, ,
. , 
, , OSPF
, , .

, OSPF, 
, , 
.

, ,
,
, . 
,
( ),
. 
,

344

17. OSPF

( ).
,

.
, 
, .
;

.

OSPF
OSPF 
, . 
( 
), OSPF ,

.
OSPF , 
. :
Hello




OSPF
. 
OSPF. 
, .
OSPF . 17.5.

. 17.5 , OSPF 
. ,
, , , 
.

. 
, , ,
hello .
OSPF , hello
, . 
hello , 
. hello

OSPF

345

. 17.5. OSPF&

, , 
.
hello , .
.
, 
, .

, (DR)
. , 
, , 
.
, ,

, .

. , 
.
.
.
OSPF
, .

. ,
,

346

17. OSPF

. 
, , 
. 
. , 
. , ,
OSPF, , .

OSPF
OSPF . 
, .
,
, . OSPF
:

.
OSPF , 
. ,
.
.

,
OSPF, 
.
,
.
( ) . 

(
, ).

(ABR).

. 
ABR,
, 
. , 
, 
.
,
, 

OSPF

347

. , ABR 
ABR . ( 

, 
OSPF.) . 17.6.

. 17.6.

. 17.6 19
1. 19
.


, .
, EGP, LSA
. 
. ABR

, 
.

LSA. ,
, 

348

17. OSPF

, ,
.


,
, ,
. 
, 
. 
,
.

. 
,
, ,

.

(NSSA)
NSSA ,
. ,
NSSA 
. 
, 
.
, 
.
NSSA 
. ,
, 
. NSSA ,
,
, .

, , 
, . 
Cisco .

, 
, 
.
, 
.
.

OSPF

349


,
.
, , 
, ,
( RIP).

.
EGP (Exte
rior Gateway Protocol, ),
. , 
, BGP (Border Gateway Protocol,
),
.
OSPF ,
.

, .

Cisco OSPF. 
.

OSPF
Cisco OSPF . 
( 
, )
. , 
, .
OSPF ,
.
IGRP EIGRP, OSPF 
. 
,
.
.
, ,
, 
. , 
, 
, 
.
OSPF 
. ,

350

17. OSPF

,
. 
1 65 535.
router ospf.
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router ospf 349

, OSPF, IP.
IP,
:
Router(config)#router ospf 349
OSPF: Could not allocate router id

OSPF IP.

.
, 
. 
, IP .
network,
:
#network <ip address> <wildcard bits> area <area address>

, network 
IP (wildcard bits). 
. IP
, .
, C 225.65.34.0 
0.0.0.255 IP .
1 B:
Router(config router)#network 198.56.0.0 255.255.0.0 area 1
Router(config router)#^Z

,
0. ,

, IP 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 ( IP). 
IP:
Router(config router)#network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0
Router(config router)#^Z

OSPF 0.

OSPF

351


, 
, . , ABR 3 (
, )
IP , 3,
, . 
. 
ABR
3:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip address 198.109.1.1 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config if)#ip address 197.85.1.1 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#^Z
Router(config)#router ospf 45
Router(config router)#network 198.109.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 3
Router(config router)#network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0
Router(config router)#^Z

ethernet 0 3, ethernet 1 
. ABR, 
.

. 
, NSSA area. area
ABR, ,
:
#area <area number> <area type> <area specific params>

ABR ,
3 , :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip address 198.109.1.1 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config if)#ip address 197.85.1.1 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#^Z
Router(config)#router ospf 45
Router(config router)#network 198.109.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 3
Router(config router)#network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0
Router(config router)#area 3 stub no summary
Router(config router)#^Z

352

17. OSPF

,
. no summary , 
IP. 
. , 
NSSA, ,
no redistribution.
area
. 
(
). ABR ABR 
( ).
.
:
#area <local area ID> virtual link <neighbor ABR address> <optional
parameters>


3:
Router(config)#router ospf 45
Router(config router)#area 3 virtual link 123.1.1.2
Router(config router)#^Z


 . OSPF
, 108
. ,
.
,
OSPF, (FDDI) .
1. 
FDDI 
, FDDI, 
. , 
, auto cost, 
:
Router(config)#router ospf 45
Router(config router)#auto cost reference bandwidth 4294967
Router(config router)#^Z

, ,
/.1 
1 4 294 967.

100. . . .

353

,
OSPF,
,
Cisco.
.


, ,
OSPF. OSPF 
. :
OSPF .

, .
OSPF ().
OSPF .
OSPF
(NSSA).



, ?


, 

.
, 
.

1. ?
2. OSPF ?
3. OSPF?

1. , .
2. = 108/ .
3. (, 
IP).

354

17. OSPF

1. OSPF , 
( 1) 
. IP 10.0.0.0,
10.1.1.1 10.20.1.1.

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#interface ethernet 1
Router(config if)#ip address 10.20.1.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config if)#no shutdown
Router(config if)#^Z
Router(config)#router ospf 572
Router(config router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 1
Router(config router)#network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0
Router(config router)#area 1 nssa
Router(config router)#^Z

18
BGP

Cisco.
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol,
). (, , )
, BGP, 
. 
BGP ( )
BGP, 
.

BGP . 
,
. , 
Cisco 
BGP, 
.

, . 
, , 
:
.
. ,
, , 
, , . 
, 
. 
.

356

18. BGP

,
,
, , ,
. , 
, . 
,  , 
, ,
, . 
BGP.
BGP , 
. 
(
). , BGP,
,
.

, BGP, BGP4 (
).
. BGP4 
BGP,
BGP.

, 
.
, RIP,
. 
,
. BGP
( () ).
, 
. ,
, 
 ,
.
, .
BGP (BGP4) ,
, .
, . 
BGP ,
, BGP ,
. Cisco, 
.
BGP : EBGP (Exterior Border
Gateway Protocol, ) IBGP (Inte

357

rior Border Gateway Protocol, 


). EBGP
(
BGP), IBGP 
.
Cisco
BGP, 
, BGP. 
, 
, BGP.


() BGP. 
BGP.


( ).


. , PNNI (. A), ISIS 
(. 19). , . 
.
.
 , , 
, .

, , 
, . ,
BGP . . ,
, .
. 18.1.
, . 18.1, ,
. 

. 
(1).
(2 3)
(
), . 
.

358

18. BGP

. 18.1.

, 
. 18.1. , POP (point of
presence ), 
( , Cisco 
). . 18.2
, .
. 18.2 ,
. , POP 
, POP .
?
. ,
(LAN, WAN SOHO) ,
, , . ,
, .
. 
. 
, BGP , 
. 
, .

ASN (autonomous system number

359

. 18.2.

).
(, BGP). ASN 
1 65 535.
Cisco
, ASN BGP.
, ,
.


, IP, 
( , 
EBGP).
 ASN, 
. , 
1 65 535,
. 
.


IP. 
, 
( ) .

360

18. BGP


ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers 
).
: http://rs.arin.net/netinfo/asn.txt.

ASN 64 512 65 535. IP


, . 
IBGP BGP.
.
. ASN
,
. :



ASN,
.
, 
.
. 
, 
. 
BGP , .
. 18.3 , 
.

. 
, 
.
ASN.
.

,
.
, 
, . . 18.4
.
1000 . 18.4 ,
2000 3000.
, 2000 
3000 1000. ( 1000
, 

361

.) 3000, 2000
3000.

. 18.3.

. 18.4.

362

18. BGP

. 
,
.
. 18.4 , 2000
3000 1000.


RFC 1930.

ASN IP
IP 
, .
IP BGP
. ASN IP
, . ,
ASN IP, 
. 
.
. 18.5 , 
. IP.
IP, 
ASN. IP 

. 18.5. IP&

363

ASN 

. ( .)
 , ASN,
.
, , 
, .
. 
BGP (BGP speaker),
BGP (BGP peer).

BGP
( BGP)
BGP. BGP ASN
, .
IP, IP
ASN.
BGP IP,
ASN, . ,
BGP, 
, . 
, IP,
ASN , . 18.6.

. 18.6.

364

18. BGP

. 18.6 BGP ( 
), 10.50.34.1,
. IP
ASN ,
10.50.34.1, ASN.
BGP (
BGP), , 
, router :
Router(config)#router bgp

. BGP 
, ASN.
:
Router(config)#router bgp 400


BGP, router BGP ( 
).


BGP, 
, .

,
. . 18.7 
.

. , EBGP
. , 
,
.
BGP, 
.

( , ) 
BGP, . 
, ,
.


(BGP)
, BGP , 
.
BGP

365

. 18.7.

(
) BGP.
BGP&&
(BGP peering sessions).
BGP 
BGP,
. BGP, ,
BGP.

BGP TCP, 
TCP 179.

BGP , BGP BGP


. BGP
. 
BGP
.

,
( ) .

366

18. BGP

BGP
( EBGP, IBGP),
. ,
BGP 
.

BGP 
, . 
EBGP (multihop peering). EBGP, BGP
, .
( ) 

.

BGP
neighbor:
Router(configure)#router bgp 65000
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.115.48.1 remote as 100

BGP
65000 
10.115.48.1, 
100.

10.115.48.1 .
, 
. 
EBGP, :
Router(configure)#router bgp 65000
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.115.48.1 remote as 100
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.115.48.1 ebgp multihop


, EBGP, ,
. 
, , 
.

, EBGP 
, IGP. ,
, OSPF IGRP.

BGP
.
.

EBGP

367

,
. BGP 
. 
, BGP.

BGP , 
. .

.

( 
BGP).

,
BGP, .
, 
.
BGP ,
. 
: IBGP EBGP.

EBGP (IBGP ).

EBGP
EBGP (Exterior Border Gateway Pro
tocol ). EBGP 
BGP,
. 

.
EBGP IBGP , , 
. (IBGP
.)
BGP , ,
BGP. BGP
, .
BGP, ,
. ()
BGP 

.
BGP, ,
, 

368

18. BGP

, .
. BGP
.
BGP : , ,
XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX, .
IP ,
. 
, ,
, . 
BGP ,
.
.

, ,
. , , 
IP
.
BGP, , , 
. , 
, , 
. , 
,
.

BGP , 
( ) BGP (
), . (
) ,
.
BGP 
. , 
. . 18.8 ,
EBGP.
2000
( 3000 4000), 
IP 10.34.0.0 1000 IP 10.60.0.0
2000. ( 1000), 
IP 10.80.0.0 10.35.0.0 
3000 4000 . 2000

1000, 3000 4000.
, 3000 IP
10.34.0.0, ,
2000, ( 1000).

EBGP

369

. 18.8. , EBGP

BGP 
, . 
: .
BGP ,
IGP.
(. 18.8) ,
3000 4000 ( EIGRP), .

EIGRP IGP,
.

, 
, BGP (
BGP,
).

BGP 
. IGP,
, BGP
, :
Router(configure)#router eigrp 40
Router(configure router)#network 10.153.0.0

370

18. BGP
Router(configure router)#redistribute bgp 65100
Router(configure router)#redistribute connected

BGP :
Router(configure)#router bgp 65100
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.154.0.1 remote as 65100
Router(configure router)#distribute list 1 out
Router(configure router)#redistribute eigrp 10

distribute list , 
. 21;
, EBGP.
, 
. IP ,
.

:
BGP. .
(. 18.8), , 
2000 , 1000, 
. 2000 
3000 4000, 
BGP.
BGP 
, :
Router(configure)#ip route 10.153.40.0 255.255.0.0 null 0

, null 0.
.
, .

, 
BGP. redistri
bute static:
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.153.60.1 remote as 700
Router(configure router)#redistribute static


. , ,
. 
.

EBGP

371

BGP
BGP 
. 
BGP, .
BGP ,
, . 
, 
.

. 
,
.

,

. ,
, . 18.8,
2000, 
: , 
2000. ( 
.)
,
1000 2000.
, 
3000 4000 .
, 3000 1000, 
. 18.9.

. 18.9.

372

18. BGP

. 18.9 , BGP 
, 3000
1000 .
2000
1000. , 
, , 
.
2000, , 2000 
1000, , 
( 3000
1000) ( 3000 
2000 1000). ,
, 1000,
4, 2000
: ,
1000, 10. , 
3000 BGP,
1000.
1000
4 2000 10.

.
, ,
,
, 
. , 
,
, , 
, .

. , (
)
, 
.
. ,
:
Router(configure)# ip as path access list 1 permit ^65000$

, 
, 65000.
:
Router(configure router)#route map MYMAP permit 10
Router(configure router)#match as path 1
Router(configure router)#set weight 30

EBGP

373

match as path 1 , 
, 1. 
set weight ,
, , 30.
, BGP :
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.153.50.1 route map MYMAP in

BGP, 
MYMAP , 
10.153.50.1.
BGP
EBGP. , 
. . 
,
BGP, 
.

BGP
BGP ,
( ),
. , 
A B (. 18.10) 

, B.
,
T1
. 
. ,
BGP, ,
, 
. 
.
, , 
.
,
x ( BGP), 

. 18.10.

374

18. BGP

. , 
BGP.
. ,
.
, 
.

 (
), ,
.
.


.
BGP .
,
. , , 
(, ),
, , ,
.
BGP, ,
. ,

( , ,
). , 
BGP . BGP 
,
, BGP.

BGP
BGP . 
, 
: open, update, notification keepalive.
. 
BGP ,
BGP.

BGP
BGP, , 
, BGP.
BGP ,
. BGP 
. 18.11.

EBGP

375

. 18.11. BGP

BGP :
: 16 ,
BGP. BGP
, , 
. ,
, ,

.
: 2 , ( 
) BGP ( ).
: 1 , ,
: open, update, notification keepalive.
: 
. , 
. .

BGP open
open () 
BGP. 
TCP, 
open .
. 18.12 open.

. 18.12. open

open:
: , BGP 
. , 
.
: 2 
, .

376

18. BGP

:
.
open
, ,
.
BGP: 4 , 
. IP.

:
: 1
. 
, 0.
: , 
.
( BGP4) open

, , 
.

BGP update
update () 
BGP . 
, .

BGP. update
. 18.13.

. 18.13. update

update ,
. 
(withdrawn).
: 2 
,
. , 
0.
: ,
IP ,
.

EBGP

377

: 2 
.
: , BGP
(
).
:
IP ,
.

BGP notification keepalive


BGP notification
() .
, notification 
. : 
, .
keepalive ( ) ,
. keepalive ,
, 
.

ASPath ASSet
ASPath , 
BGP. ASPath 
, , 
(. 18.14).

. 18.14. AS&Path

. 18.14 A , 10.34.0.0 
ASN 1000. 
B , 
ASPath, , . 
: 1000 , 10.34.0.0 
ASN 1000.
B C.
C , 
: ASN 2000 , ASN 1000 , 10.34.0.0

378

18. BGP

ASN 1000. , 
D, ASPath ASN 3000 ASN 2000
ASN 1000.

ASPath ASSet.

, D IP 10.34.0.0,
ASSet . ASSet 
ASPath, 
. D
10.34.0.0 AS
Path (ASN 3000). C 
, ASPath ASN 2000,
, ASN 1000.

Next hop
next hop ( ) ASPath.
IP ,
. (. 18.14),
D, ASPath 
, 10.34.0.0, ASN 3000, ,
ASN 3000. D
, , ASN 3000.
next hop D
IP , D 
C (ASN 3000). next
hop, , 
. BGP ,
, next hop, 
.

Origin
origin :
IGP
EGP
Incomplete

IGP EGP IBGP EBGP. IBGP EBGP 


, IGP EGP ,
. IBGP EB
GP. , BGP
. IBGP
, IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Proto

IBGP

379

col ) EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Ga


teway Routing Protocol 
).
BGP origin ( ) 
, .

IGP ,
, IBGP. BGP ,
, origin IGP, 
. EGP ,
. BGP 
EBGP , 
origin EGP. , Incomplete
() , 
. 
, 
.

Local preference
(local preference) ,
,
.
( ) , 
, , 
, .
, . 
, 
100.

IBGP
IBGP EBGP 
(loopback address).
, BGP 

. BGP 
179, Ethernet
(IP). EBGP : 
, 
. IBGP loopback (
).
IP, 
.
, , 
.

380

18. BGP

IBGP  
. , 
EBGP, ,
, IBGP,
.

BGP
,
BGP IBGP BGP.
BGP ( IBGP)
IBGP
. . 18.15.

. 18.15.

(. . 18.15),
IBGP 
. , 

.  
, 
IBGP. 
BGP.
BGP .
,
ASN, 
.
BGP IP (. 
11). IP

IBGP

381

IP, , 
, 
.
,
. ,
. , 
. 
, ,
.

, 
, .
(
).

, . ,
IBGP
. IBGP 
IBGP ( 
). 
.
,

.
. ?
,
, IBGP
.
,
. BGP
. 
 : 
EBGP.
, 
EBGP
. IBGP, 
, IBGP.
IBGP,
EBGP ( EBGP).
,

, 
. . 18.16
, .

382

18. BGP

. 18.16.


confederation bgp 
Cisco, BGP.
(10.198.56.1, 10.198.56.2
10.198.56.3),
, :
Router(configure)#router bgp 65000
Router(configure router)# bgp confederation identifier 500
Router(configure router)# bgp confederation peers 65100
Router(configure router)# neighbor 10.198.56.2 remote as 65000
Router(configure router)# neighbor 10.198.56.3 remote as 65000
Router(configure router)# neighbor 10.198.56.7 remote as 65100

BGP, 
65000. (ID 500)
. 
, neighbor
BGP
10.198.56.7, .

BGP
, BGP 
. , 
BGP,  

IBGP

383

. ,
BGP , 

(IGP).
OSPF, ISIS
IGP ( ,
BGP). , 
, BGP 
. BGP 
.

. 
. , 
IGRP, BGP,
,
?
BGP , 
( 
BGP). BGP
BGP BGP
, ,
IGP. , . 18.17 , 
. BGP OSPF. 
, 
, OSPF.
BGP , 
, OSPF
(. 18.17).
.

. 18.17. ,

384

18. BGP

BGP, no:
Router(configure router)#no synchronization

BGP ,
BGP. 
.
.

BGP
, IBGP
.
, IBGP 
, IBGP, . IBGP
,
. IBGP 
, , 
.
IBGP
. BGP.
IBGP, BGP,
( ) , 
BGP, BGP. , BGP
BGP
, . 
. 18.18.

. 18.18.

385

700 , 
600, 800.
,

IBGP. 
,
, BGP.

1. 10.198.24.1 BGP
200.

Router#configure terminal
Router(configure)#router bgp 200
Router(configure router)#^Z

2. 
10.16.4.1 ( 700).

Router#configure terminal
Router(configure)# neighbor 10.16.4.1 remote as 700
Router(configure router)#redistribute static

3. 670,
10.156.4.1 10.156.4.2
5000.

Router(configure)#router bgp 5000


Router(configure router)#bgp confederation identifier 670
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.156.4.1 remote as 5000
Router(configure router)#neighbor 10.156.4.2 remote as 5000

19
ISIS
ISIS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System c
1) 
. ISIS ISO ( DEC
net Phase V) CLNP (Connectionless Network Protocol 
). 
OSI DNA,
DECnet 
DNA OSI.
Cisco
ISIS. ,
, ISIS 
, DECnet.
OSI, , IGRP
BGP. ISIS 
.
:

ISIS DECnet

ISIS CLNP

ISIS

(IS, intermediate system) , ,


, 

 .
( DECnet Phase IV 
). . .

IS>IS DECnet

387

ISIS
ISIS,
ISIS
ISIS
ISIS

ISIS DECnet
1975 Digital Equipment Corporation 
DECnet VAX.
() DECnet : Phase I, Phase II . .
, 
DECnet
. , ,

.

OSI. DECnet 
.

ISIS DECnet Phase V;


DECnet Phase V DECnet Phase IV.

DECnet ( ) ,
DEC.
DECnet OSI
DNA (Digital Network Architecture Digital).
Digital OSI
DECnet, DECnet Phase V DECnet OSI/
DNA. DECnet Phase IV DNA ,
OSI. . 19.1
Phase IV DNA , 
OSI.

DECnet . , DECnet Phase III


Phase II. DEC DECnet Phase V,
OSI, , 
DECnet DNA. ISIS.

OSI, 
DNA Digital OSI, ISO.
.
DNA OSI.

388

19. IS>IS

. 19.1. DECnet Phase IV DNA

( )
( Digital DNA OSI).
 DNA OSI
DECnet , . DEC
net : ( 
ISIS).

DECnet
DECnet . 
DECnet 16 . 6 DECnet 
. 1 63 (64 ,
0 ). 10 .
1 1023 (1024 , 0 ).
DECnet 64 449 . DECnet
. 19.2.
, DECnet (5, 6 7),
(1, 2, 3 4), 
, . 19.3.

IS>IS DECnet

389

. 19.2. DECnet

DECnet, 
ISIS, MAC. MAC 
DECnet ,
/. , MAC (
) 4.2 (/) AA00
04000210. , DEC
:
1. DECnet :
4.2 = 000100.0000000010 (, :
6 10 )

. 19.3. DECnet,

390

19. IS>IS

2. MAC, , 8
,
/ 8 :
00010000 00000010
3. :
00000010 00010000
4. 
:
02 10
5. Ethernet
MAC DEC AA0004. ( 00 
/
.)
MAC AA0004000210.

MAC ( ) ,
Ethernet . 
, ,
.

MAC DECnet ( ISIS)


, 
. , IP, 
DECnet .
, 
ISIS.

DECnet
, DECnet
, .
DECnet :

(ES, end system)

(L1)

(L2)

, . 
,
ES , .

.
, .

IS>IS DECnet

391

 .

,  , 
. (
, :
.) 
, .

. , ,
, . ,
, 
DECnet.
DECnet L1 (level 1 router 
).
,
. , L1
. 
ISIS. 
, L1
.
. 
, L1 , DECnet
. 
, 
.
, 
. , 
(A, B, C D) C, 
. 
, .
C, . 
.
. 19.3 ,
( /: 5.4, 6.3 7.2).
, 5.4
5.
L1
DECnet.
, /.
, () L1
. , L1 5.4 , 
,
5.4. 5. . 19.4
5.

392

19. IS>IS

. 19.4. 5.4

, (hubs) 5 
5.4. 
5.4. 5.4
5.1, 5.2 5.3.
5.2 7.4,
.
, 

, . 
,
L2. . 19.5
.
. 19.5 , 
, 
.
.
.
.
1 .
L2 . L2
, 
.
L2
. L2 L2,
. L2 .

IS>IS DECnet

393

. 19.5.

, 
( 
). , L2
, . . 19.6
DECnet,
.

. 19.6. DECnet

394

19. IS>IS

DECnet
ISIS DRP (DECnet Routing Protocol
DECnet), DECnet Phase IV.
DRP , 
. DRP hello (
). hello Ethernet, 

.
hello, 
. 
hello L1 L2, 
. hello 
.19.7.

. 19.7. hello

hello L1.
L1 ,
. L1 
. hello
L1, L1
.
L1 hello
, L1L1 
. 
hello L1 L2.
, 
. L1 L1 L2 
.

IS>IS DECnet

395

hello
(, L1 ES
, L2 
, hel
lo ).
DECnet ,
L1 L2, :
1. ( DECnet )
.
, . 
, , 
.
2. ,
MAC (.
DECnet)
L1 ( L2).

, 
, . , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .

3. 
, ( 
hello), .
, L1 L2, 
.
L2.

, L2 . L2
L2, 
. ( 
, L2 
L2 
.) .

DECnet Phase V
DECnet Phase V, DEC
OSI. 
, DECnet , DEC
net Phase V : OSI DNA.

396

19. IS>IS

, DEC 
DECnet OSI. ,
OSI, DNA, 
DECnet ( IP). ISIS.
, OSI,
DECnet Phase V.

ISIS CLNP
DECnet Phase V ISO Connec
tionless Network Protocol ( 
). CLNP OSI,

. CLNP
( ), OSI IP.

,
, .
, ( 
). IP .

DEC DECnet Phase V OSI/DNA,


OSI 
, OSI.
CLNP. 
DECnet,
OSI, DNA. 
, , 
,
OSI, DNA.

OSI DNA 
. OSI , DNA .
DNA OSI DECnet.

ISIS . DEC 
,
OSI, DECnet Phase V. ISO 
.
DEC ISO ISIS OSI DECnet (CLNP).

, , 


IS>IS

397

. ( IP IPX)
.

ISIS 
OSI DNA. ISO ISIS
CLNP.
ISIS DECnet Phase V.
CLNP OSI 
, 
ISIS IP (, IP 
).
( ) ,
CLNP . ,
IP. ISIS 
IP.

ISIS IP. ISO


ISIS IP, 
OSI. ,
ISIS,
Integrated ISIS ( ISIS). Integrated ISIS 

, CLNP IP.

ISIS

, . 

. , 
, 
. ISIS, Integrated ISIS
.
, , 
. , 
LSA (link state advertisements 
), ()
() . 
, , , 
, ISIS 
.
ISIS, , 
, ,
LSA.
, 

398

19. IS>IS

. LSA 
. 19.8.
ISIS , 
. (
, LSA, 
.

.) LSA 
() ,
.

,
, .
, , 
(
).


.
, 
. 
, .

. 19.8. (LSA)

IS>IS

399



LSA.
LSA, , 
, .
( ISIS) 

, LSA 
. ISIS 
, , 
, LSA. 
.
. 
, , ,
LSA (LSA packets, LSP). LSA
,
. , 
( ), 
. , LSA,
LSA, ,
LSA. ,

( ).
, LSA, 
, 
. LSA 


LSA ( ).
LSA ( ),
. ,
, , 
LSA, .
, 
LSA , , 
. , .
LSA, 
.
(
). 
, . 
, ,
. 
, ISIS 
.

400

19. IS>IS


ISIS
LSA, . 
. ISIS
LSA , . 

. . 19.9.
. 19.9 , A
B 1. L1A 
LSA
C 2. B 
. , B 
,
, B 
A.

, , C
A . ,
C, .
( , )
, ISIS 
LSA, .

. 19.9. IS&IS,
LSA

IS>IS

401

, 
? ? . 19.10 
,
. ?
. 19.10 A 
B C. D.
, D LSA, 
, ? , 
. 
LSA ,
.
: D 
, 
. , ,
LSA. LSA , 
ISIS 
. remaining life sequence.
remaininglife , 
LSA. LSA,
, remaining
life. , 
LSA, (),
.
, . 19.10, D LSA
B, , A B
. D LSA, 

. 19.10.

402

19. IS>IS

remaininglife . 
C, ,
LSA. LSA ( 
D) , A B .
, remaininglife, ,
D (, LSA 
) . C 
LSA, . ,
remaininglife D
, A B,
, .

LSA, .
LSA sequence (
),
, LSA. 
LSA.
remaining life sequence, ISIS 
LSA, .
(
) , 
, LSA. 
( 
),
.
, . 
LSA 

. , ,
. 
, .

LSA, . 
. 
,
 , .
, , . 19.11.
, . 19.11 
,
. , 
, A C. (
) 
ISIS 
.

IS>IS

403

. 19.11. LSA

ISIS
, ,
, 
. , 

. ISIS , 
.
,
.
, .
,
, , 
. ISIS , 
.1
ISIS 
.
. 19.12 ISIS, .
1

RFC 1142 OSI ISIS Intradomain Routing Protocol



, (cost)
( ). . .

404

19. IS>IS

, 
. ISIS
. :

(delay)
(expense)

(error) , 
,
.
ISIS.

. 19.12. IS&IS,

ISIS,
.
. 
, :
ISIS ,
.
,
( ),
.
(, 
, )
, , ISDN.

IS>IS,

405

( T3)
,
.

, ,

. 
, , 
.
64. , 
65, 
. . ,
64 , 
.

, 
, . ISIS
.

(
). ISIS
, 1024.

64 1024 , , 
, ISIS 
.

ISIS, ,
. 
. ,
, . , 
ISIS
.

ISIS,
ISIS, , , 
. ISIS 
, .
,
. ISIS, 
ISIS: .
ISIS , 
. 

406

19. IS>IS

. 
, 
ISIS .
.
. ,
. 
, ,
.
(
). , , 
, ,
.
.
,
. 123 Main Street, 
. .

, ,
. , 
, , , ,
, . 
, , ,
.
ISIS , ISIS
. 
, .

ISIS
ISIS 
. , 
() ,
. ISIS . 19.13.

ISIS DECnet
Phase IV. DECnet .
IP IP, 
ISIS.
IP. ,
ISIS IP. ISIS 
.

. 


IS>IS,

407

. 19.13. IS&IS

, IP. ISIS
, IP. .
,
ISIS , 
. DECnet Phase IV, L1 
. 
DECnet, L1
.
, .
( , 
, ,
. .) 

, 
, , 
.
ISIS ,
.
.
, (
), . 
ISIS . 19.14.
L2, . 
L2 ( ) ISIS. 
ISIS . 19.15.
/ , 
ISIS. 

408

19. IS>IS

. 19.14. IS&IS

/ ,
. 19.15, .
, , 
. 
. 
ISIS ,
OSI, MAC / DECnet Phase IV.

. 19.15. IS&IS

IS>IS,

409

ISIS
ISIS OSI DECnet Phase IV.
.
ISIS DECnet, 
DNA.

. ISIS
ISIS.
OSI , NSAP
(network service access point ).
NSAP , 
, . ISIS
OSI, NSAP. ISIS OSI
, 
, OSI.

NSAP 
( OSI) . 
, OSI 
.

, NSAP
. ,
NSAP , 
. NSAP IDP (initial domain
part ) DSP (domainspecific part 
). 
.
IDP , ,
. IDP, , AFI (authority and for
mat identifier ) IDI (initial
domain identifier ). AFI
, . IDI 
.
NSAP, DSP (domainspecific part) 
. DSP , 
. OSI; ISIS
OSI. ISIS NSAP 
: ( , 
NSAP, , 
0). , IDP 
NSAP, ( ),
, (
MAC) .

410

19. IS>IS

NSAP
, IDP NSAP, , 
.
. , 
,
.
, ,
. 
, 
,
.

NSAP
.
DECnet Phase IV 
/ MAC, ISIS 
MAC NSAP.

ISIS. 

.

ISIS
ISIS , ISIS.
, ISIS 
. , ,
. 
ISIS. ISIS
, ISIS.
ISIS : 
(hello message HM), (link state packet
LSP) (sequence number packet
SNP). , ISIS

.
, ,
: ,
. . 19.16.
, 
. (,
Ethernet ISIS) 8 , .
.

IS>IS

411

. 19.16.

. 
, .
, 
. (
).
. 
, 
. 

, , 
,
ISIS . ISIS 
, (. 19.17).
. 
ISIS (HM, LSP SNP) 1
,
, .
. 19.18 ISIS .
ISIS :
ISIS
,

. 19.17. IS&IS

412

19. IS>IS

. 19.18. IS&IS

(1) ISIS

,
(LSP, HM SNP)

(2) ISIS


(MAA maximum address area) 


ISIS. , 
, . 
, .
ISIS ,
.

hello
hello ISIS 
. 
hello
. 19.19. hello ISIS :

,

IS>IS

413

. 19.19. IS&IS hello

(L1 L2) 
(IS),

IS 
IS

hello,
IS , 
. IS 
,
IS, hello.
IS hello, 
hello. , 
, .


IS.


LSP ( )
. LSP .
LSP
.

414

19. IS>IS

LSP , 
IS .
, 
, . LSP
ISIS :

(L1 L2) 
(IS),

( )
IS

IS 
IS


IS

ISIS
hello LSP.
. LSP
. LSP, 

. 
IS .

, ,
, , 
, .

LSP ,
,
. . 19.20
.


(sequence number packet SNP)
, , LSP,
LSP. IS SNP, 
, 
. SNP :

LSP ( 

)

IS>IS

415

. 19.20.

LSP LSP
LSP

IS, 
. . 19.21
, 
.

. 19.21.

416

19. IS>IS


ISIS. ,
ISIS.

ISIS
, ISIS , 
, 
ISIS. ISIS 
, 
ISIS.
ISIS
. ISIS
, .  (, ,
) .
ISIS IS ,
. IS .

, , .
Microsoft Token
Ring, , .

, , 
. ISIS
IS, .

IS

, 
. IS ( )

. 
LSP,
.
IS IS,
LSP.
.

.

. IS 
, .

IS>IS

417

, 
. IS (
, 1). 
, , .
hello ISIS 
IS. ( , 
LSP .)

, ,
MAC. IS, MAC
. 
LSP
( ).
, 
, 
. , 
, 
. 
, .
, IS
ISIS. IS 

, .

IS , IS
. ,
.
ISIS
.
, , LSP
IS. LSP IS LSP
IS, . (, IS
, 
.) LSP ( LSP) 
, IS.
. 19.22 LSP IS.
A LSP B,
, ( C) 
.
A , B C 
. A
D.

418

19. IS>IS

. 19.22.


,
. A ,
D, B, C D.
.
IS 
(master table)
. IS 
. IS, , ,
, . IS 
, .
IS , 
. ISIS ,
. 
.
Ethernet, ISIS 
. , 
, . . 19.1
, ISIS,
.
19.1. Ethernet IS&IS

0180C2000014 L1
0180C2000015 L2
09002B000005 ;

09002B000004

IS>IS

419

ISIS ,
. IS 
,
.

ISIS

ISIS. :
, L1. 
, 
,
.
, 
, ( ) 
L1. 
, L1 L2.
L1 
, .
L1 ,
( 
: ). , L1 
.
L1
. (, L1
, 
L1, .) 
, L1 
:
.

L1 LSP,
. , L1 , 
.

, 
.
, 
, L1, 
. ,
, .
L1,

, 

420

19. IS>IS

. L1, 
. , 
. . 19.23.
, ,
. 19.23. 
L1 . ISIS 
,
.
,

,
.
L2 
. L2 ,
L1: 
, .
L2 , 

L1.
,
.

, .

. 19.23. L1 IS&IS

IS>IS

421

, L2, 
. 
, , .

. .
L2.
L2.

,
L1. 19.24
.

. 19.24. L2&

, L2 
L2. 
. 19.25.
, .
ISIS 
. IS
IS, , .
ISIS
Cisco.

ISIS
Cisco
ISIS ISIS
. ISIS

422

19. IS>IS

. 19.25. L2&

. ISIS
router isis:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#router isis 45

45 ,
. isis ,
. net 
. net :
Router(config router)# net 24.0001.001a.0000.0017.00

Cisco 
ISIS 45. ISIS 
. 
, .
is type access list.
is type , 
. is
type ,
. 
is type :
Router(config router)# is type level 1

,
, .
. 
, . ,
. , 
, .

423

. 
:
Router(config)#access list 1 permit 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
Router(config)#route map new
Router(config route map)#match ip route source 1
Router(config route map)#^Z
Router(config)#router isis 399
Router(config router)#default information originate route map new
Router(config router)#^Z


.


ISIS 399, 
, 10.0.0.0.
,
ISIS, , , ,

Cisco.

ISIS , 
DECnet.

ISIS IP 

.

, ISIS 
: (
), , .


,
IP, ISIS,
DECnet?

ISIS 
. IP 
, ,
IP 
. , 
DECnet IP, 
ISIS .

424

19. IS>IS

1. ISIS?
2. ISIS L2?
3.
ISIS?

1. .
2. ISIS.
3. , , 
,
.

1.
ISIS 4.
198.118.26.0.

20

Cisco

, Cisco. 
, Cisco, 
, 
.

, .
, Cisco,
. 
, 
Cisco: IP (NAT
Network Address Translation). NAT ,

.
Cisco IOS.
,
, .
NAT , 
IP (
),
, . NAT 
,
. 
, 
,
.

426

20. Cisco


: IP.

.
, 
, . .

. ,
, , 
, .
: IP IPX.
IP.

IP
(access list) , 
, 
. Cisco
.
(
IP IP), Cisco
11 :
IP
IP

DECnet
Appletalk
MAC (Media Access Control layer)
IPX
IPX
IPX SAP
MAC
IPX summary address

Cisco 
. IP.

Cisco 
. .
, , ,
. 
.

427

IP

,
.
. , 
, .
( 
, ).
. 20.1 ,
.
20.1.

IP


199

IP

100199

200299

DECnet

300399

Appletalk

600699

MAC (media access control sublayer)

700799

IPX

800899

IPX

900999

IPX SAP

10001099

MAC

11001199

IPX summary address

12001299

IP 1 99,
100 199. 
.
Cisco 
access list 
. ,
.

. 
IP:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#access list 1 permit 198.42.16.1
Router(config)#^Z

Cisco ( , ) 
, . 
, . ( 
), , 186.42.16.1, 
, .

428

20. Cisco

IP 
:
#access list <access list number> <action> <source address>

, ,
: ,
198.42.16.1. <action> de
ny. IP, 
10.36.149.8:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#access list 1 deny 10.36.149.8
Router(config)#^Z

,
 
.
,
, .
Cisco 

.
:
#access list <access list number> <action> <protocol> <source address>
<destination address> <port>


, 
.
Cisco , 
, . , 
Telnet ( 23) 10.98.12.1
10.99.36.5, :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#access list 100 deny IP host 10.98.12.1 host 10.99.36.5 23
Router(config)#^Z

Telnet TCP 23. . 20.2 


.
20.2.

SSH

22

Telnet

23

SMTP

25

429

IP

HTTP

80

LDAP

389

MS NetMeeting

1024, 1503

HTTPs

443

SOCKS

1080

MS NetShow

1755

MSN Messenger

1863

Mirabilis ICQ

1024

AOL Instant Messenger

5190

AOL ICQ

5190

AOL

51905193

Dialpad.com

5354, 7175, 86808890, 9000, 94509460

pcAnywhere

5631

VNC

5800+, 5900+

Netscape Conference

6498, 6502

Common IRC

66656669

RealAudio and Video

7070

VocalTec Internet Conference

22555

MSN Gaming Zone

2880029000

DirectX Gaming

47624, 23002400

host 
. 
, HTTP , 
any:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#access list 147 deny IP any 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 any 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 80
Router(config)#^Z

(
10.0.0.0)  ( 0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255 80 ).
any . , 
,
. 
.
, ,
, 
, . 

430

20. Cisco

;
.

access group ip 
. : in out.
,
. 

, 
ethernet 0.
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#access list 13 permit 128.53.12.1
Router(config)#access list 108 deny IP host 198.20.13.118 host 128.53.12.1 80
Router(config)#^Z
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)# ip address 198.20.13.115
Router(config if)# ip access group 108 out
Router(config if)# ip access group 13 in

. 
128.53.12.1, 
198.20.13.118 80 (HTTP) 128.53.12.1. 
, 198.20.13.118 
128.53.12.1:80,
.

. , 
, , .

. ,
, , 
.

NAT
(NAT, Network Address Translation)
, IP 
IP.
, . 
IP 
IP. 
, 
.
NAT IP 
, 

431

NAT

,
,
.

, 
, 
IP.
, NAT , 
. NAT,
, 
. NAT
Cisco,
. 
( 
). 
NAT, . 
NAT :

NAT

NAT

NAT 
.
. ethernet 0
, ISDN
.
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip nat inside
Router(config if)#interface bri 0
Router(config if)#ip nat outside
Router(config if)#^Z

NAT 
IP. 
, ,
.


.

, ,
:

432

20. Cisco
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip address 198.65.1.1 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#interface bri 0
Router(config if)#ip address 186.91.108.1 255.255.0.0
Router(config if)#^Z


NAT. , 
. , 
. , 
.
NAT 
. NAT
:
#ip nat pool <name> <address range> netmask <subnet mask>

NAT:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#ip nat pool my_pool 198.65.1.1 198.65.254.254 netmask 255.255.0.0
Router(config)#^Z

nat_pool
my_pool, 
. 198.65.1.1 198.65.254.254.

.
my_pool ,
,
. NAT 
, , 
.
.
:
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#access list 1 permit 198.65.0.0 0.0.255.255
Router(config)#^Z

, , 
NAT. :
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool my_pool
Router(config)#^Z

nat inside source , , 


1,

433

my_pool. , 
. , 
, NAT, .

NAT IP , 
, 
Cisco. 
, . 
:

, ,
.
.
, , 
.
NAT
.
NAT ,
.

Cisco Catalyst PNNI.


NAT ?
, , , NAT 

 , 
. NAT
.

1. 
IP?
2.
?
3. NAT: 
?

1. 100199.

434

20. Cisco

2. IP.
3. . ,

IOS.

1. ,
SMTP.

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#access list 100 deny IP any 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 any
0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 25
Router(config)#^Z

2. NAT
10.0.0.0  115.68.43.1.
ethernet 0, serial 0;
10.101.23.1.

Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#interface ethernet 0
Router(config if)#ip address 10.101.23.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config if)#ip nat inside
Router(config if)#interface serial 0
Router(config if)#ip nat outside
Router(config if)#ip address 115.68.43.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config if)#^Z
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#ip nat pool exercise 10.0.0.0 10.254.254.254 netmask
255.0.0.0
Router(config)#access list 1 permit 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool exercise
Router(config)#^Z

21

Cisco Catalyst PNNI

Cisco, . 
Cisco Catalyst
. , 
PNNI (Private Net
work to Network Interface ).
, , Cisco Catalyst ( 
),
. 
, , 
, Cisco.
PNNI
Cisco. 
:
ATM (Asynchroronous Transfer Mode)
UNI
PNNI
PNNI
PNNI QOS
PNNI
PNNI (crankback)
PNNI
PNNI 
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode, 

436

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

).
ATM ,
.
PNNI ,

ATM. PNNI 
ATM.
PNNI ATM Forum 1996 
ATM. ATM Forum
,
PNNI, 
. ATM Forum
,
.

ATM Forum ( 1991 ) 


, ATM . 
 ATM Forum ATM
.

PNNI :
. 
PNNI ATM () 
. 
ATM ATM Forum
PNNI .

PNNI .

. , 
.

PNNI . 

. 
ATM. PNNI ATM
,
( ) .
PNNI
ATM Forum, UNI (usertonetwork interface 
). UNI ATM
Forum 
. UNI
PNNI.

ATM

437

, PNNI
. PNNI,
ATM.

ATM
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode
)
, 
. ATM, 
, . 

. . 21.1 
ATM.

ATM ,
. ATM
1 /.


(, 
IP). 
: , 
. ATM, , 
.
( ) ATM 
. 

. 21.1. ATM

438

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

. . 21.2 
ATM.
, 
ATM. IP, TCP, 
, . 
, ATM 
.
ATM 
. ATM, ,
. , ISIS (
19), , 
.  
, , .

. , .
, ATM 
. ATM 
53 . . 21.3,
ATM 5 ,
, 48 .

ATM ( 
), .
ATM .

. 21.2. ATM

ATM

439

. 21.3. ATM

ATM
 . 
ATM
( ), 
, . 

.
, ATM, , 
. , ATM
.
,
, ( ).
ATM 
. 53
, ,
.
,
.
ATM
(, , PNNI), ,
ATM. PNNI
ATM, (UNI
3), 
ATM. ATM
, PNNI.

440

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

ATM
ATM :
. .
, , 

. , ATM
.

, ATM ATM
( ).
(ES) .

, , , 
.
ATM, 
. (
) .
ATM , , 
.
.
ATM ATM
, . ATM , 
. ,
.
ATM
.
ATM ATM, 
. , ,
.
,
ATM .
ATM 
.
ATM .
ATM. 
( 
).
. . 21.4
ATM.
ATM
: UNI (UsertoNetwork Interface 
) NNI (NetworktoNetwork Interface
). 

ATM

441

. 21.4. ATM


. . 21.5,
ATM ( )
: UNI NNI.

. 21.5. UNI NNI

442

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

UNI ATM
( ) 
.
UNI .
UNI . 
( PUNI)
ATM.
ATM ,
, 
.
NNI PNNI. NNI
UNI, 
.

UNI
UNI (User to Network Interface) ,


.
. 
()
.
UNI ATM
: .
. 21.6 21.7 .

. 21.6.

UNI

443

. 21.7.

UNI ,
. 
, 
. ,
().

. ATM
. 
, 
.
, 
. 
.
ATM 
, .
( ). 
UNI; ATM 
,
( multipointtomultipoint).

ATM
ATM 5 .
,
, , . 
: ,

444

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

UNI , NNI. 
UNI (. 21.8):
(4 ) .
(8 ) 
. ( 
,
.)
(16 )

.
(3 ) .
A ,
.
B .

C ,
.
(1 )
,
.

.


, 

. 21.8. UNI

UNI

445

. 21.9. UNI

. 
, , . 21.9.
,
, . 
, , , 
. UNI . 21.10.
UNI
ATM.

. 21.10. UNI

446

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

, PNNI (Private
NetworktoNetwork Interface, ).
UNI , 

, .
ATM Forum , 
UNI ,
UNI.
Private NetworktoNetwork Interface
UNI, , .
PNNI 
, .

PNNI
PNNI :
.
PNNI
, ATM.
PNNI 
, . ()
.
.
, , 
, 
.
, 
, . 
,
. 
. 
, ,
.

. 
, .

.

, .
PNNI , , 
. PNNI 
,
, 

PNNI

447

. ,
, .

PNNI
PNNI (peer group, PG). 
. (
, PG) 
.
, 
, . PG
, , 
, 
.
PNNI 
. 

. , 
. 
.
PNNI
,
. PG 
.
, PNNI
, .

ATM, . 

.

NSAP PNNI
ATM NSAP
(Network Dervice Access Point, ; .
19).

, ISIS, NSAP
.

NSAP ATM , 
, MAC . NSAP PNNI
(. 21.11):

448

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

. 21.11. NSAP& ATM&

AFI (Authority and Format Identifier)


. , 
.1
.
ICD (International Code Designator) 
. , (
).
ICD, NSAP
DCC (Data Country Code ).
MAC .
MAC .
.

. 21.12 ATM ( 
AFI ICD, Cisco Systems).2
, ,
12 . 
12 13 ATM
( ). 
12 ATM
, PG.

DCC AESA (AFI=39), ICD AESA


(AFI=47), E.164 AESA (AFI=45). . . .
ICD
AESA. . . .

PNNI

449

. 21.12. ATM&

ATM
ATM. , 
PG (MAC ATM 

), 
( ) ATM
.
, 

. MAC

.
ATM ,
PNNI . 
, 
NSAP . 
PNNI.
. 21.13 ATM.
. 21.13, 
PG. 12 ATM
, 
( A). ,
, ATM (ATM).

. 
MAC , 
.

450

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

. 21.13. ATM


, .

PNNI. 
PNNI.
PNNI . 
, PG.
PNNI
0 104.
, 104,
PG
0. , 
. ,
. 21.13 A.1 B.1
.
.
, PNNI 
. 

, 
, .

PNNI

451

, 
, 
. A.1
(. 21.13)
B.1, .
A.1, B.1,
,
. 
B.1 ( ).
,
,
. ,
PNNI, 
.

PNNI 
. PNNI, 
, 
.

PNNI A.1 B.1 


. 

. . 21.14 PNNI, 
.

PNNI
. 21.14 .

,
PNNI . 
PNNI , . PNNI
.
, PNNI 
() . 
ATM 
. 
PNNI .
,
PNNI
, . PNNI. 
.
( 
PNNI.)

452

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

. 21.14. PNNI

, PNNI.
,
PNNI 
. PNNI . 21.15, ,
ATM.
( ) ATM 
,
. PNNI
, 
.

PNNI
PNNI 
. 
, 
, PNNI.
ATM
hello ().
ATM
.

PNNI

453

. 21.15. ATM,

. . 21.16
hello ATM.
A.1 (. 21.16) B.1 A.2 
, ,
, 
. hello ,
.
A.2 hello A.1,
( ), A.1 
. ,
.
hello .
hello,
.
. 

.

hello ( ) 
ATM.
, 

454

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

. , ,
QOS (quality of service ),
, .

, 
, . 

. ATM
hello ,
.
(, , ) 
, ,
.

.
,
, hello
, 
. ( , 
PNNI, ,
.)
( , 
)
. 

. 21.16. ATM& hello

PNNI QOS

455

hello (
)
. , PNNI
. PNNI 
.
. 
, PNNI

. PNNI ,

. PNNI :

Administrative weight (AW, ) ,


,

Available cell rate (AvCR, )


Maximum cell transfer delay (MaxCTD, 


) , 

Cell loss ratio (CLR, )


Cell delay variation (CDV, )


,
(MaxCTD MinCTD)

Maximum cell rate (MaxCR) 


. PNNI

. 
, 
, .
, , 
QOS. QOS (quality of service, 
) , RFC 2386.

PNNI QOS
PNNI QOS ATM. ,
ATM 
, , 
QOS, .
,
QOS, PNNI

456

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

QOS. , 
QOS
ATM .
, MaxCR CLR,
, ,
. QOS ( ,
, 
) 
, .
QOS ,
. 
, 
. 
, 
( ) .
PNNI, 
(QOS) , 
.


QOS, , ATM.
PNNI QOS: GCAC (Generic Call Admission
Control 
) GCAC.
GCAC 
, , 
: (cell rate margin) 
(variance factor).

, PNNI 
,
QOS , 
. . 21.17
QOS .
21.17
A.1 C.4. ( 
PNNI) 

56 /. 
B.1 C.1.
PNNI , 
, 
. 
, .

PNNI

457

. 21.17. QOS

, ,
. PNNI . PNNI
(
17 OSPF).
QOS,
.
, 
, 
. 
. 
.
QOS 
PNNI,
, ATM. 
PNNI .
ATM , ,
. 
PNNI.

PNNI
PNNI PNNI, 
.


458

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

, QOS. 

, PNNI.
ATM ,
PNNI , 
ATM
. . 21.18
ATM, .
. 21.18 PNNI 
A.1 , 
, 
D.

, 
D ,
.
. D
.

QOS. 
( ) 
. QOS, 
, , 
. 
.

QOS , 
. .

. 21.18. ,

PNNI

459

, 
. ,
. ,
, 
. 
, .
. 21.19 ATM, 
. 
A.1.X.X.X.X.X.X
D.1.X.X.X.X.X.X.
. 21.19
A.1. QOS , 
56 /. A.1 
, , , 
56 /.
A.1 (B.1), 
. B.1.
B.1 : 
B.1 C.1 B.1 C.2. B.1 C.2 
QOS, ,
C.1.
C.1 , 
. C.1 C.2 C.1 D.1 QOS.
,

. 21.19. ATM&

460

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

, C.1 D.1,
D.1.
D.1 D.1.X.X.X.X.X.X
. ATM D.1 
,
D.1.X.X.X.X.X.X, . D.1 
, 
. . 21.20.
D.1 , C.1, B.1 A.1 
. 

( ),
.
A.1.X.X.X.X.X.X
D.1.X.X.X.X.X.X, ,
, PNNI ,
.
QOS , 
, . PNNI

crankback, ,
QOS .

. 21.20. &

PNNI (crankback)

461

PNNI
(crankback)
QOS,
, . QOS 
(, 10 
, 200 ), PNNI
, crank
back. . 21.21 , 

ATM,
QOS. . 21.22 , 
.
, 
. ,
QOS.
ATM PNNI, 
,
PNNI Cisco.

. 21.21. ATM& QOS

462

21. Cisco Catalyst PNNI

. 21.22.

PNNI

Cisco .
, . 
PNNI:
Switch#configure terminal
Switch(config)#atm router pnni
Switch(config atm router)# aesa embedded number left justified


PNNI 2. E.164 (aesa ATM end
system address ATM) 
.

atm router PNNI. 


. ,
ATM atm address:
Switch#configure terminal
Switch(config)#atm address 52.000a.c001.034b.000.06a7.0001. ..

PNNI

463

, 
ATM 
MAC .
, .

. , 
,
ATM PNNI ( ),
.
, 
,
Cisco. ,
, , 
. ,
, , 
Cisco.
! ,
Cisco, 
.

Cisco. 
, Cisco, 
www.cisco.com,
, SAMS Publishing.

A
Cisco
Cisco IOS
. 
. 
Cisco IOS, 
. 
.

, Cisco
, Cisco.


accessenable
Cisco
. (
.)

host

(host)

timeout
<19999>





465

Cisco

timeout

<19999>


>access enable host timeout 1

accessprofile
Cisco
. ( 
.)

ignore sanity checks

,
(
,
AV 
)

merge

ignore sanity checks ,


(
,
AV 
)
replace

ignore sanity checks ,


(
,
AV 
)


>access profile merge

connect
Cisco
. 
.

466

WORD

IP


>connect RouterA

disable
Cisco
. 

.

(015)


>disable 14

disconnect
Cisco
( 
). 
.

<120>

WORD


>disconnect 1
>disconnect RouterA

enable
Cisco
. 
, 
.

467

Cisco

(015)


>enable 14

exit
Cisco
EXEC. 
IOS; .

>exit

help
Cisco
; .

>help

lock
Cisco
. .

>lock

login
Cisco
.

. ,
.

>login

logout
Cisco
EXEC; .

468


>logout

nameconnection
Cisco
.

. 
, .

>name connection 1 RouterA

pad
Cisco
X.29 PAD (packet assembler/disassembler
/ ). 
X.25 PAD.

WORD

X.121


>pad Remote

ping
Cisco
().

WORD

ping

ip

IP

WORD
ipx
WORD
tag
WORD

ping
Novell/IPX
ping
IP 
ping

469

Cisco


>ping 10.25.123.3
>ping ip 10.25.123.3

ppp
Cisco
IETF PPP (PointtoPoint Protocol
).

negotiate

IP, PPP


>ppp negotiate

resume
Cisco
. 
( ),
/.

/debug

/echo

/line

Telnet

/next

/nodebug

/noecho

/noline

Telnet

/nostream

/set

X3

/stream

<120>

WORD

470


>resume /noecho RouterA

rlogin
Cisco
rlogin.

WORD

IP


>rlogin 10.25.123.3
>rlogin RouterA

show
Cisco
. show 
,
.

clock

detail
dialer
maps
flash:





flash:

all



chips

detailed



err

summary

history

471

Cisco

hosts

IP, ,
host

WORD

location

Modemcap

Modem Capabilities (
)

WORD

,
PPP

ppp

PPP
BAP (Bandwidth Allocation Protocol 
() )

bap

group
WORD
queues
multilink
queues

BAP

BAP
Multilink PPP
PPP
RAM Monitor (RMON)

rmon
alarms
events
events
alarms

RMON
RMON
RMON
RMON
RTR (Response Time Reporter
)

rtr
application

RTR

full

tabular

collection statistics
<12147483647>

RTR

full

( )

tabular

( )

full

( )

tabular

( )

configuration
<12147483647>

RTR

full

( )

tabular

( )

472

full

( )

tabular

( )

distributions statistics RTR


<12147483647>

full

( )

tabular

( )

full

( )

tabular

( )

history
<12147483647>

RTR

full

( )

tabular

( )

full

( )

tabular

( )

operational state
<12147483647>

RTR

full

( )

tabular

( )

full

( )

tabular

( )

reaction trigger
<12147483647>

RTR

full

( )

tabular

( )

full

( )

tabular

( )

totals statistics
<12147483647>

RTR

full

( )

tabular

( )

full

( )

tabular

( )

sessions

Telnet

snmp

SNMP (Simple
Network Management Protocol
)

473

Cisco

tacacs

TACACS+ (Termi
nal Access Controller Access Control System)

terminal

traffic shape

Ethernet
<01>
Null
<00>
queue

IEEE 802.3
Ethernet
Null
Null


Ethernet

IEEE 802.3

<01>

Ethernet

Null

Null

<00>

Null

statistics

Ethernet

IEEE 802.3

<01>

Ethernet

Null

Null

<00>

Null

users
all
wide
wide
version



( 
)



>show system detailed

slip
Cisco
SLIP (SerialLine IP).

>slip

474

systat
Cisco
.

all


>systat all

telnet
Cisco
Telnet 
Telnet.

WORD

IP


>telnet 10.25.123.3
>telnet RouterA

terminal
Cisco
.

autohangup

session timeout
data character bits
<78>
databits
<58>

 





475

Cisco

default


dispatch character
CHAR <0127>
dispatch timeout
<04294967294>

domain lookup

DNS show

download

editing

escape character

escape

BREAK

BREAK

CHAR <0255>

Escape ASCII

DEFAULT

escape, 

NONE

escape

soft

escape

BREAK

BREAK

CHAR <0255>

Escape ASCII

DEFAULT

escape, 

NONE

escape

exec character bits


<78>

flowcontrol

NONE

hardware

in

out

software
in

476

lock

out

full help

help

history

size
<0256>
hold character
CHAR <0255>

international

8

ip

IP

netmask format

bit count

decimal

hexadecimal

tcp

TCP

input coalesce threshold ( 


20)
length
<0512>


(0
)

no

notify

padding
CHAR <0127>
parity

even

mark

none

477

Cisco

odd

space

rxspeed
<04294967295>
special character bits
<78>
speed
<04294967295>
start character
CHAR <0255>
stop character
CHAR <0255>
stopbits
1














1.5

telnet


Telnet

break on ip

interrupt break

ip on break

break interrupt

refuse negotiations

Telnet Remote Ec


ho Suppress Go Ahead

speed

<14294967295>

sync on break

Telnet synchronize 
Telnet break

transparent

CR CR,
NULL, CR, LF

terminal type
WORD
transport

all

none

pad

X.3 PAD (packet assembler/disassembler 


/ )

rlogin

Unix rlogin

478

TCP/IP Telnet

telnet

txspeed
<04294967295>


, 

width
<0512>


>terminal autohangup session timeout

traceroute
Cisco
.

WORD

appletalk

AppleTalk

WORD
clns
WORD

,
ISO Connectionless Network Service (CLNS)
,
IP

ip
WORD
ipx

,
IPX

WORD

oldvines

VINES (Virtual Integrated Network Service),


(Cisco)

WORD

vines
WORD

VINES (Banyan)
,


>traceroute RouterA
>traceroute 10.25.123.3
>traceroute ip 10.25.123.3

479

Cisco

tunnel
Cisco
.

WORD


>tunnel RouterA

where
Cisco
.

>where

x28
Cisco
X.28 PAD (packet assembler/disassembler /
). 
X.28.

debug

X.28 PAD

escape

X.28 PAD

noescape

X.28 ( 
!)

nuicud

NUI (Network User ID) 


, NUI 

profile

X.3

reverse

(re
verse charge)

verbose

X.28


>x.28 debug nuicud
>x.28 escape nuicud debug

480

x3
Cisco
X.3 PAD.

<022>:<0255> X.3 PAD


>X3 5:225



. , 
,
, .

, , , 
.

accesstemplate
Cisco
. 
, 
.

<100199>

IP

WORD

A.B.C.D

A.B.C.D

A.B.C.D

A.B.C.D
timeout
<19999>
any

481

Cisco

host

Hostname A.B.C.D

A.B.C.D

A.B.C.D
timeout

<19999>

any
A.B.C.D
A.B.C.D

timeout

<19999>

host

Hostname A.B.C.D
A.B.C.D
A.B.C.D

timeout

<19999>

<20002699>

IP (
)

, IP
WORD


#access template 100 test 10.25.123.3 0.255.255.255 10.35.124.4 0.255.255.255 timeout 1

cd
Cisco
.

flash:

flh:

null:

nvram:

system:

482


#cd flash: files

clear
Cisco
.

access list

counters

<0199>

WORD

access template
<100199>


IP

accesslist . accesstemplate
<20002699>

IP (
)

accesslist . accesstemplate
arp cache

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

bridge

<1255>


CDP (Cisco Discovery Pro
tocol)

cdp
counters

CDP

table

CDP

counters
Ethernet
<01>
line
<05>
<15>
console
<00>
vty
<04>

IEEE 802.3
Ethernet






483

Cisco

<14>


Null

Null
<00>

Null

dialer

frame relay inarp

ARP 

host

host

WORD
interface
Ethernet
<01>

(* )

IEEE 802.3
Ethernet
Null

Null
<00>

Null
IP

ip
access list

accesslist . accesstemplate
access template

accesslist . accesstemplate
accounting
checkpoint

IP
IP


cache
A.B.C.D

A.B.C.D


IPEIGRP

eigrp
<165535>
neighbors


IPEIGRP

A.B.C.D

IPEIGRP

Ethernet

IEEE 802.3

<01>
Null
<00>

Ethernet
Null
Null

neighbors

IPEIGRP

A.B.C.D

IPEIGRP

Ethernet

IEEE 802.3

484

<01>
Null
<00>

Ethernet
Null
Null
NAT (Network Address Translation)

nat
statistics

translation


NHRP (Clear Next Hop
Resolution Protocol)

nhrp
A.B.C.D
A.B.C.D



OSPF

ospf
counters
neighbor
Ethernet
<01>
Hostname A.B.C.D
Null
<00>
redistribution
prefix list
WORD

OSPF


IEEE 802.3
Ethernet

Null
Null


redirect

route

A.B.C.D


RTP/
UDP/IP

rtp
header compression
Ethernet
<01>
Null
<00>
ipx
accounting

RTP/UDP/IP
IEEE 802.3
Ethernet
Null
Null
Novell/IPX
IPX

485

Cisco

checkpoint

IPX

cache

IPX

eigrp

NovellEIGRP

route

IPX

neighbors
Ethernet

NovellEIGRP
IEEE 802.3

<01>

Ethernet

N.H.H.H

NovellEIGRP

Null

Null

<00>
spx spoof

Null
(spoof) IPX SPX

line
<05>

console

<00>

vty
<04>

logging

snapshot

Snaphot

quiet time
Ethernet
<01>

, 
( )
IEEE 802.3
Ethernet
Null

Null
<00>

Null
TCP

tcp

TTY

line
<00>

local
Hostname A.B.C.D
<165535>
remote

IP
TCP
/

Hostname A.B.C.D IP


<165535>
statistics

TCP
TCP

486

TCB

tcb
<0x00xFFFFFFFF>

TCB
X.25

x25
Ethernet
<01>
H.H.H

IEEE 802.3
Ethernet
MAC CMNS
XOT (X.25OverTCP)

xot

XOT

remote
A.B.C.D
<165535>

IP

local

XOT

A.B.C.D

IP

<165535>


#clear counters

clock
Cisco
.

set
hh:mm:ss
<131>
MONTH
<19932035>
MONTH
<19932035>


#clock set 12:00:00 1 January 2000

487

Cisco

copy
Cisco
.

/erase

flash:

flash:

flh:

flh:

ftp:

ftp:

null:

null:

nvram:

nvram:

rcp:

rcp:

running config

startup config

system:

system:

tftp:

tftp:

flash:

flash:

flh:

flh:

ftp:

ftp:

null:

null:

nvram:

nvram:

rcp:

rcp:

running config

startup config

system:

system:

tftp:

tftp:


#copy running config startup config

488

debug
Cisco
(. undebug).

aaa

AAA (Authentication, Authorization, Accounting 


, )

access expression
all

arp

IP ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) HP Probe transactions

async

callback

cdp

CDP (Certificate Discovery Protocol)

chat

Chat scripts activity

compress

COMPRESS

condition

confmodem

custom queue

(custom queuing)

dhcp

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration


Protocol)

dialer

dnsix

DNSIX (Department of Defense Intelligence In


formation System Network Security for Information Exchan
ge)

domain

dxi

ATMDXI (Asynchronous Transfer ModeData


Exchange Interface)

eigrp

EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing


Protocol)

entry

ethernet interface Ethernet


frame relay

Frame Relay

interface

ip

IP

ipx

Novell/IPX

lapb

LAPB (Link Access Protocol Balanced)

list

, 

489

Cisco

llc2

LLC2 Type II

modem

nhrp

NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol)

packet

pad

X.25 PAD (packet assembler/disassembler)

ppp

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

priority

radius

RADIUS (Remote Authentication DialIn User Ser


vice)

rtr

RTR (Response Time Reporter)

serial

smf

MAC

snapshot

Snapshot

snmp

SNMP (Simple Network Messaging Protocol)

sntp

SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol)

spantree

(Spanning tree)

standby

tacacs

TACACS (Terminal Access


Controller Access Control System)

tbridge

telnet

Telnet

tftp

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)

tunnel

vprofile

vtemplate

x25

X.25, CMNS (Connection Mode Network Servi


ce) XOT (X.25 TCP)

x28

X.28

delete
Cisco
.

flash:

490


#delete flash: aa3424.bin

dir
Cisco
.

/all

flash:

flh:

null:

nvram:

system:


#dir /all

erase
Cisco
.

flash:

nvram:

startup config


#erase startup config

more
Cisco
.

/ascii

ASCII

491

Cisco

/binary

/ebcdic

EBCDIC

flash:

flh:

ftp:

null:

nvram:

rcp:

system:

tftp:


#more /ascii system:

pwd
Cisco
.

#pwd

reload
Cisco
.

LINE

at

hh:mm

(:)

<131>

LINE

MONTH

492

cancel

in

mmm hhh:mm
LINE


#reload in 30 for maintenance

rsh
Cisco
.

WORD

IP rsh

/user

LINE


#rsh RouterA reload

setup
Cisco
.

#setup

test
Cisco
, .

eigrp

IPX EIGRP

<165535>
1local
<1FFFFFFFE>


1
IPX

493

Cisco

1successor
<1FFFFFFFE>
2local
<1FFFFFFFE>
2successor
<1FFFFFFFE>
3local
<1FFFFFFFE>
4local
<1FFFFFFFE>
5local
<1FFFFFFFE>
6local
<1FFFFFFFE>

3
IPX
12
IPX
32
IPX
10
IPX
102
IPX
10FC fail1
IPX
12FC fail3
IPX

ack


EIGRP

delete

IFS TEST

ifs

APPN

appn
read

APPN

Hostname A.B.C.D
LINE
write


APPN

Hostname A.B.C.D
LINE
boot
LINE
defaults
show
hidden
slot
<032>
WORD



boot
boot






URL

494

WORD

URL


#test ifs appn read RouterA test_file

verify
Cisco
.

flash:


#verify flash: aaa8764.bin

write
Cisco
,
.

erase

()

memory

network

TFTP

flash:

URL

ftp:

URL

null:

URL

nvram:

URL

rcp:

URL

system:

URL

tftp:

URL

terminal


#write memory



#,
, 79
#, ,
, 83
%,
, 81
/, , 82
?,
, 87
[ ], , 82
>,
, 79, 80

A
ABR (Area Border Router,
), OSPF, 340
access list, , 422, 427
accessenable, , 464
accessprofile, , 465
accesstemplate, , 480
area, , 351
noredistribution, , 352
nosummary, , 352
ARIN (American Registry for Internet
Numbers,
), 360
ARPAnet, 27
ASN (Autonomous System Number,
), 327,
359, 367
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode,
), 436,
437, 439
, 448
,
ATM, 440
, 440
, 440

, 440
, 443
, 438
atm address, , 462
atm router, , 462
autocost, , 352

B
bandwidthpercentage, , 334
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol, 
), 286, 355
ASPath, , 377
ASSet, , 378
EBGP (Exterior Border Gateway Pro
tocol, 
), 379
, 366
next hop, , 378
origin, , 378
TCP, 365
(), 356, 367
, 356

, 369
, 374, 377
keepalive, , 377
notification, , 377
open, , 375
update, , 376
, 374
, 373
, 380
, 382
, 381
, , 379
,
367
, 384
, 368
, 367

496
, 364
, 373
, 373
, 382
, 360
, 363
bgp confederation, , 382
Boot Loader, , 82

C
Catalyst, , 435
CCO (Cisco Connection Online), , 55,
162, 246
cd, , 481
CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing,

), 192
Cisco Career & Certifications, 24
CCIP (Cisco Certified Internet
work Engineer), 25
CCNA (Cisco Certified Network
Associate), 24
CCNP (Cisco Certified Network
Professional), 25
Cisco IOS (Internet Operating System),
, 55
, 54
, 67
, 67
, 69
, 53
, 53
, 55
, 54
Cisco, , 40
Catalyst, , 435
SOHO ( ), 35
1600, 37, 263
7500, 35
clear, , 486
CLNP (Connectionless Network Proto
col, 
), 397
clock, , 486
CompuServe, 32
configure terminal, , 197
configure, , 134, 141
confreg, , 139
connect, , 217, 465
copy, , 487

D
debug, , 488
DECnet, 388
DRP (DECnet Routing Protocol, 
DECnet)
hello, 395
MAC (Media Access Control,
)
, 390
Phase V, 395
, 388
, 389
L1, 391
L2, 392
, 390
delete, , 489
dialer, , 272
dir, , 129, 490
disable, , 89, 466
disconnect, , 466
distributelist, , 370
DNA (Digital Network Architecture,
Digital), 387
DR (Designated Router,
), OSPF, 340
DRAM, IOS, 67
DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm,
),
332

E
EBGP (Exterior Border Gateway Proto
col,
), 379
, 379
EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol,
), 296, 378
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Ro
uting Protocol, 

), 322, 369
ASN, ,
333
DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm,

), 332
, 334
hello, 332
IGRP, 333
RIP, 322

497


enable, , 89, 121, 134, 197, 466
enable, , 135
erase, , 490
Ethernet
rollover, , 117
, 142
, 117
, 125
, 117
, 116
exit, , 467

F
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface,

), 50
Flash Load Helper, 62
Frame Relay, 36, 278
DCE (Data Circuit Terminating
Equipment, 
), 276
DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifi
er,
), 277
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment,
), 276
IETF (Internet Engineering Task
Force,
)
, 278
LMI (Local Management Interface,

), 277
, 278
, 277
framerelay map, , 280

G
GCAC (Generic Call Admission Control,


)
, 456
, 456
GEnie, 32
Gopher, 32
GUI (Graphical User Interface,

), 71, 73

H
help, , 467
hostname, , 133
HyperTerminal, , 66

I
IBGP (Interior Border Gateway Protocol,

), 379
, 382

, 384
ICMP (Internet Control Message Proto
col, 
), 196, 202
, 213
ping, 205
, 207
,
211
traceroute, 213
, 204
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol,
), 320,
321, 378
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Proto
col, 
), 322
ASN (Autonomous System Number,
), 327

, 323
, 326
,
329

, 330
, 329
 , 329
, 329
IGP, 321
(), 321
, 332
,
328
, 327
, 323
, 324
, 323
, 324

498
, 324
, 324
, 326
, 331
EIGRP, 332
RIP, 320, 322
interface, , 198, 236
IOS (Internet Operating System), 73, 464
access list, , 427
accessenable, , 464
accessprofile, , 465
accesstemplate, , 480
bgp confederation, , 382
cd, , 481
clear, , 486
clock, , 486
connect, , 465
copy, , 487
debug, , 488
delete, , 489
dir, , 490
disable, , 466
disconnect, , 466
distributelist, , 370
enable, , 466
erase, , 490
exit, , 467
help, , 467
ip aspath, , 372
IP, , 194
IPX, , 242
lock, , 467
login, , 467
logout, , 467
more, , 490
nameconnection, , 468
nat inside source, , 432
neighbor, , 366
network, , 328
no metric holddown, , 331
no synchronization, , 384
no, , 137
pad, , 468
ping, , 90, 205, 468
ppp, , 469
pwd, , 491
redistribute static, , 370
reload, , 491
resume, , 469
rlogin, , 470
router bgp, , 364


rsh, , 492
setup, , 492
show, , 93, 129, 316, 473
slip, , 473
systat, , 474
telnet, , 474
terminal, , 87, 478
test, , 492
timer basic, , 329
traceroute, , 213, 478
tunnel, , 479
variance, , 328
verify, , 494
where, , 479
write, , 494
x28, , 479
x3, , 480
, 73
, 79
, 81

, 480

, 494

, 73
, 73

, 88

, 58
, 58
, 57
, 78
, 55
, 79
, 79
, 80
, 79
, 73

, 327

, 81
, 80
, 83
Boot Loader, 82
, 88
 ,
87
, 87


, 85
, 72
, 7678
IP (Internet Protocol, 
), 169, 194
ip aspath, , 372
IP6 , 223
IP ASN, 362
, 182
CIDR (Classless InterDomain
Routing, 
), 183
, 183

IP, 187
, 106
, 202
, 189
A, 182, 188
B, 188
C, 182, 189
D, 189
E, 189
, 182
, 182
, 225
, 189

, , 193
, , 192
IP
, 102
, 103
, 101
(TTL), 102
, 101
, 101
, 102
, 101
, 103
, 102
, 102
, 101
, 102
, 233
, 430
, 427
, 428
, 427
, 427
, 426

499
, 224
, 126, 197

, 193
ip address, , 142, 201
ip classless, , 198
ip defaultgateway, , 199
ip route, , 237
perm, , 199
, 238
ip routing, , 198
ip, , 198, 202
IP6 , 101
IP/IPX, , 126
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange,
), 169,
243
, 245
MAC (Media Access Control,
)
, 245
., 244
IP, 244
,
246
, 242
, 252
, 252
, 258
ipx interface, , 257
ipx network, , 248
ipx route, , 256
ipx routing, , 247
IPX/IP Basic, ,
246
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Net
work,
), 35, 264, 270
BRI (Basic Rate Interface,
), 264
B, 265
D, 265
LAPD (Link Access Protocol [for
Channel] D,
[ ] D), 267
, 269

E, 266
I, 266
Q, 266

500
, 273
SPID, 272
, 272
,
271
, 272

R, 267
S, 267
T, 267
U, 267

NT1, 266
NT2, 266
TA, 266
TE1, 266, 270
TE2, 266
ISIS (Intermediate System to Intermedi
ate System protocol, c
), 388
CLNP (Connectionless Network Pro
tocol, 
), 397
, 405, 410
, 404
IS, 416, 417
, 418
, 406, 407
, 423
, 416, 421
, 421
, 421

, 404
, 404
, 404
, 405
, 408

, 410, 411
, 410, 411
, 410, 411

, 414
, 413
, 419
hello, 412
, 399

, 418
istype, , 422

L
LAN, 34
line, , 135, 214
lock, , 467
login, , 467
logout, , 467
LSA (Link State Advertisement,
), 338
LSP (LSA), 399
remaininglife, , 401
sequence, , 402
, 338
, 399
Lynx, 32

M
MAC (Media Access Control,
), 176, 245
, 98, 390
MAU (Media Access Units,
), 28
more, , 490

N
nameconnection, , 88, 468
NAT (Network Address Translation,
), 425,
433
IP , 432
,
431
IP,
431
, 433
nat inside source, , 432
net, , 422
NetBEUI, 178
network, , 310, 328, 350
no metric holddown, , 331
no, , 137
notify, , 218
Novell NetWare, 242
NSAP (Network Service Access Point,
), 452
DSP (DomainSpecific Part,
), 409
IDP (Initial Domain Part,
), 409

501


AFI (Authority and Format Iden
tifier,
), 409
IDI (Initial Domain Identifier,

), 409
, 410
, 452
, 410
NSSA (NotSoStubby Areas,
), OSPF, 339, 348

, 346
, 339, 348
, 344
, 345
,
345
, 345

, 345
hello, 344
, , 344
, 349
, 338

O
OSI (Open Systems Interconnect,
),
, 172, 186, 388
NSAP (Network Service Access
Point,
), 409
, 177
/c 
, 176177
MAC, 176
, 173
, 99, 176
, 174
, 99
, 173
, 173
, 172
, 98
, 177
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First, 

), 286, 341
DR (Designated Router,
), 340
, 341
( ), 337
, 347
, 338
, 352
, 343
, 348
ABR (Area Border Router,

), 340, 346
NSSA (NotSoStubby Areas,
),
339, 348

P
pad, , 468
passiveinterface, , 313
ping, , 90, 205, 468
ip, , 205
tag, , 205
TTL ( ), 206
, 89
, 207
, 206
, 211
DF , 209
, ,
206
PNNI (Private NetworktoNetwork
Interface, 
), 435
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode,
) ,
436
crankback, 
, 461
NSAP (Network Service Access
Point,
), , 452
QOS (Quality of Service,
) , 457
, 455
, 452
, 462
, 455
, 447
, 450
, 450
, 436, 452
, 436, 451,
460

502
ppp, , 469
Prodigy, 32
PSN (Public Switching Network,

), 269, 440
PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit, 
), 274
pwd, , 491

Q
QOS (Quality of Service,
), 457
GCAC (Generic Call Admission Con
trol, 

),
, 456

, 456

R
redistribute static, , 370
refusemessage, , 218
reload, , 132, 491
resume, , 218, 469
RFF (RunfromFlash)
, 58
, 58
IOS
Flash Load Helper, 62
TFTP, 62
, 60
, 62
, 58
, 58
RFR (RunfromRAM)
, 60
, 60
IOS, 67
, 59
, 59
RIP (Routing Information Protocol,
),
286, 318, 322
show, , 316
version, , 315
WAN , 296
, 304
, 315



, 298

, 307
, 311
timers basic, , 311
, 305
IGP, 320
, 310
network, , 310
router rip, , 310
router, , 310

neighbor, , 313
passiveinterface, , 313
show runningconfig, ,
313
,
312
, 295

, 308
, 309
,
298, 300
, 305
, 298, 302
, 298
, 316
, 308
, 310
, 298, 303
, 316
IGRP EIGRP, 320
, 306
, 299
, 299
, 299
, 299
, 299
, 298

, 304
, 298
RJ45, , 116
rlogin, , 219, 470
rollover, , 117
, 118
router bgp, , 364
router isis, , 422
router rip, , 310

503


router, , 310
rsh, , 492

S
setup, , 130, 132, 492
show interface, , 141, 142
show runningconfig, , 313
show version, , 138, 247
show, , 93, 129, 316, 473
runningconfig, 93
startupconfig, 93
, 90
, 93, 142
shutdown, , 127, 141
slip, , 473
SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol,
), 123
SOHO (small office/home office,
/ ), 35, 264
SPID (Service Profile ID, 
), 265
startupconfig, , 128
static route, , 272
SVC (Switched Virtual Circuits, 
), 275
systat, , 474

T
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol,
),
174, 178, 186, 197
TCP IP, 186
TCP/IP, , 197
Telnet, 135, 197
speed, , 215
, 219
telnet, , 217, 474
terminal, , 87, 478
test, , 492
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol,
),
62, 65, 164
timers basic, , 312
Token Ring, 26, 28
traceroute, , 213, 478
, 213
, 213
Trumpet, 32

TTL (Time To Live, ), 206,


300
RIP, 301
tunnel, , 479

U
UI (User Interface,
), 71
GUI, 73
HTML, 73
, 73
UNI (UsertoNetwork Interface, 
), 440, 446
, 443
, 443
, 443
, 443

V
variance, , 328
verify, , 494

W
WAN (Wide Area Network,
)
Frame Relay, 278
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital
Network,
), 35, 270
X.25, , 273
, 34, 35
, 263, 270
where, , 479
WIC (WAN Interface Card), 263
write, , 494

X
X.25, , 273
PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit,
),
274
x28, , 479
x3, , 480
Xerox, 296
Xerox PUP, , 296
Xmodem, 66, 67

504

, 83
, 379

DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm,



), 332
GCAC (Generic Call Admission Con
trol, 

),
456
 (
), 285, 320, 323
, 344, 419, 457
, 455
, 336
( ), 321, 337,
356, 367
ASSet, , 378
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol,
), 356
DR (Designated Router,
), 340
next hop, , 378
, 361
, 362
,
359
IP, 367
, 339
ABR (Area Border Router,

), 340
NSSA (NotSoStubby Areas,
),
339
, 339, 360
, 362
, 358
, , 439

, 115, 120
, , 142
, 425
IP , 426
NAT (Network Address Translation,
), 430



, 323

, , 285
, 323
, , 122,
135
, 137
,
, 329
, 328
IGRP, 326

, 416

, 176, 269
, 175, 176
, 173
, 174
, 174
, 344
, 80
, 290
, 136
, , 72

, 81
, 338

, 151
, 120
, 133
, 99, 103
,
100
, , 252
Ethernet_II, 250
, 250
Ethernet_SNAP, 250
, 322
, 35

505


, , 142
IP, 142
, 141
,
141

, 141

, 116
Ethernet, 117
, 117
RJ45/DB9, 118
, 269
(ISDN)
B, 265
D, 265
OSI, 98, 176
(BGP), 373
, 73, 106
, , 276
, 110, 290, 398, 454
, 136
, (BGP), 381
, 132
privateconfig, 129
runningconfig, 128, 132
startupconfig, 130, 132
, 130
, 132
, 164
TFTP, 164
Cisco Remote Software Loader,
162
copy, , 162

TFTP, 163
, 164
IOS, 162

TFTP,
161
, 160
, 106


, 141
, 135

, OSPF, 346
, ,
115
Ethernet , 125, 127
SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol,
), 123
, 125
, 120, 133
, 132
, 140
, 122
, 115
, 118
,
120, 127
, 114, 133
,
135
, 121
,
140
Telnet, 116

DB9, 116
DSL, 34
Ethernet, 34
IP , 193
ISDN, 34
LAN, 34
TTL (Time To Live), 300
T, 34
WAN, 34
WIC (WAN Interface Card), 263

IP , 426
NAT, 430
, 237
, 34
, 35
, 300
, 31
Cisco, 31
, 28
, 26
, 27
, 180
, 299
, 118

506
, 199

, 164
, 300
, 159

, 287
RIP, 304
 (
), 285, 323
, 285
, 284
, 286
, 111
, 286
RIP, 308
, 39, 40
, 45
, 44
, 41
WAN, 44
, 45

DRAM (Dynamic RAM), 45


, 45
,
40
, 40
, 50
1600, 48
2500, 49
4000, 50
800, 47
, 298
, 109
, 109
, 397
CLNP (Connectionless Network Pro
tocol,
), 397
IP (Internet Protocol, 
), 103, 169, 202, 223
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange,
),
169, 252
WAN (Wide Area Network,
), 263, 270

, 111

, 373
, 240


, 182
, BGP, 360

, , 193

, 308
, , 329
, 39, 40, 149
, 45
, 44
, 42
, 41
WAN, 44
, 45

DRAM (Dynamic RAM), 45


, 45
, 40
, 40
, 50
1600, 48
2500, 49
4000, 50
800, 47
, 149
, 150, 156
, 150, 159

IGRP, 324
, 325

BGP, 367

, 103, 175
hello, 332
IPX, 250
, 251
teardown, 179
, 180
, 102
, 103

, 103
, 179
, 332


, , 60
RFF (RunfromFlash)
, 58
, 56
, 140
enable, 135
, 135
, 137
, 136
, 135
, 136
, 121
, 121, 134
, 136
, Ethernet, 117
, 206
 (ROMMON), 139
, , 264,
265
, 446

, 459
, OSPF, 338

, 189
, 192
, , 152
, 61, 64
, 80
, 171
UNI (UsertoNetwork Interface, 
), 443
, 180
, 180181
, 181
, 181183
IP, 182
CIDR (Classless InterDomain
Routing, 
), 183
, 183
, 103
, 184
, 184
, 184
, 184
, 184
, 184
, 169, 183
, 181183

507

IP
A, 182
C, 182
, 182
, 182
(), 396
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol,
),
286, 355
EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gate
way Routing Protocol, 


), 322, 334
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol,
),
296
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol, 
),
126, 322, 327
ISIS (Intermediate System to In
termediate System protocol,
c
), 423
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First,

), 286, 341
PNNI (Private NetworktoNet
work Interface,
), 437, 452,
455
RIP (Routing Information Proto
col, 
), 126, 286, 318, 322
, 287
, 285
, 285
, 284
, 286
, 290
, 290
, 290

, 111
, 357
(), 397
CLNP (Connectionless Network
Protocol,
), 397

508
IP (Internet Protocol, 
), 103, 169, 202, 223
IPX (Internetwork Packet Ex
change,
), 169, 252
WAN (Wide Area Network, 
), 263, 270

, 169
, 170
, 178
, 178
teardown, 179
, 181

, 179
, 180
, 336
LSA (Link State Advertisement,

), 399


, 126

BGP, 373
, 373
, , 237

, 120,
127

IGRP, /, 331
RIP, 303
, , 79
, , 153
, 159
, 159
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP),
158

, 158
, 149

, 152

, 150

Cisco, 152


, 159
, 150, 156
, 159
, 149

OSI, 173

, 271
, 233

, 227
, 227

, 240
, 227
, 226
, 223
, 233
, 174
, 134

, 174
OSI, 99, 174
Cisco , 99

Token Ring, 26, 28


, 35
, 26
, 27
, 300

, 26
,
26
, 28, 237

, 237
,
234
, 66

,
176
,
LLC (Logical Link Control), 177
,
OSPF, 341

509


,
, 81
, 80

IP, 426
, 427
, 97
, 88

, 87
 , 87
, 87
, 85
, 357
, 279

, 35, 109, 175, 286


RIP, 298
, 286
, 290
, 110, 111
, 110

, 308
IGRP, 326
, 109
 , , 329

RIP, 304

IGRP, 329
, 373
OSI, 173
, BGP, 360
, OSPF, 339, 348

, , 329
, 136
, BGP, 363
OSI,
173
OSI, 172

, 98
OSI, 177

, 159
, 159
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), 158
,
158
, 149

, 152
,
150
Cisco,
152
, 159
, 156
, 159
, 149
, 57
Flash Load Helper, 62
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol,

), 62
, 60
, 60
SIMM, 60
, 62
, 7678

, 244
0x, , 245
, , 297
, 100

, 100
, 322
, 322
, 322
, 321
, 105, 199
, 364

, 204

 
Books.Ru 
ISBN 5932860480,
Cisco.
 Books.Ru  .
 ,

.
,  (piracy@sym
bol.ru), .

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