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ORANGE (Citrus sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO( ) REPELLANT

A Science Investigatory Project In partial fulfillment of the requirements In Science and Technology III (Chemistry)

To: Mr. Kenny Lloyd Angon Chemistry Teacher

By: Michell Hao Johann Miro Univeer Nudas John Carlo Pancho Alexis Salamilao Christa Soledad Justin Yap March 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page Abstract Acknowledgement List of Figures List of Tables List of Plates Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Limitation 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Related Literature Conceptual Framework Hypothesis Definition of Terms METHODOLOGY Materials Collection of Orange Disposal 12 12 13 3 10 10 11 1 2 2 i ii iii iv v vi

Methodology Flow Chart RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Recommendation BIBLIOGRAPHY DOCUMENTATION APPENDICES Curriculum Vitae

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16 16 17 18

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ABSTRACT ______________________________________________________________________ Orange (Citrus Sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO (Varies) REPELLANT Michell Grace Hao Alexis Anne Salamilao Johann Vincent Miro John Carlo Pancho Justin Yap Univeer Taisho Nudas Alessandra Soledad Stella Maris Academy of Davao N. Torres St. Obrero, Davao City The researchers made this project to determine the effects of orange peel extract. Also to help in finding simple ways to prevent mosquitoes from harming people. The researchers first bought 9 oranges at the Agdao public market. Then the researchers prepared the materials needed. First the researchers peeled the oranges, the orange peels were grated. The grated orange peels were squeezed to get the extract. Set A remained concentrated with 25% water, Set B with 50% water and set C with 75% water. Then the researchers sprayed it to three different mosquitoes. The result for set A showed the same outcome after three trials, the mosquito died. The same process was done to set B and C. the researches then concluded that the more

concentrates the solutions is the more effective it is. The researches recommends that more test should be conducted and with higher amount of mosquitoes used. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers would like to thank the following people who extend their help to make this study successful: To Sir Kenny Lloyd Angon, their Chemistry teacher for guiding them in their Science Investigatory Project. To Mr. and Mrs. Hao for letting the researchers use their house to do their Science investigatory Project. To their friends for inspiring them to persevere and be more serious in doing their science Investigatory project. And above all, to God the Father for His undying guidance that he shed on us throughout this project. M.A.J.J.J.U.C

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number 1 Title Conceptual Paradigm Page

LIST OF TABLES Table number 1 Title Effect of the Concentrated Orange Extract on the Mosquito Page

LIST OF PLATES Plate Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Title Preparation of Materials Peeling of the Orange Grating of the orange Squeezing of the Orange Peel Extract Separating of the Orange peel Extract Spraying of the Extract on the Mosquito Page

Dead Mosquito

INTRODUCTION Background of the study Mosquitoes are a nuisance to the society especially in our health. Is a common insect in the family Culicidae (from the Latin culex meaning midge orgnat).

There are about 3,500 species of mosquitoes found throughout the world. In some species of mosquito, the females feed on humans, and are vectors for a number of

infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year. Some scientists believe that eradicating mosquitoes would have serious consequences for any ecosystem. The researchers chose this research to help in solving the increasing number of people affected by diseases coming from mosquitoes. We observed that orange

absorbs water fast. During the process we observed that the odor of the orange peel extract gets stronger as we squeeze it more thoroughly. Researches and experiments evolve to investigate the effectiveness of orange peel as a mosquito repellant. There were similar researches about this; they used lemon peel to create a repellant. In this study we would like to prove the effectiveness of orange peel as mosquito repellant. The other researches proved the different uses of citrus fruits in preventing diseases. As of now many people are suffering from different diseases caused by mosquito bites. The numbers of affected people are rapidly increasing. This is now causing a problem to the government because many of the affected people are dying. This gives

researches and experiments to think of applicable solutions to prevent these cases and an orange peel as mosquito repellant is one of these researches. According to the World Malaria Report 2010, there were 225 million cases of malaria and an estimated 781 000 deaths in 2009, a decrease from 233 million cases and 985 000

deaths in 2000. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every 45 seconds of malaria and the disease accounts for approximately 20% of all childhood deaths. Statement of the Problem: Will the orange peel extract be able to repel mosquitoes?

What are the components of the orange peel extract that can repel mosquitoes?

Significance of the Study: Using orange peel extract to repel mosquitoes would be a benefit to everybody because it is cheap to make and made from recycling the peels of the oranges that you eat. Now a days, diseases, sicknesses that are caused by mosquitoes are getting more and more each day. Through this, we can help a lot of people and a lot of people would be able to lessen the risks of the mosquitoes in their lives that are surrounding them. Scope and Limitation: This study focuses on how to lessen the risks that are caused by the mosquitoes especially dengue fever that had been a threat to the people for quite some time now. We also focus on how we can let people be able to reach their needs in life, thats why we used cheap materials to create a repellant that would lessen the risks to their health.

RELATED REVIEW OF LITERATURE (RRL)

Orange The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata). It is an evergreenflowering tree generally growing to 910 m in height (although very old speciments have reached 15 m). The leaves are arranged alternately, are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 410 cm long. The orange fruit is a hesperidium, a type of berry. Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the delicious sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice, and also for the fragrant peel.] In 2008, 68.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide, primarily in Brazil and the state of Florida in the US. Oranges probably originated in Southeast Asia and were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit[ for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages.In a number of languages, it is known as a "Chinese apple" (e.g. Dutch Sinaasappel, "China's apple", or northern German Apfelsine). (In English, however, "Chinese apple" generally refers to the pomegranate). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit)

Vitamin C Is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is used to form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels, heal wounds and form scar tissue repair and maintain cartilage, bones, and teeth. Citrus Citrus can refer to as a common term or a genus name. In general, citrus includes all species and natural hybrids in Citrus and its closely related genera (sexually compatible with each other to certain extent), such as Poncirus (trifoliate wild lime),

orange), Fortunella (kumquat), Microcitrus (Australian

and Eremocitrus (desert lime). They all belong to the family Rutaceae that is in the order Sapindales, a sister taxon to Brassicales that contains Arabidopsis. The taxonomy of citrus has been very controversial and inconsistent binomial naming are often seen. Even some same species are prefixed with different genus names because some researchers suggested all the above genera to be classified as one genus, Citrus. However, many widely used binomial names, though known not true species, are in popular use, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck). From genomic perspectives, most citrus species are diploid (2n = 2x = 18), with relatively small genomes; for instance, sweet orange has a genome of about 380Mb, approximately three times the size of the 125Mb Arabidopsis genome. So far available genomic resources include more than half millions citrus ESTs, most sweet orange

(~90%) and next following by Clementine, trifoliate orange, Satsuma, and other citrus varieties; high density microarrays in several different platforms; several BAC libraries; one sweet orange physical map; and high density linkage maps for sweet orange and Clementine. One haploid Clementine genome are being sequenced using Sanger technology, and one diploid sweet orange genome sequenced using Roche 454 technology. These genome sequence resources and tools will allow geneticists and breeders to more effectively manipulate various traits in breeding programs, and genomicists and bioinformaticians to preform comparative genomic studies on a new taxonomic group. Citrus includes almost all commercially grown citrus species/cultivar groups, producing diverse fruit types including sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck), mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), grapefruit (C. paradisi Macfad.), lemon (C. limon (L.) Burm.), lime (C. aurantifolia Christ.), pummelo (C. maxima Merril.), and citron (C. medica L.). Only C. reticulata, C. maxima, and C. medica are believed true species, and the others natural hybrids or introgressions, according to some characteristic traits and molecular markers. http://www.citrusgenomedb.org/organisms

Magnesium Magnesium is needed for bone, protein, making new cells, activating B vitamins, relaxing nerves and muscles, clotting blood, and in energy production.Insulin secretion and function also requires magnesium. Magnesium also assists in the absorption of calcium, vitamin C and potassium.Deficiency may result in fatigue, nervousness, insomnia, heart problems, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and cramps. Iron Iron deficiency in infants can result in impaired learning ability and behavioral problems. It can also affect the immune system and cause weakness and fatigue.To aid in the absorption of iron; eat foods rich in vitamin C at the same time you eat the food containing iron. The tannin in non-herbal tea can hinder absorption of iron. Take iron supplements and your vitamin E at different times of the day, as the iron supplements will tend to neutralize the vitamin E. Zinc

Most at risk of iron deficiency are infants, adolescent girls and pregnant women.Iron deficiency in infants can result in impaired learning ability and behavioral problems. It can also affect the immune system and cause weakness and fatigue.

To aid in the absorption of iron, eat foods rich in vitamin C at the same time you eat the food containing iron. The tannin in non-herbal tea can hinder absorption of iron. Health Benefits

Orange peel also knows as orange zest (the shavings of the orange portion of the peel) contain hespetidin (this compound is also present in orange flesh but in smaller amount) an antioxidant that has a potential to lower cholesterol and helps normalize blood pressure more effectively than some prescription drugs. Orange peels contain natural oil which is utilized by the body to help keep the elasticity of veins and arteries; it will also help keep skin strong, elastic and beautiful. Add some orange peel to a bath and let your skin absorb these beneficial oils. Orange peel is a good source of pectin a natural fiber that can help normalize blood sugar level and helps prevent constipation. Additionally, pectin helps promote the production of healthy bacteria in the intestines.

Pectin also works as a natural appetite suppressant, reducing the desire to overeat. Orange peel tea can help with weight loss and weight management because it is known to raise metabolism, improve stamina and energy, and speed up the elimination of unwanted stored fat. Orange peel can aid digestion and relieve gastrointestinal problems such as acidity, heartburn, flatulence, diarrhea and the digestion of fatty foods.

Orange peel contains anti-inflammatory properties and has shown some promise in fighting certain types of cancer including breast cancer. Orange peel tea is a good remedy for insomnia. http://len7288.hubpages.com/hub/Health-Benefits-of-Orange-Peel Mosquito Mosquito is a common insect in the family Culicidae (from resemble crane flies (family

the Latin culex meaning midge orgnat). Mosquitoes

Tipulidae) and chironomid flies (family Chironomidae), with which they are sometimes confused by the casual observer. Mosquitoes go through four stages in their life-cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult or imago. Adult females lay their eggs in standing water, which can be a salt-marsh, a lake, a puddle, a natural reservoir on a plant, or an artificial water container such as a

plastic bucket. The first three stages are aquatic and last 514 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature; eggs hatch to become larvae, then pupae. The adult mosquito emerges from the pupa as it floats at the water surface. Bloodsucking species of mosquitoes live as adults for periods ranging from a week or two to several months, depending on the species, the gender, the season and the conditions. Some species even overwinter as adults. Mosquitoes have mouthparts that are adapted for piercing the skin of plants and animals. While males typically feed on nectar and plant juices, the female needs to obtain nutrients from a "blood meal" before she can produce eggs.

There are about 3,500 species of mosquitoes found throughout the world. In some species of mosquito, the females feed on humans, and are vectors for a number of infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year. Some scientists believe that eradicating mosquitoes would not have serious consequences for the ecosystem. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito

Conceptual Framework

Dependent Variable

Independent Variable

Fig.1 Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

Hypothesis 1. The orange will be able to kill the mosquito because it has properties that is hazardous to the mosquito. 2. The orange will be able to kill other insects.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Culicidae - a family of slender long legged dipteran flies having the bodyand appendages partly covered with hairs or scales and themouthparts adapted for piercing and sucking, comprising themosq uitoes, and having active aquatic larvae known as wrigglers

Genome - All of the genetic information, the entire genetic complement, all of the hereditary material possessed by an organism.

Brassicales - are an order of flowering plant s, belonging to the eurosids ii group of dicotyledon s under the apg ii system.

Arabidopsis - a genus of the mustard family having white or yellow or purplish flowers; closely related to genus Arabis

Reticulate - the formation or presence of a network. Maxima - the greatest possible, or actual, effect or quantity. Medica - practitioner from New Mexico, of Curanderismo, the Mexican-American healing system.

Introgressions - Infiltration of the genes of one species into the gene pool of another through repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parents.

Gastrointestinal - (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Anatomy) of or relating to the stomach and intestinal tract Vector

METHODOLOGY

Materials The materials that were used in this study were, orange peels, a spray

container, mosquitoes and extractor. We used these materials to be able to make a mosquito repellent . These are all the materials used.

Collection We bought 8 pieces of oranges in Agdao public market, Agdao, Davao City. We caught 5 mosquitoes outside our house, Ecoland, Davao City.

Procedure A. Measurement of the Materials Needed

One(1) orange peel at a time were put in the mortar and pestle. Then they were squished and extracted the extract from the orange peel.

B. Preparation of the set up Three (3) set ups were prepared; set-up one (1) was made up of the extract from three (3) orange peels from different oranges and 20% of water.; set-up two (2) was made up of the extract from three (3) orange peels from different oranges and 40% of water., and set-up three (3) was made up of the extract from three (3) orange peels from different oranges and 60% of water.

C. Preparation of the Orange Peels

The researchers peeled the peel of the oranges and put it in a container, and we grated the orange peels to turn it into smaller pieces. D. Extraction The researchers added a little bit of water and we pounded and sqeezed the grated orange peels in a container. E. Application of the Orange peel Extract The researchers sprayed the 1st set-up to mosquito A, the 2nd set-up to mosquito B, the 3rd setup to mosquito C at the same time. Then, the researchers waited for two minutes to see the results. Disposal A. Disposal of Oranges Used

The researchers threw the used orange peels in a biodegradable container. B. Disposal of the Dead Mosquitoes The researchers threw the ten mosquitoes also in a biodegradable container.

METHODOLOGY FLOW CHART

Preparation of the Materials

Preparation of the Set-up

Preparation of the Orange Peels

Extraction

Application of the Orange Peel Extract

Evaluation of Data

Fig. 2 Flowchart on Orange Peel Extract as Mosquito Repellent

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The effects that were recorded focused more on the concentration of the extracted orange peel. Table 1. Effect of the Concentrated Orange Extract on the Mosquito Trial 1 Mosquito 1 The mosquito died. Mosquito 2 The mosquito died. Mosquito 3 Trial 2 Mosquito 1 Mosquito 2 Mosquito 3 Trial 3 Mosquito 1 Mosquito 2 Mosquito 3 Set A The mosquito died. The mosquito died. The mosquito died. Set A The mosquito died. The mosquito died. The mosquito died. Set A The mosquito died. Set B Set C

The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. Set B Set C The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. Set B Set C The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito.

Table 1 shows the effect of orange peel extract on the mosquito during 3 trials. As the table shows the more concentrated the solution is, the more grave is its effect on the mosquito. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Based from the given data gathered, the researchers conclude that the mixture of orange peel and 25% water was the most effective among the solutions/setups of orange peel and water. Furthermore, it was also concluded that the more concentrated the solution the more it is to repel or kill mosquitos. Recommendations Based from the drawn conclusions, the researchers recommend the following: 1. Conduct more reliable tests using varied levels of water. 2. Use other fruits in testing the efficiency of the given product. 3. To test with more mosquitoes to see the range of the product when used.

BIBLIOGRAPHY http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit), http://www.citrusgenomedb.org/organisms http://len7288.hubpages.com/hub/Health-Benefits-of-Orange-Peel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosquito

Mcohee, John.Oranges(1996) Train, John. Orange Fruits (2006) Bones, Barry. Uses of Orange Peel in the Garden(2007)

DOCUMENTATION

Plate 1: Preparation of Materials

Plate 2: Peeling of the Orange

Plate 3: Grating of the Orange

Plate 4: Squeezing of the Orange Peel

Plate 5: Separating of the Orange Peel Extract

Plate 6: Spraying of the Extract on the Mosquito

Plate 7: Dead Mosquito

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Michell Grace Hao Address: 9 Villafuerte St. Calinan Davao City Age: 15 years old Birthday: September 20, 1996

Mothers Name: Helen Hao Fathers Name: Luis Hao Email Address: Shiobe_hao@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09228383113 Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

Name: Alexis Salamilao Address: Blk. 17 L7 isiah St. Emily Homes, Cabntian Davao City

Age: 15 years old Birthday: February 18,1996 Mothers Name: Nora N. Salamilao Fathers Name: Simon S. Salamilao Email Address: lex_ann18@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09232509573 Educational Background: Pre-school: Ebenzer Christian School Grade school: Holy Cross of Davao City High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

Name: Alessandra Christa L. Soledad Address: 8 Acacia St. Phase 5 Blk2 Lot1 Age: 15 years old Birthday: February 27, 1996 Mothers Name: Haydee olive L. Soledad Fathers Name: Ruel Ignatius D. Soledad Email Address: christa_soledad@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09326933360 Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

Name: Univeer Taisho Nudas Address: 37 Loyola St. Bo. Obrero, Davao City Age: 15 years old Birthday: April 23, 1996 Mothers Name: Lourdes Nudas Fathers Name: Billy Nudas Email Address: Taisho_Nudas@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09223020083 Educational Background: Pre-school: Holistic Learning Center Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

Name: Justin Louis O. Yap Address: 45 Cervantes St. Davao City Age: 15 years old Birthday: June 15, 1996 Mothers Name: Jopsephine Yap Fathers Name: Lencio Yap Email Address: Justin_Yap123@yahoo.com Contact Number: Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

Name: John Carlo Pancho Address: 7 Anthurium st. phase 4-a Elrio Vista Davao City Age: 14 years old Birthday: October 13 1996 Mothers Name: Merlina Pancho Fathers Name: Celstino Pancho Email Address: JohnCarlo_pancho@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09235140757 Educational Background: Pre-school: Methodist Davao City Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

Name: Johann Vincent D. Miro Address: 31 Zuelig St., South Villa, Mara, Davao City Age: 15 years old , 1996Birthday: June 11. Mothers Name: Claire D. Miro Fathers Name: Julieto R. Miro Email Address: Johann_Miro@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09232864316 Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao

Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao