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Industrial Report
Johann Angelo Britto

Submitted to: Mr. Sandeep Singh Sandhu and Ms. Priya Jaidka


Any project is the fruitful outcome of the hard work of many. Through this report I would like to express my gratitude towards those whose support and co-ordination have been an essential ingredient of this project. I would like to say that it was a great pleasure and privilege to have got the opportunity of visiting Federal Mogul Goetze Ltd. I would like to thank my faculty in-charge Mr. Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Ms. Priya Jaidka for accompanying me during the industrial visit and Mr. Prabhjot Singh Nanrey, Co-ordinator of MET-AM, for initiating such a visit. I am sure the knowledge and experience gained during this visit will be of immense valu for my growth in the field of Mechanical Engineering.


Company Profile

Goetze India Limited

Introduction to Various Departments

Introduction to the Plant


Introduction to Piston Rings


Piston Rings Information at Federal Mogul Patiala




Company Profile

Federal-Mogul Corporation is an innovative and diversified $6.2 billion global supplier of quality products, trusted brands and creative solutions to manufacturers of automotive, light commercial, heavy-duty and off-highway vehicles, as well as in power generation, aerospace, marine, rail and industrial. The 45,000 people of Federal-Mogul located in 35 countries drive excellence in all they do. Our globally-networked engineering and technical centres in the U.S., Europe and Asia enable us to bring to our customers breakthroughs in advanced technology and innovation. We are a premier supplier of products, services and solutions to original equipment manufacturers that use our quality components in their vehicles and automotive systems, and to aftermarket customers who sell our world renown brand-name replacement parts through repair shops and retail outlets. We partner with a global network of suppliers whose commitment to excellence and on-time delivery is crucial to our success. For more than a century, we have developed the innovative products our customers need to produce the next generation of vehicles. Now, as we write the history of our next 100 years, we continue to build on our position status as a market leader in product and service solutions to set ever higher standards and continually exceed customer, shareholder and employee expectations. Federal Mogul Corporation Founded in 1899 as the Muzzy-Lyon Company. Headquarters are in Southfield, Michigan, USA. Jose Maria Alapoint, President & CEO Revenue $6.9 billion USD(2008) Net Income $468 million USD (2008) Employees: 43,000 (2008) Website:


THE BEST WAY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE IS TO CREATE IT The Escorts Group, with Escorts Limited as its H.P. Nanda & Rajan flagship company is among India's largest (1917-99) Nanda corporations operating in the diverse fields of Agri machinery , telecommunications, information technology , healthcare, bi- wheelers, construction & material handling equipment, automotive & railway ancillaries and financial services. The Group has 19 modern manufacturing facilities & an extensive marketing network spread across the country .The major global alliances of the Group include: JCB UK, Yamaha -Japan, Claas, Mahle and Goetze - Germany, Carraro -Italy, Long CA, Vistaar & i2 -USA, First Pacific -Hong Kong, IFS -Sweden and POL-MOT -Poland. The genesis of Escorts goes back to 1944 when two brothers, Mr. H. P. Nanda and Mr. Yudi Nanda launched a small agency house, Escorts Agents Ltd. in Lahore. The next 50 years saw Escorts surge ahead and become one of India's largest conglomerates. On assuming the Chairmanship of the Group, in Apri11994, Mr. Rajan Nanda, undertook a major restructuring programme to give sharper focus to the businesses. This involved building alliances with global players and improving market capitalization, which resulted in each business becoming an independent entity with defined partnerships, technology, customers and business economics. The recent past -also witnessed a major shift in Escorts' business focus, when it broke away from its traditional identity of being a purely engineering company and made its foray into the service sector of telecom and information technology .The Group has since re- evaluated its focus with thrust on areas of high growth, namely Agri machinery, telecom, software . Federal-Mogul Corporation Goetze (I) Limited has so far setup five plants in the different regions of India. These Plants are named according to the name of the cities in which they are placed. The names of the plants are as under: Alwar Plant Bangalore Plant Bhiwadi Plant Patiala Plant Faridabad Plant. The PATIALA PLANT OF Federal- Mogul Goetze (I) Ltd. is located in the north of India about 250 km from the capital - New Delhi and production at this plant started in 1957. It is connected by road and rail routes. This Plant is largest manufacturer of Pistons in NorthIndia.

Federal Mogul, Goetze India Limited Bahadurgarh, Patiala was set up in 1954 with the collaboration of M/S Goetze Werke, Germany which started its production of piston rings for automobile industry in 1957. Considering the need of complete piston assembly Escorts Limited ventured into the manufacturing of pistons in 1958 with the collaboration of M/S Mahle, GmbH Germany, which delivered the pistons in 1960. Escorts entered in collaboration with M/S Suko GmbH, Germany for piston pins in 1967 and manufacturing started in 1968. To meet the increasing demand of market in 1977 a parallel unit for manufacturing piston rings was set up in Bangalore. Established in 1954 22000 employees 20 plants in all Headquarters in Delhi Pride of establishing the first dealer networking in the country. Collaboration with Goetze of Germany. Production of 1st class piston rings Collaboration with Mahle of Germany Tractor plant in Faridabad

Federal Mogul and its Products Federal Mogul Limited is one of the biggest private concerns in India, which manufacturers a variety of products like pistons, gudgeon pins, rings, sleeves and cylinder head. Its present Chairman is Mr. Anil Nanda. Products of Patiala Plant Pistons Piston rings Piston pins Cylinder Liners Cylinder Heads Brackets Shocker tubes

MAIN COMPETITIORS India piston Usha piston Menon piston Samkrig Pargeet Circle

MAJOR CUSTOMERS OF GOETZE PASSENGER CARS AND GEEPS: Hindustan Motors Mahindra and Mahindra Fiat India Limited Monto Motors

BI WHEELERS: Escorts Yamaha Motor Ltd Escorts Automobiles Ltd Bajaj Auto Ltd Kinetic Engg. Ltd TVS Suzuki Ltd Majestic Auto Ltd Scooters India Ltd Idea Java (I) Ltd Royal Enfield LML Ltd

TRACTORS: Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd ra Eicher Tractor Ltd Escorts Ltd Escorts Ltd (Farmtrac division) HMT Ltd Swaraj Engines Ltd International Tractors Ltd Standard Tractors Ltd New Holand Ltd VST Tillers Ltd,Harayana tractors

COMMERCIAL VEHICLES: Telco Swaraj Majda Ltd San Engg. and Locomotives Tata Cummins

COMPRESSION / AIR CONDITIONING: Elgi equipments Ltd Voltas Ltd Sunaram Clayton Ltd Frick India Ltd Telco Gabriel India Ltd

STATIONARY ENGINES Kirloskar Engines Ltd Ruston Oil engines Ltd Greaves Lombardine Ltd Indian Railways Southern Agro Engines Pvt. Ltd Patel Field Marshal Sandam Vikas ( India ) Ltd L & T Komatsu Ltd

Environment Policy Our primary responsibility is to maintain environmental friendliness in pursuance of this effort. We commit ourselves To strive continually to protect and promote environment. To provide top priority to conserve valuable resources and to introduce technologies, process/material that are environmental friendly. To adhere to the spirit of continual improvement by setting/reviewing objects and targets periodically. To prevent pollution, reduce waste and enhance companys image. To create and imbibe awareness towards cost effectiveness and environment friendly, safety conscious and socially accountable measures

To comply with all applicable legal and regulation requirements.

Introduction to Various Departments

Following department serves centralized for three plants i.e. Mahle Suko and Goetze. SECURITY WING: To keep safe the property of the company from thefts and fire and also check the entry of the unauthorized persons to avoid any miss-happening in factory premises. PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT: This department is to maintain personnel files of all workmen up to personnel engineer level, about their interest in work, behavior and obedience. This department also deals with labour court cases. The personnel department is divided into following sections: Time Office Training and Development Administrative

LOCAL PURCHASE CELL: This department is to purchase item from the local market against purchase requisition to meet day to day requirement of most urgently needed items of all the departments. In case of any emergency during machinery breakdown, this department is to act swiftly to minimize breakdown.

IN COMING INSEPCTION Anything purchased from market or directly received from supplier is subjected to 100% inspection as per the prescribed norms. Defective material is sent back to supplier.

MATERIAL STORE: This is the place where all the consumables items purchased or directly supplied by the suppliers are stored in a systematic way on the racks. All racks are properly categorized. This department receives purchase requisition from the department and pass on to the purchase cell for action. FINANCE DEPARTMENT: This department is to maintain all types of account books concerning with finance and to disburse salary to the workmen, junior staff and to release payments to the outside parties. There is another cell with in this department, which works out the costing data of the product that o he piston pins, rings and informs the marketing department for the finalization of the products price with the customers. HR DEPARTMENT: To record the entry and departure of the workers and other junior staff members by punching their attendance cards also maintain their leave records. ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: a) To create and distribute the products. b) To satisfy personal objectives of the members of the organization as Profit of owners. Salaries and other compensation for other objectives. Wages and other compensation for the employees. Physical income for all the including : Pride in work Security Recognition Acceptance c) To meet community and social obligations as: Protection and enhancement of human resources of society. Protection and enhancement of the physical resources of society.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES To create and distribute a product. To earn profit. Protection and security to its workers. Safety for its workers. To meet social obligations. Economy of operations by lowering cost.

Ensure a good quality system. Training and development of existing workforce. To satisfy customers. Better management. Better human relations. Economy of operation in meeting the primary objectives.

MAJOR LOSSES: Breakdown Losses. Setup & Stoppage Losses. Tool Change Losses. Start- up Losses. Minor Stoppage Losses. Speed Losses. Defect & Rework. Shutdown Losses. Management Losses-Waiting. Motion Losses. Line Organization Losses. Distribution Losses. Measurement & Adjustment Losses. Energy Losses. Die, Jig & Tool Losses. Yield Losses


Introduction to the Plant

There are various Departments in the company, which are as follows: Training Department (Time Office) Pin Plant Piston Machine Shop 1 Piston Machine Shop 2 Piston Foundry Shop Finished Article Store (Pistons) Tool Room Compressor House Generator Room Ring Foundry Shop

The major machines installed in this plant are discussed as follows according to the products manufactured: Piston Ring Foundry and Machine Shop: 1. Induction furnace 2. Sand Mixer 3. Heat treatment furnaces 4. Imported besley double disc face grinders 5. Imported grinders 6. Cam turning machines 7. Slotting machines 8. Rotary baths 9. Automatic phoshating plant 10. Vertical lapping machines Pistons Foundry and Machine Shop: 1. Induction furnace 2. Die casting machines 3. Heat treatment furnaces 4. Profile turning machines 5. Milling machines 6. Turning machines 7. Boring machines 8. Tin coating machines 9. Grooving machines 10. Center less grinders


Introduction to Piston Rings

As a part of the industrial visit we were taken to the Piston Ring Machine Shop. Goetze piston rings of OEMs and Aftermarket in India have state of the art design facilities for products, tooling wit CAD/PRO-E/GLIDE SOFT and test bed facilities. Federal-Mogul Goetze India is dedicated to developing new technologies and continuously improving its products. Production Capacity: 55 million rings per annum 30mm to 175 mm diameter Goetze manufactures a wide range of piston rings for: Bi-wheelers Tractors Passenger cars and SUVs Commercial vehicles (HCVs, MCVs and LCVs) Locomotive engines Stationery engines Industrial

Types of coating on Pistons: Chrome ceramic plated rings Molybdenum coated rings Plasma filled rings Semi-inlaid rings Ferrox filled rings

Features: Thin rings made from SG iron Asymmetric profile rings Specially honed chrome rings Lower sharp edge rings Reverse torsion rings Conformable chrome oil Keystone Napier Nitriding Drilled hole oil ring Interrupted cut


Sections of Ring Machine Shop:

Ring Machine Shop is divided into the following sections: Rough Section Finish Section Chrome Section (Plating) Chrome Finish Section Moly Section CNC section Coil Winding Quality Assurance/ Inspection Department


Besley/HMT Rough Grinding Machine Kaefig (CNC) Finish Grinding Machine DFS Finish Grinding Machine Splitting Machine DCT (Turning and Boring) Gap Cutting Machine Stamping Machine Finish Turning Machine Gap Sizing Machine Coil Winding Machine Grooving Machine D- Slotting Machine Notch Milling Machine Bevelling Machine Inside Grooving Machine Inside Chamfering Machine Lapping Machine Honing Machine ADA Grooving Machine Side Grinder Machine Outside Chamfering Machine Outside Edge Breaking Machine Profile Grinder Tri Bath Washing Cylindrical Grids


Piston Ring Information at Federal Mogul, Patiala

A piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a piston in a reciprocating engine such as an internal combustion engine orsteam engine. The main functions of piston rings in reciprocating engines are: 1. To prevent leakage of the compressed and expanding gases above the piston into the crankcase. 2. To control and provide the lubricating oil between piston skirt and cylinder walls. 3. To prevent entry of lubricating oil from crankcase to the combustion chamber above the piston head. 4. Regulating engine oil consumption. 5. To prevent deposit of carbon and other materials (matter) on the piston head caused by burning of lubricant. 6. To provide easy transmission of heat from piston to cylinder walls. The gap in the piston ring compresses to a few thousandths of an inch when inside the cylinder bore. Most automotive pistons have three rings: The top two while also controlling oil are primarily for compression sealing (compression rings); the lower ring is for controlling the supply of oil to the liner which lubricates the piston skirt and the compression rings (oil control rings). At least two piston rings are found on most piston and cylinder combination. Typical compression ring designs will have an essentially rectangular cross section or a keystone cross section. The periphery will then have either a barrel profile (top compression rings) or a taper napier form (second compression rings). There are some taper faced top rings and on some old engines simple plain faced rings were used. Oil control rings typically are of three types: 1. single piece cast iron 2. helical spring backed cast iron or steel 3. multipiece steel The spring backed oil rings and the cast iron oil rings have essentially the same range of peripheral forms which consist of two scraping lands of various detailed form. The multipiece oil control rings usually consist of two rails or segments (these are thin steel rings) with a spacer expander spring which keeps the two rails apart and provides the radial load. The piston might be a fairly loose fit in the cylinder. If it were a tight fit, it would expand as it got hot and might stick tight in the cylinder. If a piston sticks (seizes) it could cause serious damage to the engine. On the other hand, if there is too much clearance between the piston and cylinder walls, much of the pressure from the burning gasoline vapour will leak past the piston (a condition known as blow-by) and into the crankcase, and the push on the piston from combustion will be much less effective in delivering power.



Classification of Rings Processed: 1. Based on the type of ring 2. Based on the material of the ring. 3. Based on coating to be done Based on the type of Ring: 1. Compression rings 2. Oil Control Rings Based on the coating to be done: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Chrome Ring Molybdenum Ring Chrome ceramic plated rings (CKS) Molybdenum coated rings Plasma filled rings Semi-inlaid rings Ferrox filled rings Chrome plated rings

Ring Properties: Not lose its tangential tension at high temperatures. Good conductor of heat Having good wear resistant property Maintain radial pressure distribution Slide freely even under poor lubrication

An ideal Ring should possess the following properties: High strength ductile iron material for extended life Steel material for maximum durability under extreme load conditions Phosphate coated (plain) gray cast iron rings for economy re-ring jobs Chrome coated rings for maximum resistance to wear and scruffing Plasma-moly coated rings for improved lubrication and seating.

Operations for Piston Rings Of Standard Material: Rough Grinding Finish Grinding Double Cam Turning Gap Cutting Finish Turning Gap Sizing Notch Milling Final Inspection

Operations for KV1-K9 Material: Rough Grinding Finish Turning o/s Edge Breaking Gap Sizing Gap Corner Chamfering Mendrel Preparation Brushing Wet Sand Blasting Chrome Plating Belt Grinding

VISUAL INSPECTION First Lapping Gap Grinding Barrel Honing Finish Gap Grinding Boring Second Lapping Notch Grinding Final Inspection


Ring Material The choice of the material is dictated by the demand for its compatibility with the cylinder wall and operating characteristics i.e. low tendency to break, wear and corrosion. High tensile strength materials are required, if the engine operates under severe conditions. Material properties: The material must possess excellent heat and wears resisting quantities. Elastic (or resilient) and must be sufficient to impact radial expansion and compression which is necessary for assembly and removal of the ring. High ultimate strength. Modulus of Elasticity N/ mm2 85000-11500 95000-12500 100000 - 130000 150000 Spheroidal Graphite iron KV4 F14 STEEL Features Thin rings made from SG iron Asymmetric profile rings Specially honed chrome rings Lower sharp edge rings Reverse torsion rings Conformable chrome oil rings Keystone Napier Nitriding Drilled hole oil ring Interrupted cut I-Ring with Cr plated Periphery K22 K11 KS3 1300 650 1850 150000 130000 - 160000 210000 Carbidic cast iron Tempered Martensite

Min. Bending Material Material Strength N/ Designation Specification mm2 Std. GOE - 13 IKA KV1 K1 K25 K4 K9 350 420 500 1300

Material Type

Non heated grey cast iron Heat treated grey cast iron Heat treated grey cast iron


Compression Rings:
This is a compression type of ring with a rectangular cross section with its geometrically simple form provides an adequate seal under normal working conditions. Taper faced Rings: This ring has a tapered running surface which is intended to shorten its running period. Due to oil scrapping action, these rings are often used as an aid in the controlling of oil consumption of an engine. Keystone Ring: This is a compression ring with both the sides tapered and is used in those cases when ring sticking is expected. Due to its wedge shape, any radial movement of the ring will alter its axial clearance and thus minimize the build up combustion residues. Internally beveled or stepped ring: Compression ring can be provided with one of its sides beveled or stepped. This asymmetrical change in its cross section causes it to twist slightly inwards when installed and bring its bottom edge into contact with the cylinder wall. L-Shaped Ring: Rings with: Shaped cross section is commonly installed in 2-stroke engines in order to improve control of gas flow through the cylinder ports.

Oil Controlling Rings:

Napier Rings: This ring can be considered as a compression rings with an oil scrapping property. This recess in the ring causes it to twist in a manner similar to the compression ring above such that the lower edge of the running surface makes contact with the cylinder. Slotted Oil Control Rings: This is slotted oil ring with parallel sides and contact lands. Due to the narrow lands of this type ring, a high unit pressure is achieved. Beveled-Edged oil Control Ring: In order to achieve further increases in unit pressure and thereby a better oil scrapping effect the outside edge of both lands are chamfered.



Visiting Federal-Mogul, Piston Ring Machine Shop in Patiala was a fruitful experience. It was the first time I had seen the processes involved in the manufacture of piston rings. I saw numerous machines which I never thought existed and also learnt the functions of such machine. The people at Federal Mogul were very friendly and have helped make my training a success. I observed the different steps of surface treatment, shaping and finishing of piston rings along with the procedures involved in their coating and inspections. I am sure that the knowledge I gained during my visit to Federal Mogul will help me in the future as I aspire to be a Mechanical Engineer.