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CIM Complete Review

Machines
Transfer Systems
Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs)

Used for harder metals Clogs easily in deep cuts

Definitions
Cutter Speed Rate of a tool measured in surface feet per minute Spindle Speed Number of RPM made by the machines cutting tool Feed Distance advanced by the cutting tool for every spindle revolution

Uses of Robotics
Material Handling Painting Finishing Inspecting

Factors That Affect Feed Rates


Power of spindle motor Condition of cutting tool Depth of cut Quality of surface finish Roughing vs. Finishing Condition of the machine Strength of the fixture

CNC Mill Tools


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CNC Machining and Processing


Computer Numerical Control Performs same functions as conventional machines o Joining o Separating o Casting, molding, and forming o Finishing

Special Operation Feed Rates


Reaming to 2/3 used for drilling Counterboring/Countersinking 1/ of that used for drilling Tapping (threading) Determined by many factors

Examples of CNC Machines used in CIM applications


Mills Lathes Machining Centers Plasma Tables Water Jet Wire EDM Laser Cutters/Engravers Rapid Prototyping (3D printers)

G&M Codes
Modal G&M code that is not required to be repeated every block Code Table G90 G91 G00 G01 G02 G03 G04 G05 G20 G21 G80 G81 G82 M00 M01 M02

Speeds and Feeds


Flutes
2 Flutes: More room for chip evacuation Used for light metals Weak, short tool life 4 Flutes: More cutting edges Longer tool life

Absolute coordinates Relative coordinates Rapid traverse Straight line interpolation CW circular interpolation CCW circular interpolation Dwell (wait) Pause (wait for intervention) Units in inches Units in mm Canned cycle cancel Drilling cycle Drilling cycle with dwell Pause Optional stop End of program

M03 M05 M06 M08/M09 M10/M11 M30 M47 N<number>

Spindle on Spindle off Tool change Accessory #1 on/off Accessory #2 on/off Program end and reset Rewind (used for handshaking) Block sequence <number>

Finishing
May be completed before or after assembly Used to protect a product from conditions and enhance product appearance Types of finishing Deburring filing, scraping, and trimming metal parts Cleaning Coating mechanical, electrolytic, or conversion Assemblingputting parts together (temporary or permanent) Conditioninghanging physical or mechanical properties of material

Circles can be defined with two methods: 1. Center point coordinates with I and J commands 2. Circle radius with R command

Jigs and Fixtures


Used to hold and guide work pieces and accurately manufacture duplicate parts V-Blocks can be used to hold cylindrical stock for machining or drilling operations

Prototyping
Prototype Original, full scale, and usually working model of a new product or new version of existing product Evolved from hand-made to machine tools Stereolithography Selective Laser Sintering Fused Deposition Modeling Laminated Object Manufacturing 3D printing

Manufacturing Processes
Primary Manufacturing Process Raw materials to usable material Secondary Manufacturing Process Create products from primary product

Material Selection Criteria


Atomic / Molecular (Internal) Structure Properties (Physical, Mechanical, Acoustical, etc.) Conditions (Chemicals, Radiation, Thermal, Mechanical loads, etc.) Casting and Molding Separating o Subtractive process o Chip forming and non-chip forming processes Joining o Additive process o Welding, gluing, soldering, and prototyping Forming o Uses force to cause a material to permanently take shape

Design Considerations for Manufacturability


Mass properties Volume, surface area, density, mass Material choice Strength, durability, cost, availability, environmental impact, transport

Types of processes

Design Process
1. Define problem 2. Brainstorm 3. Research / generate ideas 4. Identify criteria/constraints 5. Explore possibilities 6. Select approach 7. Develop design proposal 8. Make model/prototype 9. Test and evaluate design 10. Refine design 11. Create solution 12. Communicate

Control Systems
Device or set of devices that are coordinated to execute a planned set of actions

Open Loop Control System


No direct connection between output and conditions that can be controlled Cannot compensate for unexpected forces Provides system with operation feedback Can compensate for conditional changes

Eli Whitney cotton gin, interchanagable parts, etc. Henry Ford First low-priced, mass-produced automobile Kiichiro Toyoda Lean manufacturing Jervis B. Webb. Co First electronic conveyor system

Closed Loop Control System

Manufacturing Concepts
Kaizan
Japanese word for improvement Continuous improvement from everybody Adapts efficiently to changing needs AGVs, ASRS Machine line can handle entire family of parts Automatic identification system Computer work directors Multi-functional tools Large investment FMS systems need enough work to keep the system busy FMS represent a tiny fraction compared to Specialized CIM and Workcell CIM Can produce mixed products Cross-trained workers Only the minimum number of parts needed for manufacturing are kept, reducing waste Automotive manufacturing Competes with mass production Lean manufacturing strategy Systematic elimination of waste Five areas: Cost, Quality, Delivery, Safety, Morale Measure of quality Fewer than 3.4 defects out of a million opportunities Identifies and corrects causes of defects\

VEX Structures
Variables
A space in robots memory where data can be stored Integer (int) Integers Floating Point Number (float) Numbers with decimal points Boolean (bool) True or false Character (char) Individual characters. Single quotes. String (string) Strings of characters. Double quotes

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)


Loops
While loops allow a section of code to be repeated as long as a Boolean condition remains true

Just In Time (JIT)


Boolean Logic
Program decisions are always based on questions. True/False are the only two possible answers. If statements run commands based on whether or not a Boolean condition remains true.

Toyota Production System (TPS)


Behavior Based Programming


Break down complex behaviors into simple behaviors. Then break simple behaviors into basic behaviors, which are single commands to the robot.

Lean Manufacturing

History of Manufacturing
Manufacturing accounts for 20% of US GDP and employs 17% of US workforce Artisans created handmade products before 19th century Important people/companies in the history of manufacturing

Six Sigma

Workcell
Group of machines in close proximity Robot or human operator moves pieces from machine to machine Machines easily retooled for new items Cost-effective Least flexible Fast model changeover needed for high production rates

Shows where focus should be. End result should contribute something of value to the customer.

People and Teamwork


Members contribute to customer value

Mass Production

Shared Knowledge
Information is the dominant material today Computer systems and intelligent machines support people and processes.

Key Processes

Process Design
May use a Process Design Chart for planning Includes transportation, storage, outsourcing, and quality testing

Product/process definition How Manufacturing Planning reality Customer support Meeting customer needs

Infrastructure
External environment Global competition Raw materials, energy, transportation,, etc.

Enterprise Wheel Perspectives


Customer Centered