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The exponential dis tribution is a commonly us ed dis tribution in reliability engineering. Mathematically, it is a fairly s imple
dis tribution, which many times leads to its us e in inappropriate s ituations . It is , in fact, a s pecial cas e of the Weibull
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The exponential dis tribution is us ed to model the behavior of units that have a cons tant failure rate (or units that do not
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Unfortunately, this fact als o leads to the us e of this model in s ituations where it is not appropriate. For example, it would not
be appropriate to us e the exponential dis tribution to model the reliability of an automobile. The cons tant failure rate of the
exponential dis tribution would require the as s umption that the automobile would be jus t as likely to experience a breakdown
during the rs t mile as it would during the one-hundred-thous andth mile. Clearly, this is not a valid as s umption. However,
s ome inexperienced practitioners of reliability engineering and life data analys is will overlook this fact, lured by the s iren-call
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gosnightmare: :tips_12
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I
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-

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6
9
12
18
24
36
48
54

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BPSK
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1
2
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5,5
6
9
11
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33
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54

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WWW

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Ethernet

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IP
Ethernet

IP-

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Token Ring FDDI
frame relay

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Ethernet,

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Ethernet
Ethernet.

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7

Ethernet
Ethernet

Ethernet

Ethernet

Ethernet

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Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet

Token Ring FDDI


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Ethernet

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FDDI Fiber Distributed Data InterfaceDDI
DDI

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ABR (Available Bit Rate)


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ABR

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SMTP

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DNS (Domain Name System) I

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IP-

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)


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DCP

DHCP-

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DCP
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-

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255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 -

129.44.0.0 (10000001 00101100 00000000 00000000)


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129.44.128.0 (10000001 00101100 10000000 00000000)
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IP129.44.128.0 -

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-

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IP

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TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)

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SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol).


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ISO

RC-

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PPP
SIP

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PPP

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PPP
SIP
-

PPP

RC-

RFC-1548.
ARP

ARP

ARP RC

. Address Resolution Protocol

ARPIP-

IPIP

ARP-

IP-

Ethernet-

223.1.2.1 08:00:39:00:2F:C3
223.1.2.3 08:00:5A:21:A7:22
223.1.2.4 08:00:10:99:AC:54
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IP-

223.1.2.1

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08:00:39:00:2F:C3
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222.1.2.2
-

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222.1.2.2

EthernetIP-

223.1.2.1

Ethernet-

08:00:39:00:2F:C3

IP-

ARP-

IP-

I
IP

IP-

IP

IP-

User Datagram Protocol - UDP


UDP TCP IP UDP

IP

ARP

IP-

IP-

IP

UDP-

UDP-

UDP

UDP
Length
C

DNS
Checksum

UDP

UDP

11

UDP

NS

UDP
UDP

BIND

ICMP-

12

IP

IP-

IP.

IP

IP

IPMAC-

IP-

DNS-

MAC-

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I
I

IP-

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0
1

N
N

N
N

D
1

1
1

0
1

16

24

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8

01.0.0

126.0.0.0

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191.255.0.0

192.0.1.0.

223.255.255.0

224.0.0.0

239.255.255.255

240.0.0.0

247.255.255.255

I -

IP

IP-

0 0 0 0 ................................... 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 .......0
IP1 1 1 1 .........................................1 1

1111................11

IP-

- multicast -

IP
IP-

IP-

IP-

IP-

ARP

RARP
IPX

IP
I

I
Protocol, ARP

IP-

ARP
-

Address Resolution

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X
ARP - RARP (Reverse Address
IP-

IPResolution Protocol)
ARP

IP-

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ARP-

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ARP

IP-

IP-

IP-

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ARP

0 8 16 31

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IP-

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IP-

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ARP

ARP-

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IP
IPRARP

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IPIP-

16.

IP-

ARP-

RARP-

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ARP-

IPIP-

IP-

DNS

DNS (Domain Name System) I

DNS

IPDNS

IP-

IP-

IP-

DNS

DCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)


DCP
DCP

IP-

IP-

DHCP-

RC

DCP-

DCPIP-

IP-

DCP-

IP-

DCP IP-

IP-

DCP-

IPDCP

IP-

IP-

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DCP
DCP

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DCP
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DCP-

DCP-

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DNS
DCP

DNS

DNS DCP

IP-

SNMP

IP-

IP-

DNS

DCP-

IP-

DCP

IPIP
-

NIC

255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 -

129.44.0.0 (10000001 00101100 00000000 00000000)


129.44.64.0 (10000001 00101100 01000000 00000000)
129.44.128.0 (10000001 00101100 10000000 00000000)
129.44.192.0 (10000001 00101100 11000000 00000000)
IP129.44.128.0 -

IP

IP-

C
-

TCP/IP

IP-

IP

IP
IP

internet

IP-

DHCP.
IP-

MACARP

ARPARP-

TCP/IP

internet

IPhosts

DNS
IP-

gosnightmare: _Pages:net9
. TCP UDP. TCP.
.
4- OSI ,
, . , , ,
. , , ,
. -.
: TCP, UDP, SCTP, SPX, ATP, DCCP, GRE, RUDP, RTP, RTCP, RSVP.
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.
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.
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gosnightmare: _Pages:net10
TCP/IP SMTP POP3, HTTP


.
, , HTTP WWW, FTP (
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HTTP TCP- 80 8080,
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SMTP
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DNS. MX , A.
SMTP- (, Exim) ,
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* +OK s can lis ting follows * -ERR no s uch mes s age

NOOP

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* +OK n octets * -ERR no s uch mes s age

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. TCP-.
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( IP).
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, , TCP.
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( IP, . . 1.2.3 . 2). UDP
,
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, -
(, NFS).
, , UDP-,
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UDP
, Des tination Port.
, ,
, . , UDP ,
. UDP
, ,
,
. ,
TCP.
UDP- IP- (65535 )
IP- (20) UDP- (8), .. 65507 .
8192 .
, UDP: NFS (Network File Sys tem - ),
TFTP (Trivial File Trans fer Protocol - ), SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol ), DNS (Domain Name Service - )
I
IP (Internet Protocol).
IP , , IP- . IP-
32- (, ).
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,

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IP , IP- .
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.
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maria.vvs u.ru). DNS (Domain
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. . TCP/IP-
IP-.
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:
IP- (MAC-, , Ethernet-
Ethernet). ARP (. 2.6);
IP- .
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, (
IP);
- ,
( , ,
..).
;
.
TCP/IP -
.
IP, . IP-
, , MAC-.
, IP ATM, IP IPX, IP X.25 ..

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_5
5. . .
(proes s ) - , ,
. ,
.
. ,
.
(thread),
.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
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:
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. . Win32
. ,
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( ) ,
.
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;
;
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;
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Windows NT/2000 4 ,
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, .

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gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_6
6. . .
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1. :

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2.


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gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_7
7. - 5, 6 7 .
, (
, , , ), .
,
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, :
. . 2.1.

. 2.1.
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.
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Windows NT 7 , Unix 9.
, .

Linux. The official s tates are lis ted below:

TASK_RUNNING

tas k (proces s ) currently running

TASK_INTERRUPTABLE

proces s is s leeping but can be woken up (interrupted)

TASK_UNINTERRUPTABLE

proces s is s leeping but can not be woken up (interrupted)

TASK_Z OMBIE

proces s terminated but its s tatus was not collected (it was not waited for)

TASK_STOPPED

proces s s topped by a debugger or job control

TASK_SWAPPING

(removed in 2.3.x kernel)

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_8
8. . .
"".

:
, .. ;
, ..
;
;

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) ( ).
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.

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.

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" ", , ,
- .

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_9
9. : "
", " ", " ".
Mre materials in 1.30, including detailed algos
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typedef int semaphore; /* */

semaphore mutex = 1;/* rc


( ) */
semaphore db = 1;/* */
int rc = 0;/* - */
void reader (void)
{
while (TRUE)/* */
{
down(mutex);/* rc*/
rc = rc + 1;
/* */
if (rc == 1) down(db);
/* , */
up(mutex); /* rc */
read_data_base();/* */
down(mutex);/* rc*/
rc = rc 1; /* */
if (rc == 0) up(db);/* , */
up(mutex);/* rc */
use_data_read();/* */
}
}

void writer (void)


{
while(TRUE) /* */
{
think_up_data(); /* */
down(db);/* */
write_data_base();/* */
up(db);/* */
}
}

F (

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, ,
.
,
.
. X, Y, Z : 1 ; 2
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# define N 5/* */

# define LEFT (i-1)%N/* i- */


# define RIGHT (i+1)%N/* i- */
# define THINKING 0/* */
# define HUNGRY 1/* */
# define EATING 2/* */

typedef int semaphore; /* */


int state[N]={0,0,0,0,0};/* */
semaphore mutex=1;/* */
semaphore s[N];/* */

void philosopher (int i)/* i : 0 N-1 */


{
while (TRUE) /* */
{
think();/* */
take_forks(i);/* */
eat();/* */
put_forks(i);/* */
}
}
void take_forks(int i) /* i : 0 N-1 */
{
down(mutex);/* */
state[i] = HUNGRY; /*, i- */
test(i); /* */
up(mutex);/* */
down(s[i]);/* , */
}

void put_forks(i)/* i : 0 N-1 */


{
down(mutex);/* */
state[i] = THINKING; /* */
test(LEFT); /* */
test(RIGHT); /* */
up(mutex); /* */
}

void test(i) /* i : 0 N-1 */


{
if (state[i] == HUNGRY && state[LEFT] != EATING && state[RIGHT] != EATING)
{
state[i] = EATING;
up (s[i]);
}
}

N
, ,
, . ,
. ,
. ,

, , .
, .

3
: 1 stomers ,
, ar ers
(
0,
1) m1 te2 w aiting
.
w aiting
, 1 stomers
, , ,
, ,
, , . ,
, , m1 te2
.
#define CHAIRS 5
typedef int semaphore; /* */

semaphore customers = 0; /* , */
semaphore barbers = 0;/* , */
semaphore mutex = 1;/* waiting */
int waiting = 0;
void barber()
{
while (true)
{
down(customers);/* customers == 0, .. , */
down(mutex); /* waiting */
waiting = wating 1; /* - */
up(barbers);/* */
up(mutex);/* waiting */
cut_hair(); /* */
}
void customer()
{
down(mutex);/* waiting */
if (waiting < CHAIRS) /* */
{
waiting = waiting + 1; /* - */
up(customers); /* , */
up(mutex); /* waiting */
down(barbers); /* , , */
get_haircut();/* */
}
else
{
up(mutex);/* */
}
}

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_10
10. PI. POSIX.
...
1. API ( , )
POSIX - Portable Operating Sys tem Interface. ( )
IEEE Std 1003.* ISO/IEC 9945. POSIX Richard Stallman.
POSIX.1 (APIs ),

. ,
.
, POSIX ( Unix).
POSIX OS Linux.

;
,
;
, ;
, ,
;
,
;
() .

:
(Base definitions) ,
, ,
.
(Shell and utilities) s h,
.
(System interfaces) .
(Rationale) , .

POSIX.1, ( ANSI C) (IEEE Std 1003.1-1988)



[6]



()

C ( )
/
POSIX.1b, (IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993)





/

POSIX.1c, (IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995)
,


POSIX-
,
POSIX. IEEE.

POSIX-
POSIX:
Android OS
Mac OS X
iOS
Minix
QNX
OpenSolaris
Solaris
OpenVMS

POSIX-
POSIX-, :
BeOS
FreeBSD
Linux
OpenBSD
Symbian OS
C POSIX library ( ),
POSIX. POSIX ( SUS) ,
.
ANSI .
POSIX , , , POSIX,
ANSI .
: , , ,
, (IPC), POSIX ,
(s tat .), , .
POSIX Threads POSIX () , API
.
, ( ), Pthreads (
pthread_). Unix- ,
Linux Solaris , Micros oft Windows (Pthreads -w32).
(. Portable Character Set) 103 , ,
POSIX, . US-ASCII
. .

----Jus t appeared in Hacker News :

Difference Between POSIX and Standard C Library


If everything you learn about Unix development us ing C/C++ is POSIX then what the hell does the s tandard C library do?
Firs t things firs t. POSIX s tands for "Portable Operating Sys tem Interface (for UniX)." Now that's a fancy name but the
requirement becomes very clear when you s ee the dis parity amongs t s o many flavors of Unix. There was a need to unify the
programming of thes e flavors of Unix (include Linux); POSIX provides this unified API. Though the s tandard is not tied to jus t
C, there is no known full implementation of POSIX in any other environment.

What does POSIX contain?


A lot of things ! For example, threads , s emaphores , file s ys tem acces s API, etc.

What's wrong with/ limiting in Standard C Library?


Standard C library (i.e., ANSI/ ISO C) as s umes a very minimalis t operating s ys tem. For example, no s tandard C library
functions exis t to manage threads . Heck, there is no IPC (inter proces s communication); in other words , ISO C does n't
as s ume that the program would be running on a multi-proces s ing operating s ys tem!

gain, what exactly does POSIX add to the standard C library?


To ans wer this , one mus t know which header files ISO/ ANSI C contains . There are 24 header files including the well
known <s tdio.h>, <s tdlib.h>, etc.

<as s ert.h>

<complex.h> <ctype.h>

<float.h>

<inttypes .h> <is o646.h> <limits .h>

<math.h>

<s etjmp.h>

<s ignal.h>

<s tdarg.h> <s tdbool.h>

<s tddef.h>

<s tdint.h>

<s tdio.h>

<s tdlib.h>

<whcar.h>

<wctype.h>

<tgmath.h> <time.h>

<errno.h>

<fenv.h>
<locale.h>

<s tring.h>

As you can s ee, there is nothing like <s ocket.h>, <thread.h>, <s haredmemory.h>, <graphics .h>, etc., s ince this kind of
functionality is heavily dependent on the kind of environment the application would run in while C was des igned to be a
"portable" language.
Not having this "advanced" functionality, C becomes s everely limited and each operating environment is bound to introduce its
own s tandard for defining multi-proces s ing, interproces s communication, advanced memory management, etc. That's where
POSIX (and other kinds of libraries s uch as graphics toolkit) kicks in.
If you have programmed for Unix/ Linux, you know that there are s everal library functions beyond s ys tem calls which are not
in the s tandard C lis t. This includes functions like fork(), which is neither a s ys tem call nor part of the s tandard C library
(remember C does n't as s ume a multi-proces s ing OS?). In fact, POSIX goes well beyond a programming API and defines the
"environment" in which the application would run. For example, POSIX defines that there s hall be a root directory "/" in the
operating environment---no s uch definition is part of C s tandard library.
The complete lis t of POSIX header files s hould be referred as well. Below is a lis ting of the header files additional to ISO C:
<aio.h>

<arpa/inet.h>

<as s ert.h>

<ctype.h>

<dirent.h>

<dlfcn.h>

<fcntl.h>

<fmtms g.h>

<fnmatch.h>

<ftw.h>

<glob.h>

<grp.h>

<iconv.h>

<langinfo.h>

<libgen.h>

<monetary.h>

<iconv.h>

<langinfo.h>

<libgen.h>

<monetary.h>

<mqueue.h>

<ndbm.h>

<net/if.h>

<netdb.h>

<netinet/in.h>

<netinet/tcp.h>

<nl_types .h>

<poll.h>

<pthread.h>

<pwd.h>

<regex.h>

<s ched.h>

<s earch.h>

<s emaphore.h> <s pawn.h>

<s trings .h>

<s tropts .h>

<s ys /ipc.h>

<s ys /mman.h>

<s ys /ms g.h>

<s ys /res ource.h> <s ys /s elect.h>

<s ys /s em.h>

<s ys /s hm.h>

<s ys /s ocket.h>

<s ys /s tat.h>

<s ys /s tatvfs .h> <s ys /time.h>

<s ys /times .h>

<s ys /types .h>

<s ys /uio.h>

<s ys /un.h>

<s ys /uts name.h> <s ys /wait.h>

<s ys log.h>

<tar.h>

<termios .h>

<trace.h>

<ulimit.h>

<unis td.h>

<utime.h>

<utmpx.h>

<wordexp.h>

Is POSIX a superset of standard C library?


Yes ! POSIX, for example, redefines all s tandard C header files (s ometimes augmenting them with advanced functionality), and
us es the following s tatement in its documentation:
The functionality des cribed on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C s tandard. Any conflict between the requirements
des cribed here and the ISO C s tandard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1-2008 defers to the ISO C s tandard.

What's the use of standard C library, then?


Nothing if you are programming for a POSIX s ys tem but not all s ys tems are POSIX compliant. To ens ure maximum portability--ranging from des ktop machines to handheld devices running a C runtime---res trict yours elf to the s tandard C library and you
can fly quite a dis tance with that.

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_11
11. . . .
. .
, .
:
( ) ;
( ) .
-
.
- , .
,
, .
-- , .
, ..
. ( )
- .
- - -.
. , ,
.
- ,
. ,
- .
,
( ). , :
:= + 1.
- ,
.
""
"", .
" ".


.
. :
;
;
.

flag[0] := false
flag[1] := false
turn := 0
// or 1
flag[0] := true
while flag[1] = true {
if turn 0 {
flag[0] := false
while turn 0 {
}
flag[0] := true

}
}
//
...
turn := 1
flag[0] := false
//
...

, .
, ,
, . ,
.
, , ,
.
( , G. L. Peters on)
int N = 2; //
int turn; //
boolean interes ted[] = new boolean[N]; // - fals e
void enter_region(int proces s ) {
int other = 1 proces s ;
interes ted[proces s ] = true;
turn = proces s
while (turn == proces s ) & & (interes ted[other] == true);
}
void leave_region(int proces s ) {
interes ted[proces s ] = fals e;
}

- ,
v . 60-
XX . :
() , {0,1};
: - ;
: . v
:
P(S): if ( S>0)
then S:=S-1
els e __(S)
V(S): if ( ___(3))
then _ (S)
els e S:=S+1.
, v (, ). ,
.
Proberen - Verhogen - .
, , :

. ,
- v;
. ,
,
v , ;
.
.
7.11.
1
typedef s truct {
lock_t lock; /* */
int
count; /* */
proc_t* head; /* */
proc_t* tail
} s ema_t;
void init_s ema(s ema_t* s eraa, int initial_count) {
init_lock(& s ema->lock);
s ema->head = NULL;
s ema->tail = NULL;
s ema-> count = initial_count;
}
void P(s ema_t* s ema) {
lock(& s ema->lock);
s ema->count-- ;
if ( s ema->count < 0) {
if ( s ema->head == NULL)
s ema->head = u.u_procp;
els e
s ema->tail~>p_next = u.u_procp;
u.u_procp->p_next = NULL;
s ema->tail = u.u_procp;
unlock(& s ema->lock);
s witch();
return;
}
unlock(& s ema->lock);
}
void V(s ema_t* s ema) {
proc_t* p;
lock(& s ema->lock);
s ema->count++;
if ( s ema->count <= 0) {
p = s ema->head;
s ema->head = p->p_next;
if ( s ema->head == NULL)
s ema->tail = NULL;
unlock(s s ema->lock);
enqueue(Srunqueue, p);
return;
}
unlock(& s ema->lock);
}

Semaphores are often used to restrict the number of threads than can access some (physical or logical) resource.
A s emaphore initialized to one, and which is us ed s uch that it only has at mos t one permit available, can s erve as a mutual
exclus ion lock. This is more commonly known as a binary semaphore, becaus e it only has two s tates : one permit available,
or zero permits available. When us ed in this way, the binary s emaphore has the property (unlike many Lock implementations ),

that the "lock" can be releas ed by a thread other than the owner (as s emaphores have no notion of owners hip). This can be
us eful in s ome s pecialized contexts , s uch as deadlock recovery.
The cons tructor for this clas s optionally accepts a fairness parameter. When s et fals e, this clas s makes no guarantees about
the order in which threads acquire permits . In particular, barging is permitted, that is , a thread invoking acquire() can be
allocated a permit ahead of a thread that has been waiting - logically the new thread places its elf at the head of the queue of
waiting threads . When fairnes s is s et true, the s emaphore guarantees that threads invoking any of the acquire methods are
s elected to obtain permits in the order in which their invocation of thos e methods was proces s ed (firs t-in-firs t-out; FIFO). Note
that FIFO ordering neces s arily applies to s pecific internal points of execution within thes e methods . So, it is pos s ible for one
thread to invoke acquire before another, but reach the ordering point after the other, and s imilarly upon return from the
method. Als o note that the untimed tryAcquire methods do not honor the fairnes s s etting, but will take any permits that are
available.
Generally, s emaphores us ed to control res ource acces s s hould be initialized as fair, to ens ure that no thread is s tarved out
from acces s ing a res ource. When us ing s emaphores for other kinds of s ynchronization control, the throughput advantages of
non-fair ordering often outweigh fairnes s cons iderations .

,
(down) V(up) ,
. 0 1.
( ) .
P(S) :
S >
S := S - 1
( S)
V S V(S) :
( S)
( )
S := S + 1
A mutex is a "Mutual Exclusion Semaphore".

Mutex mutual exclus ion. , , . mutex_lock mutex_unlock


.
Unfortunately everyone has missed the most important difference betw een the semaphore and the mutex; the concept of "ow nership". Semaphores
have no notion of ow nership, this means that any thread can release a semaphore (this can lead to many problems in itself but can help w ith "death
detection"). Whereas a mutex does have the concept of ow nership (i.e. you can only release a mutex you have acquired). Ow nership is incredibly
important for safe programming of concurrent systems. I w ould alw ays recommend using mutex in preference to a semaphore (but there are
performance implications). Mutexes also may support priority inheritance (w hich can help w ith the priority inversion problem) and recursion
(eliminating one type of deadlock). It should also be pointed out that there are "binary" semaphores and "counting/general" semaphores. Java's
semaphore is a counting semaphore and thus allow s it to be initialized w ith a value greater than one (w hereas, as pointed out, a mutex can only a
conceptual count of one). The usefulness of this has been pointed out in other posts. So to summarize, unless you have multiple resources to
manage, I w ould alw ays recommend the mutex over the semaphore.

( s ynchronized Java).
wait s ignal. .
- , , ,

.
.
. ,
, , , .
.
:
, , , .
"" (wait), ,
;
, "" (s ignal).
, .
" - ".
.
(condition variable). , , wait (_)
s ignal(_).
7.12 . ,
Pas cal, monitor.
1
monitor s ema;
var
s : integer = 1; /* , */
res _is _free: cond_t;
procedure P; /* */
begin
if s = 1
then s := 0
els e wait(res _is _free)
end;
procedure V; /* */
begin
s := 1;
s ignal(res _is _free)
end;
end monitor;

,
( )
,
, .
.
, .
.
( Mes a), ,
.
, . ,
,
, . ,
if test then wait(cv), test
, . : while test do wait(cv),
- .
notifyAll, broadcas t, ,
. , ,
. - , ,
.

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_12
12. . .
LIFO FIFO. (PIPE).
Thr ar 2 imags not coid (1.29 foldr)
, , ,
, .
.
.
. .
FIFO (Firs t inFirs t out). .
. 2.3, .
. , .
, .
. LIFO (Las t inFirs t out). , FIFO,
. . 2.3, .
.
""
, .

-. ,
( "" ), , ,
( "" ), "" ""
. FIFO
.
. 2.3
- FIFO; - LIFO; - .
. FIFO.
tk.
tk (, tk
), . ,
. .2.3, .
, .
. ""
"" . , . . ,
. , . .
, .
, ,
.
, .
- ,
"" . .
. ,
. . 2.4.
N . .
i , 1 (i1)- .
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,
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ms ggt,
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, , ,
.

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_13
13. . .
. .
.
- .
- .
- .
, :
1.
2.
3. /, , ..
4. /.
() - ,
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:





.
33 ( )
25
20

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EDF (Earliest Deadline First)


, .
EDF .
, - 15.
, .
15/30+15/40+5/50=0.975<1
97.5%

EDF (Earlies t Deadline Firs t)


d 0

gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_14
14. . . .
.
. .
.
( ) .
, -.
.
.
.

:
. , .
20-50.
. .
.
CTSS Compatible time-s hared s ys tem. ( )
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. .
.
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.

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+ :
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gosnightmare: operating_systems:os_15
15. . . .
FAT. NTFS.
HPFS. .
.
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:
(, ): FAT32, HPFS, EXT2 .
EXT3, Reis erFS, JFS, NTFS, XFS
.
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CD DVD: ISO9660, ISO9690, HFS, UDF .
: AEFS .
: NFS, SMBFS .


- . ,
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. , .

.
.
, ,
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.
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- ,
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.
NTFS HFS (hierarchical file s ys tem,
Macintos h). .
, , , . ,
NTFS HFS , .
, . ,
, ( ,
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(, OS VAX VMS), ,
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, .
( ), , .
, .
Micros oft ,
.


- . ,
, , . ,
- , .
, .
.
(+), progr.c( ,
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.
, , .
, Unix (cas e s ens itive), MS-DOS - .

FAT 8.3 (8 - , 3 ). , ,
. , POSIX, UNIX
255 , Windows NT
NTFS.

FAT
FAT File Allocation Table
FAT DOS Windows ,
Me .
FAT , , , floppy-,
.. PC.
1980 , QDOC ( ), MS-DOS. QDOS
CP/M, , . FAT
, s tand-alone MS Bas ic 1976 .
FAT:
FAT12
FAT16
VFAT
FAT32

FAT12
, floppy-.
:
1.
2.
3.
4.


: 8 + 3
12-
16- ,
32MB (
5- 160Kb).
5. ,

1983. MS-DOS 2.0 IBM PC XT 10MB,


FAT .
1984. IBM PC AT 20MB . MS-DOS 3.0 16-
, ,
32MB. 5- 1.2MB,
-
.

FAT16
1987 Compaq DOS 3.31, MS-DOS 4.0 1988 . 16-
8- , 32Kb
512 . 2 Gb.

VFAT
Windows 95 ,
Virtual FAT (VFAT) VxD-.

FAT32
Windows 95 OSR2.
1. 32- ( 28 )
2. 228 (. 2 )
3. (- s candis k (s ic!)) 224 , 124.55 GB


Micros oft DOS, FAT ,
NTFS, , FAT ,
(, , Fas h-).

FAT

FAT :
1. , ,

2. FAT ( )
3. ( ,
)
4. ,
(.. 1Kb 32Kb)


. FAT
. 2 32Kb.
( ). (chain) , s ingly linked
lis t. , .
(FAT)
( ):

(EOF)


,

(Directory Table) , .
32- , , , (archive, directory, hidden, read-only, s ys tem
volume), , . , ,
.
, :
A-Z
0-9
( )
!# $ % & ( ) - @ ^ _ ` { } ~ '
128-255
:
1 8
(DOS)
:
0x00
0x05
0x2E
0xE5

,
#229 (0xE5)
. , ..

2 3

3 1

3 1


:
( NT)
( )


EA-Index ( FAT12 FAT16) ( FAT32)

( FAT32 )
(4 )
(VFAT) , (
MS-DOS).

HPFS
HPFS High Perfomance File Sys tem, Micros oft IBM
IBM MVS, VM/CMS . Micros oft
Gordon Letwin.
HPFS OS/2 1.2. HPFS
OS/2. Windows NT HPFS 3.51 (
HPFS Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000).
Micros oft HPFS NTFS,
HPFS.
OS/2 HPFS HPFS386,
.

HPFS
HPFS (512 ,
4- ,
(232 1) * 512 = 2 ).
:
1. DOS- .
2. SuperBlock , ,
, , ,
. . SuperBlock CHKDSK.
SuperBlock CHKDSK FORMAT.
3. SpareBlock HOTFIX-areas , Fault-Tolerance ( HPFS386
Fault-Tolerance), ,
.
4. .
5. ()
. , .
6. .
HPFS ,
. 1 , .
, /

. , HPFS (bands ) 8
.
:
+--------- 16MB --------+ *** Us e/Free s ector bitmap.
||
+--|-----------+-----------|--+--------------+--------------+
|*** 0 | 1 ***|*** 2 | 3 ***|
+--------------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
0MB 8MB 16MB 24MB 32MB
16MB. (8MB)
HPFS, .. . HPFS
FSHelperAttach.
2K (8MB/512/8 = 2K).
. Directory Band.
, , HPFS .
HPFS FNode. FNode
HPFS (
). FNode 15 ,
, , ACL ( , ),
. .
( ) 260 ,
255 . : 0h-31h, 7Fh, "/", "|",
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( ).
. . HPFS ,
, , .
:
1. "FILE.ASM"
2. " .ASM.OBJ.EXE"
3. " . TXT"

, ( FNode)
HPFS . .
: ( ).
HPFS . .
16MB, 16MB.
, FNode.
,
, ,
(B+-Tree). , 1/3 ,
. FNode,
12 . 60 ,
40 . , ( !)
2GB, : 12*60*60*60*40=53MB
1.7MB . ( ) 5
.
1-3 .
HPFS 2GB,
(4 ) OS/2 API. HPFS. , HPFS
, 1, 2, 3, 4 .
/ HPFS ,
, . , HPFS
4 , . :

.
HPFS FAT . HPFS
(B*-Tree) .
, 4096 , FAT 64 ,
HPFS 2-4 .
2KB HPFS.
. 13 (8.3), 2-
41 . ( )
.
HPFS FAT-
.
.
. ,
SpareBlock.
ACL HPFS FNode. FNode HPFS
B+-Tree. HPFS386 B-Tree.

NTFS
NTFS (New Technology File Sys tem) -
NTFS ,
.
, NTFS Windows NT,
NTFS. , ,
() NTFSDOS NTFS , MS-DOS.
NTFS Windows NT .
NTFS Windows 98 Windows
Millennium Edition.
NTFS
( , FAT);
NTFS
, ;
,
;
/ ;
NTFS, FAT HPFS, ,
, Unicode 16- ,
65535 . NTFS 255 .
NTFS ,
, ( ).
NTFS
NTFS (volume). ( ) 16
( 2**64).
. , ( )
, NTFS ,
. NTFS 512 64 ;
2 4 .
NTFS .
12 % MFT- , ,
, MFT.
- . MFT- ,
MFT- .
88 % .

MFT (master file table)


MFT ( ) - , .
.
MFT . MFT ( 1 4 )
.
- .
16
, MFT.
16 MFT , .
16 .
MFT- , , .
- - .
NTFS-. $, -
. .
.
. NTFS

$MFT
$

Mas ter File Table

$MFTmirr

16 MFT,

$LogFile

$Volume

, . .

$AttrDef

$.

$Bitmap

$Boot

( )

$Quota

, (
Windows 2000 NTFS 5.0)

$Upcas e

. NTFS
Unicode ( 65 )

MFT :

,
;
;
. .
MFT, ,
.
, MFT,
MFT.
, , ,
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NTFS (File Reference),
64- .

, MFT,
. , MFT
, NTFS .


NTFS (s treams ), ,
.
- .
- .
, , MFT, ,
, .
, ,
.
Windows 2000 (
, , , ).
, :
, . , ,
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. ,
, .
,
Windows 2000.

NTFS .
. NTFS. * .

Read Only, Hidden, Archive, Sys tem, ,


, ,

, ,
MFT, . ,
MFT

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POSIX
8.3

(ACL), .
,

, . NTFS
,
. ,

,
,
(
)

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, HPFS
OS/2 OS/2- - Windows NT

MFT ,
: ,
. NTFS
, , .
.

NTFS , .
(2 !!!),
,

MFT, .
,
MFT.
, HPFS.
.

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, . ,
,
. , ;
.
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;
;
;
;
;
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,
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.

NTFS . NTFS
, ,
.

. , ,
. - ,
.

.
, .
NTFS
. NTFS (,
2 ) - 25% .
NTFS -.

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 1
1. SH (BASH):
;
.

1 SH?
2
2.1 ;
2.2 &
2.3 && ||
3 /
3.1 -
3.2 echo
3.3 cat
4 /,
4.1 >, < >>
4.2 |
5 (expansion)
5.1
5.2 (Tilde Expans ion)
5.3
5.4
5.5 (Arithmetic Expans ion)
5.6 (word s plitting)
5.7 (Pathname Expans ion)
5.8

1 SH?
- ( UNIX-) s h, shell.
, , Bourne shell s h,
(Steve Bourne). GNU ( . ,
. www.gnu.org) bas h, Bourne-again shell, . .
" ". - , ,
Bourne borne (, ), " s hell". bas h
(Brian Fox ) (Chet Ramey). bas h
, , , ,
bas h.
bas h .
: , /. ,
() .
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.

2
, ,
, . ,
: ; & .

T.1 w
,
, , .
- ;. ,
. , - :
[us er]$ command1 ; command2
command1, , ,
command2, , ,
.

T.T w
&
& , .
& , , ,
. , "command1 & command2 & ",
command1, command2,
.

T. w
&& ||
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command2 , , command1 ,
. , command1 || command2,
command2 , , command1 .
.
, , ,
, ,
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.
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.
, " ".
, , . ,
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.

3 /
3.1 -
, ( ):
(s tandard input stdin). ;
(s tandard output stdout).
;
(s tandard error stderr).
.
,
.
,
. ,
, , . , ,
(, ).
, , , ls
, , . ls
. , ,
, .

echo cat.

.T cho
echo ,
. .
[us er]$ echo , !
, , ( ,
).

3.3 cat
cat .
, .
cat . ,
, cat . ,
. .
, , , ,
. , .
, <Enter>,
cat, .
, : cat.
<Ctrl>+<D>, ,
. <Ctrl>+<C>,
.
cat , ,
, cat .
, , , ,
.

4 /,
, , / ,
/.

4.1 >, < >>


">", "<" ">>".
. :
[us er]$ ls -l > /home/jim/dir.txt
/home/jim/dir.txt ,
ls ; ,
; , ; ,
, > >>.
> >> .
, (, ).
, /home/jim/report.txt :
[us er]$ cat /home/jim/report.txt > wc -w
:
[us er]$ cat /home/jim/report.txt > lpr
, > .
<.
( cat):
[us er]$ wc -w < /home/jim/report.txt
, ,
( ) . , -
, , ,
.
, <, > >> ,
, , -. , :
[us er]$ cat > file

[us er]$ cat>file


[us er]$ >file cat
[us er]$ > file cat
( - , )
, , ,
[us er]$ file1 > file2
- . ,
. ,
. .
s tdin 0, s tdout 1, s tderr
2. (, >
):
command N > M
N M (0,1,2) .
<, > >> ,
1, . . . , >
1 >.

, .
& , , :
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, N ,
M. , , ,
2>& 1, 1>& 2 s tdout s tderr.
, ,
.

1.T w
|
(
). , ,
, ( , ) "|".
, |,
, |. :
[us er]$ cat myfile | grep Linux | wc -l
, cat, . . myfile, grep,
, "Linux". grep , ,
wc -l, .
, ,
,
, - .
, , ,
, -
, .
,
. , - ,
|, .
, ,
.
( , )
, .
"!",
. , .

4
(expansion)

- ,
" " . ""
(expans ion). bas h :
(brace expans ion);

(tilde expans ion);


;
;
( );
(word s plitting);
(pathname expans ion).
, . .

3.1 4
. ,
- , .
:
[us er]$ mkdir /us r/local/s rc/bas h/{old,new,dis t,bugs }
[root]# chown root /us r/{ucb/{ex,edit},lib/{ex?.?*,how_ex}}
/us r/local/s rc/bas h/ old, new, dis t bugs .

/us r/ucb/ex
/us r/lib/ex?.?*
/us r/ucb/edit
/us r/lib/ex?.?*
/us r/ucb/ex
/us r/lib/how_ex
/us r/ucb/edit
/us r/lib/how_ex
( ,
) () , ,
, . : a{d,c,b}e
"ade ace abe".
,
, , ,
( ).

5.2 (Tilde Expansion)


('~'), ( , )
(login name).
(. . ),
HOME. HOME ,
, .
( ) , ,
. ,
, ( ), .
+, (. .
PWD). -, OLDPWD.

5.3
$ ,
. , $, ;
, ,
. , ( , ),
${parameter}.
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
(. ). , "$@" ( . .
5.3). .

3.1

bas h.
. :
$(command) `command`
, ,
, $, `, \. $(command),
.
,
.

5.5 (Arithmetic Expansion)



. :
$[expres s ion]
$((expres s ion)),
expres s ion , , expres s ion
. expres s ion
.
expres s ion C,
ARITHMETIC EVALUATION man- bas h. ,
[us er]$ echo $(( 2 + 3 * 5 ))
"17".
, bas h .

5.6 (word splitting)


,
( , ) (word
s plitting).
, -,
IFS, .
IFS , .
, .

5.7 (Pathname Expansion)


(Pathname expans ion) ,
( ), .
, -f, bas h *, ?, and [.
,
, ,
. , , , nullglob
, . , , ,
.
.


*
, . , my*.txt
myday.txt, myweek.txt mymonth.txt ( ), *.jpg
jpg
?
. , file?.txt
file1.txt filex.txt, file10.txt
[...]
, . ,
, ; ,

, , .
! ^, , ( ) ,

, ls . ,
,
, , gif2 jpeg, avi . ..
jpeg,
[us er]$ ls *.jpg
, ,
0200 0499:
[us er]$ ls -l 0[2-4]??.*

3.8

, ,
\, ` ", .

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 2
2. SH (BASH): ((

( (F T
P
M).



1
SH2
2 (F T
P
2.1 grp
3 3

3.1 tr
3.2 s d
3.3 wk
E

4.1 s rt
4.2 ts rt
4.3 uniq
5 P
T
5.1 xpnd, unxpnd
5.2 cut
5.3 ps t
5.4 jin
5.5 lk
5.6 wc
5.7 fld
5.8 fmt
5.9 cl
5.10 clumn
5.11 clrm
5.12 nl
5.13 pr

SH2

- ( UNIX-) s h, shell.
, , Bourne shell s h,
(Stv Burn). GNU ( . ,
. w w .gnu.org)
w
bs h, Bourne-again shell, . .
" ". - , ,
Burn brn (, ), " s hll". bs h
(Brin Fx ) (Cht Rmy). bs h
, , , ,
bs h.
bs h .
: , /. ,
() .
, ,
. , . (
) . ( ,
, , )
, ,
. .
.

2 (F T
P
2.1 grep
, .
ed, g/re/p, -- global - regular expression - print.
grp , __.
, .
; , . grp
.
(, ,
- ).
grep pattern [file...]
(), pattern, pattern
, .
bash$ grep '[rst]ystem.$' osinfo.txt
() , grep stdout,
.
bash$ ps ax | grep clock
765 tty1
S
0:00 xclock
901 pts/1
S
0:00 grep clock
():
-i - .
-w -- .
-l -- , , /,
.
-r -- ( ) .
-n - ,
bash$ grep -n Linux osinfo.txt
2:This is a file containing information about Linux.
6:The GPL governs the distribution of the Linux operating system.
-v ( --invert-match) -- , .
grep pattern1 *.txt | grep -v pattern2
# "*.txt", "pattern1",
# ****** "pattern2".
-c (--count) -- .
grep -c txt *.sgml
# ( "txt" "*.sgml" )
#
grep -cz .
#
^
# (-c) ("." -- ) ,
# (-z)
#
printf 'a b\nc d\n\n\n\n\n\000\n\000e\000\000\nf' | grep -cz . # 4
printf 'a b\nc d\n\n\n\n\n\000\n\000e\000\000\nf' | grep -cz '$' # 5
printf 'a b\nc d\n\n\n\n\n\000\n\000e\000\000\nf' | grep -cz '^' # 5
#
printf 'a b\nc d\n\n\n\n\n\000\n\000e\000\000\nf' | grep -c '$' # 9
# -, , (\n).
# : -z GNU- "grep".

grep , ,
.
bash$ grep Linux osinfo.txt misc.txt
osinfo.txt:This is a file containing information about Linux.
osinfo.txt:The GPL governs the distribution of the Linux operating system.
misc.txt:The Linux operating system is steadily gaining in popularity.
, grep , - ,
/dev/null .
bash$ grep Linux osinfo.txt /dev/null
osinfo.txt:This is a file containing information about Linux.
osinfo.txt:The GPL governs the distribution of the Linux operating system.

, grep -- 0,
( -q,
).
SUCCESS=0
#
word=Linux
filename=data.file
grep -q "$word" "$filename"
# "-q" -- stdout.
if [ $? -eq $SUCCESS ]
then
echo " $word $filename"
else
echo " $word $filename "
fi

c.1 tr
.
/ .
.
.
tr "A-Z" "*" <filename tr A-Z \* <filename filename
( stdout).
, tr A-Z '[**]'.
-d .
echo "abcdef"
# abcdef
echo "abcdef" | tr -d b-d
# aef
tr -d 0-9 <filename
# "filename".
--squeeze-repeats (-s) .
.
bash$ echo "XXXXX" | tr --squeeze-repeats 'X'
X
-c "cmplmnt" . ,
.
bash$ echo "acfdeb123" | tr -c b-d +

+c+d+b++++
: tr POSIX. [1]
bash$ echo "abcd2ef1" | tr '[:alpha:]' ----2--1

3.2 sed
sed ( ) , ,
s d- sed, .
sed .
.
, , s d
, .
, s d
.
sed d, . ,
25 d ed 25 , sed
25, ( ) .
, sed.
sed , ,
. 25 76 (25 t7 ) 6
ed
(25 h; 7 ) 6
sed
g , ,
.
sed:
sed -e 's/oldstuff/newstuff/g' inputFileName &gt; outputFileName
s ; g , .
, .
, .
echo
echo
echo
echo

123123|
123123|
123123|
123123|

sed
sed
sed
sed

's/1/5/g'
's%1%5%g'
's$1$5$g'
's|1|5|g'

.
(s ///) sed.
> utputFilNm , sed .
Unix sed (| pip):
generate_data | sed -e 's/x/y/'
, x y.
( subst.sed) :
sed -f subst.sed inputFileName &gt; outputFileName
, . ,
, :
sed -e '/^\s*$/d' inputFileName
-:
^
$
.
*
[ ] , [ ]
sed ,
, , . , ,

(, , )
; , , ;
, ().
sed Unix,
. sed grp.
AWK, sed s hll ,
Unix, .
sed AWK. [ 27 ]
sed awk Prl, s ///
.
sed , GOTO ;
- .
GNU sed , (
sed). ed,
sed -i 's/abc/def/' file

ed file
1,$ s/abc/def/
w
q
sed, Sup er- sed
(ssed), ,
Prl.

3.3 aw d
wk , .
,
-f. , ('),
s hll'.
wk x=... y=... .. (. ).
, . -,
. wk , .
; wk . ,
RS. , ( - ).
, FS -F.
$1, $2,...; $0 - .
, ,
. - :
{ }
; .
.
, , . ,
. ,
. , ,
.
. , ,
, . :
if ( ) [ else ]
while ( )
for ( ; ; )
break
continue
{ [ ] ... }
=
print [ _ ] [> ]
printf [, _ ] [> ]
next

#

exit
#
, . _
. +, -, *, /, %
( ). C: ++, --, +=, =, *=, /=, %=. . ,
( x[i]) . ( )
, .
(").
print ( , >),
.
printf , [. printf(3S)].
lngth , ;
, . : xp,
lg, s qrt int (int ). s ubs tr(s , m, n) n-
s , m. s printf( , , ,...)
[. printf(3S)] .
- , !, ||, & &
. / [
. grp(1)]. .
. , ;
, , ,
.
- :

_
_

_ - C, _ ~ () !~ (
).
- , .
-
BEGIN END. BEGIN , END - . , c
-Fc,
BEGIN { FS = c }
:
NF
.
NR
.
FILENAME
, .
OFS
, .
ORS
, .
OFMT , %.6g.
0

1. f1, 72 :
awk
'length > 72' f1
2. f2 :

awk
'{ print $2, $1 }' f2
3. , f3, :
prg:
{ s += $1 }
END
{ print "sum is", s, " average is", s/NR }
:
awk -f prog f3
4. f4 :
awk
'{ for (i = NF; i > 0; --i) print $i }' f4
5. f5, s trt/s tp
awk
'/start/,/stop/' f5
6. f6, :
awk
'$1 != prev { print; prev = $1 }' f6
7. f7, "Pg" , :
prg:
/Page/ { $2 = n++ }
{ print }
:
awk
-f prog n=5 f7

4.1 sort

( ) . .
:
.
-
, - - ignorelead ing- b lank s

- d, - - d ic tionary - ord er
( ), ,

- f, - - ignore- c ase
() () , ..

- g, - - general- numeric - sort
( -b).
, (,
9.10197)
- i, - - ignore- nonp rinting
(ASCII) ,
- M , - - month- sort
- , .. () < `JAN' <
... < `DEC'
- n, - - numeric - sort
, .. ( -b)
- r, - - rev erse
( )
:
- c, - - c hec k
. , ,

- k, - - k ey
=1[,2]

, 1 2 ().
, 1
- m
, - - merge
,
- o
, - -utput=
o

- ,s - - sta
le
,
- S, - -ufferb
siz=
e

- ,t- - ,
ld ie
- sep arator
=

- T, - - temp orary - d irec =
tory
, $TMPDIR /tmp;

- u, - - uniq ue
: . - c
, ; c
- z, - - z ero- terminated
(nwlin), 0
- - help
,
- - v ersion

- k, - - k ey
=1[,2] :
F[.C][OPTS], F , C
. OPTS ,
. ,
. - ,
, . , :
s rt -k1.3
, .
s rt -k4.6,7n
6- 1- .
. -k , ,
, .
SIZ E , s rt
: % - 1% ; b - ; K - 1024 ( ); M, G, T, P, E,
Z , Y.
, (
).

4.2 tsort
(Tplgicl s rt) ,
.
: ,
. ,
, .
. , "f br zzz"
, "f" "br", "br" "zzz".
, "f rrr br",
"f" "br". ,
, .
ts rt .

$
a
d
e
b
$
a
b
c
d
e
f

cat a.txt
b c
f
c d e
tsort a.txt

4.3 uniq
.
s rt.
cat list-1 list-2 list-3 | sort | uniq > final.list
# ,
# ,
# ,
# .

P
T

5.1 x
e p andunexp

and
exp and . .
unexp and . ..
exp and
.

5.2 cut
. print $N wk,
. aw d .
, ut, -d ( ) -f (() ()).
c ut :
cat /etc/mtab | cut -d ' ' -f1,2
ut :
uname -a | cut -d" " -f1,3,11,12

5.3 p aste
.

5.4 j oin
, p aste
.
, .
j oin , (
), stdout.
.
File: 1.data
100 Shoes
200 Laces
300 Socks
File: 2.data
100 $40.00
200 $1.00
300 $2.00
bash$ join 1.data 2.data

File: 1.data 2.data


100 Shoes $40.00
200 Laces $1.00
300 Socks $2.00

5.5 look
look grep , "" -- . , /usr/dict/words, .

5 .7 w
wc -- "wrd cunt", :
bash $ wc /usr/doc/sed-3.02/README
20
127
838 /usr/doc/sed-3.02/README
[20
127
838 ]
wc -w .
wc -l .
wc -c .
wc -L .
.txt- w :
$ ls *.txt | wc -l
# , "*.txt" .
# :
#
find . -maxdepth 1 -name \*.txt -print0 | grep -cz .
#
(shopt -s nullglob; set -- *.txt; echo $#)

5.7 ,ld o
, , , . -s,
, . (. 12-19 A-2).

5 .8 , mt
, ,
"" .

5.9 l o
( ESC 7).
. c ol --
, grof f tb l.

5 .1 0 lumn
o
. , , ,
"", , .

5 .1 1 lrm
o
. () stdout. colrm 2 4
<filename -- 2- 4- , filename.
,
. , , c olrm, ,
xpnd unexp and.

5 .12 nl

. nl filename -- filename stdout,


, . ,
stdin.
nl cat -n, , - nl .

5 .1 3 p r
. ,
.
, , , , ,
. p r , nl, p aste, f old, c olumn exp and.
pr -o 5 --width=65 fileZZZ | more --
fileZZZ.
-d, ( , sed

- G).

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 3
3. GNU/Linux.
. .

1 GNU/Linux
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
3.1
3.2
3.3 (pipes )
3.4 (s ockets )
3.5 ( )
4

1 GNU/Linux
, .
. (
) . .
- , , , -,
. ,
.
.
Linux 255 , 0
/ (). , s hell
. :
! @ # $ & ~ % * ( ) [ ] { } ' " \ : ; > < ` .
( , ),
"\" ( , . .
).
[us er]$ mkdir \\my\& his
. ,
"My old files " :
[us er]$ mkdir "My old files "

[us er]$ mkdir My old files
"My".
, , . .
,
. , ,
, ,
.
, Linux , ,
This _is .a.forth-chapter_of_my_book.about.Linux. ( DOS),
, , ,
- (, .tar.gz ).
Linux .
, . .
, , ,
ls .
Linux . FILENAME.tar.gz filename.tar.gz

.
, .
(, ).
(. 16), - .
Linux " " , "inode", (
, -).
,
, .
(inode table), .
.
, (
). .
, 56734? "" ,
.
, , Linux
, .
. "" . ,
, ,
. ,
- , ,
"".
, ( ) ( ),
ln :
ln _ _ _
:
[us er]$ ln /home/howto/font-HOWTO-ru/Font-HOWTO.html ~/fonts .html
( ~ ,
). home hoP to ontb c E c b ru ontb
c .html
E c ~/fonts.html. ln
man.
(. . ) , ls l.
, :
[us er]# ls -l
total 9
drwxr-xr-x 2 us er us ers 1024 Jul 1 2000 Autos tart
-rw-r--r-- 1 us er us ers 230 Sep 14 1999 Printer.kdelnk
-rw-r--r-- 1 us er us ers 159 Sep 15 1999 Red Hat

inode wiki
inode ( ) ,
,
( ) UNIX, UFS.
, .
, .
, ( 'i-'
''), , .
, (
), (, , ) .
, ,
. , 1 %
.
, ,
, , .
.
;
,
.

ls -i, ls -l
, .
, UNIX, Reis erFS,
, ,
.
, s tat , .
:
, ;
Unix '' ,
;
,
, ;
, .
s truct inode ( ) ( Linux). BSD
vnode, v .

POSIX
POSIX UNIX UFS.
:
;
(ID) ( , );
ID , ;
ID ;
, , ;
Times tamp (ctime, change time),
(mtime, modification time), (atime, access time);
, ;
, (...).
s tat .

, ,
, :
( ),
. .
, .
. (
undelete Unix ),
( ), -
, ,
. ,
, . ,
,
.
, .
,
. , getcwd() getwd()
, . ;
, / . SVR4 Linux
() .
.
, N-1 N . ,
.
, , .


. , , ,
( )
, .
,
, UNIX, FAT
, '',
.


, () UNIX,
.
fs ck pfiles ,
.
find -inum ls
( -i).
''. ,
.

2
2.1
,
(. . ),
. ! , ,
, .
, . () ,
.
" ",
"", "". MS Windows DOS
(. ., "", "")
- (
). Linux ( UNIX ) ,
"/".
, ( ,
" " " ").
, . , , ,
( ) "" , ,
.
( ) ,
.
"/", . ,
/home/kos /ve/book/files ys tem1.htm ,
.
s hell
" " , . . , .

2.2
, pwd.

, , ,
( ); - s hell
, .
" " ,
: , . .
Linux /home ,
. , /home/jim.
~, . ., , jim

/home/jim/doc ~/doc. ,
.
d
.
, .
, .
, " ",
- ( ). , . . ,
, , :
, . ., .
, "" ,
. , ,
.
. ( )
" ". .
, ,
, .
. ,
[us er]$ cd ..
"" , kat1/kat2

[us er]$ cd ../../kat1/kat2


ls . ,
ls , ,
. , , ,
.
.
, : " ", -,
.
ls , .
, - , ls
.
( )
. , ,
ls . ls -l, ,
( ),
( ) (.9). , ,
. .
[us er]$ ls -l
1171
drwxrwxr-x 2 kos kos 1024 Jun 20 22:42 NotR
drwx------ 2 kos kos 1024 Jun 27 21:02 Star
-rw-rw-r-- 1 kos kos 17351 Nov 2 23:59 arch.htm
-rw-rw-r-- 1 kos kos 19847 Dec 11 20:23 contents .htm
-rw-rw-r-- 1 kos kos 48866 Nov 2 23:59 edit.htm
-rw-rw-r-- 1 kos kos 38867 Dec 12 20:58 files ys tem1.htm
-rw-rw-r-- 1 kos kos 29545 Dec 11 20:23 firs t_s tart.htm
drwxr-xr-x 3 kos kos 2048 Sep 24 21:33 img
-rw-rw-r-- 1 kos kos 21590 Dec 11 19:42 init.htm
drwxrwxr-x 2 kos kos 1024 Sep 27 22:35 pic
-rw-rw-r-- 1 kos kos 11084 Nov 8 21:26 preface.htm
-i, (
inode). -t ,
. -u ,
. -r
( -l -t). , :
[us er]$ ls -l -i r
:

[us er]$ ls -lir

2.3
, , Windows 95, , ,
, "" .
C:\Windows ,
C:\Program Files . .. Linux , , .
, UNIX- , Files ys tem Hierarchy
Standart (FHS), http://www.pathname.com/fhs/ (.10).
Red Hat FHS.
. 4.1 ,
Red Hat ( ).
, (
!) ,
. ,
FHS (http://www.pathname.com/fhs/).
4.1. Red Hat Linux

/bin

,
(
, ).
Linux

/boot

,
.

/dev

.
. man
mknod(1)

/etc

,
. /etc ,
, inittab, ,
pas s wd.
/us r/etc. /etc (
/bin /s bin). (
!) /etc
/etc/rc.d

,
.
. 8.2

/etc/s kel

account ,

/etc/s ys config

, ( )

/etc/X11

X11 (, XF86Config)

/home

/lib

,
C ( ).
C, ,
.
- ,

/los t+found

fs ck.
fs ck ,
, /los t+found.
, ,

/mnt

.
Linux MS DOS,
, MS DOS.
, , ,
CD-ROM, . .,

/proc

proc,
, ,
. . - ,
man 5 proc.

/root

. ,
, (
/home)

/s bin

/bin
,
. FHS ,
,
/us r. clock,
getty, init, update, mks wap, s wapon, s wapoff, halt, reboot, s hutdown, fdis k, fs ck.*, mkfs .*,
lilo, arp, ifconfig, route

/tmp

.
.
, , ,

. ,
,

/us r


. .
FHS
,
.
, ,
, ( include)
/us r/bin

,
.
/us r/bin/X11
X-Window Linux. /us r/X11R6/bin

/us r/dict

/us r/etc

. ,
/etc,
/us r/etc

/us r/include

C,
include.
, , .
,
(
)

/us r/lib

,
, ,
.
.
/us r/lib/X11 X-Window,
X-Window. Linux
/us r/X11R6/lib/X11.
/us r/lib/gcc-lib
include GNU C (gcc).
/us r/lib/groff groff.
/us r/lib/uucp UUCP.
us r/lib/zoneinfo .
named-xfer (8), tzfile (5), tzs elect (8), zdump (8), zic (8)

/us r/local

,
() .
/us r/local/bin ,
() .
/us r/local/doc
.
/us r/local/etc
.
/us r/local/lib
.
/us r/local/info ,
info, .
/us r/local/man ,
man, .
/us r/local/s bin .
/us r/local/s rc ,

/us r/man

man (
).
/us r/man/<locale>/man[1-9]
( locale). ,
, <locale>

/us r/s bin

/us r/s rc

Linux.
/us r/s rc/linux Linux

/us r/tmp

.
/var/tmp

/us r/X11R6

X-Window ( 11, 6).


/us r/X11R6/bin X-Window.
/us r/X11R6/lib , X-Window

/var

,
,
,
. ,
, , (),
(locking), . .
/var/adm

/var/backups


/var/catman/cat[1- ,
9]

/var/lock

/var/log

()

/var/run

.
(PIDs ) (utmp).

/var/s pool

, .
/var/s pool/at , at.
/var/s pool/cron cron.
/var/s pool/lpd , .
/var/s pool/mail .
/var/s pool/news news .
/var/s pool/uucp uucp

/var/tmp

3
3.1
: . Linux
. .
, .
.
,
, .
, .
, Linux :
;
(named pipes );
(s ockets );
(s ymlinks ).

3.2
, Linux, ( ,
, , . .), . , , -
, /dev/tty01.
: ( -) ( ). ,
. , .
, , . -
(, , ) . .
: .
Linux ,
, .
, .
" " /dev.
/dev, . ("
" cd ls .) . 4.2
.
4.2. .

/dev/cons ole , . . ,
/dev/hd

IDE- . /dev/hda1
(/dev/hda), . . , Primary Mas ter

/dev/s d

SCSI-

/dev/fd

. /dev/fd0, /dev/fd1

/dev/tty

. , UNIX
. Linux
( <Alt>+<F1> <Alt>+<F6>)

/dev/pty

-.
telnet

/dev/ttS

, . /dev/ttS0 COM1 MSDOS, /dev/ttS1 COM2. , /dev/mous e


/dev/ttSN

/dev/cua

/dev/null

. , /dev/null, .
. /dev/null
,

.
: . ,
, ,
.
ls -l .

3.3 (pipes)
, FIFO (Firs t In Firs t Out).
, (pipe
).
. ,
, . , ,
( ),
. ,
mkfifo. .

3.4 (sockets)
, ,
. ( )
Unix-, Linux: TCP/IP
.
: , . ,
:
.
, , ,
, /.
, X Window, s ys log.

3.5 ( )
, Linux "
".
.
. , ,
. ( ),
( -).

.
, .
, .
, , ,
, (. .,
, , ).
Linux , .
,
.
, , , ,
. , , .
, ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
, , . , , ln
-s :
ln -s _ __ _
:
[us er]$ ln -s /home/kos /ve/HOWTO/font-HOWTO-ru/ ~/FONTS
FONTS.
/home/kos ls -l, :
lrwxrwxrwx 1 kos kos 31 Dec 13 21:13 FONTS -> /home/kos /ve/HOWTO/font-HOWTO-ru/
: ,
. , ,
( ).
kat1 , - ,
kat1 , .
. ".." (. .
) , ,
, ".."
.

UNIX-, ,
, .
.
Linux ext2(/3/4) chattr,
chmod:
chattr [-RV] [+-=AacDdijsSu] [-v version] files...
-R ;
-V ;
+-=[AacDdijs Su] () (+), (-)
(=).
:
A (no atime updates ) ,
, ;
a (append only) (), / (
). , ,
;
c (compres s ed) ,
;
D (s ynchronous directory updates ) ;
d (no dump) dump;
i (immutable) , (

, ).
, ;
j (data journalling) ;
s (s ecure deletion) ( , , );
S (s ynchronous updates ) , (
, );
u (undeletable) , , ..
.
ls attr,
e2fs progs .
:
append-only immutable, -
, immutable append-only:
chattr +ai file.txt
immutable:
chattr -i file.txt
:
lsattr -a dir
:
lsattr -d dir

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 4
4.
Linux ,
, .
, UNIX 70- (, , -
), , , 30
.
.
, Linux , ().
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
,
. , ,
. , , .
, .
chown chgrp (
).
ls -l.
, , , ls . (, ,
ls -l , ).
[us er]$ ls -l /bin/ls
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 49940 Sep 12 1999 /bin/ls
, root root.
, .
-rwxr-xr-x. 4
.
, , .
, , :
- = ;
d = ;
b = ;
c = ;
s = (s ocket);
p = (pipe);
l = (link).
,
, , ,
. rwx, ,
(root) (r), (w),
(x). ,
. , ( , root)
, . . - .
, UNIX-
, , . . 16 ( , ,
r, w, x). 16- .
, . , , 9

. 9 3 .
, , 3
(. . , ).
, 1, , 0,
. (r, w x), 0
.
(r) ,
, , more . ,
, ,
(w) .
(x) ,
. , (
s hell), , , ,
, , .
, Linux ! , ,
"",
!
ls -l, , ,
, ,
rwx. , ls l /, , bin :
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 2048 Jun 21 21:11 bin
, " ", " " "
" . , ,
, . ,
, ( ).
, , . .
, - .
. .
, , - ,
, . . " ". ,
, .
,
. , ,
( ) . ,
!
,
. .
, , (
, - , , Midnight
Commander). - ,
( cd), , "", ,
.
.
, . (. .
), , : ,
( , ).
, . ,
, ,
,
( - "Permis s ion denied").

, , , ,
, (
). , ,
, .
,
. , , ,
, , .
chmod. .
, :
[us er]$ chmod wXp -
w

u (. . , );
g ();
o ( , , );
a ( , . . , , ).

X :
+ ( );
( );
= ( ),
p , :
r ();
w ();
x ().
chmod:
[us er]$ chmod a+x file_name
.
[us er]$ chmod go-rw file_name
, .
[us er]$ chmod ugo+rwx file_name
, .
, , ,
, . . [us er]$ chmod a+x file_name

[us er]$ chmod +x file_name
chmod ( ) .
r 4, w 2, x 1. ,
- , . , ,
, ,
chmod ( ,
). , (4+2+1=7),
(4+2=6), , :
[us er]$ chmod 760 file_name
, ,
, 9 ,
, .
chmod
. , ,

, .
, ,
chmod. ,
, , 5-7,
.
" ".
.
, ,
, , . "
", ,
( , "
"). , .
pas s wd.
/etc/pas s wd, root. ,
, pas s wd, . , ,
. /us r/bin/pas s wd "
", root. , pas s wd
root /etc/pas s wd ( ,
).
" "
[root]# chmod +s file_name
" ".
" " "s ticky bit" ( "
"). ,
. , ,
.
. .
chmod,
, :
[root]# chmod 4775 file_name
:
4 " ",
2 " ",
1 " (s ticky bit)".
- 1, ls -l
. 1 " ",
"x" , , "s ". ,
, "x" "s ",
(, ), "x" "S".
" ", "x" ,
. 1 " (s ticky bit)", "x" ,
, "x" "t",
, "T", .
, ls -l
, .
, :
[root]# ls -l prim1
-rwSrws rwT 1 kos root 12 Dec 18 23:17 prim1
ho( , n
chgrp
.
, . ,
, ,
. :
[root]# chown vas ja -

[root]# chgrp us ers grp -

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 5
5. GNU/Linux.
PolicyKit

1
1.1
1.2
1.3 ,
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
2 PolicyKit
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.3

1
1.1
UNIX , .

. , ( ).
; .
. UNIX, Solaris , ,
.
UNIX. , ,
. .
UT_NAMESIZ E /us r/include/utmp.h
, . , , ,
UNIX. NIS (Network Information Service) ,
,
8 . Linux 32 .
, Ivan.Ivanovich.Ivanov@mail.com,
vanya /etc/mail/alias es .
, .
(login) us ername.

1.2
login:.
pas s word: .

.3
,
. UNIX
, .
:
pas s wd _
, .
.
:
pas s wd
pas s wd , .
, , .

1.4
. , ,
1 6 . .
, ,
. 8 . ,
MD5, 256 . ,
UNIX, .
.
. .
(,
), . .
: ,
. , ,
, ?
UNIX ,
, .

1.5
, . ,
, .
UNIX ,
.

1.6
/etc/pas s wd, /etc/group.
, /etc/pas s wd.
(accounts ) . ,
, :
ivan:*:1001:100:Ivan Ivanovroom127:/home/ivan:/bin/bas h
1001 UID (Us er IDentifier), 100
(login group) GID (Group IDentifier).
/etc/pas s wd .
. /etc/pas s wd . ,
.
, . , 1001,

? , ivan, , .
/etc/pas s wd.
/etc/s hadow /etc/mas ter.pas s wd ( BSD).
.
( ), . .
(home directory), -, (login
s hell).

.7

/etc/pas s wd /etc/group
. ,
.
. ,
mail , bin .
. (,
mys qld, proftpd) , .
nobody, . ,
, . nobody .
,
.
,
(UID). UID !
UID, .
.

1.8
root UID, .
UID (s uperus er)
root. : ,
, , 0 root.
.
, , UNIX
, .
, , .
. .
root ,
UNIX. , , .
Root .

1.9
UNIX . s u (s witch us er):
s u ivan
s u s u root.
. root,
. UNIX
(, wheel FreeBSD).
root.
. root ,

. root ,
s u us er , .
s u , , .
sud o
,
. /etc/s udoers ,
, . s udo
, , ,
. Sudo ( ),
.
. ,
.

. 0

/etc/pas s wd. us eradd ( Linux). UNIX
addus er us eradd .
man addus er us eradd .
us erdel rmus er, us ermod,
chpas s .

2 PolicyKit
PolicyKit Unix-
. .
, s udo: ,
.
PolicyKit Ubuntu ( 8.04), Fedora ( 8), OpenSUSE ( 10.3) Slackware (
13.1).
PolicyKit (application framework),
(. .
, - . .). ,
, PolicyKit.
, , "yes "/"", "no"/""
"needs authentication"/ ". ,
, , s udo, PolicyKit ,
.

2.1
, PolicyKit ,
PolicyKit . PolicyKit ,
. "yes "/"", "no"/"" "needs authentication"/
". , (implicit privileges ),
. , (explicit
privileges ), .

2.1.1
, .
- , . , ,
. "no", , "yes "
. ,
"needs authentication".
root .
:
Authentication - .
One Shot Authentication -
. , .

Keep Session Authentication - "Remember authorization for


this s es s ion"/" ". ,
, .
Keep Indefinitely Authentication - "Remember
authorization"/" ". ,
.

2..2

, - ,
, , / .
,
. ,
, .

2.2
PolicyKit, ,
GNOME (polkit-gnome-authorization) KDE (polkit-kde-authorization), ,
PolicyKit, . ,
.

2.2.1
PolicyKit
. , ,
.
polkit-action.
polkit-action - .
. ,
. . man 1 polkit-action.
polkit-auth - , , .
, polkit-auth --explicit-detail
--us er < >. -- us er,
. . man 1 polkit-auth.
! polkit-action --show-overrides ,
. --reset-defaults <> ,
upstream. . 9.3.4 3.2

,
, , - .
, , .

2.2.2
OpenSUSE , /etc/polkit-defaultprivs .s tandard /etc/polkit-default-privs .res trictive. ,
. .
, . .
POLKIT_DEFAULT_PRIVS s tandart res trictive
/etc/s ys config/s ecurity s et_polkit_default_privs root.
, /etc/polkit-default-privs .local.
.
, :
< > < >: < >: < >
, polkit-action.
:
yes -
no -

auth_ se
lf -
auth_self_keep_session - ,

auth_self_keep_always - ,

auth_admin - root
auth_admin_keep_session - root,
auth_admin_keep_always - root,

s et_polkit_default_privs .
2.2.3
/etc/PolicyKit/PolicyKit.conf ( XML). ,
OpenSUSE .
.
:
match - action us er. .
match.
POSIX. us er :
user = < >
, | .
action :
action = <>
.
- polkit-action.
return = <> - , PolicyKit .
(yes , no, auth_s elf ..).
define_admin_auth - ,
, root.
us er=< > group=< >. .
| , .
, ,
/etc/PolicyKit/PolicyKit.conf :
"http://hal.freedes ktop.org/releas es /PolicyKit/1.0/config.dtd">
XML. .
() XML . ,
0.1.
, tux
PackageKit .
tux wilber PolicyKit.
(define_admin_auth) adminis trators
, root. match,
.

2.3
PolicyKit
( ups tream ). ,
, openSUSE. OpenSUSE
, ups tream.
PolicyKit ( )
ups tream, OpenSUSE s et_polkit_default_privs ,

/etc/polkit-default-privs .*. , polkit_default_privs


, ups tream.
ups tream, openSUSE,
:
rm -f /var/lib/PolicyKit-public/* & & s et_polkit_defaut_privs

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 6
6. GNU/Linux:
; ;
.
:
1. , .
, FAT 32,
.
2. , .
3. (

UNIX ).
, , ,
, , .
UNIX .
. UNIX
: , , (i node table) .
.
Sys tem V ()
UNIX. BSD , .
UNIX UNIX (Sys tem V)
(BSD).
(boot block) .
(dis k label) ,
. ,
. (s uperblock)
, UNIX,
.
,
. ,
, fs ck
clean flag is not s et in s uperblock.
. UFS
.
, , .
(i node table) .
, , , UID , GID ,
, ,
.
: .
. mkfs ( ,
newfs ) .
UNIX . : ,
/ (), . . .
.
( ) , .
, , .
, :, D:, E:, K:, R:, Y: , UNIX.
UNIX , .

, , ,
, ...
, ?

PF
UNIX
; ,
.
, FFS .
,
, .
:
1. (
, ,
).
2. .
.
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
( .
);
, ;
;
, .
, s 5, Xenix, FFS, UFS,
.
( 10 512 = 5120 ),
, (indirect blocks ),
, , .
s 5 64 . 3
. 224 . 16
777 216 ( 512 , 8 , 2 32
).
.
. 170 ( 512 ).
. 170
, , 1702
.
.
170 , 1703
. UNIX. ,
, .
70%, .
, .
512 , : , , 10 512 = 5 120

170 512 = 87 040 1702 512 = 14 796
800 1703 512 = 2 515 456 000
2 530 344 960 , 2,5 .

Unix, FreeBSD, 128


(, UFS), , 3
, 4. .
28 , 32
, 64 . 64
UNIX 32 , 2031
, 32 UNIX.
, UNIX
64 .


,
. , ,
, ,
, .
. 16.4.
16.4.

i_mode

USHORT

i_uid

USHORT

(Owner Uid)

i_s ize

ULONG

i_atime

ULONG

(Acces s time)

i_ctime

ULONG

i_mtime

ULONG

i_dtime

ULONG

i_gid

USHORT

(GID)

i_links _count

USHORT

(Links count)

i_blocks

ULONG

i_flags

ULONG

(File flags )

i_res erved1

ULONG

i_block

ULONG[15] , (
. 16.4)

i_vers ion

ULONG

( NFS)

i_file_acl

ULONG

ACL

i_dir_acl

ULONG

ACL

i_faddr

ULONG

(Fragment addres s )

i_frag

UCHAR

(Fragment number)

i_fs ize

UCHAR

(Fragment s ize)

i_pad1

USHORT

i_res erved2

ULONG[2]

, ,
.
16.5. ,
T
()
S_IFMT

F000

S_IFSOCK

A000

(s ocket)

S_IFLNK

C000

S_IFREG

8000

(regular)

S_IFBLK

6000

S_IFDIR

4000

S_IFCHR

2000

- ()

S_IFIFO

1000

(fifo)

S_ISUID

0800

SUID

S_ISGID

0400

SGID

S_ISVTX

0200

(s ticky bit)

S_IRWXU

01C0

S_IRUSR

0100

S_IWUSR

0080

S_IXUSR

0040

S_IRWXG

0038

S_IRGRP

0020

S_IWGRP

0010

S_IXGRP

0008

S_IRWXO

0007

S_IROTH

0004

S_IWOTH

0002

S_IXOTH

0001

,
(. 16.6).
16.6.

EXT2_BAD_INO

,
(Bad blocks inode)

EXT2_ROOT_INO

(Root inode)

EXT2_ACL_IDX_INO

ACL inode

EXT2_ACL_DATA_INO

ACL inode

EXT2_BOOT_LOADER_INO 5

(Boot loader inode)

EXT2_UNDEL_DIR_INO

(Undelete directory
inode)

EXT2_FIRST_INO

11

.
, , , ,
. (. 16.7):
16.7. ,

Inode

ULONG

()

Rec_len

USHORT

Name_len

USHORT

Name

CHAR[0]


. (. .
). ,
, , ,
.

ext3
. ext3.
512 .
. ,
. .
1, 2 4 .
: . , ,
. , 1.
. 1024
1024 . ,
.
, ,
, .
, (
). ,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
() .
, .
/us r/s rc/linux/include/linux/fs .h:

struct super_block {
struct_head s_list; //
unsigned long s_blocksize;
struct file_system_type *s_type;
struct super_operations *s_op;
struct semaphore s_lock;
int s_need_sync_fs;
...
}
(block bitmap) , ,
- . 1 , .
, .
: ,
.
(inode),
. .
, , .
.
, .
, .
, ,
.
? 4 , , ,
1, 2 4 . , 256 1024 .
? -
(double indirect block). , , ,
.
, - ,
, !
, , , .
*nix- , ,
. , , .
.
-, ,
, . ( )
. ls l. -,
. -,
.
( ,
).
.
2 ( 1 ).
. ...
, !
.
? , :
, .
. , ,
,
.

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 7
7. .
.
.
, (, ),
, .
. .1
mount. , ,
mount , . mount

, /etc/fs tab. Solaris HP UX
/etc/vfs tab. .
(read only) .
,

.
,
UNIX.
UNIX
. ( umount)
.
mount , ,
(
, ):
mount _ _
. mount
UNIX , , man mount. , ,
FAT, /mnt/ floppy Linux :
mount t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy
/dev/fd0 , /mnt/floppy .
mount /mnt/floppy ( ) .
, . , ,
, .
mount .
:
umount _
. ,
. , .
, ,
, . . s hell.
, .
: cd / ( ).

(

, USB- vfat
866 ( , ), :
mount -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,codepage=866 /dev/sda1 /mnt/usb
iochars et ( : UTF-8, KOI-8-R(U)
CP1251); locale. , iochars et
.
Flas h- sync flush.
, flas h- .
. (
Linux) .
, .



is o- , -o loop , ,
-t iso9660 () (file.iso , /mnt/iso
):
mount -o loop -t iso9660 file.iso /mnt/iso
, is o is o-
. (. ) kis o
.

N (
F
mount 172.22.2.1:/mnt/iso/ /mnt/iso/

(
SMB- :
mount -t smbfs -o username=user,password=pass //server/dir /mnt/localdir/
mount -t cifs -o username=user,password=pass //server/dir /mnt/localdir/

mount -t cifs -o username=user,password=pass //server/dir /mnt/localdir/


( s mbfs linux cifs .) :
"-t cifs " , "//s erver/dir"
mount //server/dir /mnt/localdir/ -o username=user,password=pass
,
mount "-o us ername=domain\\us er"
/etc/fs tab "domain/us er":
//server/dir /mnt/localdir/ cifs user=domain/user,password=pass

F T
P
curlftpfs -v -o iochars et=UTF-8 ftp://us er:pas s word@ftp.domain.ru/ /mnt/ftp

ssh
Fus e ( 2.6),
.
, fus e, :
1. us ermod -G -a fus e us er

1. addus er us er fus e
/etc/group. , fus e:
1. modprobe fus e
, s s hfs :
s s hfs us er@udalenniy_s erver:/tmp ~/udalennaya_papka
: fus ermount -u ~/udalennaya_papka


mount .

t

(. ).
. DVD
UDF.
mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/dvd -t udf
, mount
mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/cdrom,
missing codepage or other error
In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try
dmesg | tail or so
.
Unable to identify CD-ROM format.
( )
.
mount: block device /dev/cdrom is write-protected, mounting read-only

ob
-
(ro) (rw)
(noexec)
( , USB ):
mount -t vfat -o rw,noexec,iocharset=utf8,codepage=866 /dev/sda1 /mnt/usb

mount inc
mount --bind Linux ( 2.4)
. , :
mount --bind /mnt/cdrom/Files /var/ftp/cdrom
/mnt/cdrom/Files /var/ftp/cdrom, /var/ftp/cdrom
(, ) (
).

, ,
chroot , chroot. , FTP- proftp
, . mount --bind
DOS- s ubs t.

fstab
( ):
<file system> <dir> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
, <file s ys tem> ( ) mount,
, .
, <dir> (), <file s ys tem>.
<type> () .
:
man mount
: ext3, ext4, Reis erFS, XFS, JFS, s mbfs , ISO9660, VFAT, NTFS, s wap.
auto , ,
. , cd-.
<options > (). man mount.
auto

'mount -a'.

noauto

exec

. .

noexec

. w v !

ro

rw

sync

async

user

. noexec, nos uid, nodev, .

nouser

. .

defaults . , rw, s uid, dev, exec, auto, nous er, as ync.


suid

s uid s gid . ,
.

nosuid

s uid s gid .

nodev

, (/dev).
chroot dev defaults .

noatime

/ .

notail

Reis erFS! .

<dump> dump ,
. dump , , .
0 1. 0, dump , 1, dump
. 0.
<pas s > (). fsck , <pas s > ,
. 0, 1 2. <pas s >,
0, fsck. , 1,
2.
, UUID ,
LABEL=<label> UUID=<uuid>, , `LABEL=Boot' `UUID=3e6be9de-8139-11d1-9106-a43f08d823a6'.

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 8
8.
Linux: ; ;
; -
UNIX. ,
. UNIX 65 535
( 64 UNIX 2641 ). ,

.
. 100 ,
. ,
.
. , ,
, , .
: (running,
), (s us pended, , ,
), (s wapped, s wap
), / (I/O wait, / ,
).

,
:
.
.
, , - ,
.
: ,
.
:
, .
, .
,
" , " " "
"" " ".
, .
(PID), . PID
"" fork.
( , ).
,
" " " ".
, , , .
,
.
-: , ( )
, ( -) ..
, , .
, , .
, ,
.
, , .

.
,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
.
, ,
, , ,
,
, .
, .
, .
, ,
. , , ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
.
, .
,
.
,
.
:
, ,
; .
(PS), .
PS, , , ,
, .
PS ,
( /).
, ,
.
.
( ).
, ,
.
( ,
, ) (
),
,
.
,
,
. :
,
, .
, ,

, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, ,
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,
.
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, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
, : ,
. ,
, .
. .
: , ( ), ,
( ), ,
, ( ,
).
. ,
. ,
, ,
, .


, ,
. , ,
.
.
1.
.
2. "" .
3. , ,

4. .
.
,
. , ,
, .
. , , ,
. ,
.
. ,
, ,
; , .


. ,
, : , .

) )

ps .
, . , ,
. . ps :
ps auxw # BSD version

ps ef # System V version
ps , ,
.
BSD ps . :
ps auxw
ps UNIX, BSD
Sys tem V .
auxw ef ps , :
ps auxw
USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
98 6.
root 1 0.0 0.0 1064 76 ? S Jun11 0:21 init [3]
root 2 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? SW Jun11 0:00 [keventd]
root 303 0.0 0.0 1136 164 ? S Jun11 4:25 s ys logd m 0
root 324 0.0 0.0 1280 124 ? S Jun11 0:02 crond
root 337 0.0 0.0 1080 64 ? S Jun11 0:00 inetd
root 389 0.0 0.0 1032 4 tty1 S Jun11 0:00 /s bin
/mingetty tty1
root 390 0.0 0.0 1032 4 tty2 S Jun11 0:00 /s bin
/mingetty tty2
root 564 0.0 0.3 2128 740 ? S Jun11 1:41 dhcpd
root 24561 0.0 8.2 18132 15716 ? S Jul30 0:00 /us r/s bin
/ s quid s Y
filip 24765 0.8 0.6 2152 1284 pts /0 S 00:01 0:00 bas h
USER , PID ,
, VSZ (Virtual Size) , RSS (Res ident Set Size) ,
, TTY , , STAT
, START , TIME , COMMAND
.
; . RSS
VSZ , () . TTY ,
( inetd - initd (. vs hulyak)).
:
R (running)
S (s leeping)
D (uninterruptible s leep)
T (terminated) (traced)
Z (zombie)
(W) , .
N , NICE (NI).
ps top (. vs hulyak: htop
).

, 2 lli
. UNIX ,
TERM, KILL HUP. .
, , ,
.
, root, .
. 6.1 , POSIX 1.1.
6.1. POSIX 1.1

SIGHUP 1

SIGINT 2
SIGQUIT 3
SIGILL 4
SIGABRT 6 abort
abort
SIGFPE 8 exception:
SIGKILL 9
SIGSEGV 11
SIGPIPE 13
SIGALRM 14 timer alarm
SIGTERM 15
SIGUSR1 30,10,16
SIGUSR2 31,12,17
SIGCHLD 20,17,18

SIGCONT 19,18,25 ,
SIGSTOP 17,19,23
SIGTSTP 18,20,24
SIGTTIN 21,21,26
SIGTTOU 22,22,27

3 (
(daemon) Unix ( Linux) ,
- ( ).
, - :
, , ,
, ,
...
, , ,
.
, (
"" - ), - inetd (, ,
Internet daemon).
inetd (/etc/inetd.conf) ,
Internet. inetd pop3d, imap4d, ftpd, telnetd (
, ) .
, , ,
"" , .

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 9
9. Linux:
. .


Linux,
. , .
, ,
, .


1 " ".
1. Linux
,
.
/ (BIOS), flas h. (CPU) res et-
, flas h/ROM-.
. , BIOS
, .
.
, , , ,
.
512 ( ), .
, ,
Linux RAM ( ). ,
.
,
, .
(init)
.
Linux.
Linux.

, Linux.
boots trap-.
U-Boot, RedBoot MicroMonitor Lucent.
flas h-, :
Linux flas h- .
Linux
- .
.

MBR
MBR :
# dd if=/dev/hda of=mbr.bin bs=512 count=1

# od Oxa mw .w
r in
dd, root, 512 /dev/hda ( IDE- )
mbr.bin. od hex ASCII.
Linux BIOS 0xFFFF0. ,
BIOS, (POST, power-on s elf tes t).
. POST
.
BIOS, , BIOS : POST
. POST ,
BIOS .
BIOS
, ,
, CMOS-.
-, CD-ROM, ,
USB-.
Linux , MBR
. MBR 512 ,
( 1 0, 0). MBR , BIOS .
1-
, MBR, 512 ,
, (. 2). 446
, , .
64 ,
( 16 ). MBR , "
" (0xAA55). MBR.
2. MBR
- ( ).
, .
, , .
.
2-
.
Linux , , RAM-.

GRUB
/boot/grub s tage1,s tage1.5 s tage2,
(, CR-ROM is o9660_s tage_1_5).
x86, , Linux
Loader (LILO) GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB). LILO ,
GRUB, GRUB. (
GRUB, LILO .)
GRUB , Linux
. LILO, , GRUB
Linux ext2 ext3.
. 1 (MBR) 1.5-,
, Linux. reis erfs _s tage1_5(
Reis er) e2fs _s tage1_5 ( ext2
ext3). , 1.5 , 2-
.
2 GRUB (
/etc/grub.conf, /etc/grub/menu.ls t /etc/grub.conf).
.
, .
,
initrd. ,

2- .


GRUB
GRUB initrd :
grub> kernel /bzImage-2.6.14.2
[Linux-bzImage, setup=0x1400, size=0x29672e]
grub> initrd /initrd-2.6.14.2.img
[Linux-initrd @ 0x5f13000, 0xcc199 bytes]
grub> boot
Uncompressing Linux... Ok, booting the kernel.

, , (/)
Tab. GRUB initrd.
2- ,
. , . zImage (
512KB) bzImage ( , 512KB),
zlib. ,
, ,
. RAM-,
, , .
bzImage ( i386) ./arch/i386/boot/head.S
s tart( 3).
s tartup_32, ./arch/i386/boot/compres s ed/head.S.
( ..) Block Started by Symbol (BSS).
C- decompres s _kernel( ./arch/i386/boot/compres s ed/mis c.c).
. s tartup_32,
./arch/i386/kernel/head.S.
s tartup_32 ( s wapper proces s 0) (page
tables ) memory paging ( ).
(FPU), ,
. s tart_kernel(init/main.c),
Linux,
. , main Linux.
3. Linux i386
s tart_kernel ,
, RAM-.
kernel_thread (arch/i386/kernel/proces s .c), init,
, . idle tas k,
(s cheduler) ( cpu_idle). ,
(pre-emptive s cheduler) .
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Wiki en:
An initial ramdisk is a temporary file s ys tem us ed in the boot proces s of the Linux kernel. initrd and initramfs refer to
s lightly different s chemes for loading this file s ys tem into memory. Both are commonly us ed to make preparations before the
real root file s ys tem can be mounted.
Many Linux dis tributions s hip a s ingle, generic kernel image that is intended to boot as wide a variety of hardware as
pos s ible. The device drivers for this generic kernel image are included as loadable modules , as it is not pos s ible to s tatically
compile them all into the one kernel without making it too large to boot from computers with limited memory or from lowercapacity media like floppy dis ks .
This then rais es the problem of detecting and loading the modules neces s ary to mount the root file s ys tem at boot time (or,
for that matter, deducing where or what the root file s ys tem is ).
To further complicate matters , the root file s ys tem may be on a s oftware RAID volume, LVM, NFS (on dis kles s works tations ),
or on an encrypted partition. All of thes e require s pecial preparations to mount.
Another complication is kernel s upport for hibernation, which s us pends the computer to dis k by dumping an image of the
entire s ys tem to a s wap partition or a regular file, then powering off. On next boot, this image has to be made acces s ible
before it can be loaded back into memory.
To avoid having to hardcode handling for s o many s pecial cas es into the kernel, an initial boot s tage with a temporary root
file s ys temnow dubbed early us er s paceis us ed. This root file s ys tem would contain us er-s pace helpers that would do the
hardware detection, module loading and device dis covery neces s ary to get the real root file s ys tem mounted.

Implementation
An image of this initial root file s ys tem (along with the kernel image) mus t be s tored s omewhere acces s ible by the
Linux bootloader or the boot firmware of the computer. This can be:
The root file s ys tem its elf

A boot image on an optical dis c


A s mall ext3 or FAT-formatted partition on a local dis k (a boot partition)
A TFTP s erver (on s ys tems that can boot from Ethernet)
The bootloader will load the kernel and initial root file s ys tem image into memory and then s tart the kernel, pas s ing in the
memory addres s of the image. At the end of its boot s equence, the kernel tries to determine the format of the image from its
firs t few blocks of data:
In the initrd s cheme, the image may be a file s ys tem image (optionally compres s ed), which is made available in a
s pecial block device (/dev/ram) that is then mounted as the initial root file s ys tem. The driver for that file s ys tem mus t
be compiled s tatically into the kernel. Many dis tributions originally us ed compres s ed ext2 file s ys tem images . Others
(including Debian 3.1) us ed cramfs in order to boot on memory-limited s ys tems , s ince the cramfs image can be
mounted in-place without requiring extra s pace for decompres s ion.
Once the initial root file s ys tem is up, the kernel executes /linuxrc as its firs t proces s . When it exits , the kernel as s umes
that the real root file s ys tem has been mounted and executes "/s bin/init" to begin the normal us er-s pace boot proces s .
In the initramfs s cheme (available in Linux 2.6.13 onwards ), the image may be a cpio archive (optionally compres s ed).
The archive is unpacked by the kernel into a s pecial ins tance of a tmpfs that becomes the initial root file s ys tem. This
s cheme has the advantage of not requiring an intermediate file s ys tem or block drivers to be compiled into the kernel.
On an initramfs , the kernel executes /init as its firs t proces s . /init is not expected to exit.
Depending on which algorithms were compiled s tatically into it, the kernel can currently unpack initrd/initramfs images
compres s ed with gzip, bzip2 and LZ MA.

Mount preparations
Some Linux dis tributions will generate a cus tomized initrd image which contains only whatever is neces s ary to boot s ome
particular computer, s uch as ATA, SCSI and files ys tem kernel modules . Thes e typically embed the location and type of the
root file s ys tem.
Other dis tributions (s uch as Fedora and Ubuntu) generate a more generic initrd image. Thes e s tart only with the device name
of the root file s ys tem (or its UUID) and mus t dis cover everything els e at boot time. In this cas e, a complex cas cade of tas ks
mus t be performed to get the root file s ys tem mounted:
Any hardware drivers that the boot proces s depends on mus t be loaded. A common arrangement is to pack kernel
modules for common s torage devices onto the initrd and then invoke a hotplug agent to pull in modules matching the
computer's detected hardware.
On s ys tems which dis play a boot s plas h s creen, the video hardware mus t be initialized and a us er-s pace helper s tarted
to paint animations onto the dis play in locks tep with the boot proces s .
If the root file s ys tem is on NFS, it mus t then:
Bring up the primary network interface.
Invoke a DHCP client, with which it can obtain a DHCP leas e.
Extract the name of the NFS s hare and the addres s of the NFS s erver from the leas e.
Mount the NFS s hare.
If the root file s ys tem appears to be on a s oftware RAID device, there is no way of knowing which devices the RAID
volume s pans ; the s tandard MD utilities mus t be invoked to s can all available block devices and bring the required ones
online.
If the root file s ys tem appears to be on a logical volume, the LVM utilities mus t be invoked to s can for and activate
the volume group containing it.
If the root file s ys tem is on an encrypted block device:
Invoke a helper s cript to prompt the us er to type in a pas s phras e and/or ins ert a hardware token (s uch as
a s mart card or a USB s ecurity dongle).
Create a decryption target with the device mapper.
Some dis tributions us e an event-driven hotplug agent s uch as udev, which invokes helper programs as hardware devices ,
dis k partitions and s torage volumes matching certain rules come online. This allows dis covery to run in parallel, and to
progres s ively cas cade into arbitrary nes tings of LVM, RAID or encryption to get at the root file s ys tem.
When the root file s ys tem finally becomes vis ible:
Any maintenance tas ks which cannot run on a mounted root file s ys tem are done.
The root file s ys tem is mounted read-only.
Any proces s es which mus t continue running (s uch as the s plas h s creen helper and its command FIFO) are hois ted into
the newly-mounted root file s ys tem.

The final root file s ys tem cannot s imply be mounted over /, s ince that would make the s cripts and tools on the initial root file
s ys tem inacces s ible for any final cleanup tas ks :
On an initrd, the new root is mounted at a temporary mount point and rotated into place with pivot_root(8) (which was
introduced s pecifically for this purpos e). This leaves the initial root file s ys tem at a mount point (s uch as /initrd)
where normal boot s cripts can later unmount it to free up memory held by the initrd.
On an initramfs , the initial root file s ys tem cannot be rotated away. Ins tead, it is s imply emptied and the final root file
s ys tem mounted over the top.
Mos t initial root file s ys tems implement /linuxrc or /init as a s hell s cript and thus include a minimal s hell
(us ually /bin/as h) along with s ome es s ential us er-s pace utilities (us ually the Bus yBox toolkit). To further s ave s pace, the
s hell, utilities and their s upporting libraries are typically compiled with s pace optimizations enabled (s uch as with gcc's "-Os "
flag) and linked agains t klibc, a minimal vers ion of the C library written s pecifically for this purpos e.

O theruses
Ins tallers for Linux dis tributions are typically run entirely from an initramfs , as they mus t be able to hos t the ins taller
interface and s upporting tools before any pers is tent s torage has been s et up.

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 10
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K35winbind -> ../init.d/winbind
K38freshclam -> ../init.d/freshclam
K39clamd -> ../init.d/clamd
K50snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
K50snmptrapd -> ../init.d/snmptrapd
K66mDNSResponder -> ../init.d/mDNSResponder
K67nifd -> ../init.d/nifd
K68rpcidmapd -> ../init.d/rpcidmapd
K69rpcgssd -> ../init.d/rpcgssd
K74ntpd -> ../init.d/ntpd
K87named -> ../init.d/named
K89netplugd -> ../init.d/netplugd
K89rdisc -> ../init.d/rdisc
S05kudzu -> ../init.d/kudzu
S08iptables -> ../init.d/iptables
S10network -> ../init.d/network
S12syslog -> ../init.d/syslog
S13portmap -> ../init.d/portmap
S14nfslock -> ../init.d/nfslock
S25netfs -> ../init.d/netfs
S26lm_sensors -> ../init.d/lm_sensors
S50hplip -> ../init.d/hplip
S55cups -> ../init.d/cups
S56xinetd -> ../init.d/xinetd
S60nfs -> ../init.d/nfs
S85gpm -> ../init.d/gpm
S85httpd -> ../init.d/httpd
S90xfs -> ../init.d/xfs
S91smb -> ../init.d/smb
S97messagebus -> ../init.d/messagebus
S98haldaemon -> ../init.d/haldaemon
S99local -> ../rc.local
S99webmin -> /etc/init.d/webmin

init.d , , ,
(NFS, s endmail, cron, s ys log, httpd . .).
, , , /etc/init.d/network, ( , )
.
s top - /etc/init.d/network stop , .
/etc/init.d/network start .
init.d ( ),
s top, s tart res tart. ,
:
13 . 6

.
[root]# /etc/init.d/network
Usage: /etc/init.d/network {start|stop|restart|reload|status}
[root]# /etc/init.d/httpd
Usage: /etc/init.d/httpd {start|stop|restart|condrestart|reload|status|fullstatus|graceful|help|configtest}

, ase
. 15
P et P
.d
r init. emin
ASP Linux 11.
, .
.

1 . 4
- w
#!/bin/sh

e
min

# chkconfig: 235 99 10
# description: Start or stop the Webmin server
#
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: webmin
# Required-Start: $network $syslog
# Required-Stop: $network
# Default-Start: 2 3 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Description: Start or stop the Webmin server
### END INIT INFO
start=/etc/webmin/start
stop=/etc/webmin/stop
lockfile=/var/lock/subsys/webmin
confFile=/etc/webmin/miniserv.conf
pidFile=/var/webmin/miniserv.pid
name='Webmin'
case "$1" in
'start')
$start >/dev/null 2>&1 /dev/null 2>&1
fi
;;
'stop')
$stop
RETVAL=$?
if [ "$RETVAL" = "0" ]; then
rm -f $lockfile
fi
;;
'status')
pidfile=`grep "^pidfile=" $confFile | sed -e 's/pidfile=//g'`
if [ "$pidfile" = "" ]; then
pidfile=$pidFile
fi
if [ -s $pidfile ]; then
pid=`cat $pidfile`
kill -0 $pid >/dev/null 2>&1
if [ "$?" = "0" ]; then
echo "$name (pid $pid) is running"
RETVAL=0
else
echo "$name is stopped"
RETVAL=1
fi
else
echo "$name is stopped"
RETVAL=1
fi
;;
'restart')
$stop && $start
RETVAL=$?
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $0 { start | stop | restart }"
RETVAL=1
;;
esac
exit $RETVAL

, (
), ase
.

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gosnightmare: Linux:linux 12
12. GNU/Linux UpStart
Ups trt /s bin/init Unix Linux ,
, , .
Ubuntu,
Linux, Fedor Sys tem-V init.




,
init D-Bus

init
, Linux , .
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s hell- , /etc/initttb
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UpStart
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GCC >= 4.1
glibc >= 2.4
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, ,
.
:
./configure --prefix=/usr --exec-prefix=/
--sysconfdir=/etc --enable-compat=sysv
INSTALL,
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:
make install


Ups trt, ,
. , , Ups trt .
, , , , .
, ,
.
/etc/event.d. Ups trt

( /etc/inittb ). Ups trt on Other Dis tributions


/etc/rcX.d . .


, Linux , .
init, , , Ups trt
init /s bin . , ,
s ys vinit init Ups trt, -
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.
, Ups trt
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s cript bs h- . , ,
/bin/s h -e,
. s cript end s cript.
script
# do some stuff
if [ ... ]; then
...
fi
end script

pre-start script post-stop script


exec s cript pre-s trt pos t-s top.
-
, -
. , Ups trt ,
, .
!
:
pre-start script
# prepare environment
mkdir -p /var/run/foo
end script
post-stop script
# clean up
rm -rf /var/run/foo
end script

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,
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, Ups trt s trtup. ,
.
, runlevel X, X 1 6

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. s topped s trted.
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s top on. !
start
start
start
start
start

on
on
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startup
runlevel 2
runlevel 3
stopped rcS
started tty1

console
, .
cons ole : output ( /dev/cons ole), owner ( ,
Ctrl+C) none ( -,
/dev/null).
exec echo example console output


start stop
s trt s top, /s bin.
.
.
# start tty1
tty1 (start) running, process 7490 active
# stop tty1
tty1 (stop) running, process 7490 killed

status
s ttus , , , .
# status tty1
tty1 (stop) waiting
# start tty1
tty1 (start) running, process 4418
# status tty1
tty1 (start) running, process 4418
, ,
(/), , .

initctl list
initctl lis t.
# initctl list
control-alt-delete (stop)waiting
logd (start) running, process 2347
rc-default (stop) waiting
rc0 (stop) waiting
rc0-halt (stop) waiting
rc0-poweroff (stop) waiting
rc1 (stop) waiting
rc2 (stop) waiting
rc3 (stop) waiting
rc4 (stop) waiting
rc5 (stop) waiting
rc6 (stop) waiting
rcS (stop) waiting
rcS-sulogin (stop) waiting
sulogin (stop) waiting
tty1 (start) running, process 4418
tty2 (start) running, process 7367
tty3 (start) running, process 7368

tty4 (start) running, process 7369


tty5 (start) running, process 7370
tty6 (start) running, process 7371

initctl emit
.
. , :
on bounce exec echo --Bounced-- console output

# initctl emit bounce
# --Bounced--

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 13
13. X-window system:
X.Org; .
(,
(Gnome, KDE, Xfse))
X Window System ,
. UNIX- .
X Window Sys tem : ,
. X Window Sys tem
, . X
Window Sys tem
.
X Window Sys tem :
,
( ). X Window Sys tem
:
( ), , (
).
X Window Sys tem (MIT) 1984 .
( 2009 ) X11 1987 .
X X.Org Foundation. ( ) (reference implementation)
MIT .
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.

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twm , X), ,
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3)
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. OpenVMS Hewlett-Packard

. OpenVMS Hewlett-Packard
X CDE, DECwindows . Mac OS
X 10.3 (Panther) Apple X11.app, XFree86 4.3 X11R6.6,
Mac OS X.
Cygwin/X Micros oft Windows XP. X- (xeyes , xclock, xterm)
Windows ( /, ).
Micros oft Windows X, :
(Cygwin/X, Xming, X-Deep/32, WeirdMind, WeirdX), (Xmanager, WiredX, Exceed, X-Win32).
X-.
X Window Sys tem (, Micros oft
Windows Mac OS), (. rootless). ,
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X-, .
(, Exceed, Xming Cygwin/X)
.

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X- , X-
.
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X (. X display manager).
() X- :
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X.Org Server ( X.Org Foundation Open Source Public Implementation of X11) X Window
System .

X Window
Linux X Window Sys tem (, Window, Windows )
"X" ( ""), 1984 . 10 X Window
Sys tem - (Robert Sheifler), (Jim Gettys )
(Ron Newman). ,
DEC. 1988 . X,
UNIX. 1997 X X Open
Group. 6- () 11-
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(David Wexelblat). XFree86,
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FreeBSD). 4- XFree86, .
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T ec hnic
l elements
a
of a desktop environment
See als o: Elements of graphical us er interfaces
A des ktop environment (DE) can be broken up into s everal components that function independently and interact with one
another to provide the look and feel and functionality of the des ktop environment. A fundamental part of a DE is the window
manager or WM. A window manager creates a certain way for application windows to pres ent thems elves to the us er. It
manages the various application windows , keeping track of which ones are open and providing features to s witch between
them. Another important element of a DE is the file manager. This application manages files / folders and pres ents them in a
way that the us er finds convenient. It provides file operations like viewing, copying or moving, changing permis s ions and
deleting. DEs us ually provide utilities to s et wallpapers and s creens avers , dis play icons on the des ktop, and perform s ome
adminis trative tas ks . They may optionally include word proces s ors , CD/DVD writing applications , web brows ers and e-mail
clients .

Some exceptions mus t be noted here. Window managers like Fluxbox, wmii and Ratpois on operate independently of a des ktop
environment and were written with this objective in mind. Additional hand-picked applications add functionality s uch as a panel
and volume management which gives them s ome of the qualities of a full DE. This contras ts the behaviour of WMs
like Metacity and KWin which were not written with the objective of operating independently of a DE.
KDE Software Compilation and GNOME are written almos t completely on s pecial s oftware
libraries Qt and GTK+ res pectively. This us ually means that virtually every component of the des ktop environment including
the file manager explicitly depends on that library for its functioning.
Notably, nothing prevents the us er from ins talling any number of s oftware libraries of his /her choice. In practice, s oftware
written on major libraries can be run under any des ktop environment. Running a package des igned for one des ktop (which
es s entially means that it's written us ing the s ame libraries as the des ktop its elf is ) within a different des ktop can be vis ually
dis pleas ing, as well as incurring the RAM penalty of loading libraries that wouldn't otherwis e be required.
Some of the differences which can influence the choice of des ktop environment are:
Look and feel of the des ktop environment. The us er will be more comfortable with a certain Look and feel that he/s he
may or may not already be familiar with.
Flexibility and configurability of the des ktop environment. A s ophis ticated us er might want a highly configurable des ktop
environment to make the des ktop environment work the way he/s he wants . A beginning us er might jus t want an eas yto-us e environment to which he/s he will adjus t.
Pers onal preferences for choice of s oftware, which has two as pects :
Each des ktop environment comes packaged with various default s oftware and various "ways things are done"
under that des ktop. A cas ual us er might like a highly integrated graphical interface to change various s ettings
while a more experienced us er might prefer to us e individual configuration utilities or even CLI tools .
Des ktops are als o often clos ely tied into various major functional components of the des ktop manager
(example: file manager, brows er, word proces s or); whils t "mix and match" is pos s ible, it is generally pleas ing to
make choices which res ult in a cons is tent look and feel of programs under the chos en des ktop environment.
Making choices bas ed on what s oftware integrates with a chos en des ktop environment neces s arily limits the
weight that can be given to other application features .

C om
p arison fo ease of use and stability
GNOME's graphical file manager Nautilus is intended to be very eas y to us e and has many features , which make it eas y for
new Linux us ers to pick up without reading any documentation. KDE's Konqueror is als o intended to be very eas y for novices
to us e, both as a file manager and as a web brows er. However, in both cas es this eas e of us e comes at a price, s ince both
Nautilus and Konqueror are noticeably s lower than lighter weight file managers . Some us ers als o object to dual functionality
(both local file brows er and remote client) in brows ers s uch as Konqueror, fearing potential s ecurity vulnerabilities , and
preferring a more minimalis t approach. Both GNOME and KDE come with many graphical configuration tools , reducing the
need to manually edit configuration files for new us ers . They have extens ive bundled s oftware s uch as graphical menu
editors , text editors , audio players , and s oftware for doing adminis trative work. All applications ins talled in mos t dis tributions
are automatically added to the GNOME and KDE menus . No major configuration changes are neces s ary to begin working.
However, by us ing graphical tools , the extent to which the des ktops can be configured is determined by the power provided
by thos e tools .
Blackbox, Fluxbox, Openbox, Ratpois on, Ion and wmii require us ers to edit configuration files by hand to configure virtually
every as pect of the des ktop environment and are hence highly configurable. A new us er, however, may feel uncomfortable
without any graphical tools . Thes e window managers als o do not provide any additional s oftware like file managers , text
editors or web brows ers , leaving it up to their us ers to decide upon the s oftware they prefer.

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 14
14. X-window system: X
, Linux ,
, .
, ,
.
. , . ,
, . 8.2.5.
, , , , ,
Linux .
, XFree86 , , , .
, XFree86, ( , , . 10).
, ,
.

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.
, , , ,
! , , !

7.3.1
, :
- ( ; ,
);
, ( X-,
);
;
(
; ).
X Window .
, , X-
.
- SuperProbe ( ,
, s probe.txt):
[root]# SuperProbe > s probe.txt
( <F3> Midnight Commander),
. , , SuperProbe
Chips et: S3 Trio64 (Port Probed)
Memory: 1024 Kbytes
RAMDAC: Generic 8-bit ps eudo-color DAC
(with 6-bit wide lookup tables (or in 6-bit mode))

Chips et: Trident 3DImage985 (PCI Probed)
Memory: 4096 Kbytes
RAMDAC: Trident Built-In 15/16/24-bit DAC
(with 6-bit wide lookup tables (or in 6-bit mode))
, XFree86. ,
Linux , .
/etc/X11/ X :
@X -> /us r/X11R6/bin/XF86_SVGA ( 3 XFree86).
@X -> /us r/X11R6/bin/XFree86 ( 4 XFree86).
/etc/X11 , - X ,


[root]# ln -s /us r/X11R6/bin/XFree86 X
(, /us r/X11R6/bin/XFree86 ).

(.).2 /etc/X11/XF86Config
X- /etc/X11/XF86Config ( 3 XFree86) /etc/X11/XF86Config-4
( 4 XFree86), X-
.

, X- , :
/etc/X11/XF86Config-4
/etc/XF86Config
/etc/X11/XF86Config
/us r/X11R6/etc/XF86Config
<XRoot>/lib/X11/XF86Config,
<XRoot> , XFree86 ( /us r/X11R6).
XF86Config . X Window
( , , !),
. - XFree86 Linux,
, . 3- XFree86,
Xconfigurator. 4
xf86config xf86cfg, configure X-.
:
[root]# /us r/X11R6/bin/XFree86 -configure
, ,
/root/XF86Config.new. /root/XF86Config.new, (
4 XFree86, .).
Section "ServerLayout"
Identifier "XFree86 Configured"
Screen 0 "Screen0" 0 0
InputDevice "Mous e0" "CorePointer"
InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
EndSection
Section "Files "
RgbPath "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb"
ModulePath "/us r/X11R6/lib/modules "
FontPath "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts /mis c/"
FontPath "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts /Speedo/"
FontPath "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts /Type1/"
FontPath "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts /CID/"
FontPath "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts /75dpi/"
FontPath "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts /100dpi/"
EndSection
Section "Module"
Load "extmod"
Load "xie"
Load "pex5"
Load "glx"
Load "dri"
Load "GLcore"
Load "dbe"
Load "record"
EndSection
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Keyboard0"
Driver "keyboard"
EndSection

Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Mous e0"
Driver "mous e"
Option "Protocol" "PS/2"
Option "Device" "/dev/mous e"
EndSection
Section "Monitor"
Identifier "Monitor0"
VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
ModelName "Monitor Model"
EndSection
Section "Device"
Identifier "Card0"
Driver "trident"
VendorName "Trident"
BoardName "3DImage985"
Bus ID "PCI:1:0:0"
EndSection
Section "Screen"
Identifier "Screen0"
Device "Card0"
Monitor "Monitor0"
SubSection "Dis play"
Depth 8
EndSubSection
SubSection "Dis play"
Depth 15
EndSubSection
SubSection "Dis play"
Depth 16
EndSubSection
SubSection "Dis play"
Depth 24
EndSubSection
EndSection
Section "DRI"
EndSection
, XF86Config , :
Section "_"
Identifier "Name"
SectionEntry
...
EndSection
, "#", .
. :
ServerLayout ;
InputDevice ;
Screen ;
Device ;
Monitor ;
Modes ;
Files ;
ServerFlags ;
VideoAdaptor Xv ( man, ,
, !);
Module ;
DRI DRI;
Vendor (Vendor-s pecific configuration).

Vendor (Vendor-s pecific configuration).


, (
).
ServerLayout , . . XF86Config
X-. , / X-.
, InputDevice (
).
( ), Screen,
ServerLayout. , ServerLayout , , :
Section "ServerLayout"
Identifier "MainSection"
Screen 0 "Screen0" 0 0
InputDevice "Mous e0" "CorePointer"
InputDevice "Keyboard0" "CoreKeyboard"
EndSection
Screen .
:
Section " Screen"
Identifier "Screen0"
Device "Trident 3DImage985 (generic)"
Monitor "ViewSonic|ViewSonic G771"
DefaultColorDepth 24
Subs ection "Dis play"
Depth 8
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x400"
ViewPort 0 0
EndSubs ection
Subs ection "Dis play"
Depth 16
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
ViewPort 0 0
EndSubs ection
Subs ection "Dis play"
Depth 24
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
ViewPort 0 0
EndSubs ection
Subs ection "Dis play"
Depth 32
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
ViewPort 0 0
EndSubs ection
EndSection
, ( Device
"Matrox Millenium G200") ( Monitor "Monitor0").
C Screen (Subs ection) Dis play,
. , .
Modes . ,
Monitor ( , Modeline).
. ,
(),
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<+> <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<-> ( <+> <-> ).
, .
"Virtual xdim ydim", xdim ydim .
, 800 * 600, 1024 *
768. . ,
, , , ,
, ,
, 30-40% .

Monitor , ,
Monitor, :
Identifier "Unknown"
VendorName "Unknown"
ModelName "Unknown"
,
. - :
HorizSync 3070
VertRefres h 50180
- :
HorizSync 31.5, 35.2
VertRefres h 60, 65
- :
HorizSync 1525, 3050
VertRefres h 40-50, 80100
, (
) .
!
, , ,
.
Monitor , (
). 4- XFree86 , X VESA-. Monitor
, , , ,
. , Monitor,
.
Modes . .
, Monitor,
Us eModes .
: .
:
Modeline "640x480example" 25.175 640 664 760 800 480 491 493 525 -HSync +VSync
Mode "640x480example"
DotClock 25.175
Htimings 640 664 760 800
VTimings 480 491 493 525
Flags "-HSync +VSync"
EndMode
(Modeline Mode), EndMode, . X-
, . ( )
. (,
[9.1], " , ").
( ) ( )
.
( Htimings ), , , ,
. .
, , (
, ), .
.
(
).
,
.
, ( )
. , , ,
( , ).
4 (VTimings ) ,
( ) (

).
( Flags ) ,
, .
Modes Us eModes ,
, VESA. X-
,
( , HorizSync VertRefres h Monitor,
, ).
Device, . -,
. :
Driver "mga"
:
(Chips et);
( );
(dot-clocks )
;
RAMDAC (RAMDAC ,
).
, -, ,
. ,
. , -
( ,
), .
SuperProbe , ,
Device.
InputDevice ( 3- XFree86 InputDevice
:Keyboard Pointer). -, . ,
"Generic 102-key PC (intl)"
"Generic 101-key PC". 104- , ,
:
Option "XkbRules " "xfree86"
Option "XkbModel" "pc104"
Option "XkbLayout" "ru"
Option "XkbOptions " "grp:ctrl_s hift_toggle"
,
( <Ctrl>+<Shift>).
, (Xqueue Standart), (the
repeat rate), . , ,
. . 9.3.
InputDevice . 2 (
):
Option "Protocol" "PS/2"
Option "Device" "/dev/mous e"
. ("") ,
Protocol "PS/2", ,
"PS/2". , .
, -. ,
Logitech Mous eMan, Micros oft.
, "Auto" Protocol.
Files , ( ,
, )
. . ,
(
fonts .dir, mkfontdir, ).
"Can't open default font 'fixed'" - ,
, les
i ( ).
, .
, Module, ,

, Module, ,
ServerFlags ,VideoAdaptor, DRI, Vendor. ,
.

(.).)
etX11
X ond ig
, , XF86Config, X ,
, , (X ) , /etc/X11/XF86Config. ,
- ,
.
, etc/X11/XF86Config
Xconfigurator 3 XFree86 :
[root]# /us r/X11R6/bin/XFree86 -configure
4 XFree86. /root/XF86Config.new.

[root]# XFree86 -xf86config /root/XF86Config.new
X-, .
/etc/X11 XF86Config-4 .
, - /etc/X11/XF86Config-4.
X ( , ,
, X , , ).
X-, , , ,
. 7.4.
- , ,
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Backs pace> (
, , X-, , ,
). ,
;
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Backs pace> , ,
.
, ,
c .
, , , .

[root]# X -probeonly > probe.log 2>& 1


X- probe.log.
- , ,
probe.log.
, X Window (,
/var/log/XFree86.0.log , ,
probe.log). probe.log XFree86 Linux.
, ( /var/log/XFree86.0.log),
(, ,
? , .).
(==) Log file: "/var/log/XFree86.0.log", Time: Mon Feb 12 17:20:25 2001
(==) Us ing config file: "/etc/X11/XF86Config-4"
probe.log ,
:
(--) , ;
(**) , ( /etc/X11/XF86Config-4);
(++) , ;
(==) , ;
(II) ;
(WW) ;
(EE) .
, , /etc/X11/XF86Config4. probe.log,
(, ):
(**) |-->Screen "Screen0" (0)

(**) | |-->Monitor "Monitor0"


(**) | |-->Device "Card0"
(**) |-->Input Device "Mous e0"
(**) |-->Input Device "Keyboard0"
(**) FontPath s et to "unix/:-1"
(**) RgbPath s et to "/us r/X11R6/lib/X11/rgb"
(**) ModulePath s et to "/us r/X11R6/lib/modules "
(--) us ing VT number 7
, , :
(II) Loading /us r/X11R6/lib/modules /fonts /libbitmap.a
(II) Module bitmap: vendor="The XFree86 Project" compiled for 4.0.2, module vers ion = 1.0.0
, , (EE),
. , :
(WW) MGA(0): Monitor0: Us ing default hs ync range of 28-33kHz
(WW) MGA(0): Monitor0: us ing default vrefres h range of 43-72Hz
- :
(WW) MGA(0): Default mode "1856x1392" deleted (hs ync out of range)
, X- .
.
, . .

[root]# X -probeonly > probe.log 2>& 1
probe.log, , (
, 1600 * 1200).
probe.log ( , ,
):
(--) MGA(0): Virtual s ize is 640x480 (pitch 640)
(**) MGA(0): Default mode "640x480": 25.2 MHz, 31.5 kHz, 60.0 Hz
( - )
(**) MGA(0): Depth 24, (--) framebuffer bpp 24
, (, ) 24
"640 x 480" 60 .
, etc/X11/XF86Config-4.
. , . .
, , .
/etc/X11/XF86Config-4 Dis play Screen.

DefaultColorDepth
24
Screen. , , 1024 x 768,
Dis play Screen
Modes "1024x768"
( "640 x 350", "640 x 400", "640 x 480", "800 x 600", "1024
x 768", "1152 x 864", "1280 x 1024", "1600 x 1200" ..).
Dis play, DefaultDepth ( DefaultColorDepth).

[root]# X -probeonly > probe.log 2>& 1


, , , ,
X.
, .
,
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Backs pace>
[root]# X -probeonly > probe.log 2>& 1
, .
"1024 x
768".
. , ,
"1024 x 768", "800 x

600", , .
Modeline Monitor .
. , ,
xvidtune ( ). ( "Show") ,
, :
# 1024x768 @ 85 Hz, 68.31 kHz hs ync
Modeline "1024x768" 94.5 1024 1072 1168 1376 768 769 772 808 +hs ync
Modeline.
, ,
(DotClock) 94.5 . 94 .
84,55 , , , . ,
, xvidtune. ,
.
xvidtune .
. , .
s tartx xvidtune .
:
. 7.2. xvidtune
, , XFree86 Project Inc.
. , , ! ,
, (
, ). ,
, - . , !
( O K
) xvidtune (. 7.3).
. 7.3. xvidtune
. ,
R ight( ),
2 l.
, . ( Le ),t
(U p
) (D o
w n). (Wider)
(Taller) , , (Narrower Shorter).
, R
Restore. ,
,
. Fetch .
Auto , . . Auto ( , . .
) Up/Down/Right/Left Wider/Narrower/Shorter/Taller
( Apply) .
Test . Show ,
( ,
). "Modeline", . . ,
XF86Config. Next X- , Prev
( "Modes ").
, ,
.
. , "Modeline".
Show Quit.
, "Modeline" XF86Config.
, ,
Pixel Clock xvidtune.
xvidtune. , ,
. :

( HTimings ), xvidtune.
DotClock, "Modeline".
, .
"Modeline" .
( ), , ,
.
. , . , ,

Dis play . XF86Config


, 8 . Screen
, , ( )
. , ,
DefaultColorDepht Screen,
: DefaultColorDepht 24. , Screen , ,
XF86Config, .
X-
.

gosnightmare: Linux:linux 15
15.
GNU/Linux.
. :
Debian.
rpm
( ) Redhat Pakage Manager.
Linux , 6 "The
Offiial Red Hat Linux Referene Guide" : "The RPM Pakage Manager (RPM), is an open pakaging s ys tem available
for any-one to us e, and works on Red Hat Linux as well as other Linux and UNIX s ys tems ", . .
RPM, GNU GNU is Not Unix).
rpm s etup wizard MS Windows .
tar gz ,
: , ,
. , ,
, ,
(,
). rpm rpm,
, , , rpm-.
Rpm- , rpm.
rpm- .rpm, , xzip-180-1.i386.rpm xzip-180-1.s r.rpm.
, .rpm . .i386, .i686 .i586,
( ), .s r,
, . , - rpm-
RPMS, rpm- SRPMS. rpm-
.noarh.rpm, ,
(, man). ,
, rpm- Linux, (AMD, DEC
Alpha, SUN Spar, MIPS, PowerPC), : i386 ,
, athlon, alpha, s par, mips pp.
rpm- .
rpm- http://rufus.w3.org (
http://rpmfind.net). ,
:

;
;
;
;
() .

rpm- 66 .
ftp- : ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/Linux ftp://ftp.nc.orc.ru/.
, ,
Windows 95, , , . , Windows " "
, (, glib-1.0.6-3.i386.rpm) "", ,
glib-1_0_6-3_i386.rpm. ( Linux)
"" , UNIX. , ,
rpm- ,
.
, rpm- .
( ),
, , ( :
, )

[root]# rpm -i _rpm-


,
:
[root]# rpm -U --fore _rpm-
-U , (upgrade) , --fore
( ) . ,
, - (, )
. , ,
( )
.
, . . RedHat Linux 5.2,
Midnight Commander (m) 4.1.36. ftp- 4.5.30
( m-4.5.30-12.i386.rpm) , , . ,
4 , rpm :
: :
redhat-logos m-4.5.30-12
libglib-1.2.s o.0 m-4.5.30-12
lib.s o.6(GLIBC_2.1) m-4.5.30-12
lib.s o.6(GLIBC_2.0) m-4.5.30-12
, , Linux
. CDROM , .
(redhat-logos -1.0.5-1.noarh.rpm glib-2.1.1-6.i386.rpm) , rpm
GLIBC_2.0. libglib.s o.1 . -, .
, , libglib.s o.1 glib-1.0.6-3.i386.rpm.
rpm , .
( , , ):
[root]# rpm -qpl _rpm-
, , rpm-,
[root]# rpm -qpi _rpm-
, RPM , ,
. rpm .
, glib-1.0.6-3.i386.rpm
[root]# rpm -qpi glib-1.0.6-3.i386.rpm
:
Name : glib Reloations : (not reloateable)
Vers ion : 1.0.6 Vendor: Red Hat Software
Releas e : 3 Build Date: 10 1998 04:49:03
Ins tall date: (not ins talled)
Build Hos t : porky.redhat.om
Group : Libraries Soure RPM: glib-1.0.6-3.i386.rpm
Size : 55305
Pakager : Red Hat Software <bug@redhat.om>
Summary : Handy library of utility funtions
Des ription : Handy library of utility funtions . Development libs and headers are in gtk+-devel.
:
[root]# rpm -qpl glib-1.0.6-3.i386.rpm
, :
/us r/lib/libglib.s o.1
/us r/lib/libglib.s o.1.0.6
RPM .
[root]# rpm -q
( ,
more , les s
Midnight Commander).
. , , .

[root]# rpm -qf /et/bas hr


:
bas h-1.14.7-16.
, , :
[root]# rpm -Va
. , .
.
, rpm , .
. rpm 16 , 6 (
).
.
: rpm [--query] [queryoptions ]
(Querytags ): rpm [--querytags ]
.
: rpm [--ins tall] [ins talloptions ] [pakage_file]+
: rpm [--fres hen|-F] [ins talloptions ] [pakage_file]+
: rpm [--unins tall|-e] [unins talloptions ] [pakage]+
: rpm [--verify|-V] [verifyoptions ] [pakage]+
( PGP,
).
: rpm [--verify|-V] [verifyoptions ] [pakage]+
: rpm [--res ign] [pakage_file]+
: rpm [--adds ign] [pakage_file]+
.
: rpm -i [--initdb]
(Rebuild Databas e): rpm -i [--rebuilddb]
rpm-.
: rpm [-b|t] [pakage_s pe]+
: rpm [--rebuild] [s ourerpm]+
tar-: rpm [--tarbuild] [tarreds oure]+
.
rpm: rpm [--s howr]
: rpm [--s etperms ] [pakage]+
: rpm [--s etgids ] [pakage]+
rpm RPMHOWTO, man info. , rpm [1.3].

Linux, rpm .
, .
, , rpm. ,
.
rpm ,
. rpm-.
KDE kpakage.
, KDE. , ,
. , . " , , Web Linux" [1.6],
.


rpm- ( ),
tar-gz- Linux .

. ,
rpm-: gunzip tar,
. , . .
. ,
. , .

10.3.1.

, UNIX C
(). , C , UNIX
. Linux . ,
, Linux (
++). , ,
. g (
).

GCC GNU C Compiler, 1999 GNU


,
, runtime-
(http://gcc.gnu.org/gccmission.html). GCC GNU Compiler Colletion
( GNU) C, C++, Objetive C, Chill, Fortran, Ada
Java, (libs td++, libgj, ...).
GNU- g, 4 ,
.
,
, -.
. ,
. , . ,
, , .
, , ,
.
( o).
. , -
, :
.
.
lib, , ,
-.
.
, . ,
. ,
.
,
, .
.
.a, .s o,
. , .
lib. : libm.s o.5 , libX11.s o.6
X Window. lib.s o.5 ,
g. -l,
, ,
-lm.
, , /us r/lib /lib,
. /et/ld.s o.onf. ,
, ldonfig,
/et/ld.s o.onf, . RPM-,
, .
, , ,
, , .
make, ,

, . make ,
. makefile. makefile
: , , , . -
, .
.
. , , .

10.3.2. (
, ,
, . , , ,
, , g make.
:
1. ( d) , .
2. ./onfigure,
. ,
, .
3. make, , .
4. ( ) make hek,
, .
5. make ins tall , .
6. make lean,
. ,
onfigure ( ),
make dis tlean.
.
, ,
: - ,
. , ( ):
- , - , . ..
, ( ) , ,
.

Debian

debhelper, deb "" dh_


"" s r- . , , , ,
,

deb-?
Deb- , , ,
, .
ar :
control.tar.gz, , ,
/ , ;
data.tar.gz, , ;
debian-binary.
( debian-binary),
deb- tar, gzip, ar .
dpkg :
DEBIAN/
.. path/to/dir/file1
.. path/to/dirX/fileX

:
, .
. us r/s hare/do/pakage/opyright deb /us r/s hare/do/pakage/opyright (
data.tar.gz);
DEBIAN/, ( ).
control.tar.gz;

deb-
dpkg
// .
, , dpkg build.
/,
deb- :
dpkg -build Diretory pakage.deb
Diretory .
Debian, .
tgz s lakware,
.
, ,
DEBIAN/.

DEBIAN/
control
, :
( );
( );
, ;
();
;
( : , ,
);
;
s r- deb- ( );
;
.
,
Debian-poliy. man deb-control.
: s r- debian/ontrol,
contol, deb-.
, , ( hangelog),
ontrol control- , s r-
deb-.

DEBIAN/
md5sums
md5 DEBIAN/.
deb-, , .

.

/
( ), /
. /.
/ ,
/ ,
.
:
preinst - , .
, .
, .
, ;
postinst - , .
.
.
postinst .;
prerm - , . ,
. - .
, ;
postrm - , ;
config - , .
, Debconf. postinst,
debconf.
. :
( );
(upgrade);
(downgrade);
.
.
( Debian-poliy):

preinst
ins tall

. ,
, --purge,
.
.

upgrade

. ,
. upgrade downgrade .

upgrade downgrade

abort-upgrade

preinst upgrade
. ,
.
.

.
.

postinst
onfigure

.


reonfigure

Debconf .
.

abort-upgrade

preinstall upgrade .
,
.

rerm
remove

upgrade

.
.

failed-upgrade

, prerm upgrade
.

ostrm
remove

purge

. dpkg --purge

upgrade

.
.

failed-upgrade

.
postrm upgrade .
. .

abort-ins tall

preinst install .
preinst install

onfigure

dpkg-preconfigure.
/ .
.

reonfigure

. -
. dpkg-reconfigure package
. Debconf
postinst reconfigure

on ig

temlates

/ Debconf ( config),
.

con
lesi
, . .
( ).
. man debconf-devel

/ DEBIAN/
dpkg-gencontrol
control , ,
, . , ,
. changelog, s r deb- . -v .

dpkg-shlibdeps
. Build-
( ), Depend- ( )
( ) .
.

dpkg-parsechangelog
hangelog- , ,
.
dpkg-genontrol.

dpkg-architecture
( )
. .
ontrol dpkg-gencontrol.

Debian
,
dpkg.
dpkg -I pakage.deb - , control- ; dpkg -
pakage.deb - .
( , control ),
.
lintian. ,
, man-, ontrol , opyright . -
, lintian / .
lintian -is pakage.deb
.


( ,
) apt-ftparchive apt-utils reprepro.


, .
( flat , ) .

. ,
: oo
l d ists
.
oo
l/
. ,
, :
pool/main/q/qutim/
main , ( ),
s r- , s r-.
s r- . ,
lib, l liba, a
lib.
d ists
/
.
intrepid, intrepid-propos ed, jaunty .., eth, ethpropos ed-updates , lenny s table, tes ting .
. .
d ists
/unstale/[1]
:
C ontents- ch
ar , . arh
, ".gz" ".bz2" (
). apt-file
, . C ontents- am
d 6 .gz
4
e
lease ,
, d ists
/.
e
lease.g g gpg- Releas e, .
, APT
.
,
main, ontrib, non-free main, univers e, multivers e, res trited , .
d ists
/unstale/main/
( main, ) :
inary - ar

h
, , inary - amd6
4
amd64. all (, dev-)
.
sour e s r-
i18 n
. ,
,

d ists
/unstale/main/ inary - i
/ 8 6
a k ages
( a k ages
.gz a k ages
. z),2
. ontrol-
. e
lease, ,
dis ts /uns table/, ,
.
d ists
/unstale/main/source/
, binary-arh, , Pakages
Soures .

a t- t ar hiv e

, , . , 3-4
. apt-ftparhive apt-utils dpkg-s anpakages
dpkg-dev.
, , s r- qutim,
qutim qutim-dev. , :
qutim_0.1.99.138.orig.tar.gz
qutim_0.1.99.138-1.diff.gz
qutim_0.1.99.138-1.ds
qutim_0.1.99.138-1_amd64.deb
qutim_0.1.99.138-1_i386.deb
qutim-dev_0.1.99.138-1_all.deb

, , s r-, .
qutim_0.1.99.138-1_i386.hanges qutim_0.1.99.138-1_amd64.hanges ,
.
.
, :
$ mkdir -p rep/dis ts
$ mkdir -p rep/pool/main
$ p qutim_0.1.99.138.orig.tar.gz qutim_0.1.99.138-1.diff.gz qutim_0.1.99.138-1.ds qutim_0.1.99.138-1_amd64.deb
qutim_0.1.99.138-1_i386.deb qutim-dev_0.1.99.138-1_all.deb rep/pool/main/
$ d rep

, .
:
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

mkdir -p dis ts /uns table/main/binary-amd64


mkdir dis ts /uns table/main/binary-i386
mkdir dis ts /uns table/main/s oure
dpkg-s anpakages -a amd64 pool/main >dis ts /uns table/main/binary-amd64/Pakages 2>/dev/null
dpkg-s anpakages -a amd64 pool/main | gzip -9 >dis ts /uns table/main/binary-amd64/Pakages .gz 2>/dev/null
dpkg-s anpakages -a amd64 pool/main | bzip2 -9 >dis ts /uns table/main/binary-amd64/Pakages .bz2 2>/dev/null
dpkg-s anpakages -a i386 pool/main >dis ts /uns table/main/binary-i386/Pakages 2>/dev/null
dpkg-s anpakages -a i386 pool/main | gzip -9 > dis ts /uns table/main/binary-i386/Pakages .gz 2>/dev/null
dpkg-s anpakages -a i386 pool/main | bzip2 -9 > dis ts /uns table/main/binary-i386/Pakages .bz2 2>/dev/null
apt-ftparhive s oures pool > dis ts /uns table/main/s oure/Soures 2>/dev/null
apt-ftparhive s oures pool | gzip -9 > dis ts /uns table/main/s oure/Soures .gz 2>/dev/null
apt-ftparhive s oures pool | bzip2 -9 > dis ts /uns table/main/s oure/Soures .bz2 2>/dev/null

s r- ,
. ,
a k ages
, a k ages
.gz a k ages
. z (
2
Soure). ,
. -a ,
pool/main. , qutim-dev
, apt-ftparhive,
, ,
.
Releas e:
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

eho "Arhive: uns table" > dis ts /uns table/Releas e


eho "Suite: uns table" >> dis ts /uns table/Releas e
eho "Components : main" >> dis ts /uns table/Releas e
eho "Origin: qutim.org" >> dis ts /uns table/Releas e
eho "Label: qutim.org Debian repos itory" >> dis ts /uns table/Releas e
eho "Arhitetures : amd64 i386" >> dis ts /uns table/Releas e
eho "Des ription: Debian qutIM uns table" >> dis ts /uns table/Releas e
apt-ftparhive releas e dis ts /uns table >> dis ts /uns table/Releas e

, apt-ftparhive .
:
$ gpg -abs -o dis ts /uns table/Releas e.gpg dis ts /uns table/Releas e

, . /et/apt/s oures .lis t :


deb file:///path/to/rep uns table main
deb-s r file:///path/to/rep uns table main

.
,
. , , .
, .

re re ro
, ,
. reprepro:
$ d .. & & rm -rf rep/*
$ s udo apt-get ins tall reprepro
$ mkdir rep/onf
rep/onf dis tributions , :
Codename: lenny
Suite: uns table
Vers ion: uns table
Origin: qutim.org
Label: qutim.org Debian Repos itory
Des ription: qutim.org Debian repos itory
Arhitetures : s oure i386 amd64
Components : main
SignWith: default
DebIndies : Pakages Releas e . .gz .bz2
Ds Indies : Soures Releas e . .gz .bz2
Contents : . .gz .bz2
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