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Q: [COMPREHENSION] Refer to FIGURE 1 below and identify components A to D. Do NOT redraw the sketch. Write only the letter (A E) and the answer next to it in the ANSWER BOOK.

FIGURE 1 A: A. Neutral bar B. Circuit breaker C. Bridge D. Earth bar E. Double pole isolator

Q: [APPLICATION] Draw a fully labeled lighting sub circuit which consists of TWO lamps and TWO switches. You must be able to switch both lamps on or off from both switches. Your circuit must include the connection from the distribution board.

Q: [APPLICATION] A resistor of 25 ohm, an inductor of 100 mH and a capacitor of 120 F are connected in parallel. This circuit is connected to a 220 V, 60 Hz supply. Calculate the following: 1. The inductive reactance 2. The capacitive reactance 3. The current flow through each branch 4. The total current Q: [APPLICATION] Use a sketch to illustrate how you would connect TWO single light circuits and TWO lights with ONE light circuit. Your sketch should include the connection from the distribution board. A:

Q [APPLICATION] A coil with a resistance of 35 ohms and an inductance of 100 mH is connected in parallel with a capacitor of 100 F. This circuit is connected to a 230 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the following: 1. The current through individual branches 2. The total current in the circuit

3. The total impedance 4. The phase angle Q: [ANALYSIS] Regulation in SABS 0142 (SANS 1-1042) states that the volt drop between the point of supply and any point of outlet or terminals of fixed appliances shall not exceed 5% of the standard or declared voltage. Calculate the volt drop for the 230/400 V system.


V drop

= 5% of 230V = 5% x 230 = 11.5 V

V drop = 5% of 400V = 5% x 400 = 21.5 V

Q: A six-pole machine that is connected to a 50 hertz supply has a slip of 4%. Calculate the following: 1. Synchronous speed, in revolutions per minute. 2. Rated speed, in revolutions per minute.

Q: Regulation refers to the permissible voltage drop in an electrical installation. State, in your own words what is meant by this regulation. Q: Draw the IEC symbol for the following: 1. Wires joined 2. A motor 3. Transformer 4. A heater 5. A.C supply Q: A series circuit consists of a 35 ohm resistor, an inductor of 25 mH and a capacitor of 75 F. This circuit is connected to a 220 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the following: 1. Inductive reactance 2. Capacitance reactance 3. The impedance

4. Total current in the circuit Q: [KNOWLEDGE] Define potential difference (pd). A: Difference of electrical potential between any two live conductors or, if there is only one conductor, between the conductor and earth.

Q: [ANALYSIS] Regulation in SABS 0142 (SANS 1-10142) focuses on equipment earthing. Briefly describe this regulation. A: Metallic frames and metallic enclosures of electrical equipment must be made electrically continuous.

Q: [KNOWLEDGE] Copy the following table into the ANSWER BOOK and fill in the missing information: QUANTITY Resistance 3. Power Force 10. SYMBOL 1. I 5. 7. m Ohms 4. Watt 8. Kilograms TABLE 1 UNIT 2. A 6. 9. kg UNIT SYMBOL

A: QUANTITY Resistance 3. Current Power Force 10. Mass SYMBOL 1. R I 5. P 7. F m UNIT Ohms 4. Amps Watt 8. Newton Kilograms UNIT SYMBOL 2. A 6. W 9. N kg

DOMESTIC APPLIANCES Q: [APPLICATION] Illustrate, by means of a simple sketch, the layout connection of a simmerstat switch.


Q: [APPLICATION] Draw and explain the basic operating principle of a modern electric iron.


The basic operation is as follows: Electric current flows via normally closed thermostat/control knob, which is set at a pre-determine temperature to power indicator lamp and heating element, which is housed in the soul plate of the iron. When a pre-determine temperature is reached, the thermostat with the bi-metal strip effect opens the circuit, cutting the flow of current to both lamp and element, allowing the element to cool down. After the heating element has cooled down to 10% of pre-determined temperature, the thermostat will close and allow current to flow to element once mere.

Q: [KNOWLEDGE] State THREE safety precautions to take when using electric space heaters.


Always use heaters on the floor. Never place heaters on furniture, since they may fall, dislodging or breaking parts in the heater, which could result in fire or shock hazard. o Unless certified for that purpose, do not use heaters in wet or moist places, such as bathrooms. Corrosion or other damage to parts in the heater may lead tofire or shock hazard. o Do not hide cords under rugs or carpets. Placing anything on top of the cord can cause the cord to overheat, and could cause fire. o Do not use an extension cord unless absolutely necessary. Using a lightduty, household extension cord with high-wattage appliances could start a fire. o Be sure that the plug fits snugly in the outlet.

Q: [ANALYSIS] We are constantly asked to save electricity. With this principle in mind, which washing machine will you choose, FRONT-loader or TOP-loader and why?


A FRONT-loader washing machine. o Though it has longer cycles times than a TOP-loader, it uses less electricity due to drum rotation rather than agitation.

Q: Draw circuit diagrams for the connection of a three heat switch to operate on: LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH heat. A:

Q: Draw a fully labeled geyser circuit. Your circuit must include the connection from the distribution board. A:

Q: [KNOWLEDGE] Define the term fixed appliance as per SABS 0142 (SANS 11042). A: Appliance that is fastened or secured at a specific location, and that would require the use of tools to be removed to another location.

Q: [APPLICATION] A customer complains that the water in the geyser is not getting hot. After close inspection and testing you discover that the heating element is faulty. You are required to replace the heating element. Write ALL steps you would follow for the replacement of the heating element. A: o o o o Switch off electricity. Close cold water supply stop cock. Drain water from geyser. Unscrew securing bolts and remove flange. Replace old anode with new one and reverse the procedure for reassembling.

Q: [EVALUATE] What does the SANS 1-1042 regulation stipulate with regard to the installation of water heaters, including geysers? A: All water heaters shall be bonded in accordance with the bonding regulations. o Dedicated circuits shall be provided for water heaters. o There may be more than one water heater on each circuit.

Q: [EVALUATE] Earth continuity conductors form part of an installation and are compulsory for electrical installations as per SABS 0142 (SANS 1-10142) regulation

6.12.1. List FOUR requirements of SABS 0142 (SANS 1-10142) for earth continuity conductors. A: It consists of compatible conductors. o If it forms part of a cable other than a flexible cable, it must comply with the relevant requirements of the standard for the cable. o If it forms part of a flexible cable, it must be of the same material and have the same cross sectional area, or equal to the largest phase conductor. o Be able to carry the prospective fault current without excessive heating of the conductor, within the disconnecting time.

Q: [APPLICATION] Explain how a two-element stove plate is connected to an electrical supply to give the following heat settings: 1. Low heat 2. Medium heat 3. High heat

Q: State THREE things that should be avoided for the effective and safe operation of a microwave oven.

Q: TABLE 1 below shows the problems of a steam iron that were reported by the customer. Complete the table by providing the possible causes and remedies/corrective actions. Write only the answer next to the question number (1 6) in the ANSWER BOOK.


Q: The table below shows possible problems or faults on a tumble dryer. Complete the following table by filling in the answers next to the question numbers (1 8) in the ANSWER BOOK. PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTIVE ACTION Not working at all Very noisy 1. 2. 5. 6. TABLE 1 A: PROBLEM Not working at all POSSIBLE CAUSES 1. Not switch on or No power 2. Door doesnt close properly or Timer faulty 5. Drum bearing worn or Worn pulleys 6. Loose panels CORRECTIVE ACTION 3. Check plug or Test with another appliance 4. Close the door and test again 7. Replace bearings or Check and replace belt pulleys 8. Check and tighten all loose panels if any 3. 4. 7. 8.

Very noisy

TABLE1 Q: What does the regulations in SANS 10142-1 state about heating appliances with regard to: 1. The extraneous conductive parts of a water heater (geyser) 2. The height of the switch disconnector of a cooking appliance from floor level 3. A space heater with exposed live parts

Q: Explain the difference between a standard electric kettle and an automatic electric kettle. Q: List TWO types of washing machines. A: Semi automatic type

o Fully automatic type Q: Explain the procedure for replacing an oven element. Q: Earthing is compulsory for electrical installations as per SABS 0142 (SANS 110142). List THREE conditions in a bathroom where earth is not needed if the appliances are electrically isolated. A: Metallic baths and basins. o Metallic waste fittings in baths or shower trays. o Other isolated metallic parts.

Q: As per SABS 0142 (SANS 1-10142 as amended) Regulation for cooking appliance, a switch-disconnector shall be supplied. What does the regulation stipulate? A:


Be in the same room as the appliance. Be at a height above floor level of not less than 0.5m and not more than 2.2 m. Preferably not above the cooking appliance(s). Within 3m of the alliance(s), but within 0.5m of the alliance(s) if switchdisconnectors purpose not clearly indicated. Not fixed to the appliance.


Q: Design a work area checklist that can be used to assess the floors and storage space in your work area. A:

Q: State FIVE general operating procedures of a company. A: o o o o o Budget procedures. Administration procedures. Production procedures. Register procedures. Vehicle procedures. Disciplinary procedures

Q: Transformer oil erodes from time to time. You, as the technician, need to do sampling. Indicate the basic equipment needed to perform this task. A: A suitable one litre container. Seal should be oil resistant. No glass bottles must be used. o An oil-proof plastic hose to connect to valve of on transformer oil system. Tube should be airtight.

Q: Name TWO types of main mechanisms that can be found in industrial switchgear. A: Hand-closed. o Spring-closed. o Solenoid-closed.

Q: Regulation (SANS 1-1042) states that every distribution board must be controlled by a switch disconnector. Explain these regulations. A: Be mounted in the distribution board or adjacent to the board in the same room. o In the case of main or first distribution board of an installation, be labeled as main switch. o In the case of a sub board be labelled as sub main switch. o Where an alternative supply is installed be label as required. o Have a danger notice on or near it.

Q: Why is it important to plan? State THREE reasons why is it important to plan a job properly. A: o o o o Know exactly what you need to do before you start the task. You won't waste time to get equipment which you forget to buy. You will enjoy doing task. You will be able to complete the task in advance and ensure financial benefits for the company. Important way of advertising your professionalism.

Q: Name the FOUR tests that are done on oil samples of a transformer.


Gas analysis. o Dielectric strength. o Moisture content. o Acidity.

Q: What is the purpose of a maintenance programme? A: Purpose is to prevent equipment failures keep the equipments operational o To improves productivity by reducing unplanned downtime and equipment damage. o Equipment environment affects the way it reacts to its use, regular maintenance enhances positive reaction to the different environment. o Parts wearing out also affect the condition of the equipment. Maintenance will improve early detection of wearing parts. Different components need servicing at different times.

Q: Explain the advantages of symbolic safety signs in industry. A: Symbolic safety signs are instant recognition and understanding by all languages and ethnic groups, regardless of their degree of literacy. SABS, in conjunction with NOSA and other role players in industry have laid down a set standard of symbolic safety signs in South Africa.

Q: As a technician working for the municipality you are required from time to time to perform tests on switch gear. List these tests. A: Check all electrical operation of pilot devices, switches, etc. and also visually inspect arrestors, C/Ts and P/Ts for damage and report. o Test insulation resistance for all phases to others and to ground. o Compare test results to previous maintenance test results. o Test electrical function in accordance with breaker manufacturer, instructions and drawings.

o Test contact resistance across bolted sections of buss bars. Record results and compare. o After completion remove temporary grounds, restore equipment to serviceable condition and re-commission. Q: Worksite procedures refer to the health and safety procedures within the workplace. List FIVE of these procedures. A: Q: You, the electrician, and a fitter are doing maintenance on the same electric motor. You have isolated the supply to the motor and fitted a lockout and tag-out device on the switch disconnector. Explain why it is important for the fitter to add his padlock to the lock-out device. Q: List the FIVE different categories of safety signs. Q: State TWO functions of transformer oil. A: It acts as a cooling agent o It acts as an insulating agent

Q: List FIVE guidelines to consider for an effective switch gear maintenance plan.

ELECTRIC MACHINES AND CONTROL GEAR Q: Name THREE types of single-phase induction motors. A: Split-phase induction motor. o Capacitor-start induction motor.

o o o o o o

Shaded-pole induction motor. Capacitor-start/capacitor-run motor. Single-value capacitor or capacitor split-phase motor. Repulsion-start single-phase motor. Series-wound single-phase or universal motor. Single-phase synchronous motor.

Q: Make a simple sketch that explains the operation of an auto-transformer. A:

Q: According to the Electrical Machinery Regulations, 1988, there are certain regulations that govern electrical control gear. State these regulations. As a technician you are requested to install a single-phase motor. A: Every electrical installation and power line must be provided with controlling apparatus and protective devices, where practically possible capable to automatically isolate the power supply. o No fuse, switch or circuit breaker shall be place in the neutral conductor of polyphase alternating current or three-wire direct current systems, unless so arrange to isolate all phase conductors. o Provide switch gear with interlocking device so arrange that the door or cover cannot open unless the switch is in the off position or switch on unless the door or cover is locked.

o Mark or label all controlling apparatus permanently to identify parts of the system or the system or electrical machinery which it control and where it is accessible. o No person shall act contrary to a warning in terms of sub-regulation. o Post a notice at switch or control gear which has been switch off or locked out to enable persons to work on electrical machinery or other machinery operated by electricity and controlled by switch or control gear, warning against re-closing such switch or control gear. Q: Describe the steps to be followed for the commissioning of this single-phase capacitor start motor until it is handed over to a company. A: Visual inspection Verify that machine meets external and internal safety codes. Determine if all components are present and connected. Mechanical installation Check physical location of machine. Inspect and tighten mountings of machine. Connect to adjacent machines or gearbox (if needed). Connect water, air and other required services. Electrical installation Connect ground and power. Do electrical tests. Verify sensor inputs to PLC or other devices. Functional test Start machine and test the emergency stops. Test for basic functionality. Process verification Run machine and make adjustments to produce product or output needed. Collect process capabilities. Determine required maintenance procedures. Contract/specification verification Review the contract requirements and check each one meet the needs of t he client. Request that any non-compliant requirements are corrected. Put into production

Start the process in the production environment and begin normal use in the company. Hand over to company

Q: Draw an induction start and induction run motor. All connections must be shown. A:

Q: You have to perform a three-monthly schedule on a three-phase electric motor. 1. Explain how you would clean the motor. 2. List THREE electrical tests that you would perform on the stator windings of the electric motor. Q: Name THREE types of couplings that can be found on motors. A: Direct coupling. o Gear coupling. o Belt and pulley coupling.

Q: Name any TWO tests that can be carried out on stator windings of three-phase motors and give expected values of readings. A: Insulation resistance test between windings. o Insulation resistance to earth test. o Short circuit and open circuit tests.

Q: Regulation of SANS 10142-1 refers to motor starters. Complete the following sentence by filling in the missing words. Write only the answer next to the question number (1 4) in the ANSWER BOOK. Except in the case of (1.) starting, a starter shall have a/an (2.) release that (3.) the circuit if the supply voltage drops sufficiently to cause the motor to (4.) . Q: Indicate whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. Choose the answer and write only 'true' or 'false' next to the question number (4.4.1 4.4.3) in the ANSWER BOOK. 1. Lockout is the use of a lock to make machinery or equipment inoperable, or to isolate an energy source. A: TRUE 2. Lockout is important for machine operators, maintenance crews and any personnel required to work near moving parts. TRUE 3. The purpose of lockout is to prevent the release of an energy source that could activate moving parts on equipment. TRUE



Q: Describe, with the aid of a sketch, how direct-on-line control gear is connected.

Q: The table below shows the problems that could occur in three-phase motors. Complete the table by naming the possible causes of each problem. Write only the answer next to the question number (1 7) in the ANSWER BOOK. PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE(S) The motor does not start. 1.

The circuit breaker trips on starting. A humming noise on starting but motor does not rotate. The motor overheats.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TABLE 1

SAFETY AND FIRST AID Q: Working in elevated positions, such as on a scaffold, can be very dangerous. List FIVE safety precautions that should be observed when working on a scaffold. Q: Explain why safety is of importance in the work place. Q: Explain in your own words the term risk assessment. Q: The Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (Act 85 of 1993) requires that a workplace with more than five workers should have an easily accessible first-aid box. Name FIVE items that should be present in the first-aid box. Q: An electrician came into contact with a live electrical conductor while working on a ladder and received an electrical shock. He fell off the ladder. He bled from his mouth and his breathing stopped. Describe how you, as a first-aider, would apply mouth-to-nose artificial respiration to try to revive the victim. Q: As the safety officer of your company you need to eliminate factors in every day practice of the company that contribute to the cause of accidents in the workplace. Name any FOUR of these factors. A: Workers being unaware of risks and dangers. o Workers using equipment without the necessary skills. o Working on moving equipment.

o o o o

Using equipment carelessly. Not wearing protective clothing. Not using safety equipment. Workers taking chances and shortcuts, working too fast or being careless.

Q: State FOUR types of bandages and dressings as well as their usage. A: Adhesive dressing: used for sprains and pressure bandage. o Un-medicated sterile gauze: absorbent, breathable and often elastic used on wounds. o Roller and pressure bandages: to apply pressure to a wound to stop bleeding. o Triangular bandages: for slings, tourniquets, tie splints and many other uses.

Q: Name FOUR signs and symptoms of shock. A: o o o o o o o o o Weakness, trembling Restlessness, confusion Pale or blue-coloured lips, skin and/or fingernails Cool and moist skin Weak, but fast pulse Rapid, shallow breathing Nausea, vomiting Enlarged pupils Extreme thirst Loss of consciousness.

Q: Discuss any THREE ways of stacking articles according to the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1993 (OHSA of 1993). A: Operation needs to be executed under control of a person who is specifically trained or with knowledge of this type of work. o Base is level and capable of sustaining the weight exerted on it. o Articles at the bottom must be capable to sustain the articles above it. o Single tier articles to be of same shape, size and mass.

o Pallets and containers are in good condition. o Any support structures used for stacking of articles is structurally sound and can support the articles stack on it. Q: The Environmental Regulations for Workshops, 1987 Act states that an employer shall ensure that every workplace is ventilated well by means of either natural or mechanical means. State FIVE ways as per regulation. A: o o o o Air breath by employees not to endanger their safety. Time-weighted average concentration of carbon dioxide therein over a time period of eight hours not exceeding one half percent by volume of air. Carbon dioxide content thereof does at any time exceed 3% by volume of air. Prescribe exposure limits for airborne substances therein are not exceeded. Concentration thereof of any explosive or flammable gas, vapour or dust does not exceed the lower limit of that gas, vapour or dust.

Q: There are accidents that are caused by bad housekeeping. Indicate FOUR good housekeeping rules that can prevent these frequently occurring accidents from happening in the workplace. A: Tools, equipment and material kept and neatly placed in specially designed places. o Work environment is clean without oil or water. o Time saving looking for tools and equipment. o Greater staff efficiency, increased production. o Space is saved. o Sufficient and unobstructed space around equipment, workers can work freely. o Fire hazardous is reduced when combustible materials are stored in correctly allocated spaces.

Q: State FIVE objectives of the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996 (Act 29 of 1996).

A: o o o o o o o o o o

Protect the health and safety of employees at mines. Requires employers and employees to identify hazards and eliminate them. Control and minimise the risk relating to health and safety at the mines. Give effect to public international law obligations of the Republic that concerns health and safety at mines. Provide for employees to participate in matters of health and safety through health and safety representatives and committees at mines. Provide for the effective monitoring of health and safety at mines. Provide for enforcement of health and safety measures at mines. Provide for investigation and inquiries to improve health and safety at mines. Promote a culture of health and safety in the mining industry. Promote training in health and safety in the mining industry. Promote co-operation and consultation on health and safety between state, employers, employees and their representatives.

Q: The safety officer needs to ensure that incidents are reported according to the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (Act 85 of 1993). Indicate how incidents should be treated and reported. A: Incidents must be reported by the injured person to the supervisor/employer. o Apply first-aid if required. o Complete dressing register (Not obliged, but if wound get worse serve as a record). o Ensure that injured person reports daily to first-aid station to prevent infection and monitor progress. o Investigate incident and take steps to prevent recurrence, if possible

Q: Complete TABLE 2 below by writing only the answer next to the question number (1 6) in the ANSWER BOOK. DEGREE OF THE BURN First Superficial 2nd 4. SYMPTOMS 1. 3. Open wound, wet, white, temporary scarring 6. 2. Cool water. Do not break blister 5. TREATMENT


Cool running water, wet bandages or burn shield, then transport to doctor TABLE 1

A: DEGREE OF THE BURN First Superficial 2nd 4. Deep 2nd SYMPTOMS 1. Redness 3. Blisters Open wound, wet, white, temporary scarring 6. Open wound, wet, red, permanent scarring TREATMENT 2. Cool water Cool water. Do not break blister 5. Cool running water, wet bandages or burn shield. Cool running water, wet bandages or burn shield, then transport to doctor



ELECTRICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Q: All business transactions have records that have to be kept for financial reasons. Name FOUR sources of transactional documents. A: o o o o Receipts. Sales invoices. Cash register slips (Till slips) . Bank statements. Cheques.

Q: A client consults with you regarding the setting up of an electrical business. As the consultant you need to conduct a feasibility study on the aspects of the business such as profits, sales, fixed costs, variable cost and operating costs. Discuss, using brief notes to your client, the above-mentioned aspects of an electrical business. A: Profits: The cost that is paid to run the business is deducted from the amount that is generated through sales (income). o Sales: Survey the target market and calculate the cost to produce the products or services to be rendered. o Fixed costs: Cost that stay the same month after month. o Variable costs: Cost in running or operate your business and they vary from month to month.

Operating costs: It can either be fixed or variable depends on the type of business you operate.

Q: There is a difference between an entrepreneur and intrapreneur. Tabulate THREE of these differences. A: Differences: ENTREPRENEUR Starts your own business. Manage your own business. Think of new ideas and ways to do business. Enough money or get money to operate the business. Willing to take reasonable and carefully considered risk.

INTRAPRENEUR Manages an existing business. Manage business on behalf of owner. Doesn't necessarily think of new ideas or ways to make the business to operate. Money is made available by owner to operate business. Security of earning a regular salary.

Q: State FOUR factors you will consider before deciding on a specific supplier. A: Price. o Reliability. o Quality. o Proximity

Q: Fill in the attached ANNEXURE A and ANNEXURE B for the registration of a Close Corporation (CK 1) for 2 partners with equal shares in the company and place it in the ANSWER BOOK with your examination number.

Q: Design your own company logo and place it on the letterhead of your business stationery. The letterhead must include the following details: Address (physical and postal) E-mail Telephone numbers Fax numbers Q: What is an entrepreneur? Q: You want to start your own electrical business. Which THREE factors would you consider before deciding on a specific supplier? Q: What is a database? Q: State FOUR properties of a good advertisement. Q: Explain what is meant by capital expenditure. Q: Distinguish between direct and indirect costs of a registered business. Q: State FOUR properties of a good logo.